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Career development for adolescents and young adults with mental retardation.

Career development activities by professional school counselors A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term.  at the elementary, middle, and high school levels can help students with mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living.  make meaningful career choices as adults. School counselors can be advocates and providers of career development activities that link the individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize  
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.

2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.

 educational process for students with disabilities to career success. Career development activities that promote career goals, career interests, transferable occupational skills, decision-making skills; and the refraining of occupational opportunities can lead to greater vocational satisfaction in adulthood for people with mental retardation.


Career development is vital to a quality lifestyle for people with all forms of mental retardation. However, existing research on the career development of people with moderate to severe mental retardation focuses on occupational choice rather than career development (Rumrill & Roessler, 1999). Occupational choice reflects a person's vocational decision at any point in time, whereas career development reflects an ongoing, developmental process that incorporates and integrates personal and environmental information (Super, 1980; Szymanski & Hanley-Maxwell, 1996). Career development is a dynamic process that requires individuals to engage in the ongoing assessment, analysis, and synthesis of information about the world of work and self (Callahan & Gardner, 1997; Hagner & Salomone, 1989).

Career development activities that begin in the elementary school elementary school: see school.  years promote career development, occupational readiness, and career resiliency The ability to recover from a failure. The term may be applied to hardware, software or data.  among adolescents and adults who function within the moderate to severe range of mental retardation (Black & Langone, 1997; Moran Moran

equitable councillor to King Feredach. [Irish Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 728]

See : Justice
, McDermott, & Butkus, 2001). Levinson, Peterson, and Elston (1994) noted that a major advantage of early career development activities for students with mental retardation is that early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay.
 provides ample time for vocational exploration and the acquisition of skills necessary for vocational success in a preferred occupation. In addition, career development activities may lead to increased job satisfaction and promote sustained patterns of employment among people diagnosed with mental retardation (Levinson et al., 1994; McCrea & Miller, 1999; Szymanski & Hanley-Maxwell, 1996; Wadsworth & Cocco, 2003).

Unfortunately, there has been a paucity pau·ci·ty  
1. Smallness of number; fewness.

2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources.
 of controlled outcome research with regard to the benefits of earth career intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant.  for students with mental retardation. The heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.


the state of being heterogeneous.
 of individual characteristics and the life circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
     2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or
 of students with developmental disorders developmental disorder Psychiatry An impairment in normal development of language, motor, cognitive and/or motor skills, generally recognized before age 18 which is expected to continue indefinitely and constitutes a substantial impairment Etiology Mental  make it difficult to establish a causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.


relating to or emanating from cause.
 relationship between early interventions and adult employment outcomes. Bucher, Brolin, and Kunce (1987) investigated the adult employment status of 153 students who were educable educable /ed·u·ca·ble/ (ej´u-kah-b'l) capable of being educated; formerly used to refer to persons with mild mental retardation (I.Q. approximately 50–70).  mentally retarded Noun 1. mentally retarded - people collectively who are mentally retarded; "he started a school for the retarded"
developmentally challenged, retarded
 and 81 students who were severely learning disabled and who, as grade school students, all received a competency-based, life-centered career education curriculum developed by Brolin (1985). Completion of the career education curriculum in grade school was significantly related to the future employment levels of all students with mental retardation and of females with severe learning disabilities. More recently, Heal (1999) conducted a survey of 713 young adults who had been students in special education programs and found that career development activities such as work opportunities, the intensity of vocational preparation, and the percentage of time spent in career education courses were predictors of increased employment, self-esteem, independence, and job security.

School counselors have an important role in creating and advocating educational opportunities that have a positive long-term impact on the vocational choices available to students with mental retardation (Milsom, 2002). This article provides the rationale for, and illustrates the importance of, the role that professional school counselors have in the career development of students who are diagnosed with mental retardation.


