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Canadian feminist periodicals, 1998.

Atlantis

Patricia Elliot. "Some Critical Reflections on the Transgender Theory of Kate Bornstein." Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 13-19.

This article critically engages aspects of Kate Bornstein's transgender theory as found in Gender Outlaw. Drawing on recent work in Lacanian psychoanalysis, and on insights from Bornstein's account, Elliot poses questions about the ways in which sex, gender, desire, and subjectivity are theorized. (Journal abstract)

Tania Trepenier. "Valuing Narratives of Hybridity and Multiplicity." Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 20-29.

By providing parallel critiques of US Third World feminism and radical lesbian feminism from the perspective of bisexual feminists and feminists of mixed race, ethnicity, and culture, the author argues that theories concerned with power, privilege, and social change would benefit from a valuation of narratives of hybridity and multiplicity. (Journal abstract)

Christine Overall. "`Peep Shows and Bedroom Access': Women's Identities and the Practice of Outing." Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 30-37.

"Passing" may be defined as the concealment of a stigmatized identity, often through the assumption of a counterpart non-stigmatized identity. "Outing" is the practice of revealing the passing of persons with stigmatized identities. Focussing on a variety of stigmatized identities usually or invariably possessed by and/or attributed to women, the author raises moral questions about the practice of outing by means of an ontological and epistemological critique of some of the assumptions on which outing is based. (Journal abstract)

Cynthia Mathieson and Lynda Endicott. "Lesbian and Bisexual Identity: Discourse of Difference." Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 38-47.

How does a lesbian or bisexual woman construct her identity? The authors examine this question through a discourse analysis of 20 interviews with lesbian and bisexual women. They theorize about the discursive production of identities using three broad classifications of discourse: "Labelling," "Coming Out," and "Building and Sustaining Identity." (Journal abstract)

Becki Ross. "`Down At the Wherehouse?': Reflections on Christian Community Service and Female Sex Deviance at Toronto's Street Haven, 1965-1969." Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 48-59.

This paper focusses on Street Haven, a drop-in centre that opened in Toronto, Ontario in 1965 to service female ex-offenders and street women, the majority of whom were lesbians, drug users, and prostitutes. Interviews and archival materials reveal how white, middle-class Haven volunteers endeavoured to improve the lives of "the girls" in the interests of "normal" womanhood. At the same time, stories told by volunteers complicate notions of societal norms unilaterally imposed by Christian "do-gooders" on "deviant" subjects. (Journal abstract)

Pamela J. Downe. "Selling Sex, Studying Sexuality: Voices of Costs Rican Prostitutes and Visions of Feminists." Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 60-68.

This paper explores the images of disembodiment and disengagement put forth in feminist representations of prostitution and prostitutes and contrasts them to the embodied and engaged experiences of 53 street prostitutes in San Jose, Costa Rica. The importance of focussing on the global as well as local context is emphasized. (Journal abstract)

Caroline Fusco. "Setting the Record Straight: The Experiences of Lesbian Athletes," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 69-79.

In her master's thesis, "Lesbians and Locker Rooms," Caroline Fusco interviewed eight lesbian athletes and concluded that lesbian realities in sport can be connected to a larger set of practices which assist in the construction of a heteronormative order. In this paper she has reinterpreted previous interview material in order to examine the performances of both (homo/hetero)sexual identities in their sports in relation to this heteronormative order. (Journal abstract)

Susan Heald. "Sex And Pleasure, Art And Politics, and Trying To Get Some Rest: An Interview with Shawna Dempsey and Lorri Millan, Performance Artists," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 80-90.

In this interview, Winnipeg, Manitoba-based performance artists, Shawna Dempsey and Lorri Millan discuss "Sexualities and Feminisms" with interviewer Susan Heald. "In many ways [Dempsey and Millan] appear to be asking the same kinds of questions -- though very differently -- that feminist scholars are asking. Making art about feminist politics, about sex and pleasure and marginalization is, as they say, a political project." (ns)

Pauline Greenhill. "Lesbian Mess(ages): Decoding Shawna Dempsey's Cake Squish at the Festival Du Voyeur," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 91-99.

Shawna Dempsey and Lorri Millan's performance piece "Mary Medusa" is explored as an example of how artistic lesbian mess(ages) can be decoded by viewers. Focussing upon anthropological, feminist and queer theory, Green-hill examines how both "Mary Medusa" and its decodings implicate women, sex, power and food. (Journal abstract)

Rob K. Baum. "Accessory to Murder: A Lesbian Masquerade," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 100-110.

Mabel Maney parodies Fifties-era "girl detective" Nancy Drew with lesbian Nancy Clue, mocking the original series' insistence upon heteronormativity while maintaining Keene's luxuriously white, upper-class sanctity. This article explores Maney's comic structure from Freudian "dress-up" and professional disguise to lesbian masquerade, demonstrating their ideological difference from gay camp -- one queer commentary has repeatedly confused. Maney's conflation of the disparate motives of lesbian masquerade and gay camp lead to her abandonment of lesbian feminist readers. (Journal abstract)

Chris Fox. "Murder at the Red Arrow Motel: Nicole Brossard's Mauve Desert as Dystopic Mystery," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 112-119.

In Mauve Desert, a novel of two fictions, that of the translation itself and the narrative that forms the content to be translated, Nicole Brossard makes creative and minimal use of elements of the mystery novel genre to evoke an intellectual curiosity and emotional desire for understanding in readers. Brossard seduces readers into an investigative role by means of the post-modern complexities and opportunities of the metatranslational narrative and the gaps she leaves in the traditional mystery genre. (Journal abstract)

Jill Ehnenn. "Desperately Seeking Susan Among the Trash: Reinscription, Subversion and Visibility In the Lesbian Romance Novel," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 120-127.

This article begins to examine the practice of reading the lesbian romance novel through surveys and interviews of selected readers, booksellers and publishers. Findings suggest that while the notion of escape similarly motivates both straight and lesbian romance readers, the psychological effects upon those readers differ significantly. Ultimately, this article acknowledges that producers and consumers look to lesbian romances to counter the often invisible status of gay life in today's world. (Journal abstract)

Kathryn Campbell. "`Deviance, Inversion and Unnatural Love': Lesbians in Canadian Media, 1950-1970," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 128-136.

This article examines the representation of lesbians in English Canadian print media in the 1950s and 1960s. The author discusses the increase in media attention towards homosexuality in the 1950s, and explores the portrayal of lesbians in these early articles in relation to the prevailing gender ideologies of the period. (Journal abstract)

Jyanni Steffensen. "Epistemological Sadism: Queering the Phalius in Monica Treut's Seduction," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 137-145.

This article is a queer analysis of German filmmaker Monica Treut's Seduction: The Cruel Woman. This reading simultaneously reworks some of the Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalytic narratives of the subject and desire which have been problematic for feminism and lesbian feminism. (Journal abstract)

Michelle Mawhinney. "Rethinking Desire: The Ontology of Lack and the Edible Other," Atlantis, vol. 23, no. 1 (Fall/Winter 1998), pp. 147-156.

This article engages with Elizabeth Grosz's critique of the conception of desire thought in terms of "lack," and argues that rather than rejecting this concept, it is necessary to disengage it from its historical association with the denigration of the female other and the ontologization of desire itself. (Journal abstract)

Canadian Journal of Women and the Law/Revue Femmes et Droit

Mary Jane Mossman. "Feminism and the Law: Challenges and Choices." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 1 (1998), pp. 1-16.

In this lecture in honour of late Professor Marlene Cano (former French language co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Women and the Law), the author examines the challenges and choices that confront feminism and the law in three cases that concern women's roles as mothers: Bliss, Brooks and Symes. Although the cases were decided over a period of nearly 15 years and in very different legal contexts, the author argues that all three cases illustrate similar problems and reveal the limitations of law's response to feminist challenges. This conclusion indicates that feminist law teachers also face challenges and choices in teaching cases about women's claims. The author concludes with some suggestions for feminist law teachers based on the inspiration provided by Professor Carlo in relation to these challenges and choices. (Journal abstract)

Radha Jhappan. "The Equality Pit or the Rehabilitation of Justice." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 1 (1998), pp. 60-107.

