Career decision-making difficulties among Israeli and Palestinian Arab high-school seniors.Making a career decision becomes a major priority for adolescents during the last year of high school. The present study examined the taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.
In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order, of career decision-making difficulties among 1,613 Arab 12th-grade students attending schools in East Jerusalem East Jerusalem refers to the part of Jerusalem captured by Jordan in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and subsequently by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. It includes Jerusalem's Old City and some of the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, such as the Temple Mount, Western , areas in the West Bank under the Palestinian National Authority Noun 1. Palestinian National Authority - combines the Gaza Strip and the West Bank under a political unit with limited autonomy and a police force; created in 1993 by an agreement between Israel and the PLO
Palestine Authority, Palestine National Authority , and Israel. No significant differences were found among the three locations; gender differences were found in the major category Lack of Readiness and in four scales (lack of motivation, general indecisiveness in·de·ci·sive
1. Prone to or characterized by indecision; irresolute: an indecisive manager.
2. Inconclusive: an indecisive contest; an indecisive battle. , lack of information about additional sources, and external conflicts). Implications for counseling high-school students are discussed.
The term career indecision Indecision
ass unable to decide between two haystacks, he would starve to death. [Fr. Philos.: Brewer Dictionary, 154]
his irresolution usually leads to catatonia. [Am. Lit. is defined in the broadest sense as difficulties individuals have when deciding on a career (Chartrand, Rose, Elliot, Marmarosh, & Caldwell, 1993; Gaff, Krausz, & Osipow, 1996; Leong & Chervinko, 1996), and refers to any problem or barrier arising in the decision-making process (Fuqua, Blum, & Hartman, 1988). Theory and research on indecision has focused on theoretical aspects of this concept (e.g., its dimensionality, Savickas, Carden, Toman to·man
A gold coin formerly used in Persia worth 10,000 dinars.
[Farsi tm , & Jarjoura, 1992; Shimizu, Vondracek, & Schulenberg, 1994) and on the distinction between temporary developmental indecision and deeper, more chronic and pervasive indecisiveness (Callanan & Greenhaus, 1992; Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , Chartrand & Jowdy, 1995; Santos Santos (sän`ts), city (1996 pop. 412,288), São Paulo state, SE Brazil, on the island of São Vicente in the Atlantic just off the mainland. , 2001).
In the theoretical realm, various approaches have been used in order to understand and describe indecision. For example, the psychodynamic Psychodynamic
A therapy technique that assumes improper or unwanted behavior is caused by unconscious, internal conflicts and focuses on gaining insight into these motivations.
Mentioned in: Group Therapy, Suicide approach (Bordin & Kopplin, 1973) attempted to classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. difficulties according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. their internal unconscious sources rather than visible symptoms. The developmental approach (Osipow & Fitzgerald, 1996; Super, 1953) used the notion of vocational self-concept to describe career decision difficulties, whereas the vocational interest approach (Holland, 1997) focused on problems in the consistency and crystallization Crystallization
The formation of a solid from a solution, melt, vapor, or a different solid phase. Crystallization from solution is an important industrial operation because of the large number of materials marketed as crystalline particles. of vocational preferences.
Gati et al., (1996) developed the taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making which was used as the theoretical framework in the present research. In this taxonomy the difficulties were defined as deviations from an "ideal career decision maker"--a person who is aware of the need to make a career decision, willing to make such a decision, and capable of making the decision "correctly" (based on an appropriate process and compatible with the individual's goals and resources). Any deviation from this model of an ideal career decision maker was regarded as a potential difficulty that could affect the individual's decision-making process in one of two possible ways: (a) by preventing the individual from making a career decision, or (b) by leading to a less than optimal career decision.
The taxonomy (Gaff et al., 1996) includes three major difficulty categories that are further divided into ten specific categories. The first major category, Lack of Readiness, includes three categories of difficulties that may arise before the beginning of the career decision-making process: (a) lack of motivation to engage in the career decision-making process, (b) general indecisiveness concerning all types of decisions, and (c) dysfunctional dys·func·tion also dis·func·tion
Abnormal or impaired functioning, especially of a bodily system or social group.
dys·func beliefs, including irrational ir·ra·tion·al
Not rational; marked by a lack of accord with reason or sound judgment.
irrational adjective Unreasonable, illogical expectations (Nevo, 1987) concerning the career decision-making process (e.g., "I believe there is only one ideal career for me").
