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Carpal tunnel syndrome.

ABSTRACT

Carpal tunnel syndrome carpal tunnel syndrome: see repetitive stress injury.
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

Painful condition caused by repetitive stress to the wrist over time.
 is a very common peripheral neuropathy Peripheral Neuropathy Definition

The term peripheral neuropathy encompasses a wide range of disorders in which the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord—peripheral nerves—have been damaged.
; however, its symptoms are such that they are often overlooked by patients or misdiagnosed by their primary care physicians or nurse practitioners, leading to progression of the condition so severe that sometimes even surgical options will be of little benefit. This article reviews current literature on carpal tunnel syndrome and its signs and symptoms, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and treatment options.

**********

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS (1) (Clear To Send) The RS-232 signal sent from the receiving station to the transmitting station that indicates it is ready to accept data. Contrast with RTS.

(2) (Common Type System) The data typing used in .
) is one of the most common peripheral neuropathies in the world (Andrews & Shpritz, 2004; Atroshi et al., 1999; Greenberg, 2006). Although not a common acute ailment that many neuroscience nurses (surgical or medical) would have to care for, its prevalence within the general population is such that general knowledge of the condition may be useful when considering acute patient care in context of associated comorbidities (with CTS as one of them). The following article reviews current literature on CTS and its related anatomy, signs and symptoms, assessment, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and treatment options.

Literature Review

Research continues today into CTS in relation to its causes and most appropriate treatments. The risk factors and prevalence continue to be investigated among numerous and varied subgroups within the population considered being a risk. Potential factors that may contribute to CTS can be occupation, age, physical illness, and a number of factors that have been hypothesized (Bahrami, Rayegani, Fereidouni, & Baghbani, 2005; Bongers, Schellevis, van den Bosch, & van der Zee, 2007; Violante et al., 2007). How an appropriate diagnosis is determined (Bland, 2005, 2007; Longstaff, Milner, O'Sullivan, & Fawcett, 2001; Wainner et al., 2005) and its relevant treatment options (Akalin et al., 2002; Baysal et al., 2006; Crawford & Laiou, 2007; Gooch & Mitten, 2005; O'Connor, Marshall, & Massy-Westropp, 2007) also continues to be refined.

Anatomy

The carpal tunnel is a space located posteriorly between the carpal carpal /car·pal/ (kahr´p'l) pertaining to the carpus.

car·pal
adj.
Of, relating to, or near the carpus.

n.
 bones of the wrist (moving from fight to left: trapezium trapezium /tra·pe·zi·um/ (-um) [L.]
1. an irregular, four-sided figure.

2. the most lateral bone of the distal row of carpal bones.


tra·pe·zi·um
n. pl.
, trapezoid, capitate capitate /cap·i·tate/ (kap´i-tat) head-shaped.

cap·i·tate
adj.
Enlarged and globular at the tip, as a bone of the wrist having a rounded, knoblike end.
, and hamate hamate /ham·ate/ (ham´at) shaped like a hook.

ha·mate
n.
A bone on the medial side of the carpus, articulating with the fourth and fifth metacarpal, triquetrum, lunate, and capitate bones.
), forming the hard "carpal floor," and anteriorly, where the transverse carpal ligament forms a fibrous sheath or the "carpal roof" (see Fig 1). The tunnel itself is filled with the flexor flexor /flex·or/ (flek´ser)
1. causing flexion.

2. a muscle that flexes a joint.


flexor retina´culum  see entries under retinaculum.
 tendons of the hand and the median nerve. The median nerve originates from numerous spinal nerves from C5 to T1. It has both sensory and motor functions of the thumb and first, second, and the lateral aspect of the third digit. Consequently, it is vital for not only grip but also for sensory inputs related to hand function.

Causes

Any decrease in the space of carpal tunnel caused by flexion flexion /flex·ion/ (flek´shun) the act of bending or the condition of being bent.

flex·ion
n.
1. The act of bending a joint or limb in the body by the action of flexors.

