Can the Brigance K&1 Screen Detect Cognitive/Academic Giftedness When Used with Preschoolers from Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds?The need for early identification procedures to detect economically disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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This article has been tagged since September 2007. children who are gifted and academically talented has been repeatedly identified in the literature (i.e., Borland & Wright, 1994; Hadaway & Marek-Shroer, 1992). Although it is asserted that the potential for giftedness gift·ed
1. Endowed with great natural ability, intelligence, or talent: a gifted child; a gifted pianist.
2. exists in all cultural and socioecomic groups (Borland & Wright, 1994), national data have indicated that students from low socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic
Of or involving both social and economic factors.
of or involving economic and social factors
Adj. 1. backgrounds are underrepresented un·der·rep·re·sent·ed
Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. in gifted education Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. Programs providing such education are sometimes called Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) or programs (United States Department of Education The United States Department of Education (also referred to as ED, for Education Department) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. Created by the Department of Education Organization Act (Public Law 96-88), it began operating in 1980. , 1991).
Over a decade ago, Ehrlich (1986) highlighted several issues that may impact the accuracy with which commonly used procedures detect young gilled gill 1
1. Zoology The respiratory organ of most aquatic animals that breathe water to obtain oxygen, consisting of a filamentous structure of vascular membranes across which dissolved gases are exchanged.
2. children from non-mainstream backgrounds. Nominations from teachers and parents, a popular method for identifying giftedness (Renzulli, Reis, & Smith, 1981), may not be valid with young children living in poverty for several reasons. First, teachers have limited information on which to form judgments about a child's intellectual skills and abilities. Second, teacher judgments of disadvantaged children may be biased (Ehrlich, 1986; Hadaway & MarekSchoer, 1992). Third, teachers of nonmainstream children may find it difficult to think of them as gifted because the children, in addition to their academic talents, may exhibit social behaviors In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. that are incompatible incompatible adj. 1) inconsistent. 2) unmatching. 3) unable to live together as husband and wife due to irreconcilable differences. In no-fault divorce states, if one of the spouses desires to end the marriage, that fact proves incompatibility, and a divorce with traditional views of students with high cognitive competence. Finally, economically disadvantaged parents may mistrust the educational system and/or may not have sufficient knowledge and skills to successfully advocate for their young children (Woods & Achey, 1990).
Information obtained from standardized standardized
pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.
standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.
standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate. measures serves as another means for identifying gifted students. However, most of these measures require a highly trained examiner and their use with large numbers of children may be very costly. Futhermore, the appropriateness of these measures for non-mainstream children has been questioned by some (for a brief review see Hadaway & Marek-Schoer, 1992). Nevertheless, others (i.e., Ehrlich, 1986) have commented favorably fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. on the usefulness of certain established tests of cognitive skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component with children from disadvantaged backgrounds. Unfortunately, because of the high cost, routine screening of children with these measures (i.e., the WISC-R WISC-R Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children - Revised ) is an unrealistic option for many programs.
Early screening tests form a group of instruments that, with few exceptions (e.g., Glascoe, 1996), have not been evaluated for their appropriateness in detecting early academic talent. This is not surprising, considering that a major purpose of these tests is the early detection of young children who may be at-risk for learning difficulties. Developmental screens are scanning devices See scanner. that can be administered to young children in a relatively short time (i.e., 10-20 minutes, depending on the screen). They do not require highly trained examiners and are a preliminary step in the early identification process. A positive result is used to flag children who may be referred for more extensive assessment intended to provide accurate identification as well as appropriate placement and program planning.
Despite criticisms related to these tests narrow focus and psychometric psy·cho·met·rics
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and properties (Lindsay & Wedell, 1982; Meisels, 1987; May & Kundert, 1997; Mercer mer·cer
n. Chiefly British
A dealer in textiles, especially silks.
[Middle English, from Old French mercier, trader, from merz, merchandise, from Latin merx , Algozzine, & Trifiletti, 1988; Shepard & Graue, 1993), early screens are widely used. Several studies have documented that early screening was mandated in several states and in several school districts in the remaining states (Cannella & Reif, 1989; Gnezda & Bolig, 1988; Shepard, Taylor, & Kagan, 1996). Although information about the prevalence of early screening measures in preschool programs is not available, early screening is a requirement set forth by Project Head Start, one of the nation's largest, federally supported early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. programs for disadvantaged preschoolers. Head Start performance standards stipulate stip·u·late 1
v. stip·u·lat·ed, stip·u·lat·ing, stip·u·lates
a. To lay down as a condition of an agreement; require by contract.
b. early screening of children within 45 days of their enrollment (Administration for Children and Families The Administration for Children and Families (ACF) is a division of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It is headed by the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families, which from 2001 to 2007 was Dr. Wade F. Horn. , 1999). Early screening data, therefore, may be among the first pieces of information collected by Head Start centers on children's skills across both cognitive and non-cognitive domains. Because information from early screening tests may be used to guide the early identification and assessment process, there is a compelling need for studies to carefully explore the properties of screening measures with the Head Start population. This study was conducted in response to this need and explores the predictive value pre·dic·tive value
The likelihood that a positive test result indicates disease or that a negative test result excludes disease.
a measure used by clinicians to interpret diagnostic test results. of the Brigance K & 1 screen, a brief, 12-subtest battery, used by a Head Start Center housed in a midwestern school district.