The two other major difficulty categories, Lack of Information and Inconsistent Information, include types of difficulties that may arise during the actual career decision-making process. Lack of Information includes four categories of difficulties: (a) lack of knowledge about the steps involved in the process, (b) lack of information about the self, (c) lack of information about the various alternatives (e.g., occupations, high school classes, college majors), and (d) lack of information about the sources of additional information. The major category Inconsistent Information includes three types of problems in using information: (a) unreliable information, that is difficulties related to unreliable or contradictory information (e.g., above average high-school grades, but a low SAT score); (b) internal conflicts such as contradictory preferences or difficulties concerning the need to compromise; and (c) external conflicts (that is, conflicts involving the influence of significant others).
Further distinctions are made within each category; for example, within the category of lack of information about the self, a distinction is made between lack of information regarding the individual's preferences ("What do I want?") and capabilities ("What can I do?"). For a more detailed description and discussion of the taxonomy, see Gati et al. (1996).
The Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ; Gati et al., 1996) was constructed in order to empirically test the proposed theoretical taxonomy, in which each of the ten difficulty categories is represented by several statements (e.g., "It is usually difficult for me to make decisions"). Studying both American and Israeli samples of young adults, Gati et al. found a great similarity between the empirical structure of the three major categories and the ten specific categories, on the one hand, and the theoretical structure, on the other. Further support for the proposed structure was obtained by Osipow and Gaff (1998), who examined the construct and concurrent validity concurrent validity,
n the degree to which results from one test agree with results from other, different tests. of the CDDQ, using the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Scale (CDMSE, Taylor & Betz, 1983) and the Career Decision Scale (CDS, Osipow, Carney car·ney
Variant of carny. & Barak, 1976; Osipow & Winer, 1996). Lancaster, Rudolph, Perkins, and Patten's research (1999) supported the construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition. of the CDDQ, reporting a large difference between decided and undecided groups in the total CDDQ score. The structure was also supported in subsequent research (Gaff, Osipow, Krausz, & Saka, 2000; Gaff, Saka, & Krausz, 2001; Man, 2001).
In a recent study (Gaff & Saka, 2001), the taxonomy of difficulties proposed by Gati et al. (1996) was adapted to fit the difficulties faced by Israeli adolescents in three different high-school grades and decision situations: choosing a senior high school in the ninth grade (which is the last year of junior high school in Israel), choosing high-school elective courses Noun 1. elective course - a course that the student can select from among alternatives
course, course of instruction, course of study, class - education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings; "he took a course in basket weaving"; "flirting is during the tenth grade Tenth grade is a year of education in many nations. United States
The tenth grade is the tenth school year after kindergarten and is called Grade 10 in some regions. Students are usually 15–16 years old. , and deciding which military job they would prefer (which is compulsory at the end of high school for most students) in the eleventh grade This article or section deals primarily with the United States and Canada and does not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. . The original questionnaire was revised and adapted for each of the three decision situations, and the structures of the ten difficulty categories were empirically examined in each of the three grades. Gari and Saka reported a great resemblance between the theoretical model and the empirical structure in each of the grades; in each one, the structures were similar to the hypothesized one. The structure across all grades (1,843 students) was almost identical to the theoretical structure. The present study aimed at examining the cross-cultural validity of the structure of difficulties among Arab adolescents, while focusing on the possible effects of their cultural and ethnic background.
ETHNIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARAB SOCIETY
The religious laws of Islam and the customs of Arab society derived from them determine family roles. The traditional family is based on a patriarchal pa·tri·ar·chal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a patriarch.
2. Of or relating to a patriarchy: a patriarchal social system.
3. model in which the husband is the senior male and indisputable head of the household. The Qur'an and Arab culture establish that children must be protected and cherished, and that they must be obedient and committed to the will of their parents. While men honor their heritage by fulfilling their masculine MASCULINE. That which belongs to the male sex.
2. The masculine sometimes includes the feminine, vide an example under the article Man, and see also the articles Gender, Worthiest of blood; Poth. Intr. au titre 16, des Testamens et Donations Testamentaires, n. role and fathering children (especially boys), women are expected to be modest and faithful, and to bear many children, preferably boys (Elkholy, 1988; Pryce-Jones, 1989). As in other patriarchal societies, in Arab society marriage is considered compulsory, and families tend to be large and extended. Although at present there is some flexibility regarding gender differences, which also affect the idea that women must be totally subordinate to men, there are still different socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. processes for male and female adolescents. The preference for boys also leads to higher expectations from them than from girls.