This article examines the litigation strategies pursued by feminist lawyers and activists in Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms cases, focussing on the core discourse and objective in the feminist legal project -- equality rights. It analyzes some of the key problems of the equality approach, including the sameness/difference dichotomy and those problems revealed by critical race theory, in particular, deconstructions of antidiscrimination laws by Black feminists and women of colour. These problems, in the author's view, point to the impossibility of equality both as a theoretical and as a practical enterprise for women, people of colour, and other subjugated collectivities. Although the Women's Legal Education and Action Fund (LEAF) has offered a creative, contextualized, and substantive model of equality that has enjoyed some success before the courts, this model seems unable ultimately to resist the forced essentialism and assimilationist logic of the equality concept. The author, therefore, suggests that feminist litigators consider the strategic potential of an alternative approach -- justice -- and demonstrates how it can avoid some of the pitfalls of the equality framework. (Journal abstract)

Donna Hackett. "Finding and Following `The Road Less Travelled': Judicial Neutrality and the Protection and Enforcement of Equality Rights in Criminal Trial Courts." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 1 (1998), pp. 129-148.

The Honourable Judge Donna Hackett examines the judicial role in protecting and enforcing equality rights enshrined in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. In her experience, counsel do not raise equality rights issues in criminal trial courts. As a result, judges must be particularly diligent in identifying equality issues and take what she refers to as "the road less travelled" by raising equality issues that are not identified by counsel. She describes equality issues which were identified by herself and other judges but which were not raised by counsel, such as: evidence of prior sexual activity of a complainant of sexual assault; trial delays that limit access to justice by persons with disabilities; difficulties with language; problems of translation; diverse cultural and religious practices; and the form of the oath. Judicial impartiality requires that judges recognize and integrate equality rights into the interpretation and application of the law. In order to do so, judges must be familiar with the rights and problems of the disadvantaged and all communities within their jurisdictions. (Journal abstract)

Erin Soros. "The Law of Generation: The Ethics of Abortion." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 1 (1996), pp. 149-158.

On the tenth anniversary of the 1988 Morgentaler decision, a woman's right to an abortion in Canada remains under siege, with access to the procedure uneven across the country and, as yet, unavailable in the province of Prince Edward Island. Despite the introduction of "bubble zones" that prevent pro-life demonstrators from directly reaching those individuals who use reproductive health centres, women choosing to have an abortion can still endure public or private harassment and the providers of this essential medical service can face threats to their lives. Abortion has been condemned as an act of murder yet also advocated as the articulation of a woman's control over her own body. In upholding the right to have an abortion, the author does not directly engage the debate between pro-life and pro-choice activists but instead examines some of the narrative about the decision to terminate a pregnancy and working both with, and against, Jacques Derrida's exploration of early Judeo-Christian moral law in The Gift of Death, she argues that abortion cannot be conceived within a male model of identity, responsibility, and morality. A fetus is neither self nor other. Its loss is, and is not, a death. An abortion is a liminal act that ruptures the ground of ethics itself. (Journal abstract)

Gabrielle St-Hilaire. Fange legislative : La deduction des frais de garde d'enfants a l'article 63 de la Loi de l'impot sur le revenu. Revue Femmes et Droit, vol. 10, no 1 (1998), p. 17-59.

Le regime fiscal assure en grande partie l'appui financier aux parents en matiere de frais de garde d'enfants. Ce moyen a donne lieu a une polemique concernant sa capacite et son efficacite a repondre aux besoins des parents, plus particulierement des femmes. L'auteure souscrit a la these selon laquelle le regime fiscal, plus specifiquement l'article 63 de la Loi de l'impot sur le revenu peut jouer un role sans que cela nuise a l'elaboration d'une politique nationale en matiere de garde d'enfants. L'auteure note la desesperante lenteur des gouvernements. Utilisant les affaires Symes et Thibodeau, elle fait ressortir l'importance des contestations constitutionnelles sur la scene politique, malgre l'impuissance du systeme judiciaire a corriger certaines iniquites. (resume de la redaction)

Andree Cote. Pour les damnees de la terre : l'education populaire juridique sur les droits des femmes. Revue Femmes et Droit, vol. 10, no 1 (1998), p. 108-128.

Malgre le fait que l'education juridique soit un gage de la democratie effective, la majorite des femmes connaissent peu ou pas leurs droits. S'il existe une plethore de documents de vulgarisation et d'information juridiques, la litterature semble avoir porte peu d'attention a l'education juridique populaire, en particulier celle portant sur les droits des femmes. L'auteure se propose ici de degager certaines balises theoriques et methodologiques pour un tel programme, soulignant que l'education juridique populaire sur les droits des femmes doit concevoir le droit dans son evolution historique, dans son contexte social et politique, comme un instrument souvent manipule par un groupe social en vue de promouvoir ses propres interets, et qui doit faire l'objet de contestations judiciaires et de mobilisations politiques destinees a le transformer. Par la suite elle fait etat d'un projet developpe pour la Table feministe francophone de concertation provinciale de l'Ontario intitule Les Franco-ontariennes et les droits a l'egalite. Le modele est structure en trois temps : la formation, la consultation et la concertation. Il s'agit d'un modele dynamique qui participe au mouvement progressif pour la realisation effective des droits humains des femmes. (resume de la redaction)

Francoise Digneffe et Colette Parent. La mediation peut-elle devenir une ressource pour les conjointes victimes de violance? Revue Femmes et Droit, vol. 10, no 2 (1998), p. 293-305.

Les auteures examinent l'epineuse question du recours a la mediation comme mesure dans les dossiers de violence contre les conjointes. Elles presentent d'abord les principales critiques feministes face a la mediation comme reponse a des litiges qui impliquent de la violence contre les conjointes. Elles resituent ensuite la mediation comme mesure dans le contexte de nos societes contemporaines afin d'en degager l'interet et les derives possibles; elles evaluent alors dans quelle mesure les critiques feministes touchent a des elements majeurs de cette mesure telle que concue dans nos societes modernes ou encore a des modalites de mise en ouvre. Elles tentent enfin d'exposer jusqu'ou et a quelles conditions la mediation peut etre pensee comme une mesure parmi d'autres mis a la disposition des femmes victimes de la violence de la part de leur conjoint. (resume de la redaction)

Dorothy E. Chunn and Robert Menzies. "Out of Mind, Out of Law: The Regulation of `Criminally Insane': Women inside British Columbia's Public Mental Hospitals, 1888-1973." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 2 (1998), pp. 306-337.

This article examines the institutional experiences of the first 38 women in British Columbia to be transferred from judicial to psychiatric settings and confined indeterminately under executive "Orders-in-Council." Using archival documents and historical psychiatric files, the authors chart the constructions of criminality and disorder that shaped the medico-legal careers of these female forensic patients. Building on the insights of feminists writing about carceral and therapeutic modes of discipline in both historical and contemporary contexts, they explore the professional discourses and organizational activities that were marshalled to normalize these polymorphously deviant women. The work of penal and "psi" professionals was immersed in myriad gendered understandings about the character of femininity and motherhood, the moral and constitutional failings of transgressive women, and the peculiar social risks that these patients posed. Still, these psychiatric practices were by no means omnipotent. Women subjects and their allies frequently resisted, and sometimes overcame, the interventions of medical authorities. The prevailing relations of regulation in these psycho-legal contexts were therefore contradictory, conflictual, disorderly, and incomplete. The ordering of "criminally insane" women was continuously being (re)negotiated across the hierarchical structures of gender, race, and class and through the interwoven power-knowledge systems and languages of science and law. (Journal abstract)

Razack, Sherene. "Race, Space, and Prostitution: The Making of the Bourgeois Subject." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 2 (1998), pp. 338-376.

This article begins with the contention that prostitution secures a hegemonic masculinity constituted by interlocking relations of class, race, and gender. It is therefore as vital to white supremacy and capitalism as it is to patriarchy. Asking "how do modern capitalism, sexism, and racism simultaneously contribute to the production of women who sell their bodies, to men who buy these bodies, and to the tremendous violence of these practices?", the author attends to this simultaneity through an analysis of spatial configurations. She begins with a brief review of feminist views on prostitution, arguing that many feminists, whether they theorize prostitution as work or violence or both, consider prostitution as being centrally about gender relations. Drawing on theorists who examine the spatiality of social relations, the author offers an alternative analysis, one that makes the argument that prostitution in liberal democratic nation states establishes zones of degeneracy (and bodies marked as degenerate), into which bourgeois subjects can briefly journey and then return to respectability. She applies her methodological framework to European nineteenth-century urban spaces and concludes with reflections on how the framework could be applied to twentieth-century spaces of prostitution in Asia and North America. (Journal abstract)

Chantal Lavergne. Analyse du processus de construction de la violence faite aux femmes en contexte conjugal comme probleme socio-penal au Quebec. Revue Femmes et Droit, vol. 10, no 2 (1998), p. 377-400.