School counselors and other educators share responsibility for the educational opportunities provided within the curricula to all students, including those with disabilities (American School Counselor Association, 2003; Schmidt, 1999; Williams & Katsiyannis, 1998). Campbell and Dahir (1997) in Sharing the Vision: The National Standards fin, School Counseling Programs identified academic, personal/social, and career knowledge and skill areas that all students should acquire. Included in these standards are career development activities designed to "provide the foundation for the acquisition of skills, attitudes, and knowledge that enable students to make a successful transition from school to the world of work, and from job to job across the lifespan" (Campbell & Dahir, p. 19). Similarly, the National Career Development Association (NCDA NCDA National Career Development Association
NCDA North Carolina Department of Agriculture
NCDA National Community Development Association
NCDA National College of District Attorneys
NCDA National Conservatory of Dramatic Arts
NCDA Noncontributing Drainage Area
, 1993) also emphasized school counselor involvement in the career development of all students.

Furthermore, federal legislation mandates that school districts attend to the career development needs of students with disabilities. For example, Public Law 98-524, the Carl D. Perkins

For other people named Carl Perkins, see Carl Perkins (disambiguation).

Carl Dewey Perkins (October 15, 1912 - August 3, 1984), a Democrat, was a politician and member of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Kentucky.
 Vocational Education vocational education, training designed to advance individuals' general proficiency, especially in relation to their present or future occupations. The term does not normally include training for the professions.  Act of 1984, requires that school districts assess the career interests and aptitudes of students with disabilities. Moreover, Public Law 101-476, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
This article or section is currently being developed or reviewed.
Some statements may be disputed, incorrect, , biased or otherwise objectionable.
 (IDEA) of 1990, mandates the development of transition plans as part of the Individualized Education Plan (IEP IEP

In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Irish Punt.

The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion.
) process for students with disabilities. These transition plans are designed to outline a set of coordinated activities to assist students in transitioning to postsecondary activities including employment or education (McCrea & Miller, 1999).

School counselors, with their training in career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
, life-span development, and assessment, are the logical school personnel to coordinate these activities. The American School Counselor Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators
) supports school counselor involvement in transition planning (1999), yet Milsom (2002) found that 32% of the high school counselors who completed her survey indicated they did not participate in the transition planning process for students with disabilities. Myrick (1997) noted, "Most educators agree that school counselors should participate in the decision making process and meet with members of the [IEP] staffing team" (p. 319).


Over the past several decades, there has been a tremendous shift in traditional work and in supported employment settings for people with more severe forms of mental retardation (Mank, Cioffi, & Yovanoff; 2000; Pierce Pierce may refer to: Places
  • Pierce, Colorado, a US town
  • Pierce, Idaho, a US city
  • Pierce, Nebraska, a US city
  • Pierce, Wisconsin, a US town
  • Mount Pierce (New Hampshire), USA, a peak in the White Mountains
  • Pierce County, several places
, McDermott, & Butkus, 2003). In the past, the career choice for many people with mental retardation was largely determined by the work activities offered in local institutional settings (Sowers, McLean, & Owens, 2002). More recently, tenure with a single employer has been a desirable outcome of career development activities; however, job tenure is unlikely to be the future occupational trend for many workers (Szymanski & Parker, 2003). The future career paths of many students with mental retardation are likely to reflect a succession of employed positions at different settings rather than a single, sustained placement, because employment and job tenure continue to be low for adults with mental retardation (Pierce et al., 2003; Pumpian, Fisher, Certo, & Smalley, 1997; Schaffer, Banks, & Kregel, 1991). As a result, a career trajectory Trajectory

The curve described by a body moving through space, as of a meteor through the atmosphere, a planet around the Sun, a projectile fired from a gun, or a rocket in flight.
 for an employee with a severe cognitive disability may include a succession of short-term employment situations that positively contribute to the employee's existing job skills and professional portfolio (Pierce et al.; Pumpian et al., 1997). Due to the cyclical cyclical

Of or relating to a variable, such as housing starts, car sales, or the price of a certain stock, that is subject to regular or irregular up-and-down movements.
 nature of the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience  experience for most people with mental retardation, long-term career goals that complement short-term employment activities can promote a positive outlook toward employment (Enright, 1997; Pierce et al.; Sowers et al., 2002).