Another factor significantly affecting career decision processes is the political situation of Israeli Arabs. There are specific career constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. for Arabs in Israel. For example, jobs in specific occupational fields such as aviation or security-related industries are closed to Arab citizens; these career options are automatically eliminated from the range of options for Arab adolescents. In addition, there is great variance in the economic status of Arab families; on the average, their income is significantly lower than that of the average Jewish Israeli family. The percentage of Arab adolescents completing secondary school and passing the matriculation ma·tric·u·late
tr. & intr.v. ma·tric·u·lat·ed, ma·tric·u·lat·ing, ma·tric·u·lates
To admit or be admitted into a group, especially a college or university.
n. examination (33%) is lower than that of Jewish students (53%). There are relatively few Arab citizens working in prestigious occupations (medicine, law, engineering). The standard of living in areas controlled by the Palestinian Authority Palestinian Authority (PA) or Palestinian National Authority, interim self-government body responsible for areas of the West Bank and Gaza Strip under Palestinian control. is lower because of the political and military circumstances in those areas.
THE GOAL OF THE PRESENT RESEARCH
The goal of the present research was to examine the patterns of career decision-making difficulties among Israeli and Palestinians Arab high-school seniors. Specifically, we compared the career decision-making difficulties of males and females in three groups of Arab students, living in (a) areas under the Palestinian Authority, (b) East Jerusalem, and (c) Israel. Although comparisons of career decision making among students from different ethnic backgrounds are frequent in the American literature American literature, literature in English produced in what is now the United States of America. Colonial Literature
American writing began with the work of English adventurers and colonists in the New World chiefly for the benefit of readers in (see, for example, Gloria & Hird, 1999; Herring, 1998; Man, 2002), there is very little literature and research on the counseling of Arab students. For aspects of the counseling of Arabs in Arab countries, see Al-Khawaja (1998); on Muslims in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , see Locke (1998)). Our research examined the possible effects of common culture (the Arab culture shared by all three groups of students) and different economic, social, and political conditions (Israel, Palestinian Authority) on high-school seniors' perceptions of their difficulties in the career decision process.
Unlike most Jewish high school graduates in Israel, who face compulsory military service, Arab high school graduates in Israel are exempted from military service and thus face the same type of decisions as do high-school seniors in most countries-higher education, vocational training, or entering the work force. This situation is similar at Arab high schools under control of the Palestinian Authority which is in charge of the educational system in the West Bank.
The sample consisted of 1,613 12th-grade Arab students--657 males (41%) and 954 females (59%)--from high schools in East Jerusalem (whose status is in dispute between Israel and the Palestinian Authority), the West-Bank Palestinian Authority, and Israel, who were about to graduate from high school and had to make a career decision. The mean age was 17.9 (SD = 0.58). The questionnaire was administered in eight high schools in East Jerusalem (n = 645), 7 high schools in the West Bank (n = 500), and 10 high schools in Israel This is an incomplete list of schools in Israel: Arad
The Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ) was abridged (from 44 items to 36) and translated from Hebrew into Arabic. Four experienced school counselors A school counselor is a counselor and educator who works in schools, and have historically been referred to as "guidance counselors" or "educational counselors," although "Professional School Counselor" is now the preferred term. and an expert in the Arabic language Arabic language
Ancient Semitic language whose dialects are spoken throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Though Arabic words and proper names are found in Aramaic inscriptions, abundant documentation of the language begins only with the rise of Islam, whose main texts participated in this process.
The first page of the anonymous questionnaire included a question on the extent of the student's deliberation deliberation n. the act of considering, discussing, and, hopefully, reaching a conclusion, such as a jury's discussions, voting and decision-making.
DELIBERATION, contracts, crimes. about his or her career choice (very, to some extent, not at all), and two additional questions on whether the student had some vocational alternative in mind and his or her degree of confidence in that alternative (on a 9-point scale, 1 "not confident at all," 9 "very confident").
The subsequent four pages included 36 statements, each corresponding to a particular difficulty, and two validity items. The participants were asked to indicate the degree to which each statement described them on a 9-point scale (1 "does not describe me at all" to 9 "describes me well"). At the end of the questionnaire, students were asked to rate the overall severity of their difficulties in making the decision (on a 9-point scale).