L'etude porte sur l'analyse du processus de construction de la violence faite aux femmes comme probleme socio-penal au Quebec. L'objectif est d'etudier les circonstances entourant l'emergence de cette question comme probleme social et la maniere dont la definition et les solutions ont evolue au cours du processus. Les resultats de l'etude montrent que le discours feministe des groupes de femmes, dans lequel la violence faite aux femmes est definie comme un probleme d'inegalite entre les sexes, n'est pas conteste par ceux et celles qui ont pris part au processus definitionnel. C'est davantage au niveau des solutions et des actions preconisees que l'on observe des differences dans le discours. L'ecart entre le discours sur le probleme et les solutions privilegiees est particulierement frappant a partir du moment ou le processus se transporte sur le terrain de l'Etat; le discours demeure sans en tenir compte dans les solutions preconisees. Dans cette perspective, des actions visant a ameliorer les conditoins de vie des femmes et a remettre en cause les privileges masculins ne sont pas pris en compte dans le plan d'action propose. La reponse gouvernementale consiste plutot a privilegier des solutions qui ne necessitent pas de reamenagements majeurs dans les dispositifs de resolution des problemes existants et qui n'entrainent pas de remise en cause du statu quo. Les resultats d'une comparaison entre le processus au Quebec et celui qui s'est developpe au Canada anglais et aux Etats-Unis sont egalement presentes dans le but de faire ressortir ce que le processus de construction au Quebec a de particulier ou de different. (resume de la redaction)

Margaret Thornton with the assistance of Weiping Wang. "Sexing Modernity: Women in the Chinese Legal Academy." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 2 (1968), pp. 401-437.

This article focusses on women in the Chinese legal academy and their changing subjectivity arising from the impact of the free market. It considers their double identity as they are caught between tradition and modernization. It examines their imaginative language, in conjunction with their stories, which has been structured by both history and culture in complex ways and which continually infuses new meanings into everyday life. Through the analysis of these stories, the article seeks to highlight the sexed nature of the legal academy in the light of the social scripts of femininity and modernity. The author begins by addressing the methodological perplexities confronting Western feminist researchers in writing across cultures. She then considers the lure of the free market following protracted experience of a controlled economy. Against this backdrop, Thornton considers how modernization has destabilized the academy in so far as both the law curriculum and the position of academics is concerned, particularly because of the desire of the latter to "go out to sea." The article then focuses more closely on the contradictions that beset women in the everyday practices of the legal academy. The author argues that the academy is a site where women are actively constituted as "other" to the masculinist norm. Since the feminine is viewed as a dangerous force in the public sphere in China, as in the West, it is shown that there is resistance to women occupying authoritative and independent positions. Finally, the author argues that the intersection of market and family relations with academic and bureaucratic prescripts has contributed to the normalization and reconfiguration of a (hetero)sexed binarism, albeit one that is friable at the edges. (Journal abstract)

S. Craig Wilson. "`Our Common Enemy': Censorship Campaigns of the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the National Council of Women in Canada, 1890-1914." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 2 (1998). pp. 436-479.

This article argues that the campaigns against "immoral" and "obscene" literature initiated in the 1890s by the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the National Council of Women of Canada CNCWC) were integral to feminist reformers' broader project of moral regeneration and nation-building. Underlying these efforts was a widespread anxiety about the survival of an idealized family structure and a discourse that relied heavily on the moral "innocence" of children and their vulnerability to delinquency and moral corruption through exposure to impure printed materials. These rhetorical devices provided the impetus for a moral crusade advocating the suppression of reading materials intended for both children and adults, ranging from crime-story newspapers and "sensation" novels to works of contemporary fiction. The article also examines several formal and informal strategies adopted by the WCTU and the NCWC -- in cooperation with other social purity groups -- to combat immoral literature, including the promotion of "pure" literature and women's cultural literacy, and their efforts to employ the apparatus of the state and secure legislative reform. It concludes that these censorship initiatives, while allowing women reformers to repudiate conventional notions of feminine passivity, also rendered manifest some of the most coercive aspects of the early women's movement while reinforcing the prevailing values of English-Canadian society. (Journal abstract)

Amanda Glasbeek. "Maternalism Meets the Criminal Law: The Case of the Toronto Women's Court." Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, vol. 10, no. 2 (1998), pp. 480-502.

The Toronto Women's Court, established in 1913 as a maternal feminist response to an androcentric criminal justice system, is revealing of elements of first-wave feminism and the politics of familialism. The Toronto Women's Court was justified through a rhetoric of familialism and organized on the model of the family. This familialism, however, worked to mask, and make possible, coercive class relations that were expressed, instead, as a politics of gender. In place of paternalist justice, white middle-class feminists succeeded in legitimating maternalist family values within the criminal justice system, thus both increasing their class authority over wayward "girls" and enveloping them within the coercive project of the law. (Journal abstract)

Canadian Woman Studies/les cahiers do la femme

Patricia McAdie. "The Abandonment of the Pursuit of Equity and the Implications for Education." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 6-14.

"While women have made progress towards equal status, this progress has stalled. Some would say that we have been slipping backwards over the last few years." By focussing on the fallout for women and any person "not currently in a position of authority and power" since the beginning of Mike Harris's Conservative government in Ontario in June 1995, the author identifies the effects of the cuts made by this government and turns to history to answer the question: "How did we get to this point?" (ns)

June Larkin and Pat Staton. "`If we can't get equal, we'll get even': A Transformative Model of Gender Equity." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1996), pp. 16-22.

The authors propose an equity model which goes beyond the liberal approach of equal opportunity, to equality. The model is structured so as to transform systemic inequalities in education while placing emphasis on four equity components: access, inclusion, climate and empowerment. (Journal abstract)

Linda Briskin. "Negotiating Power in the Classroom: The Example of Group Work." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 23-28.

"This article ... argues in favour of practising interventionist strategies to deal with power dynamics, and demonstrates how the absence of such an approach can undermine even apparently progressive practices such as collaborative group work." (Journal abstract)

Barbara A. Gill. "Becoming a Leader: Strategies for Women in Education Administration." Canadian Woman Studios, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 29-31.

Women educators are still underrepresented among educational administrators despite the increasing number of women training for leadership positions. This article identifies a number of strategies to overcome this problem. (Journal abstract)

Janice Hladki. "Power and Struggle in Educational Research: Interrogating the `Unity' In `Community'." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1996), pp. 32-37.

In this paper, the author explores "how discourses of `community' in collaborative educational research tend to ignore relations of power, social difference, and struggle." (Journal abstract)

Revathi Chennabathni and Gillan Rejskin. "Gender Issues in Collaborative Learning." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1968), pp. 44-51.

This article presents suggestions for creating effective collaborative learning groups as well as specific implications for gender-fair collaborative learning. (Journal abstract)

Diana L. Gustafson. "Embodied Learning about Health and Healing: Involving the Body as Content and Pedagogy." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 52-55.

The author traces the dismantling of equity measures and discusses its implications for education, and more specifically, for teachers and students. (Journal abstract)

Christabelle Sethna. "The Cold War and the Sexual Chill: Freezing Girls Out of Sex Education." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 57-61.

The author examines the evolution of sex education in post-war Ontario schools by exposing its impact on the lives of young women living in this region. (Journal abstract)

Jenny Horsman. "Literacy Learning for Survivors of Trauma: Acting `Normal'." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 62-67.

In this article, the author explores "one aspect of the findings of a research study which examined the impacts of abuse on women's literacy learning." After having determined the impacts of abuse in literacy programs, she explores new approaches to literacy work. (Journal abstract)

Robert A. Pritchard. "Resistance is Futile, Or Is It? Gender Lessons from a Micro Cybercommunity." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 72-74.

In this article, the author describes "the emergence at Inglenook Community High School of a group of female hackers who formed what he calls a micro cybercommunity of resistance and used chat lines to disrupt the dominant androcentric hacker subculture that existed at the school." (Journal abstract)

Jacqueline Reid-Walsh and Elaine Correa. "Equity in the Women's Studies Classroom: The Politics et Voicing Difference." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1968), pp. 76-79.