In addition to sustaining vocational growth through successive employment opportunities, career development activities may assist students, parents, and educators in identifying and clarifying individual factors that are key components in occupational engagement (Schmidt, 1999). Although intelligence is associated with career maturity and the development of decision making skills, factors other than skills, abilities, and personality play a major role in career development and satisfaction for people with mental retardation (Morris & Levinson, 1995; Pierce et al., 2003). Factors such as interests, social opportunities, emotional rewards, and economic benefits influence career choices (or most adolescents, including those with cognitive limitations (Szymanski, Hershenson, Enright, & Ettinger, 1996). These same factors--interests, social preferences, and emotional rewards--influence the employment choices of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with mental retardation (Enright, 1997; Pierce et al.).

The ASCA National Model (ASCA, 2003) provides a framework for school counselors to help all students to "develop career awareness," "develop employment readiness," "acquire career information," "identify career" goals," "acquire knowledge to achieve career goals," and "apply skills to achieve career goals" (Campbell & Dahir, 1997, pp. 25-27). School-based learning opportunities are particularly important for people with cognitive developmental disabilities developmental disabilities (DD), the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age.
 who, unlike their peers without cognitive disabilities, may have limited opportunities to participate in social, work, volunteer, and community activities; and thus may have limited exposure to occupational role models (Callahan & Garner, 1997; Sowers et al., 2002). Career development activities within the educational setting may be the best opportunity for a student with mental retardation to explore the world of work before entering private or state-federal vocational rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society
 service programs for adults that focus primarily on job placement and tenure. Individualized career development curricula can help document that students with severe cognitive impairments and their parents, educators, and advocates have information from which to make meaningful choices about the activities and outcomes of the IEP.


Career development activities for students with mental retardation comprise a process in which the student must be an active and informed participant (Szymanski & Parker, 2003). Career development activities should be an important component of preparing students with mental retardation to enter the world of work (McCrea & Miller, 1999). However, career development activities should not end as employment begins (Reid, Deutsch, Kitchen, & Azanavoorian, 1997). Career education should be a dynamic and lifelong process because people with intellectual disabilities are always changing (Kanchier, 1990). Education and rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy.  systems, however, have not always applied theories and models of typical career development to people with mental retardation even though students with mental retardation can benefit from many of the same activities as students who do not have a cognitive disability, (Pumpian et al., 1997).

Activities must be adapted to meet the needs of students with mental retardation because the interaction of the developmental nature of mental retardation and the developmental nature of career education can lead to a variety of impediments IMPEDIMENTS, contracts. Legal objections to the making of a contract. Impediments which relate to the person are those of minority, want of reason, coverture, and the like; they are sometimes called disabilities. Vide Incapacity.
 in career instruction for people with mental retardation (Morris & Levinson, 1995). Without the guiding influence of a normative nor·ma·tive  
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.

 maturation maturation /mat·u·ra·tion/ (mach-u-ra´shun)
1. the process of becoming mature.

2. attainment of emotional and intellectual maturity.

 process in areas outside of the vocational arena--social, financial, educational, and emotional--it is difficult to propose a model that includes the tremendous developmental heterogeneity of individuals who are diagnosed with mental retardation (Szymanski & Hanley-Maxwell, 1996).

Szymanski and Hanley-Maxwell (1996) provided a framework for career development activities for people with mental retardation that is particularly useful for school counselors who need to integrate their own services with the services offered by other members of the student's IEP team. The authors proposed that career development is a process that results from the dynamic interaction of individual, contextual, mediating, and environmental factors. This ecological ecological

emanating from or pertaining to ecology.

ecological biome
see biome.

ecological climax
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each
 model of career development organizes career interventions into the following areas that are particularly important in the lives of young people with mental retardation: (a) individual factors (e.g., aptitudes); (b) contextual factors (e.g., labor market); (c) meaning factors (e.g., values); (d) work environment factors (e.g., adaptations); and (c) output factors (e.g., productivity expectations). The choice of intervention within this framework depends upon the characteristics of the student, the context in which the student lives or will live, values and beliefs, future opportunities, and past experiences (Szymanski & Hanley-Maxwell).