2.
 or extension of the wrist, increase in mass within the tunnel, or external forces compressing this space such as edema edema (ĭdē`mə), abnormal accumulation of fluid in the body tissues or in the body cavities causing swelling or distention of the affected parts.  or inflammation will exert pressure onto the median nerve and potentially elicit CTS symptoms. This pressure can be caused by

1. repetitive use of the wrist through rotation, flexion (found in the automotive or building industries), or extension, particularly in the dominant hand (found in occupations like secretarial or computer work or musicians);

2. trauma to the wrist or hand area resulting in fracture and/or edema;

3. metabolic, inflammatory, and/or infectious processes which may change the associated and surrounding structures of tendons, nerves synovial synovial /sy·no·vi·al/ (-al)
1. pertaining to a synovial membrane.

2. pertaining to or secreting synovia.


synovial

of, pertaining to, or secreting synovia.
 spaces, or tissue (usually bilateral as a result of systemic condition); an example of metabolic/hormonal changes that may cause CTS is pregnancy;

4. medications that increase edema such as some hormone replacement therapies (estrogens Estrogens
Hormones produced by the ovaries, the female sex glands.

Mentioned in: Acne, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

estrogens (es´trōjenz),
n.
);

5. congenital malformations associated with an abnormally small carpal tunnel space; and

6. idiopathic causes.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The prevalence of CTS is approximately 3.8% of the general population; women are 3 to 4 times more likely to develop the condition (Burke, Ellis, McKenna, & Bradley, 2003), and it affects both wrists in 50% of cases (Greenberg, 2006). The syndrome itself is evident in patients' symptoms which are directly associated with the digits the median nerve innervates (see Fig 1). If this compression is prolonged, segmental demyelination of the median nerve will occur (Katz & Simmons, 2002), resulting in possible permanent damage to the nerve with a subsequent loss of sensory and motor function in the affected hand.

Signs and Symptoms

The affected individual usually first experiences sensory changes associated with CTS at night, and, if left untreated, the symptoms eventually become continuous. This altered sensation can be in the form of tingling tin·gle  
v. tin·gled, tin·gling, tin·gles

v.intr.
1. To have a prickling, stinging sensation, as from cold, a sharp slap, or excitement: tingled all over with joy.
, numbness, or pain (which can be described as sharp, electric shocks or even a burning sensation) affecting areas innervated by the median nerve and proximally as high as the elbow. Weakness in the affected hand is a late sign and is common for those with moderate to severe CTS. The patient usually complains of inability or frustration when it comes to gripping objects because of the related motor deficit.

Differential Diagnosis

During assessment, the examiner needs to bear in mind that CTS-like signs and symptoms may result from a number of other disorders including but not limited to

1. cervical radiculopathy,

2. thoracic outlet syndrome Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Definition

Thoracic outlet syndromes are a group of disorders that cause pain and abnormal nerve sensations in the neck, shoulder, arm, and/or hand.
,

3. pronator pro·na·tor
n.
A muscle that effects or assists in pronation.



pronator

a muscle that pronates an extremity.
 syndrome,

4. direct injury of the median nerve,

5. entrapment entrapment, in law, the instigation of a crime in the attempt to obtain cause for a criminal prosecution. Situations in which a government operative merely provides the occasion for the commission of a criminal act (e.g.  of the deep palmar branch of ulnar nerve The palmar branch of the ulnar nerve arises about 5 cm above the wrist from where the ulnar nerve splits into palmar and dorsal branches.

The palmar branch represents the continuation of the ulnar nerve as it crosses the flexor retinaculum of the hand on the lateral side of
,

6. peripheral neuropathy, and

7. compartment syndrome of the forearm.

Because there are numerous possibilities for similar symptoms, it is best to perform a thorough upper limb assessment on any patient presenting with CTS-like symptoms.

Assessment

Diagnosis of CTS requires thorough assessment of the patient. A detailed record of basic demographic data including a patient's age, gender, and occupation as well as a patient's medical past history is a good starting place. Clinical findings from a focused assessment are used in conjunction with neurodiagnostics to support a diagnosis of CTS. This assessment will also indicate the severity of CTS and the most effective treatment options.