The authors analyze and critique in-class conflict, examining the issues in order to reflect upon and improve their feminist pedagogical practices. (Journal abstract)

Goli M. Rezai Rashti. "The Travails of Using an Anti-Racism and Feminism Approach When Teaching a Course on Women and Islam." Canadian Woman Studios, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 80-83.

The author speaks of her experience teaching anti-racism and feminism outside of a Women's Studies program. She maintains that the academic community should participate in the development and exchange of more effective teaching practices, while recognizing the difficulties in teaching such courses outside of Women's Studies programs. (Journal abstract)

Margot Francis. "Identity Puzzles: Talking Sex in Education." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1996), pp. 85-88.

This article provides "a quick overview of recent research regarding the different ways sexuality has been understood in a variety of historical moments, and examines issues related to anti-heterosexism education in multi-racial contexts." (Journal abstract)

Denise M. Shortt. "Gender and Technology: Looking to the Past." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1698), pp. 89-93.

In this article, the author explores the relationship between women and technology.Her research is "guided by two fundamental educational questions: what is needed to make good use of new education technologies? and what can we learn from the past about the perils and potential of recent developments in information technology for education?" (ns)

Barbara McLean. "Women Writing, Women Teaching: Speculating on Domestic Space." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 94-97.

In this article, the author reflects on the link between university teaching and community, and writes about her attempts to bring community issues into the classroom and to bring the classroom into the community. (ns)

Dolana Mogadime. "The Work of South African-Canadian Educator Goodie Tshabalala Mogadime." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 98-102.

The author recounts the work of Goodie Tshabalala Mogadime, a South African activist educator who explores the links between autobiography, her experiences working in the hegemonic patriarchal context of educational institutions, and her feminist teaching practices. (Journal abstract)

Rebecca Priegert Coulter. "Educators for Gender Equity: Organizing for Change." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 103-105.

This article examines the work of Educators for Gender Equality (EDGE) a group of educators promoting gender equality policy and practices. (ns)

Norma Husk. "Men's Resistance to Women's Education: The Personal is Political." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1968), pp. 107-111.

The author examines the problems particular to women who return in later life to pursue undergraduate and graduate studies, some of which include relationships or raising children. (Journal abstract)

Meg Walker. "Water Notes: On Women and Science." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 113-114.

In this article, the author draws from her personal experience to question the implications of women in science, and argues that "a feminist approach to science is by definition one which grows from lateral thinking, and that women who wish to ask nonlinear questions of the sciences should feel legitimate and comfortable to follow those questions." (ns)

Susan Wismer. "Eighteen Tips: A Guide for Including Everybody In Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1698), pp. 115- 118.

The Women's Inventors Project undertook a study to make sciences, technologies, engineering or mathematics (STEM) more accessible to girls and young women. In this article, they provide a summary of 18 tips developed as a guide to "inclusivity of girls and young women in the recruitment, design and implementation of STEM programming in a variety of formal and informal educational settings." (ns)

Janice Turner. "Grrrl Talk." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp.119-120.

This article reports on the innovative activities of a group of female secondary school students who meet regularly to share experiences relevant to women's lives. (Journal abstract)

Karen Lior and Susan Wismer. "Shopping for Training." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 122-126.

The authors investigate the different training programs and models available for women and draw attention to the principles which underlie the creation of women's training programs. (Journal abstract)

Aniko Varpalotai. "Gender and Education In an Agricultural Community." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1698), pp. 127-130.

This study uses the rural-based 4-H clubs as the medium through which to gain a better understanding of the socialization and education of rural youth, with a particular focus on gender. (Journal abstract)

Lynne Bell and Carol Williams. "Interference: An Interview with Artist and Educator, Wilma Needham." Canadian Woman Studies, Special issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 131-134.

This conversation with Wilma Needham is one of 16 scholarly interviews conducted by the authors over the past three years on the subject of women and change in the visual arts. Wilma Needham is assistant dean of Fine and Media Arts at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design where she has taught in the studio and foundation areas for 15 years. In this interview, Needham discusses new teaching strategies for her course "Feminist Criticism of Art and Culture," Canada's first feminist course on studio art. (Journal abstract)

Stephanie Dansereau et Jeanne Maranda. Adorables filles d'aujourd'hui. les cahiers de la femme, numero special: Femmes et etducation, vol. 17, no 4 (Winter 1998), p. 135 a 138.

Dans cet article, les auteures etudient de pres le contenu et le traitement de certains produits mediatiques destines aux jeunes et offerts a la television et dans la presse jeunesse. Elles posent la question, a savoir Qu'en est-il des modeles feminins montres ou suggeres a travers les messages televisuels et imprimes en termes de modernite et d'actualite?, et constatent, en fin de compte, que les grandes figures de femmes y sont absentes, et que les adolescentes y sont privees d'une vision d'avenir, se voyant offrir une litterature axee sur des besoins superficiels. (ns)

Karen Lior and Ann Zelechow. "Employment and Training Services for Women in Metro Toronto." Canadian Woman Studies, Special issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 139-142.

This article examines the employment and training needs of women in Metropolitan Toronto and identifies the ways in which employment programs are able to respond to the needs of women in search of these services. (Journal abstract)

Jennifer Stephen and Gaetan Beaudet. "Survey of Trends in Adult Education, 1985-1995, and Perspectives for the Twenty-First Century." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Women and Education, vol. 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998), pp. 143-148.

This articles examines new trends in continued education which have arisen in response to technological change and economic restructuring and proposes new policy directions for the future. (Journal abstract)

Andrea O'Reilly. "Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism Today: Empowerment, Agency, Narrative, and Motherline." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 16-21.

This article provides a study of contemporary feminist writing on the mother-daughter relationship, with emphasis on the different facets of pedagogy which theorizes the feminist education of girls. (Journal abstract)

Abbey, Sharon. "Mentoring My Daughter: Contradictions and Possibilities." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Bock, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1996), pp. 22-26.

The author confronts assumptions about maternal mentoring and places emphasis on the supremacy of resistance, individualization and reciprocity, so that new choices and other possibilities are envisioned in order to consolidate matrilineal ties. (Journal abstract)

Jean-Claude St-Amant, Claudette Gagnon, et Pierrette Bouchard. La division du suivi scolaire entre les parents. Un axe mere-fille? les cahlers de la femme, numero special: Meres, rilles et feminisme, vol. 18, nos 2 & 3 (1998), p. 30-34.

Cet article examine le role primordial clue joue les meres a convaincre leurs filles de l'importance de l'education. (resume de la redaction)

Brydon Gombay. "Mutual Empowerment: The Mother of a Daughter with Disabilities." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 35-40.

The author examines the many problems encountered by a mother raising a daughter with a disability and comments on this relationship which reinforces the ties which bind them to one another. (Journal abstract)

Doreen Fumia. "By Any (M)other Name: Once Married Mother-Lesbians." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp.41-45.

This article explores what unites "other" mothers, those such as previously married lesbian mothers, who locate themselves outside of heteronormality. It is necessary to build ties at the heart of systems of oppression which marginalize them. (Journal abstract)

Wanda Thomas Bernard and Candace Bernard. "Passing the Torch: A Mother and Daughter Reflect on their Experience Across Generations." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 46-50.

As African Canadians, the authors have experienced oppression, loss of power, struggles, resistance, and ultimately regained control. They explore their roles as mothers and daughters while noting the ways in which they developed their mother-daughter relationship in situations where they simultaneously experienced oppression and had access to power. (Journal abstract)

Andrea Doucet. "Interpreting Mother-Work: Linking Methodology, Ontology, Theory and Personal Biography." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 52-58.

The author, a mother of three girls, draws on her own experience of mothering in her analysis of data gathered in England through open interviews with 46 mothers and fathers, and examines the links between caring and ontology. (Journal abstract)

Pamela Courtenay Hall. "Mothering Mythology in the Late Twentieth Century: Science, Gender Lore, and Celebratory Narrative." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 59-63.

This article explores the myth of the "natural mother" as an example of maternal mythology which predominates in late twentieth-century North American culture. (Journal abstract)

Shelagh Robinson and Lindsay Robinson. "Challenging the Connection: A Deconstruction of the Discourses of Mother-Daughter Relationships." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 64-68.