Career development is a lifelong process of getting ready to choose, choosing, and continuing to make choices (Brown, Brooks, & Associates, 1996). The NCDA (1993) noted, "Helping individuals increase self-understanding of their abilities, interests, values, and goals is a vital foundation of the career development process" (p. 2). The NCDA suggested that career development activities help students develop positive work habits (e.g., organization, following directions, completing assignments on time), set goals, make informed decisions, identify interests and abilities, and explore jobs (e.g., job shadowing, apprenticeships). The career development activities of a professional school counselor may include advocacy, team building, problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
, and serving as a liaison between service providers and students with mental retardation and their parents (Wood-Dunn & Baker, 2002).

An assumption of career development is that future job and career choices will be more sophisticated and successful than previous choices (Pumpian et al., 1997). Currently, students with and without disabilities who lack knowledge of the world of work and who fail to develop the skills needed to be successful in occupational choices do not experience career success in that manner (Szymanski & Parker, 2003). Consistent with the career development patterns of many young adults who do not have a disability, regular job movement by young adults who have mental retardation needs to be considered positively in terms of promotion and career mobility rather than as a sign of failure (Pierce et al., 2003). Career development activities and planning can provide young adults and their support network with information to guide job movement in a manner that will lead to career resiliency and the accomplishment of career goals (Moran et al., 2001).


School counselors can help students, parents, and IEP teams develop career goals through (a) providing accurate information about the world of work, (b) matching students' interests and abilities to career opportunities, and (c) encouraging students to broaden their options as a precaution against future changes in the labor market (Schmidt, 1999; Szymanski et al., 1996). These activities are consistent with trait trait (trat)
1. any genetically determined characteristic; also, the condition prevailing in the heterozygous state of a recessive disorder, as the sickle cell trait.

2. a distinctive behavior pattern.
 and factor models of career development and occupation choice based on the work of Parsons Parsons, city (1990 pop. 11,924), Labette co., SE Kans.; inc. 1871. It is a shipping point for dairy products, grain, and livestock. Manufactures include ammunition, wire and paper products, plastics, and appliances.  (1909) (e.g., theory of work adjustment, Dawis, 1996). Parents of adolescents seek vocational information, consultation, and advocacy from professional school counselors because they perceive limited vocational prospects for their child who has mental retardation. Future researeh needs to focus on the benefits of collaboration between parents of students with mental retardation and school counselors because the counselors can help parents access important information regarding future labor market trends, typical career trajectories in a variety of occupational groups, and career development activities that can be adapted to assist students with career success. Such information is critical if young people and their parents are to participate meaningfully in planning that focuses on the future needs and preferences of the student (Whitney Thomas, Shaw, Honey, & Butterworth, 1998). School counselors also have an important role in advocating for broadbased career plans that focus on the student's interests and abilities and that will increase future career options.

Vocational exploration activities implemented at the elementary- and middle-school levels can prepare students with mental retardation to make career choices in young adulthood (Black & Langone, 1997). School counselors should choose relevant career competencies based on those outlined in the ASCA National Model (2003) and first described by Campbell and Dahir (1997). For example, school counselors can help the IEP team contextualize con·tex·tu·al·ize  
tr.v. con·tex·tu·al·ized, con·tex·tu·al·iz·ing, con·tex·tu·al·iz·es
To place (a word or idea, for example) in a particular context.
 classroom activities such as choice making and social skill development as important components of vocational preparation. Middle-school classroom guidance lessons may focus on helping students develop a knowledge of personal interests and abilities and foster an awareness of careers as a succcssion of related paid and unpaid work activities (Black & Langone; Reid & Bray, 1997).

Career Interests

People with developmental disabilities may lack realistic information about occupations and careers on which to base their interests. Job experiences play an important part in the development of maturity with regard to vocational interests, abilities, and traits (Black & Langone, 1997; Levinson et al., 1994; Pumpian et al., 1997). Career interests may be stimulated through short-term job tryout experiences and job shadowing experiences that include documentation of preferences and performance. Information regarding the student's preferences of activities, work environments, emotional and monetary rewards, and supervision can help students and parents to identify congruent con·gru·ent  
1. Corresponding; congruous.