The students filled out the questionnaires during a class period. The questionnaires were handed out to the students by one of the researchers in the presence of a teacher, or by a teacher who was instructed on how to handle clarifications asked for by students. Students' questions, if any, were answered; no time limitation was given, and the time taken to fill out the questionnaire ranged from 30 to 45 minutes. The purpose of the research and its importance for improving school guidance were explained to the students, to increase their motivation and attention in filling out the questionnaire.
First, the following scores were computed for each student: (a) the score of each of the 10 scales representing the 10 difficulty categories (defined as the mean of the items included in each scale), (b) the score of the three major categories (defined as the mean of the respective scales), and (c) an overall difficulty score (the mean of the 10 scale scores). Next, we computed the Cronbach alpha reliability for each of the 10 scales, the three major difficulty categories, and the overall difficulty score.
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and Properties of the Questionnaire
The means, standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. and Cronbach alpha reliabilities of the 10 scales, 3 major categories and total CDDQ are presented in Table 1. As can be seen in Table 1, the 10 scales' internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. reliabilities vary significantly. The lowest internal consistency was observed for dysfunctional beliefs (.44); the reliability of the scale of lack of motivation was also rather low (.54). The other scales had moderate to high reliabilities, ranging from .57 for the scale of general indecisiveness to .79 for lack of information about self; the median scale reliability was .64. Among the three major categories, Lack of Readiness had the lowest reliability (.52); the reliability of the two other major categories was much higher (.89 for Lack of Information, and .80 for Inconsistent Information). The reliability of the whole questionnaire was .90. The correlations between each of the difficulty categories and the overall subjective severity ratings are presented at the right-hand side right-hand side n → derecha
right-hand side right n → rechte Seite f
right-hand side n → lato destro column. The highest correlation was between the major category of Lack of Information and the subjective severity ratings--.48.
The Internal Structure of the CDDQ To test the fit of the theoretical model to the empirical data, we carried out a confirmatory factor analysis In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis. It is used to assess the the number of factors and the loadings of variables. using EQS EQS Elite Qualifying Segments (United Airlines Mileage Plus)
EQS Environmental Quality Standard
EQS Environmental Quality Systems
EQS Entangled Quantum State
EQS Event Query Service
EQS Equalizer System 6 (Bentler, 1995). The [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] was large ([chi square] (32, N = 1420) = 216.10, p < .001); however, the [chi square] statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.
a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them. is heavily influenced by sample size (Byrne, 2001). Indeed, all the other goodness-of-fit indices that were examined to evaluate the hypothesized model revealed a good fit: GFI GFI Ground Fault Interrupter
GFI Go For It
GFI Government-Furnished Information
GFI Growing Families International
GFI Goodness of Fit Indices
GFI Government Financial Institutions (Philippines)
GFI Gross Farm Income = .97, NFI NFI Nasjonal Forskningsinformasjon (Norwegian Research Database)
NFI National Fisheries Institute
NFI National Fatherhood Initiative
NFI National Forest Inventory (Australia)
NFI Nutrition Foundation of India = .95, CFI CFI
cost, freight, and insurance = .96, TLI (Transport Level Interface) A common interface for transport services (layer 4 of the OSI model). It provides a common language to a transport protocol and allows client/server applications to be used in different networking environments. = .94, and RMSEA RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .06.
We also carried out a cluster analysis Cluster analysis
A statistical technique that identifies clusters of stocks whose returns are highly correlated within each cluster and relatively uncorrelated across clusters. Cluster analysis has identified groupings such as growth, cyclical, stable, and energy stocks. that indicated that the empirical structure of the difficulties for the two samples are very close to the theoretical model (Gaff et al., 1996). The scales were grouped into three clusters corresponding to the hypothesized three major categories--Lack of Readiness, Lack of Information, and Inconsistent Information. A distinction arises between the first major category, which includes difficulties arising prior to the career decision-making process, and the other two major categories, which include difficulties arising during the process itself. Nevertheless, there was a deviation from the theoretical model in both samples: the external conflicts scale was included in the main cluster of Lack of Readiness instead of in Inconsistent Information. This deviation was observed in American samples as well (Gati et al.; Osipow & Gati, 1998).