Physical examination of the wrist and hand should include assessment of the presence of localized edema or bruising around the wrist, palm, or forearm. This visual assessment of the affected limb (or limbs) may indicate other pathology such as wrist fracture (and related compartment syndrome), localized infection, or any number of metabolic conditions. Atrophy of the muscles of the wrist and forearm should also be assessed, taking particular note of any thenar eminence atrophy (Burke et al., 2003), which is commonly found in severe causes of CTS along with an associated loss of function.

Sensory Assessment

A description of how the altered sensation is perceived by the patient is critical. When assessing sensation, consider the normal dermatomes associated with the affected hand and arm as well as abnormal findings that may indicate other neurology (see Table 1). CTS should only affect the palmar aspect of the hand but can radiate up the arm as high as the elbow (D'Arcy & McGee, 2000). Ask the patient to describe these altered sensations: Does the patient experience pain, tingling, or numbness? Where is the altered sensation located? Does the altered sensation radiate or move elsewhere such as the shoulders or neck (the latter may indicate cervical cord problems)? What is the time of onset? What factors exacerbate or alleviate the symptoms? One common behavior patients may exhibit with CTS is the shaking of their affected hand in a downward "flick-like motion," which allows some relief of their symptoms; this is commonly referred to as the flick sign. The clinician must decide whether the clinical picture is indicative of CTS or some other neurological, neuromuscular, or vascular disorder.

Assessment of sensory perception of light touch and two-point discrimination in the affected fingertips and palmar aspects of the hand controlled by the median nerve as well as the forearm should be performed. This will not only allow the examiner to determine the severity of CTS but also identify whether it is purely a local condition or symptom that may be initiated more proximally such as cervical radiculopathy. Reproduction or exacerbation of symptoms can be elicited in any number of ways.

Motor Assessment

Compression of the median nerve also affects motor function of the hand. The examiner must evaluate hand motor function, appropriately grade it, and document his or her findings (Table 2). This should be done systematically from shoulder to finger tips (Table 3). First, asking the patient to grip the examiner's hands will assess generalized strength and function of flexion of the hand (C7-T1 nerve roots). The median nerve also serves the abductor pollicis brevis, the opponens Opponens can refer to:
  • Opponens digiti minimi muscle
  • Opponens pollicis muscle
 pollicis, and the superficial head of the flexor pollicis brevis flexor pol·li·cis brevis
n.
A muscle with origin from the flexor retinaculum of the wrist and from the ulnar side of the first metacarpal, with insertion to the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb, with nerve supply from the median and ulnar
; involves the muscles to the thumb (Li, Harkness, & Goitz, 2005); and is the most specific motor assessment for CTS. Assessment of thumb strength is performed by instructing the patient to raise his or her thumb perpendicular to the palm as the examiner applies resistance to it; this isolates the strength of the abductor pollicis brevis, which is innervated only by the median (D'Arcy & McGee, 2000). Any decrease in power may be attributed to CTS (Eathorne, 2005).

Reflexes

To complete the clinical neurological assessment of the patient, reflexes should be tested (see Table 4), graded (Table 5), and documented. The significance of reflexes is not to specifically diagnose CTS, but rather it is to rule out other pathology which may present with CTS-like symptoms and complete a thorough upper limb neurological examination.

Interpretation of General Clinical Assessment Findings

Because any diagnosis may have a number of differential possibilities, an understanding of clinical assessment findings is vital for the practitioner to narrow down and sometimes determine the site of the nerve dysfunction. In relation to CTS, its symptoms can be associated with either the distal points of the peripheral nerve itself (radial, median, and ulnar ulnar /ul·nar/ (ul´ner) pertaining to the ulna or to the ulnar (medial) aspect of the arm as compared to the radial (lateral) aspect. ) or those more centrally located in the origin of the nerve roots (C5-T1). These findings are usually described as lower motor neuron lower motor neuron
n.
A motor neuron whose cell body is located in the brainstem or the spinal cord and whose axon innervates skeletal muscle fibers. Also called final motor neuron.
 (LMN LMN

lower motor neuron.
) when signs of peripheral nerve damage are evident or upper motor neuron upper motor neuron
n.
A motor neuron whose cell body is located in the motor area of the cerebral cortex and whose processes connect with motor nuclei in the brainstem or the anterior horn of the spinal cord.
 (UMN UMN

upper motor neuron.
) when signs indicate centrally located damage.