Thus far, the focus of prior work on the Brigance K&1 screen has been on the early identification of educationally at-risk children (e.g., Campbell, Schellinger, & Beer, 1991; Ellwein, Walsh, Eads, & Miller, 1991; Mantzicopoulos, 1999a, 1999b; Shearer shearer
person whose occupation is shearing sheep. , 1986, Wenner, 1995). However, Glascoe (1996), noted that this measure may also be effective in the detection of children with cognitive/academic talents. Of particular interest was her finding that the screen "readily identified as gifted children from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds" (p. 24). Glascoe's (1996) work set the stage for more research to empirically establish the accuracy of the Brigance in the detection of early cognitive/academic talent with different subpopulations of children.
This investigation is part of a series of studies intended to provide information on the K&1 form of the Brigance with different samples of low-income children (i.e., Mantzicopoulos, 1999a, 1999b). It was designed to explore differences between potentially gifted and non-gifted Head preschoolers on the screen and the level of accuracy with which the screen detects cognitive/academic giftedness. The sample came from a Head Start center that, unlike most Head Start centers, was part of a public school district. For this reason, the accuracy of the K&1 screen in the detection of potential cognitive/academic giftedness was examined in relationship to children's performance on outcome measures that were most meaningful with respect to their use within the school system in which this study was being conducted. These outcome measures included the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) is a clinical instrument for assessing cognitive development. Its construction incorporates several recent developments in both psychological theory and statistical methodology. , a standardized assessment of cognitive competence and the PPVT-R PPVT-R Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised , a standardized achievement test. Although none of the children had been identified as gifted during the time of this investigation, performance on the K-ABC and the PPVT-R were among the indicators used by the public school administrators to make placement recommendations for gifted/talented programs for kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be and elementary school elementary school: see school. children.
The Brigance K&1 Screen: Overview and Prior Research
The Brigance K&1 screen is a 12-subtest instrument whose primary purpose is to identify young children in need of more comprehensive evaluation (Brigance, 1992). The test enjoys considerable popularity because of its seemingly seem·ing
Outward appearance; semblance.
seeming·ly adv. multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men nature, the claim that it can be employed as a curriculum tool (Cohn, 1992), and its brevity Brevity
of short life. [Br. Lit.: I Henry IV]
symbolic of transitoriness of life. [Art: Hall, 54]
cherry orchards where fruit was briefly sold; symbolic of transience. and ease of administration (Shearer, 1986). This test consists of 12 subtests that measure: knowledge of personal data (5 items), color recognition (10 items), picture vocabulary (10 items), visual discrimination (10 items), visual-motor skills Visual-motor skills
Hand-eye coordination; in the Bender-Gestalt test, visual-motor skills are measured by the subject's ability to accurately perceive and then reproduce figures.
Mentioned in: Bender-Gestalt Test (5 items), gross-motor skills (10 items), rote rote 1
1. A memorizing process using routine or repetition, often without full attention or comprehension: learn by rote.
2. Mechanical routine. counting from I to 10 (1 item), body parts identification (10 items), ability to follow verbal directions (2 items), numeral numeral, symbol denoting anumber. The symbol is a member of a family of marks, such as letters, figures, or words, which alone or in a group represent the members of a numeration system. comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. (5 items), ability to print first name (1 item), syntax syntax: see grammar.
Arrangement of words in sentences, clauses, and phrases, and the study of the formation of sentences and the relationship of their component parts. and fluency flu·ent
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.
b. (2 items). Each item is scored on a pass-fail basis. A raw score for each subtest is derived by summing across all items answered correctly by the child. The total score on each subtest is then calculated by multiplying mul·ti·ply 1
v. mul·ti·plied, mul·ti·ply·ing, mul·ti·plies
1. To increase the amount, number, or degree of.
2. Mathematics To perform multiplication on. the raw score with the weight assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. to that particular subtest.
Earlier reviews of the test highlighted the lack of normative nor·ma·tive
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.
nor data and cautioned school districts to undertake extensive validation See validate.
validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements. procedures in order to avoid labeling, misdiagnoses, and further unnecessary testing (Cohn, 1992; Helfeldt, 1984). However, the screen's psychometric properties were evaluated in a recent technical report (Glascoe, 1997) which was based on a standardization standardization
In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting sample of 408, 2- to 6-year old, ethnically diverse children. Twenty-two of the 408 children were Head Start participants.