Degree of Decidedness
Almost one third of the students (516) reported they were deliberating about their career choice, 900 participants (56%) reported they were deliberating to some extent, and 195 (12%) reported they were not deliberating at all. No gender differences were found on this question ([chi square] (2) = 0.20, ns). A two-way ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there (with degree of decidedness and gender as the independent variables, and the total score on the CDDQ as the dependent variable) revealed a significant main effect for degree of decidedness (F(2, 1410) = 99.81, p < .01, [[eta].sup.2] = .12); no gender differences were found (F(1, 1410) = 1.61, ns), nor was there any interaction between degree of decidedness and gender (F(2, 1410) = 0.01, ns).
A t-test was conducted to compare the total CDDQ score between students who had some vocational alternatives in mind and those who did not. This comparison revealed that, as expected, the total CDDQ score was lower in the former than the latter group (t(1417) = 7.47, p < .01, d = 0.46). Similar differences were also observed in the three major difficulty categories.
For those participants who reported that they had an occupational alternative in mind, we computed the Pearson correlation between the degree of confidence in that alternative and the total score of the CDDQ: as expected, the observed correlation was negative (r = -.28, p < .01).
Differences among the Three Locations
We compared the mean difficulties for the students in the three different locations (i.e., East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Israel) using a one-way ANOVA. Although the differences were statistically significant (due to the larger N) in all 10 difficulty categories, they were small, and [[eta].sup.2] (the percentage of accounted-for variance) was less than 2% in all categories, reflecting the similarity in the mean difficulties in the three geographical locations.
We computed the means and the standard deviations for the boys and the girls for the 10 difficulty scales, the three major categories, and the total questionnaire score. These results are presented in Table 2. The t statistics t statistic, t distribution
the statistical distribution of the ratio of the sample mean to its sample standard deviation for a normal random variable with zero mean. for the difference between boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. and the effect size d (Cohen, 1992) are also presented in Table 2.
The largest differences between genders were found in the major category Lack of Readiness, and two of its three scales: lack of motivation and general indecisiveness; all these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). However, while boys reported greater difficulties related to lack of motivation, girls reported greater difficulties in general indecisiveness. As hypothesized, boys reported greater difficulties than girls in the scale external conflicts; in addition, boys reported greater difficulty in the scale lack of information about additional sources of information.
The goal of the present study was to examine the pattern of Israeli and Palestinian Arab high-school students' career decision-making difficulties, while focusing on the effect of cultural and ethnical eth·ni·cal
2. Of or relating to ethnology.
Adj. 1. background. The major findings indicated that the general structure of these difficulties was similar to both the theoretical model and the structures found in Jewish Israeli and American samples (Gati et al., 1996; Man, 2001; Osipow & Gati, 1998). However, a few unique gender differences and specific deviations from the theoretical structure were found. Finally, we found that differences in the political situation among these three samples of Arab students (Israeli, Palestinian Authority and East Jerusalem) were not reflected in the degree or patterns of difficulties.
We found greater difficulties related to general indecisiveness among girls than boys. This may indicate that Arab female adolescents might be facing a higher degree of conflicts and difficulties related to general indecisiveness due to the gap between their own psychological needs and the low societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. expectations from them. An Arab woman is expected to attribute higher importance to her roles as a mother and a wife than as a career person (Sa'dawi, 1990). The socialization messages from school, peers, and family members affect Arab women's self-esteem. As compared to male adolescents, Arab adolescent females reported higher feelings of inferiority (Sa'dawi). Abrahim (1993) states that although there have been some changes in the status of Arab women in recent decades (i.e., more legitimization for success in the academic field and the workplaces), their basic stand within the family structure and in Arab society remains stable. We also found that male adolescents know less about where to find additional information on their career alternatives and show higher levels of external conflicts (perhaps because they are challenging traditional values Traditional values refer to those beliefs, moral codes, and mores that are passed down from generation to generation within a culture, subculture or community. Since the late 1970s in the U.S. and expectations) than their female counterparts. Can these findings be understood as showing that the girls have an advantage over the boys? Since the girls have higher levels of general indecisiveness, they might spend less effort searching for additional sources of information, and their lower levels of external conflict may indicate that they are more obedient and less willing to confront their gender-biased socio-cultural environments.