A mother and daughter wrote this text collaboratively. Its goal is to personally and theoretically deconstruct the two discourses which surround mother-daughter relationships. The origins, pretensions and implications of the cultural discourse are raised with the purpose of linking theory and experience. (Journal abstract)

Kate Campbell and Sue Levesque. "Mandatory Thinness and Mother-Blame." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 69-73.

When reporting the case of Marlene Corrigan, accused of having mistreated and abused her daughter who died weighing 680 lbs at the age of 13, newspapers reinforced the discourse surrounding the obsession of thinness and mother-blame. This article examines the newspapers' content. (Journal abstract)

Karen Bridgman-Acker. "Voices of Experience, Voices for Change: The Impact of the Family Law System on Mothers and their Children." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 75-80.

This article reports the results of two qualitative research projects conducted in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1995-1996, which explored the life experience of mothers, their interests and needs, as well as those of their children, in relation to the family law system. (Journal abstract)

Ruby K. Newman. "Survival Narratives of Ethiopian Jewish Mothers and Daughters." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 81-85.

The author recounts the experience of Jewish mothers and their daughters who left Ethiopia for Israel and ensures that the stories of exile and survival that they shared continue to reinforce mother-daughter ties. (Journal abstract)

Dolana Mogadime. "A Daughter's Praise Poem For Her Mother: Historicizing Community Activism and Racial Uplift Among South African Women." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 86-91.

The author recounts the community-based activities of her mother and grandmother as examples of another motherhood which confirms the cultural tradition of Black women as healers and as holding personal responsibility for transformations which occur in the community. (Journal abstract)

Jacqueline Hogue. Vade retro satanas! les cahiers de la femme, numero special: Meres, filles et feminisme, vol. 18, nos 2 & 3, 1998, p. 95-96.

L'auteure raconte le bapteme de sa petite fille a l'age de 15 mois, tout en comparant cette nouvelle experience au bapteme de ses propres enfants, il y a plus de trente ans. (resume de la redaction)

Evelyn Drescher. "Daughters of Feminists: The Passages of Beauty." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 97-98.

The author takes on the often contradictory notions of femininity, beauty and feminism, and reflects on the influence this dialogue had on the education of her daughter. (Journal abstract)

Collette Yvonne. "Pandora's Box." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 99-100.

The author explains how she initiated her daughter to female anatomy. (Journal abstract)

Jeanette Urbas. "Graduation Day." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 101-104.

This text explores the tensions present between a second-generation daughter and her immigrant mother. (Journal abstract)

Diana L. Gustafson. "Learning to Wear Mother Clothes To Cover Woman Dreams." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 105-108.

This is the story of a woman who is learning to recognize models of motherhood in the history of her family, models which produced three generations of invisible women -- invisible because they were entrenched in their roles as mothers. (Journal abstract)

Natasha Bouchard St-Amant. Silence. les cahiers de la femme, numero special: Meres, filles et feminisme, vol. 18, nos 2 & 3, 1998, p. 109-111.

Cet article raconte la meme histoire du point de vue de la mere et de la fille, et souligne de facon eloquente comment les malentendus et silences se produisent. (resume de la redaction)

Patricia Fontaine, Gayle Letherby and Deborah Whatley. "Mothers, Daughters, and Others: Some Personal Reflections on Mothers and Daughters." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 112-114.

The authors attended the Mothers and Daughters conference in September 1997 at York University and report their impressions.

Ann Frank Wake. "The Convert." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 115-117.

In this autobiographical text, a daughter in her thirties contemplates the forces which brought her mother to "convert" to feminism in her fifties, changing the nature of their relationship and giving new meaning to her own past. (Journal abstract)

Siobhan Conway-Hicks. "My Mother and Theory: How the Two are Inseparable." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 121-125.

This article chronicles the investigations of the author's "motherline," the knowledge she gained of her mother through feminist theory, and her discovery of her mother's life apart from motherhood. (ns)

Carol B. Duncan. "`Dey give me a house to gather in di chil'ren': Mothers and Daughters in the Spiritual Baptist Church." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 126-131.

This article explores the significance of the mother-daughter relationship in the lives of African-Caribbean immigrants who are members of the Spiritual Baptist Church. (Journal abstract)

Dannabang Kuwabong. "Reading the Gospel of Bakes: Daughters' Representations of Mothers in the Poetry of Claire Harris and Lorna Goodison." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 132-138.

In this article, the author explores the positive representations of African-Caribbean mothers in the poetry of Lorna Goodison and Claire Harris, and the ways in which these representations help us to understand on what basis mother-daughter relationships are articulated within the paradigms of African-Caribbean literature. (Journal abstract)

Maureen Slattery. "Border-Crossings: Connecting with the Colonized Mother in Maria Campbell's Life-Writings." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 139-144.

The author examines the autobiographical narrative of Maria Campbell, a Metis woman from Saskatchewan who discusses her feminist engagement, her spiritual beliefs and attempts to bridge the gap which separates her from her mother through the process of inter-cultural exchanges, reclaiming her power. (Journal abstract)

Sandra Moffat. "Looking at `Subversive Repetitions' for My Daughter: Examining Margaret's Resistance to Becoming a Mother in the Film Margaret's Museum." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 145-149.

The author identifies with Margaret, who resists motherhood in the film, Margaret's Museum. She tries to understand why and how this identification is based upon her own inner fear of becoming a mother. (Journal abstract)

Ursula M. Franklin. "Looking Back, Looking Forward." Canadian Woman Studies, Special Issue: Looking Back, Looking Forward: Mothers, Daughters, and Feminism, vol. 18, nos. 2 & 3 (1998), pp. 151-154.

In this article, the author discusses her perception of the role of mentor as an extension of the biological mother/daughter/sister relationship, which, in her view, culminates in reciprocal solidarity among women. (Journal abstract)

Recherches feministes

Nicole Mosconi. Reussite scolaire des filles et des garcons et socialisation differentielle des sexes a l'ecole. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, no 1, 1998, p. 7-17.

Cette note de recherche presente une critique des explications ordinairement donnees quant a la reussite scolaire des filles, en montrant leur caractere fortement stereotype. Elle propose une explication en fait de strategies et d'attitudes face a l'ecole, au personnel enseignant et aux autres eleves. L'auteure illustre cette proposition par l'analyse qualitative d'une sequence de mathematiques a l'ecole primaire qui montre l'inegalite traitement des filles et des garcons par l'enseignante, mais aussi des differences de positionnement des eleves selon leur sexe et leur origine sociale. (resume de la redaction)

Pierrette Bouchard et Jean-Claude St-Amant. Profils contrastes d'un groupe de garcons quebecois de 15 ans. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, n o 2 (1998), p. 23-42.

Suite a une enquete par questionnaire aupres de plus de 2 200 filles et garcons quebecois ages de 15 ans, l'article presente un profil de certaines composantes de la masculinite chez le groupe de garcons. Pour ce faire, les reponses des garcons a chacune des questions sont comparees systematiquement a celles des filles. Ensuite, un deuxieme profil de la masculinite est construit a partir, cette fois, des positions adoptees par une majorite de garcons, sans tenir compte des reponses donnees par les filles. Les resultats issus des deux methodes d'analyse sont ensuite compares. Sur le plan des rapports sociaux de sexe, la synthese montre que ce sont plutot les filles qui sont porteuses de changement social, autant pour elles-memes que pour les garcons qu'elles cotoient. Ces derniers restent pres d'une definition plus conformiste de l'identite masculine, mais certains indices d'evolution de leurs representations peuvent etre lies aux actions du mouvement des femmes. (resume de la redaction)

Margrit Eichler. A propos du role Joue par les hommes dans le domaine des etudes sur les femmes : une ambivalence profonde. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, no 2 (1998), p. 43-69.

Cet article se penche sur les attitudes des femmes qui enseignent en etudes sur les femmes envers les hommes qui enseignent dans le meme domaine et compare ces attitudes avec celles que les hommes ont d'eux-memes. La position preponderante reflete une profonde ambivalence. D'un cote, ces hommes sont percus comme des collegues indispensables ou, du moins, en principe souhaitables; de l'autre, on considere qu'ils se trouvent dans une situation paradoxale, leur presence dans une position d'autorite contredisant le message et l'objectif du cours. La demonstration presente cette ambivalence comme preferable a une acceptation inconditionnelle ou un rejet complet de leur place en etudes sur les femmes. (resume de la redaction)

Daniel Welzer-Lang. Travailler ensemble entre hommes et femmes : emergence de la question et questions de methode. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, no 2 (1998), p. 71-100.