2. Mathematics
a. Coinciding exactly when superimposed: congruent triangles.

 short-term occupational choices and long-term career outcomes. Likewise, accurate information regarding performance may assist the student and transition planning team in identifying the training, work experiences, effort, and timeline that will be required to achieve the student's career preferences.

Often, volunteer, leisure, and daily living activities offer opportunities to assess career interests. Frequently, observations of behavior and emotional stability conducted across educational, social, and work settings are used to assess personality and interests (Kanchier, 1990). Although a community-based assessment of work behavior Work behavior is a term used to describe the behavior one uses in the workplace and is normally more formal than other types of human behavior. This varies from profession to profession, as some are far more casual than others.  is often a preferred way of assessing the interests and abilities of people with mental retardation, inventories such as the What I Like to Do Inventory (Meyers, Dringard, & Zinner, 1978) and the Audio-Visual Vocational Preferences Test (Wilgosh, 1994) can be used to assist students in identifying their career interests.

School counselors serving elementary schools can collaborate with teachers to help students with mental retardation develop career interests and the ability to make choices among vocational activities. For example, instructional activities at all grade levels may be designed to provide students with exposure to a wide variety of job-related skills (e.g., following directions) and habits (e.g., timeliness) (Levinson et al., 1994). These activities may assist the student and others in the development and documentation of IEP goals by promoting awareness of the choices and interests that lead to future occupational success (McCrea & Miller, 1999). In addition, occupational preferences may be identified through classroom guidance and individual planning activitics (ASCA, 2003). For example, classroom activitics may be designed to provide the student with exposure to a wide variety of job related environments (e.g., working in a group vs. alone) and patterns (e.g., repetitive consistency vs. sporadic sporadic /spo·rad·ic/ (spo-rad´ic) occurring singly; widely scattered; not epidemic or endemic.

spo·rad·ic or spo·rad·i·cal
1. Occurring at irregular intervals.

 activity). The identification of preferences can help the student define preferences that may translate to preferred occupational environments (e.g., working with others as a crew vs. working independently) and preferred occupational activities (e.g., assembly work vs. customer service).

Transferable Skills

Career planning can play a key role in creating a strategy to identify, develop, and maintain a vocational skill set that will transfer over a succession of employment opportunities. For example, a vocational skill set that will transfer to multiple employment opportunities in clerical and reception occupations may include social skills (e.g., appropriate socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.

 with peers and customers), mechanical skills (e.g., the use of office equipment), safety skills (e.g., seeking assistance), communication skills (e.g., telephone etiquette etiquette, name for the codes of rules governing social or diplomatic intercourse. These codes vary from the more or less flexible laws of social usage (differing according to local customs or taboos) to the rigid conventions of court and military circles, and they ), and hygiene skills (e.g., appropriate dress and professional appearance). Individuals with mental retardation often have difficulties generalizing work behavior to new work settings; thus, the opportunity to practice skills across employment contexts is an essential part of developing a career that is resilient See resiliency.  to changes in the labor market (Szymanski, 1999). Career development planning beginning in early childhood and extending though adulthood is essential to providing a continuity of work activities that promotes the acquisition of new skills rather than the stagnation Stagnation

A period of little or no growth in the economy. Economic growth of less than 2-3% is considered stagnation. Sometimes used to describe low trading volume or inactive trading in securities.

A good example of stagnation was the U.S. economy in the 1970s.
 of work skills in the pursuit of tenure (Pumpian et al., 1997; Rumrill & Roessler, 1999). The development of skills congruent with abilities, aptitudes, and aspirations aspirations nplaspiraciones fpl (= ambition); ambición f

aspirations npl (= hopes, ambition) → aspirations fpl 
 within multiple vocational contexts can promote employability and career advancement.