It is of major importance to try to understand the interaction between gender differences on aspirations aspirations npl → aspiraciones fpl (= ambition); ambición f
aspirations npl (= hopes, ambition) → aspirations fpl for career achievements and the broader socio-cultural norms that shape boys' and girls' attitudes and behaviors (Cook, 1993). The interaction of gender with socio-cultural context may produce different lifestyle opportunities and demands for men and women.
One of the interesting findings which emerged in the present study was, contrary to implicit expectations, the lack of difference among the three groups of students in the three different locations. These locations differ not only in the their political status, but also in their economic situation and standard of living. Although there were slight differences in the extent of career decision-making difficulties among the three groups, they were negligible This article or section is written like a personal reflection or and may require .
Please [ improve this article] by rewriting this article or section in an . in terms of effect size. This pattern is compatible with the claim that most of the variance is accounted for by individual differences within each of the groups, rather than by external factors.
Implications for Counseling
Career guidance. Providing career guidance for high-school students has been found to characterize the more traditional roles of school counselors (Bradley & Cox, 2001). School counselors are trained in career theory and development and are concerned with linking their students' career decisions to their educational progress. At the high school senior level, counselors should help students find information that will enable them to make informed career choices. Information about career opportunities can be found in local news resources, employment offices, and federal guides. In addition, school counselors olden old·en
Of, relating to, or belonging to time long past; old or ancient: olden days.
[Middle English : old, old; see old + -en, adj. use computer-based systems Computer-based systems
Complex systems in which computers play a major role. While complex physical systems and sophisticated software systems can help people to lead healthier and more enjoyable lives, reliance on these systems can also result in loss of to help students gather information about careers of interest to them (Schmidt, 1999). As pointed out recently by Beale (2001), school counselors are frequently called upon to assist their students with their concerns about future careers.
In line with the increasing emphasis on results-based counseling programs, the American School Counselor Association (ASCA ASCA American School Counselor Association
ASCA Australian Shepherd Club of America
ASCA Arab Society of Certified Accountants
ASCA American Swimming Coaches Association
ASCA American Society of Consulting Arborists
ASCA Association of State Correctional Administrators , 1997) has suggested that school success requires students to make successful transitions, which involves the acquisition of the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that are essential to the competitive workplace. One of the areas in which counseling programs should facilitate student development is career development (Gysbers, 2001). The three U.S. national standards that students should meet in career development are: (a) acquiring the skills to investigate the world of work in relation to knowledge of the self and to make informed career decisions, (b) employing strategies to achieve future career success and satisfaction; and (c) understanding the relationships among personal qualifies, education, and training and the world of work (Herr, 1999).
One of the major implications of this research for school counselors stems from the observed distinction between difficulties arising before engagement in the process and difficulties that arise during the actual process. First, school counselors can decrease the chance of the emergence of difficulties involving lack of readiness by appropriate preparation, using group (or class) intervention aimed at increasing students' motivation to actively engage in the career decision they are about to make. Instruction about the stages and steps involved in making career decisions may also help decrease the students' general indecisiveness. Discussion of beliefs about the career decision-making process can help minimize students' dysfunctional thoughts. The CDDQ can serve the school counselor as a needs assessment tool, to discover both the relative and the absolute extent of difficulties in each of the 10 categories.
In addition, the students' responses to the CDDQ can provide school counselors with information both about the students' need for information about themselves and about the relevant options. The individual students' difficulty profile can provide information about their specific needs to help them to overcome difficulties in the use of the information, and in particular help them deal with difficulties involving internal conflicts and conflicts related to significant others. The reliabilities of the scale scores may be used for general needs assessment, but conclusions regarding a particular individual student should be drawn with caution due to the low reliability of the Lack of Readiness difficulty category. Thus, the individual profile should be used mainly as a starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo
commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the for an in-depth assessment of the student's difficulties. Finally, the CDDQ can also be used as a means for evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at facilitating the students' career development.
Cultural context. Since educational systems are becoming increasingly multicultural mul·ti·cul·tur·al
1. Of, relating to, or including several cultures.
2. Of or relating to a social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. , one of the most important challenges for school mental health professionals is to be aware of and cope with the special needs of different racial, ethnic, religious, and national student populations. Several reports have considered counselors' work with heterogeneous client populations. Specifically, strategies have been proposed for counseling approaches to racial and ethnic minorities (Atkinson, Thompson, & Grant, 1993), immigrant children and adolescents (Kopala, Esquivel, & Baptiste, 1994; Tatar Tatar
Any member of the Turkic-speaking peoples who today live mainly in west-central Russia east to the Ural Mountains, in Kazakhstan, and in western Siberia. They first appeared as nomadic tribes in northeastern Mongolia in the 5th century. , 1998), and international and foreign students (Khoo, Abu-Rasain, & Hornby, 1994; Leong & Choung, 1996; Tatar & Horenczyk, 2000).