A travers quelques elements historiques lies au champ des etudes sur les hommes, et a partir des travaux de recherche realises par l'auteur au cours de ces dix dernieres annees, l'article interroge les cadres problematique et methodologique qui nous permettent de realiser des etudes dans des equipes mixtes en hommes et femmes, tout en questionnant l'androcentrisme et de la sociologie, et des sociologues eux-memes. Dans une premiere partie sont analyses les processus, parfois compliques, par lesquels ont emerge en France des travaux profeministes. Puis, a partir du constat de la frequente asymetrie des objets traites par les hommes profeministes et par les femmes sociologues feministes, et des questions qui traversent le champ des rapports sociaux de sexe en construction, l'article propose une discussion sur la methode. Plus exactement, a travers l'exemple d'une recherche recente sur l'echangisme, l'auteur, qui se reclame de l'antisexisme, expose ses propres difficultes concretes rencontrees sur le terrain de recherche pour ne plus etre pris dans l'androcentrisme, et accepter, valider et en definitive integrer les vecus et analyses critiques proposes par ses collegues, femmes et feministes. En conclusion, l'article identifie les outils et les principes methodologiques qui permettraient de mettre en place des debats prenant en compte la problematique des rapports sociaux de sexe dans les equipes mixtes d'hommes et de femmes. (resume de la redaction)

Micheline Dumont et Stephanie Lanthier. Pas d'histoire les femmes! Le feminisme dans un magazine a grand tirage : L'actualite 1960-1996. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, n o 2 (1998), p. 101-124.

La place du feminisme dans un magazine quebecois a grand tirage, L'actualite, a ete examinee durant la periode 1960-1996. L'analyse d'un corpus de 118 textes, articles et chroniques, a demontre que le discours sur le feminisme a peu change durant plus de trois decennies et qu'il reproduit certaines caracteristiques liees a la conception patriarcale de l'ordre social. En effet, les medias de masse participent a l'ambivalence du processus de modernisation de nos societes et un magazine a grand tirage s'inscrit dans un contexte sociopolitique qui concede peu de place a la contestation sociale. On a pu etablir deux demonstrations : d'abord que la portee politique du mouvement feministe a ete occultee et niee, comme si les femmes ne pouvaient etre sujets de l'histoire; d'autre part, qu'un mecanisme de resistance a ete mis en place par la presence, dans le magazine, d'une ambiguite qui se manifeste par la juxtaposiuon de textes a saveur feministe et de textes a saveur sexiste. On assiste a une volonte evidente d'occulter le mouvement feministe et son role dans la societe quebecoise. Tout en pretendant a un objectivite journalistique, les medias nous presentent plutot une version de la subjectivite masculine. (resume de la redaction)

Martin Dufresne. Masculinisme et criminalite sexiste. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, no 2 (1998), p. 125-137.

Le reseau Internet permet d'observer et de contrer une fonction active de reproduction et d'accroissement de la suprematie masculine et le travail d'organisation politique des hommes en tant qu'hommes, a titre de peres ou de porte-paroles des enfants, a des effets reperables sur la criminalite sexiste, allant du vol de pensions alimentaires jusqu'au harcelement et au meurtre. (resume de la redaction)

Jocelyn Lindsay et Michele Clement. La violence psychologique : sa definition et sa representation selon le sexe. Recherches feministes, vol. 11, no 2 (1998), p. 139-160.

Cet article presente les principaux resultats d'une etude qualitative portant sur les representations de la violence psychologique selon le genre. Cette forme subtile de violence conjugale a fait l'objet de quelques etudes par le passe, principalement quantitatives. Plusieurs chercheurs et chercheures ont en effet tente de mesurer le concept et d'en degager l'incidence. Dans le present article, l'auteure et l'auteur retournent a un niveau de conceptualisation prealable et tentent de cerner sur un plan plus global le processus et les constitutantes de cette forme de violence. Dans un premier temps, une revue des definitions de la violence psychologique tirees de recherches anterieures est presentee. Apres un expose des principaux aspects methodologiques, une analyse des entrevues realisees est articulee autour des trois constituantes d'une representation sociale, en situant pour chacune d'elles les dispositions particulieres caracterisant les repondantes et les repondants. A partir du materiel recueilli, une definition de la violence psychologique est ensuite proposee et l'article conclut en precisant l'eclaircissement conceptuel que permet cette definition. (resume de la redaction)

Xavier Dunezat. Des mouvements sociaux sexues. Recherches feministes, vol.

11, no 2 (1998), p. 161-195.

Cet article a pour objet l'etude, en tant que mouvement social sexue, du mouvement des chomeurs et des chomeuses qui s'est developpe en France au cours de l'hiver 1998. Apres avoir revisite une certaine sociologie des mouvements sociaux au nom de la transversalite des rapports sociaux -- et plus specifiquement des rapports sociaux de sexe --, l'auteur rend compte de son observation participante au mouvement des chomeurs et des chomeuses de Morlaix (Bretagne). Il analyse la sous-representation des chomeuses dans celui-ci et la sexuation des comportements au sein des assemblees generales. Il s'interroge sur les liens entre rapports sociaux de sexe et structure, revendications et modes d'action du mouvement. Puis il examine l'hypothese de la haine de genre a partir de ce mouvement social. La pregnance de la domination masculine et les comportements patriarcaux ne doivent-ils par etre consideres comme des facteurs explicatifs centraux de la progressive demobilisation des participantes et participants a un mouvement social? (resume de la redaction)

Claudette Gagnon. La dynamique de la reussite scolaire des filles au primaire: les motivations et les enjeux des rapports sociaux de sexe. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 19-45.

Cet article porte sur le phenomene de la meilleure reussite scolaire des filles des le primaire. L'auteure cherche a comprendre pourquoi les filles reussissent mieux que les garcons, ont moins d'echecs, de retard et de redoublement scolaires. L'objectif est de decrire et d'analyser les mobilisations et les motivations des filles quant a la reussite scolaire et de demontrer l'incidence potentielle des rapports sociaux de sexe au primaire sur la reussite scolaire. L'auteure vise egalement a montrer la presence d'une certaine forme de feminisme au primaire. L'analyse des donnees fait ressortir qu'un rapport actif a la scolarisation joue en faveur des filles a l'ecole. Les mobilisations personnelles des filles et celles de leurs meres conjuguees creent une dynamique favorable a la reussite scolaire. Ainsi, non seulement elles s'adaptent au milieu scolaire pour mieux reussir, mais encore elles adoptent des comportement strategiques pour parvenir a leurs objectifs. Elles veulent prouver qu'elles sont bonnes a l'ecole et donner la replique aux garcons qui les enferment dans des modeles stereotypes. Un avenir reussi comme femmes est egalement une source de motivation pour les filles et pour leurs meres. (resume de la redaction)

Anette Goldbert-Salinas et Claude Zaidman. Les rapports sociaux de sexe et la scolarite des enfants de parents migrants. Une etude exploratoire. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 47-59.

S'il est vrai que l'on dispose deja d'un certain nombre de travaux sur la scolarisation des enfants de parents migrants en France, ceux-ci ont generalement ete effectues, d'un cote, par des specialistes de l'ecole qui ont pris en consideration les inegalites sociales et le sexe mais ont delaisse l'ethnicisation ou, d'un autre cote, par des specialisates de l'immigration qui ont tenu compte des inegalites sociales et de l'ethnicisation/racisation a l'ecole mais ont delaisse le genre. Cet article propose une approche transversale interdisciplinaire comparative qui articule, dans une perspective dynamique, l'appartenance sociale et la construction sociale des categories de sexe et des categories raciales ou ethniques. Il resume les resultats d'un bilan analytique de la litterature sur les enfants de parents migrants et l'ecole produite dans les differentes disciplines des sciences humaines ainsi que d'un bilan analytique de la presence des femmes dans la litterature sur les migrations, evalue les donnees statistiques disponibles et presente des elements d'une enquete exploratoire. (resume de la redaction)

Caroline Hamel. Les Interactions entre le sexe, la race et l'origine sociale et les representations des rapports avec le personnel enseignant. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 61-81.