The opportunity for students at the elementary, middle, and high school levels to explore a variety of activities in the academic, social, leisure, vocational, and domestic domains is critical in career development for people with mental retardation (Levinson et al., 1994). School counselors at the elementary level can work collaboratively with teachers to help increase students' awareness of their own abilities and interests that may transfer to future career opportunities. School counselors can assist students who are enrolled in middle school to develop a better awareness of the transferability of abilities and preferences to a variety of careers and occupational opportunities. Career planning may assist high school students and parents in the development of multiple career plans that rely on a common set of transferable skills to promote employment resiliency in a changing economy (Szymanski, 1999). School counselors may be a key resource for students and families faced with the diverse activities available through the IEP proccss at the elementary, middle, and high school levels with the future goal of career succcss as an adult.

Decision-Making Skills

A key component of career development activities for elementary-aged students, adolescents, and young adults is training in decision making (Campbell& Dahir, 1997; Reid & Bray, 1997). The American Academy of Pediatrics The American Academy of Pediatrics ("AAP") is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. Its motto is: "Dedicated to the Health of All Children.  (2000), Sowers et al. (2002), as well as Wadsworth and Cocco (2003) noted that peopl ewith Mental retardation should be taught decision making skills before beginning career development activities. The ability to indicate a preference and choose an outcome that is in one's self-interest is a skill that is a key component of career development and many other quality-of-life decisions (Whitney Thomas et al., 1998). Learning activities may include practice in making incrcasingly important decisions that affect lifestyle and satisfaction (American Academy of Pediatrics). Beginning in elementary school, students may be taught steps of decision making through classroom guidance lessons (Shevin & Klein, 1985). Guided decision-making exercises and planned opportunities for students to make important decisions and experience consequences in a safe environment are frequently used methods of teaching decision-making skills (Levinson et al., 1994).

Reframing reframing (rē·frāˑ·ming),
n the revisiting and reconstruction of a patient's view of an experience to imbue it with a different usually more positive meaning in the
 Existing Opportunities

Career choice presupposes the existence of alternatives from which to choose (Reid & Bray, 1997; Sowers et al., 2002). However, there may be a limited number of career options for students with severe cognitive deficits Cognitive deficit is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to cognitive performance. The term may describe deficits in global intellectual performance, such as mental retardation, or it may describe specific deficits in cognitive abilities  (Pierce et al., 2003; Reid & Bray). Contextual factors such as the availability of day services, funding resources, and the capacity of a vocational program Noun 1. vocational program - a program of vocational education
educational program - a program for providing education
 to serve a new consumer may influence immediate post-high school career plans (Hilton & Gerlach, 1997). The courses of occupational change that are common among peers (e.g., relocation RELOCATION, Scotch law, contracts. To let again to renew a lease, is called a relocation.
     2. When a tenant holds over after the expiration of his lease, with the consent of his landlord, this will amount to a relocation.
) may not be realistic options for people with mental retardation, who may be dependent upon family and local case management resources, and who often lack the financial means to relocate re·lo·cate  
v. re·lo·cat·ed, re·lo·cat·ing, re·lo·cates
To move to or establish in a new place: relocated the business.

 to obtain preferred employment or post-high school training (Wehman & Kregel, 1998).

School counselors can help the student and members of the IEP team to connect the interest, ability, and temperament temperament, in music, the altering of certain intervals from their acoustically correct values to provide a system of tuning whereby music can move from key to key without unacceptably impure sonorities.  factors most salient to the student with occupational opportunities (Melchiori & Church, 1997). Such information can be used to emphasize features in existing activities that contribute to occupational growth and to create opportunities congruent with career preferences in available employment and training programs. For example, through career exploration activities, the salient features of a career as a firefighter for a student with moderate mental retardation are the opportunity to gain respect through wearing a uniform, the perceived social opportunities with fellow firefighters, and the enhanced self-esteem through identification with valued community members. These same components can be constructed within a sheltered work experience that permits that student to train as a "fire safety officer," wear a white shirt as a uniform, conduct fire safety and fire extinguisher fire extinguisher: see fire fighting.  checks with staff, participate in fire drills, and meet with firefighters during a routine business inspection. The student's interest and skills in emergency preparedness pre·par·ed·ness  
The state of being prepared, especially military readiness for combat.