The question of cultural diversity raises a pivotal ethical question for clinicians and counselors: To what extent can they become a viable helping resource? This is an issue that calls for an educated awareness of how one applies professional training to deliver quality care and be optimally beneficial in serving the needs of one's clients (Lefley, 2002). Lee and Kurilla (1997) see continuing education continuing education: see adult education.
or adult education
Any form of learning provided for adults. In the U.S. the University of Wisconsin was the first academic institution to offer such programs (1904). as a pathway to achieving competence in counseling ethically and effectively across cultures. Ethical practice demands that practitioners who have not received adequate training in counseling individuals from diverse backgrounds participate in ongoing professional education to become culturally effective counselors.
Ethical hazards may also emerge when counselors deal with clients from different cultural backgrounds. For example, "color blind" therapists or counselors with a universalistic approach, also believe that all people (clients) should be treated equally without acknowledgement of race or culture, and may misunderstand mis·un·der·stand
tr.v. mis·un·der·stood , mis·un·der·stand·ing, mis·un·der·stands
To understand incorrectly; misinterpret. their clients because they choose to ignore important information (Acton, 2001). In addition, counselors need to take into account possible conflicts between their efforts to promote an ethic eth·ic
a. A set of principles of right conduct.
b. A theory or a system of moral values: "An ethic of service is at war with a craving for gain" of individualism individualism
Political and social philosophy that emphasizes individual freedom. Modern individualism emerged in Britain with the ideas of Adam Smith and Jeremy Bentham, and the concept was described by Alexis de Tocqueville as fundamental to the American temper. , following their cultural-professional view, and the worldviews of non-Western clients (Wall, Needham, Browning & James, 1999).
It should be clear, as stated recently by Gysbers (2001), that guidance and counseling guidance and counseling, concept that institutions, especially schools, should promote the efficient and happy lives of individuals by helping them adjust to social realities. programs are designed to serve all students. This goal is based on the assumption that all students (regardless of gender, race, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , cultural background, sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. , socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. , etc.) can and should profit from the services of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. School counselors are especially challenged when dealing with minority students or those from different cultural backgrounds who might have to confront a much more complex reality than their mainstream counterparts. This reality involves cultural conditions and economic and social constraints in which these students live, study, and work.. Major challenges for counselors may include the following (Kiselica & Ramsey, 2001; Locke, 1998; Sue, Arredondo & McDavis, 1992):
* Developing an awareness of one's own cultural biases.
* Gaining comprehensive knowledge of the various groups with whom the counselor interacts.
* Realizing the importance and relevance of the worldviews of ethno-cultural minorities.
* Adopting appropriate counseling techniques that better fit their clients' culture.
The situation of Arab students in Israel is special. Since proficiency pro·fi·cien·cy
n. pl. pro·fi·cien·cies
The state or quality of being proficient; competence.
Noun 1. proficiency - the quality of having great facility and competence in the students' language is the main tool in school counseling, counselors who do not speak Arabic are unlikely to work with Arab students. Although the counseling process may benefit from the similarity between the school counselors' cultural background and that of their clients, the counselors need to be aware of their own possible internal conflict between their professional standards and their cultural norms and values. In general, school counselors face important challenges in the field of career decision making:
* Becoming aware of the unique needs of diverse racial and ethnic groups (Flares, Spanierman, & Obasi, 2003).
* Assessing the students' readiness to engage in the career decision-making process (Sampson, Peterson, Reardon, & Lenz, 2000).
* Becoming aware that cultural and gender differences affect the frequency with which the students use career counseling Noun 1. career counseling - counseling on career opportunities
counseling, counselling, guidance, counsel, direction - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action services and their satisfaction with these services (Man & Fernandes, 2001).
* Identifying specific difficulties these students face during their career-decision process by wise use of the CDDQ to provide information about the needs of the students both individually and as a group (Gaff & Saka, 2001).
* Becoming aware of both culture-based systematic group differences and important individual differences in the pattern of career decision-making difficulties.