Cet article traite des interrelations entre les inegalites de sexe, de race et d'origine sociale en education. L'auteure presente des resultats de recherche indiquant, apres analyse statistique, que les representations qu'entretiennent les eleves des communautes culturelles de leurs rapports avec le personnel enseignant sont structurees par leur appartenance sexuelle et socio-economique, les filles issues de milieux moins scolarises manifestant des representations souvent plus negatives que celle des garcons de meme milieu ou des filles de milieux plus scolarises, revelant ainsi le reductionnisme inherent a la prise en consideration d'une seule variable pour situer les groupes socialement. (resume de la redaction)

Jacinthe Michaud. Les programmes d'etudes des femmes et l'intervention feministe en Ontario francais. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 83-93.

Cet article a pour objectif d'examiner et de discuter deux difficultes soulevees par l'enseignement de l'intervention feministe aupres d'etudiantes inscrites au programme d'etudes des femmes au College universitaire de Glendon de l'Universite York en Ontario. La premiere difficulte a trait a l'enseignement du mouvement des femmes lui-meme, de l'espace social et du rapport a l'Etat. La seconde touche a l'interaction avec les femmes et a l'apprentissage de l'inclusion et de la diversite. A partir du cours Etudes des groupes de femmes et du travail communautaire en Ontario francais, l'auteurs expose les resistances des etudiantes a l'apprentissage de ces problematiques, resistances qui sont autant de defis poses a l'ensemble des programmes d'etudes des femmes. (resume de la redaction)

Armelle Spain, Lucille Bedard et Lucie Paiement. Conception revisee du developpement de carriere au feminin. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 95-109.

Malgre la presence accrue et diversifiee des femmes sur le marche de l'emploi et les preoccupations professionnelles qu'elles manifestent, les services d'orientation et d'aide au cheminement de carriere leur offrent souvent des actions s'appuyant surtout sur des comprehensions masculines. Apparait donc la necessite d'elaborer des modeles theoriques et des programmes d'action correspondant aux besoins des femmes, aux enjeux reels auxquels elles doivent faire face et aux moyens qu'elles utilisent a cet egard. Cette priorite anime les recherches des auteures depuis plus de quinze ans et a mene a une conceptualisation s'articulant autour de trois elements theoriques: la dimension relationnelle, la perspective globale de vie et la singularite des trajectoires. Dans cet article, les auteures presentent une synthese des resultats sous deux volets: le premier, sur le plan fondamental, precise la nature et le role de la dimension relationnelle dans le developpement de carriere des femmes; le second, sur le plan de la recherche appliquee, aborde la description et l'evaluation d'une action educative en matiere d'orientation, Devenir, axee sur ces fondements theoriques. Enfin, les limites et les contributions de ces travaux sont soulignees. (resume de la redaction)

Renee Cloutier, Claude Trottier et Louise Laforce. Les projets de vie et l'insertion professionnelle de femmes et d'hommes titulaires d'un baccalaureat. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 111-132.

Cette etude du type qualitatif porte sur les representations des liens entre l'insertion profesionnelle et les projets de vie de femmes et d'hommes titulaires d'un baccalaureat dans une universite quebecoise en 1986. Au total, 61 entrevues ont ete menees en 1994. L'article tente de repondre aux questions suivantes: comment, huit ans apres l'obtention d'un baccalaureat, des femmes definissent-elles leurs projets de vie en rapport avec leur processus d'insertion professionnelle? Leurs representations sont-elles differentes lorsqu'elles ont des enfants? Quel groupe de femmes semble davantage concilier l'ensemble de leurs projets de vie? Celles-ci connaissent-elles des conditions particulieres d'insertion professionnelle? Quant a leurs collegues masculins, se distinguent-ils des femmes? Cette etude s'inscrit dans une recherche visant a comprendre le processus d'insertion profesionnelle de titulaires de grades universitaires. Au terme de l'etude, la conclusion est axee sur l'importance de tenir compte de la dimension relationnelle dans la sphere non marchande pour saisir le processus d'insertion professionnelle des femmes. (resume de la redaction)

Claire Lapointe. Les libertes et les contraintes dans l'experience de professeures d'universite: une analyser critique feministe de la culture organisationnelle. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 133-154.

Cet article presente une partie des resultats d'une recherche sur les representations de professeures d'universite quant a leur experience en tant que femmes qui travaillent dans une organisation et occupent des postes traditionnellement masculins. Le cadre d'analyse retenu est l'approche critique feministe de la culture organisationnelle. En s'inspirant de la methode ethnographique et de la technique des niveaux de saturation des donnees, l'auteure a mene 34 entretiens semi-diriges aupres de professeures d'une universite quebecoise. Les donnees recueillies permettent de preciser le caractere plus ou moins rigide de la culture de cette organisation en ce qui a trait a la liberte que les professeures possedent dans la definition de leur role et l'accomplissement de leurs taches. Bien que, de prime abord, les professeures se disent satisfaites de leur marge de manoeuvre, des limites apparaissent rapidement. Les principales sont le sentiment d'invisibilite, la perception de sexisme et de discrimination systemique, l'insecurite phsysique et le conflit vecu entre les valeurs et les interets personnels et ceux de l'organisation. Les professeures elaborent toutefois des strategies qui leur permettent de faire et de prendre leur place a l'universite. (resume de la redaction)

Claudine Baudoux. La mobilite sociale et le mobilite de sexe chez les femmes cadres des universites. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, 155-185.

Cet article expose les resultats d'une recherche quantitative et qualitative menee a propos des femmes cadres dans les universites quebecoises. Les resultats indiquent que certaines femmes cadres connaissent une mobilite sociale ascendante par rapport a leurs parents (les cadres masculins se trouvent davantage dans un processus de mobilite sociale) et que plusieurs femmes cadres connaissent une mobilite de sexe. (resume de la redaction)

Jeanne d'Arc Gaudet. Un modele de design pedagogique innovateur. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 187-210.

Dans cet article, l'auteure decrit les resultats partiels d'une etude du type quasi experimental effectuee dans le cadre de sa these doctorale. L'une des hypotheses de recherche est la suivante: la moyenne des resultats aux post-tests (etapes et produits) du groupe ayant ete forme selon le modele de design pedagogique modifie sera significativement plus elevee que celle des resultats aux post-tests du groupe ayant ete forme a partir du modele de design pedagogique non modifie. Pour verifier l'hypothese les travaux pratiques executes a l'interieur de deux cours de formation aupres de deux groups (temoin et experimental) ont ete analyses et les resultats demontrent que, lorsqu'on propose des modifications au modele de design pedagogique pour repondre aux besoins et aux preoccupations des femmes travaillant dans les secteurs traditionnellement masculins, un bon nombre de personnes en tiennent compte dans la conception de systemes d'apprentissage. (resume de la redaction)

Esther Deom, Diane Drouin et Jacques mercier. La formation et l'elimination des prejuges envers le travail des femmes : des lecons pour l'evaluation des emplois en contexte d'equite salariale. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 211-222.

La Loi quebecoise sur l'equite salariale, adoptee en novembre 1996, visa a eliminer la partie de l'ecart salarial, entre les hommes et les femmes, causee par la discrimination systemique qui prend sa sourve dans les prejuges et les biais sexistes a l'egard de la valeur du travail des femmes. Pour atteindre l'equite salariale, la loi prevoit, entre autres, l'utilisation d'une methode analytique d'evaluation des emplois. Cette derniere fait appel au jugement des evaluatrices et des evaluateurs, subissant l'influence de leurs propres valeurs. L'idee de base est de montrer l'importance de la formation pour l'elimination des biais sexistes dans le processus d'evaluation des emplois. A partir d'un exercice realise dans la fonction publique du Quebec, au debut des annees 90, la presence de deux types de biais sexistes est etudiee dans les auto-evaluations de titulaires de poste. La conclusion formulee est la suivante: une formation-sensibilisation a la discrimination et aux prejuges envers le travail des femmes ainsi qu'une formation technique sur l'evaluation des emplois sont prealables et necessaires afin d'atteindre reellement l'equite salariale. (resume de la redaction)

Sylvie Cromer et Adela Turin. Que racontent les albums illustres aux enfants? Ou comment presente-t-on les rapports hommes/femmes aux plus jeunes? Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 223-230.