UMNs are located within the central nervous system and run from the motor cortex via the corticospinal tract of the brain to the spinal cord. These signs are associated with voluntary movement and inhibitory impulses, which innovate muscle and thus affect tone and reflexes. If damaged, the UMN stops sending voluntary and inhibitory impulses to the peripheral nerves. This causes motor function to rely on LMN to function, and without the inhibitory action of the UMN impulses, dysfunction occurs, as described in Table 6. LMNs are part of peripheral nervous system peripheral nervous system: see nervous system.  which send sensory impulses to the UMN and can independently initiate primitive reflex mechanisms. If these are damaged, no nerve impulse can be sent to the UMN or to the muscle.

Provocative Tests

There are two main provocative tests generally used to isolate the median nerve: Phalen's sign is of use because it is considered a very good indicator for CTS (Katz & Simmons, 2002) with a high sensitivity and specificity (LaJoie et al., 2005; MacDermid & Wessel, 2004) because it localizes the median nerve at the carpal tunnel. This is performed by asking the patient to hold his or her wrist in a flexed position at approximately 90 degrees. The test is considered a positive Phelan's sign (and thus positive to CTS) if numbness or pain is felt by the patient within 30-60 s.

Tinel's sign isolates the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by percussing it at the distal palmar crease. This also should elicit numbness or pain (D'Arcy & McGee, 2000). This is not considered as clinically accurate as the Phalen's sign. Phalen's and Tinel's signs, although they may assist in the diagnosis of CTS (LaJoie et al., 2005), are not pathomnemonic for the disorder.

Vascular Assessment

The vascular assessment consists of evaluating the color, temperature, pulse status, and capillary return of both upper limbs.

Color--adequacy of circulation and perfusion is assessed by pink-colored skin or the absence of pale white, mottled, or black appearance.

Temperature--adequacy of circulation and perfusion is indicated by warm tissue, not cool or cold. Consider the environmental temperature when performing this assessment because high or low ambient temperatures may cause an inaccurate interpretation of actual skin temperature.

Pulse status--adequacy of circulation is indicated by a radial pulse at the wrist.

Capillary refill--assess the limb at the level of the heart. Adequate capillary perfusion is indicated when refill of nail bed or tip of digit is rapid (less than 3 s). Abnormal capillary refill is rated as sluggish or absent.

Finally, the practitioner needs to assess the patient's pain at rest and with movement. Location, quality, and degree of pain need to be determined.

Diagnostics

To complete the diagnostic picture, formal diagnostic testing should also be performed. CTS requires the clinician to order nerve conduction studies (NCSs) to rule out other differential or coexisting diagnosis such as cervical radiculopathy and ulnar or radial nerve entrapment. This type of study measures the transmission velocity of an impulse through nerves in response to an electrical stimulus initiated by stimulating and recording electrodes from one point to another (Lindsay, 2004). Any delay in the transmission of impulses when testing the median nerve can determine the severity of CTS. However, if normal velocities (see Table 7) are found and CTS persists despite conservative treatment, further investigations such as magnetic resonance imaging magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), noninvasive diagnostic technique that uses nuclear magnetic resonance to produce cross-sectional images of organs and other internal body structures.  may need to be performed to rule out other diagnoses.

Treatment

Conservative

A variety of nonsurgical options are available to treat CTS, including splinting, steroid injection, work place modification, ultrasound, and oral medications. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, steroids, and vitamin B12 have been used. A 2004 literature review of nonsurgical management of CTS found that conservative management has a place in mild to moderate CTS and may decrease the number of patients who ultimately undergo surgery (Goodyear-Smith & Arroll, 2004). Ideally, patients who are more likely to respond to conservative treatments are younger than 50 years and have had symptoms less than 6 months (Hayward, Bradley, & Burke, 2002).