* Creating a school climate in which students' career expectations and family values family values
The moral and social values traditionally maintained and affirmed within a family. are respected.
* Helping students see how their own and their family's expectations regarding careers can be mutually enhancing rather than conflictual.
* Understanding the interaction between the students' socio-cultural environment and gender differences.
* Realizing that even within the Arab population, cultural diversity is prevalent: Muslims versus Christians, those living in cities versus those living in villages, etc.
* Committing oneself as a mental-health professional to be a leader of social action (Tatar & Bekerman, 2002).
In sum, the CDDQ provides school counselors with information about the needs of the students; such information can provide the counselor with a means of facilitating the students' career decision-making process and enhancing the quality of their decisions.
Table 1. Means, Standard Deviations, Reliabilities of the CDDQ Scales, and their Correlation with Severity (N = 1613) Number Correlation of Cronbach with Scale Items M SD Alpha Severity Lack of Readiness Lack of motivation 3 3.34 2.13 .54 .07 * General indecisiveness 4 5.32 1.79 .57 .32 * Dysfunctional beliefs 4 6.34 1.52 .44 -.06 Lack of Information about The process 3 4.69 2.10 .76 .39 * The self 6 4.65 1.89 .79 .47 * Alternatives 3 5.23 2.10 .74 .38 * Additional sources of information 2 4.57 2.20 .64 .35 * Inconsistent Information Unreliable information 3 4.64 2.03 .60 .39 * Internal conflicts 6 4.80 1.70 .69 .36 * External conflicts 2 3.75 2.32 .64 .27 * Lack of Readiness 11 5.00 1.12 .52 .19 * Lack of Information 14 4.78 1.69 .89 .48 * Inconsistent Information 11 4.39 1.63 .80 .42 * Total CDDQ 36 4.71 1.20 .90 .47 * * p < .01 Table 2. Means and Standard Deviations of the CDDQ Scales According to Participants' Gender Boys Girls (n=649) (n=951) Scale M SD M SD Lack of Readiness Lack of motivation 3.76 2.26 3.05 1.99 General indecisiveness 5.11 1.79 5.47 1.81 Dysfunctional beliefs 6.42 1.46 6.28 1.57 Lack of Information about The process 4.72 2.08 4.68 2.11 The self 4.75 1.83 4.58 1.94 Alternatives 5.33 2.05 5.17 2.13 Additional sources of information 4.73 2.15 4.46 2.22 Inconsistent Information Unreliable information 4.61 1.97 4.67 2.06 Internal conflicts 4.82 1.66 4.79 1.73 External conflicts 3.94 2.29 3.63 2.33 Lack of Readiness 5.10 1.16 4.94 1.09 Lack of Information 4.87 1.62 4.72 1.72 Inconsistent Information 4.44 1.60 4.35 1.64 Total CDDQ 4.78 1.20 4.67 1.20 Difference Scale t [d.sup.1] Lack of Readiness Lack of motivation 6.42 ** 0.33 General indecisiveness -3.98 ** -0.20 Dysfunctional beliefs 1.84 0.09 Lack of Information about The process 0.37 0.02 The self 1.75 0.09 Alternatives 1.51 0.08 Additional sources of information 2.40 * 0.12 Inconsistent Information Unreliable information -0.66 -0.03 Internal conflicts 0.36 0.02 External conflicts 2.66 ** 0.14 Lack of Readiness 2.74 ** 0.14 Lack of Information 1.66 0.08 Inconsistent Information 0.98 0.05 Total CDDQ 1.63 0.08 * p < .05 ** p < .01 [d.sup.1] denotes effect size (Cohen, 1992)
Portions of this research were presented at the symposium "Cross-cultural perspectives on career decision-making difficulties," 110th Convention of the American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m. , Chicago, IL. We thank Tali Tali: see Dali, China. Ever-Hadani, Naomi Goldblum, Tali Kleiman, Eleana Meyers, and Noa Saka for their comments on an earlier version of this article.
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Yahya Hijazi is a doctoral student. Moshe Tatar, Ph.D., is a senior lecturer senior lecturer
n. Chiefly British
A university teacher, especially one ranking next below a reader. . Itamar Gati is a professor. All are with the School of Education, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Independent university in Jerusalem, Israel, founded in 1925. The foremost university in Israel, it attracts many Jewish students from abroad; Arab students also attend. , Israel.