Les auteures decrivent les principaux resultats de la premiere phase du programme Attention Album! sur le sexisme dans les albums illustres pour les enfants de 0 a 9 ans, programme de recherche europeen concernant la France, l'Italie et l'Espagne, finance par la Commission europeenne et coordonne par l'Association europeenne du cote des filles. Les albums illustres sont non seulement la premiere litterature de jeunesse mais un materiel pedagogique de premiere importance dans les ecoles maternelles et primaires. C'est pourquoi l'Association s'est donne comme objectifs, d'une part, de verifier quelles etaient les representations des filles et des garcons ainsi que des femmes et des hommes dans la production d'albums de fiction en 1994 et, d'autre part, d'analyser l'impact des images sur les enfants. Les conclusions de l'etude statistique des albums sont on ne peut plus claires: une ecrasante majorite de personnages masculins accaparant tous les roles et toutes les professions; on constate une absence notable de personnages feminins adultes. Quant a l'enquete du type qualitatif, elle devoile la vision fortement stereotypee des roles sexues de la part des enfants, que ce soit a Paris, Montpellier (France), Salamanque (Espagne) ou Milan (Italie), et de la part des adultes -- notamment des hommes --, l'inquietude marquee de voir, par la remise en question du sexisme des livres, leur identite sexuelle menacee. (resume de la redaction)

Gisele Bourret. C'est toujours une question de droits. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 231-242.

Cet article presente les principales preoccupations et revendications qui ont anime le Comite de la condition des femmes de la Centrale de l'enseignement du Quebec (CEQ) depuis sa formation en 1973 jusqu'a nos jours. L'auteure montre a travers ce bilan qu'un comite de condition des femmes dans une organisation syndicale contribue veritablement a la prise en charge, par l'organisation, des problemes vecus par les femmes dans toutes les dimensions de leur vie, se fondant ainsi sur l'affirmation, a l'origine du feminisme radical, a savoir que le prive est politique. Les luttes menees par le Comite de la condition des femmes de la CEQ n'ont pas toutes eu le meme succes. Certaines, portees en coalition, comme les droits parentaux ou l'equite salariale, ont connu un denouement satisfaisant, tandis que d'autres, comme l'acces a l'egalite syndicale ou en emploi pour les femmes, se heurtent toujours a des formes diffuses de resistance. Aujourd'hui comme hier, la specificite de la situation ou des problemes des femmes est toujours presente lorsqu'il s'agit d'etablir des priorites d'action ou de mener des luttes d'ensemble. Les enjeux actuels lies a la restructuration du travail et de l'economie sont importants pour les femmes, car ils posent notamment, et de facon encore plus marquee, les questions de la reconnaissance du travail gratuit ou invisible des femmes, de l'equilibre ou de la continuite entre la sphere du prive et celle du public. Pour que l'education continue d'etre un veritable outil d'emancipation pour les femmes, il faut qu'elle permette a toutes et a tous de creer un equilibre ou une harmonie entre toutes les dimensions de l'activite humaine. Dans un contexte ou les seules forces du marche semblent faire la loi a l'echelle mondiale, les groupes de femmes de tous les secteurs de la societe doivent plus que jamais travailler de concert pour preserver les acquis, defendre leurs droits et proposer des solutions de rechange fondees sur l'egalite, la justice et le respect de la dignite de la personne. (resume de la redaction)

Francine Belanger. Egalite en emploi dans les commissions scolaires: le portrait d'un secteur traditionnellement feminin. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 243-251.

En 1995, le Comite consultatif d'acces a l'egalite dans les commissions scolaires, forme a la demande de la Centrale de l'enseignement du Quebec (CEQ), amorcait ses travaux en matiere d'acces a l'egalite. Conformement a la demarche preconisee dans le Reglement sur l'acces a l'egalite, la premier tache du Comite a ete la mise au point d'un portrait de la situation du personnel feminin. Le Portrait statistique du personnel feminin des commissions scolaires permet d'illustrer de multiples facettes du travail des femmes pour l'annee 1993-1994 dans le reseau de l'enseignement, un secteur d'emploi traditionnellement feminin marque par la persistance de la sous-representation des femmes parmi le personnel d'encadrement. Les enseignantes, les gestionnaires et les professionnelles y occupent plus d'emplois precaires et a temps partiel que leurs collegues masculins. Par ailleurs, le secteur anglophone se distingue du secteur francophone par une meilleure represente des femmes parmi le personnel d'encadrement et le personnel professionnel. (resume de la redaction)

Chantal Dore. L'enseignement feministe universitaire au Quebec. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 253-260.

L'objet de ce dossier est de discuter des enjeux lies a l'enseignement feministe en rendant compte de la creation recente du Reseau des etudes feministes universitaires du Quebec (REFUQ). L'auteure decrit l'etat de l'enseignement feministe universitaire et les types de programmes d'etudes feministes dans le reseau quebecois et elle souligne deux enjeux de l'enseignement feministe universitaire: la strategie d'elaboration et d'implantation de structures d'enseignement feministe et la releve dans l'enseignement et la recherche feministes universitaires. (resume de la redaction)

Joseph-Claude Poulin. Le Comite sur les femmes en milieu universitaire de la Federation quebecoise des professeures et professeurs d'universite. Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 261-263.

Des sa fondation en 1991, la Federation quebecoise des professeures et professeurs d'universite du Quebec (FQPPU) a mis en place un comite permanent charge d'etudier les conditions d'exercice de la profession chez les professeures. Une breve histoire de ce comite fait ressortir que sa priorite initiale fut l'etude des programmes d'acces a l'egalite; plus recemment, une analyse a ete menee sur toutes les clauses relatives aux femmes dans les conventions collectives de tous les syndicats membres de la Federation. (resume de la redaction)

Carmen Gloria Munoz, en collaboration avec Yolande Taillon et Renee Cloutier. Bibliographie selective des ecrits francophones en sciences humaines, sociales et economiques sur le theme Les femmes et l'education (1991-1998). Recherches feministes, vol. 12, no 1, 1998, p. 265-288.

Cette bibliographie selective consiste en un bilan des ecrits francophones publies de 1991 a 1998 sur le theme Les femmes et l'education et sur Les femmes, l'education et le developpement social. Les 206 references reunies proviennent de deux versions de la banque de donnees informatisee FRANCIS, soit: FRANCIS, version CD-ROM, produite par l'Institut de l'information scientifique et technique du Centre national de la recherche scientifique a Paris (INIST-CNRS), qui englobe les annees 1991-1996, et FRANCIS, version Internet, produite par l'INIST-CNRS et le Getty Information Institute qui repertorie les annees 1997-1998. (resume de la redaction)

Tessera

Susan Driver. "Feminist Sublimations, Queer Disidentifications: Losing Touch of Maternal Sexuality." Tessera, vol. 25 (Winter/Spring 1998/1999), Special issue: Seductive Feminisms, p. 25-37.

In her article, the author writes: "My desire to reorient feminist and queer psychoanalytic readings of the maternal away from normative bipolarities toward a greater attentiveness to (con)textually nuanced embodiments of maternal subjectivity is driven by what I consider to be some of the most intriguing aspects emerging out of these theoretical projects which point beyond reproductive maternal ideologies." She exposes the failures of psychoanalytic feminist and queer critics in effectively theorizing the "imbrications of mother love and lust." By turning to the work of Teresa de Lauretis, she hopes to redirect the conversation between feminist and queer critics. (Journal abstract)

Lynne Bell and Janice Williamson. "Public Warning! Sexing Public Spheres: A Conversation with Shawna Dempsey and Lorri Millan." Tessera, vol. 25 (Winter/Spring 1998/1999), Special Issue: Seductive Feminisms, pp. 57-77.

This conversation was recorded at the Women & Texts Conference, University of Leeds, July 1997. Shawna Dempsey and Lorri Millan discuss art as cultural activism and the ways in which they use public spaces to engender discussion, challenge heteronormativity and educate in ways that are accessible and fun. (ns)

Cheryl Sourkes, ed. "`A painted picture which never captures the subject' -- Sharon Kivland and Jeanne Randolph: A Repartee on Psychoanalysis and Art." Tessera, vol. 25 (Winter/Spring 1998/1999), Special Issue: Seductive Feminisms, p. 89-95.

Sharon Kivland is an artist and curator at the Centre for Freudian Analysis and Research in London, England. Jeanne Randolph is a Toronto psychotherapist and the author of Symbolization and its Discontents. This text is an excerpt from a public discussion between these two women about their relationships to psychoanalytic theory, and the relationship between psychoanalysis and art practice. The event was staged to coincide with the opening of Kivland's photographic exhibition, Mes Tendresses (or, My Endearments) at the Toronto Photographers' Workshop in January 1998. (Journal abstract)
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