Acetaminophen acetaminophen (əsēt'əmĭn`əfĭn), an analgesic and fever-reducing medicine similar in effect to aspirin. It is an active ingredient in many over-the-counter medicines, including Tylenol and Midol.  (paracetamol paracetamol

see acetaminophen.


acetaminophen, paracetamol

an analgesic and antipyretic drug in dogs. It is contraindicated for cats because of serious side-effects which include intravascular hemolysis, methemoglobinemia and hepatic necrosis.
) for pain associated with CTS is usually first-line conservative management. An example of nonpharmaceutical conservative management for CTS is the use of nocturnal wrist splinting. Splints hold the wrist in neutral position, thus preventing compression related to extension or flexion of the wrist while the patient sleeps. It can be very helpful in controlling symptoms of mild to moderate CTS (Burke et al., 2003) and is particularly useful when the patient is awakened by painful paresthesias (Sailer, 1996). Debate continues whether work practices or environment causes CTS. However, its prevalence among certain workers, particularly those considered "blue collar" (roles involving manual labor), does demonstrate a causal link within certain populations (Atroshi et al., 1999; Davis, 2006).

In light of this, it is reasonable to consider that modification of workplace tasks can help alleviate symptoms. Work modifications may include avoidance of repetitive hand and wrist movements or regular breaks and ergonomic assessment of work areas and/or tools (Burke et al., 2003; Hayward et al., 2002).

Another option for relief of CTS is local steroid injection. This is performed just proximal to the carpal tunnel. Although it is considered the most effective nonsurgical treatment, it may possibly lead to complications such as nerve injury, scar, infection, allergic dermatitis, soft tissue atrophy, and tendon rupture (Gooch & Mitten, 2005). Systematic reviews of selected research into conservative measures for CTS (Hayward et al., 2002) and one clinical trial (O'Gradaigh & Merry, 2000) found that local steroid injection for CTS significantly improved symptoms for a period of up to 1 month after treatment. Whether or not injection is the ideal long-term treatment for those patients who have CTS is questionable, and it has been recommended that patients should eventually have decompression surgery (Wilson & Sevier, 2003).

Oral medications such as steroids, diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been advocated, but most trials evaluating the effectiveness of these drugs have been small, and outcomes have been restricted to short-term symptomatic improvement and not permanent relief of CTS (Hui et al., 2001; Piazzini et al., 2007). Evidence to support the use of ultrasound treatment of CTS is limited at best and still requires further investigation (O'Connor et al., 2007).

Surgery

Carpal tunnel release carpal tunnel release Surgery Relief of pressure on median nerve entrapped in the carpal tunnel by incision or endoscopic repair  (CTR See click-through rate. ) surgery is a commonly performed procedure. It should be considered only for those patients with persisting symptoms considered moderate to severe (both on physical assessment and/or with NCS (Network Call Signaling) CableLabs version of MGCP. See MGCP/MEGACO.

NCS - Network Computing System: Apollo's RPC system used by DEC and Hewlett-Packard.The protocol has been adopted by OSF.
) or once conservative measures have been exhausted. It is a relatively straightforward outpatient procedure, taking only minutes on the operating table, and is essentially a neurolysis of the median nerve. Usually performed under local anesthetic or conscious sedation, the procedure itself involves a transverse incision of about 6 cm (2 inches) on the ulnar side of the interthenar crease (in line with middle finger; Lindsay, 2004) just below the transverse palmar crease and just proximal to the distal wrist flexion crease. Division of the transverse carpal ligament allows for visualization and provides more space for the median nerve, thus alleviating pressure-related symptoms. Another surgical option is endoscopic en·do·scope  
n.
An instrument for examining visually the interior of a bodily canal or a hollow organ such as the colon, bladder, or stomach.



en
 CTR which does not require an open incision to free up the median nerve; however, there is little evidence to support endoscopic over open CTR (Scholten et al., 2006; Zyluk & Strychar, 2006).

Surgical Complications

As with any surgical procedure, CTR carries the risk of complications; these are, however, rare and depend on the combined skill and input of all clinicians involved as well as patient adherence with postoperative orders. Intraoperative complications include not only those associated with anesthetic use, such as stroke and death, but also those associated with surgical technique, such as the laceration laceration /lac·er·a·tion/ (las?er-a´shun)
1. the act of tearing.

2. a torn, ragged, mangled wound.


lac·er·a·tion
n.
1. A jagged wound or cut.

2.
 or complete severing of the superficial palmar arterial arch, flexor tendons, or the median nerve itself if the incision is made too deep and distal to the palmar arch (Russell & Kline, 2006).