Noun 1. preparedness - the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action); "putting them
 will increase the student's value to future employers concerned about on-the-job safety and may help this student achieve a succession of work opportunities that are increasingly congruent with and incorporate the student's long-range career goals (e.g., fire department custodial staff, maintenance assistant, clerical assistant). Similar to adolescents who do not have disabilities, young people with mental retardation need career guidance to compete for preferred jobs.


Personal career planning is a lifelong activity that assists students in selecting jobs consistent with a career path and maintaining progress in employment consistent with a vision of the future (Rumrill & Roessler, 1999). However, it is a challenge for many young people with cognitive and communication deficits to participate fully in career planning (Whitney-Thomas et al., 1998). School counselors have an important role in assisting the transition planning team to utilize techniques in designing and implementing career development activities that are effective with students with mental retardation.

Consistent with ASCA's National Model (2003), a collaborative, developmental approach to preparing students with mental retardation for the transition to employment permits school counselors to make use of school and community resources while still meeting the career development needs of all students. Although IDEA legislation does not require formal transition planning to begin until a studunt is 14 years of age, it is critical that school counselors promote career development activities for students with mental retardation in the elementary grade levels to promote career success for those students as adults (Black & Langone, 1997). To make meaningful career choices and to set goals that lead to the attainment of those choices, students with and without mental deficits require the same important career development competencies outlined in the ASCA National Model (2003). As advocates for all students, school counselors can be instrumental in making sure the career development needs of students with mental retardation are met.

"Having a career does not mean being placed in a job but having the opportunity to make choices" (Hagner & Salomone, 1989, p. 154). The goal to empower empower verb To encourage or provide a person with the means or information to become involved in solving his/her own problems  students to make choices as they progress through the lifelong developmental vocational experience is a critical feature of career development interventions (Szymanski & Hanley-Maxwell, 1996). The important role of career development in the future of young people with severe developmental cognitive disabilities cannot be overlooked, and professional school counselors can provide the link between the classroom and the world of work that will enhance future career success and satisfhction.


American Academy of Pediatrics. (2000).The role of the pediatrician pe·di·a·tri·cian or pe·di·at·rist
A specialist in pediatrics.
 in transitioning children and adolescents with developmental disabilities and chronic illnesses from school to work or college. Pediatrics pediatrics (pēdēă`trĭks), branch of medicine dedicated to the attainment of the best physical, emotional, and social health for infants, children, and young people generally. , 106, 854-856.

American School Counselor Association. (1999).The professional school counselor and the special needs student. Retrieved March 2, 2003, from http://www.

American School Counselor Association. (2003). TheASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.

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AWS American Welding Society
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_NCDA_EMAG EMAG Electromagnetics
EMAG Electronic Magazine
EMAG Equitable Members Action Group (UK)
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.html&AssnID=NCDA&DBCode= 130285

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John Wadsworth John Wadsworth (1850 – 10 July 1921) was a British trade unionist and politician.

Born in West Melton in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Wadsworth worked as a coal miner and was elected checkweighman.
, Ph.D., CRC (Cyclical Redundancy Checking) An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitting digital data. The transmitted messages are divided into predetermined lengths which, used as dividends, are divided by a fixed divisor. , NCC NCC

See National Clearing Corporation (NCC).
, Amy Milsom, DEd, LPC (language) LPC - A variant of C designed ca 1988 to program LP MUDs. , NCC, and Karen Cocco, Ph.D., all are assistant professors in Counseling, Rehabilitation & Student Development at the University of Iowa Not to be confused with Iowa State University.
The first faculty offered instruction at the University in March 1855 to students in the Old Mechanics Building, situated where Seashore Hall is now. In September 1855, the student body numbered 124, of which, 41 were women.
, Iowa Cir. E-mail:
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Publication:Professional School Counseling
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Date:Dec 1, 2004
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