Postoperatively, as with any surgery, a risk of infection, hematoma hematoma /he·ma·to·ma/ (he?mah-to´mah) a localized collection of extravasated blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue.  scarring, and/or adhesion exists. There is also a risk of failure to improve immediately postoperatively as a result of causes other than CTS such as cervical radiculopathy of the C5-C7 (double crush syndrome double crush syndrome Orthopedics A type of peripheral nerve compression syndrome in which there is a 'central' compression that impacts on a nerve bundle–eg, at the thoracic or pelvic outlet, and a 2nd ) or incomplete release of the transverse carpal ligament (Greenberg, 2006). Return to normal activities is anywhere from 14 to 56 days depending on nondominant versus dominant hand in open or endoscopic CTR (Work Loss Data Institute, 2006).

Postoperative Follow-Up

Postoperatively, the patient may be assessed again anywhere between 5 and 14 days depending on the surgical technique and procedure used (including method of closure). During this time, the patient is asked to perform passive excises of the hand to lessen scarring which may compromise healing. Any further assessment can be made at this time, as well as planning for other CTR.

Implications for Nursing Care

So how does understanding CTS affect neuroscience nursing practice? The answer depends on the level of understanding required of neuroscience nurses related to their individual scope of practice. A general registered nurse or clinical nurse specialist clinical nurse specialist
n.
A nurse who has advanced knowledge and competence in a particular area of nursing practice, such as in cardiology, oncology, or psychiatry.
 in an acute care setting, for example, may only require a limited understanding of CTS. CTS most likely would not be the primary diagnosis for admission. More likely, CTS would be a comorbidity of note and should be understood in relation to how it may influence optimal functional outcomes of the patients after their acute care stay.

On the other hand, CTS in the context of nurse practitioners or advanced practice nurses with credentialed extensions of practice may be required to provide not only patient education but also extensive and focused assessment, diagnosis with responsibilities of referral for conservative and invasive treatment options, and in some cases possibly even performance of the operation itself (Newey, Clarke, Green, Kershaw, & Pathak, 2006).

Conclusion

Although a relatively common peripheral entrapment syndrome, the diagnosis, treatment, and considerations of ongoing care for CTS can be complicated by any number of factors. When deciding on treatment or referral options for patients presenting with CTS, their age, length of time and severity of symptoms, NCSs, impact on lifestyle, and work and environment should all be taken into account to determine the most cost effective treatment for each individual patient.

References

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Process of graphically recording the electrical activity of muscle, which normally generates an electric current only when contracting or when its nerve is stimulated.
 and Clinical Neurophysiology, 45(2), 123-125.

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neu·ro·sur·ger·y
n.
Surgery on any part of the nervous system.
 and Psychiatry, 78(6), 551.

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The Postgraduate Medical Journal was established by the Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine in 1925 [1]. The Postgraduate Medical Journal continues to be the official journal of the Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine.
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ANZ Air New Zealand (NZ national airline) 
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adj.
Relating to or characterized by rheumatism.

n.
One who is affected by rheumatism.



rheumatic

pertaining to or affected with rheumatism.
 Diseases, 60(8), 813 814.

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Newey, M., Clarke, M., Green, T., Kershaw, C., & Pathak, P. (2006). Nurse-led management of carpal tunnel syndrome: An audit of outcomes and impact on waiting times. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales. , 88(4), 399-401.

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Questions or comments about this article may be directed to Andrew Scanlon, BN RN, at andrew.scanlon@austin.org.au. He is a neurosurgery nurse practitioner (candidate) at the Department of Neurosurgery, Austin Health, and a lecturer in the Faculty of Health Sciences, La Trobe University/Austin Health Clinical School of Nursing, Victoria, Australia.

Jennifer Maffei, BN RN, is an associate nurse unit manager and clinical support nurse at Austin Health, Victoria, Australia.
TABLE 1. Sensory Assessment--Upper Limb

Nerve    Sensory                 Radicular Pain
Root     Distribution            Distribution

C4       Base of neck and        Neck and upper scapula
         medial shoulder
C5       Lateral upper arm       Scapula border and
                                 lateral upper arm

C6       Bicep area, lateral     Lateral forearm, thumb,
         forearm, thumb,         and first finger
         and first finger

C7       Posterior forearm       Scapula, posterior arm,
         and middle finger       dorsum of forearm, and
                                 third finger

C8       Ulnar forearm and       Shoulder, ulnar forearm,
         fifth finger            and fifth finger

T1       Medial upper arm        Medial aspect of
                                 upper arm

TABLE 2. Motor Function Grading

Grade     Strength

0         No movement

1         Flicker of tendon unit only

2         Full range of movement only when gravity
          is eliminated

3         Full range of movement against gravity but
          marked weakness against resistance that
          cannot be overcome

4         Full range of movement against gravity but
          weakness with examiner resistance but can
          be overcome

5         Full range of movement against gravity and
          examiner resistance

TABLE 3. Motor Assessment-Upper Limb

Assessment (Against Resistance)#         Muscle#

Elevate shoulder                         Rhomboids

Shoulder abduction (with elbows          Deltoid
flexed like chicken wings push up)

Elbow flexion (flex elbow)               Biceps brachii

Elbow extension (extend flexed elbow)    Triceps

Extension of wrist                       Extensor carpi
                                           Radialis
                                           Ulnaris

Finger extension (with palms facing      Extensor digitorum
downwards push up)

Finger flexion (squeeze hands)           Flexor digtorum

Finger abduction                         First doral interosseuos

Finger abduction                         Second palmar interosseous

Thumb adduction push up                  Abductor pollicis brevis

Assessment (Against Resistance)#        Nerve#             Root#

Elevate shoulder                        Spinal accessory   C4, C5#

Shoulder abduction (with elbows         Axillary           C5, C6#
flexed like chicken wings push up)

Elbow flexion (flex elbow)              Musculocutaneous   C5#, C6

Elbow extension (extend flexed elbow)   Radial             C6#, C7, C8#

Extension of wrist                      Medain             C6, C7#
                                        Ulnar

Finger extension (with palms facing     Radial             C7, C8#
downwards push up)

Finger flexion (squeeze hands)          Median             C8

Finger abduction                        Ulnar

Finger abduction                        Ulnar              T1#

Thumb adduction push up                 Median             C8#, T1

Note. Bold typeface indicates primary nerve root.

Note: Bold typeface indicates primary nerve root is indicated with #.

TABLE 4. Reflex Assessment--Upper limb

Assessment#                                      Nerve#
(Relax Limb)#                 Reflex#            Root#

Place finger over bicep,      Bicep              C5#, C6
tap finger with tendon
hammer, watch bicep
contraction

Place finger over radial      Brachioradialus    C6#, C5
tubersosity, tap finger       or supinator
watch brachioradialus

Tap tendon hammer             Triceps            C7#
directly on the triceps
tendon, watch muscle

Note. Bold typeface indicates primary nerve root.

Note: Bold typeface indicates primary nerve root is indicated with #.

TABLE 5. Reflex Grading

Grade    Response

--       Absent
+        Depressed or minimal response
++       Normal or average
+++      Increased or brisk
++++     Hyperactive or clonus (repetitive muscle
         contractions)

TABLE 6. Interpretation of Motor
and Reflex Assessment--Upper Limb

Clinical      Upper Motor             Lower Motor

Sign          Neuron                  Neuron
Tone          Initially hypotonic     Hypotonic
              then hypertonic

Motor         Extensor weakness >     Flexor weakness >
weak but      flexor weakness         extensor weakness

Reflex        Hyperactive             Depressed or absent
              or clonus

TABLE 7. Nerve Conduction Velocities
for the Median Nerve

            Sensory               Motor

Normal      -3.7                  -4.5
Mild        3.7-4 (75%)           4.4-6.9 (150%)
Moderate    4.1-5 (50% to 75%)    7.0-9.9 (150% to 200%)
Severe      >5 (less than 50%)    >10 (over 200%)

Note. Derived from Chang, Wang, and Chang (2008) and Greenberg (2006).
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Author:Scanlon, Andrew; Maffei, Jennifer
Publication:Journal of Neuroscience Nursing
Article Type:Disease/Disorder overview
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Jun 1, 2009
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