The screen correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. moderately well with established measures of academic achievement (i.e., Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised) and of cognitive competence (i.e., Slosson Intelligence Test). The internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. reliability for the total scale was reported to be .99 for preschool and kindergarten children. Concurrent validity concurrent validity,
n the degree to which results from one test agree with results from other, different tests. estimates, based on a sample of 75 children, indicated that the K&1 form of screen was 77% accurate in detecting children with disabilities and academic underachievement. This form was 75% accurate in identifying children without school-related difficulties. Moreover, of the 10 children who were classified as gifted/academically talented, 6 were correctly detected by the screen. Combined with teacher/parent ratings, the screen's accuracy in identifying gifted children increased to 80% (Glascoe, 1996).
Other research explored the extent to which performance on the screen varies across age, sex, and ethnic groups with somewhat mixed results. Two independent investigations concluded that boys and younger children scored consistently less well on the screen (Ellwein et al., 1991; Mantzicopoulos, 1999b). Additionally, Ellwein et al. (1991) also found that minority children scored less well than non-minority children at kindergarten. However, prior research with the Head Start sample used in this investigation identified neither sex nor age differences in performance on the K & 1 screen (Mantzicopoulos, 1999a).
Although exact data on the use of the Brigance screens with the Head Start population are not currently available, several sources suggest that the Brigance is frequently used across the nation (i.e., Gnezda & Bolig, 1988; May & Kundert, 1992; Meisels, Steele, & Quinn-Leering, 1993). Glascoe (1996) has more specifically noted that various forms of the Brigance screens are used with more than 700,000 children each year. Nevertheless, the extent to which the K & 1 form of the screen discriminates between possibly academically/cognitively gifted preschoolers from their non-gifted peers has not been clearly established. Glascoe's (1996) earlier findings with a diverse sample of two- to six-year-old children, convincingly substantiate To establish the existence or truth of a particular fact through the use of competent evidence; to verify.
For example, an Eyewitness might be called by a party to a lawsuit to substantiate that party's testimony. the need for further research on this measure.
Participants in the study were 134 children who attended a Head Start preschool program in a mid-western school district. These children represented 99% of the student population of the Head Start center during the school year, and were part of a longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. investigation of Head Start children's transition to public school. All children were screened with the kindergarten form of the Brigance K & 1 Screen during the second semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s of Head Start (January-March). The age range of the sample at that time was from 52 to 69 months with a mean age of 61.6 months (SD = 3.37). There were 67 boys and 67 girls. Ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic data were available on 132 children, 102 (77.2%) of whom were Caucasian. Twenty-five (18.9%) children were African-American, and 5 (3.8%) were Other. All families noted that English was the language spoken in their homes and all met the federal poverty income guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. necessary For entry into the Head Start program.
Although all 134 children were screened with the Brigance, data on the K-ABC were available on 132 children. Moroever, by the fall of kindergarten, 11 children had left the school district. Thus the PPVT-R assessments at the beginning of kindergarten, were based on a sample of 123 children. There were no differences between the children who left the study and those on whom assessments were made at kindergarten.
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) The K-ABC (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983a) is a carefully standardized measure that yields a Mental Processing Composite (MPC (1) (Mobile PC) A handheld or laptop computer. See handheld computer, laptop computer and Ultra-Mobile PC.
(2) (MultiPath Channel) See multipath. ) that is comparable to the traditional intelligence quotient intelligence quotient
n. Abbr. IQ
An index of measured intelligence expressed as the ratio of tested mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100. provided by other IQ tests. Correlations of the K-ABC MPC score with commonly used IQ tests (e.g., the Stanford-Binet and the Weschler Intelligence Scales) range from .36 to .72 for preschool and kindergarten samples (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983b). The short form of the test, recommended for research purposes, was used in this study. This form is reported to correlate highly with the full battery. Validity coefficients, based on correlations between the subscale scores of the short form and the subscale scores derived from the full battery, range from .85 to .94 (Applegate & Kaufman, 1989 Kaufman & Applegate, 1988). The test provides standard scores with M = 100 and SD = 115. Studies have indicated that gifted children's average MPC scores are in the 120- to-130 range (Kaufman & Kaufman, 1983b).
Teachers' Ratings of Academic Competence Scale Developed by Harter and Pike pike, in zoology
pike, common name for the family Esocidae, freshwater game and food fishes of Europe, Asia, and North America. The pike, the muskellunge, and the pickerel form a small but well-known group of long, thin fishes with spineless dorsal fins, (1981), this scale asks the teacher to rate each child on 6 items that communicate information about the child's competence in the cognitive/academic domain. Scored on a 4-point scale (1 = low; 4 = high), these items assess the child's knowledge of letters, counting skills, knowledge of colors not of the white race; - commonly meaning, esp. in the United States, of negro blood, pure or mixed.
See also: Color , ability to solve puzzles puz·zle
v. puz·zled, puz·zling, puz·zles
1. To baffle or confuse mentally by presenting or being a difficult problem or matter.
2. , and overall school work. Because little has been published on this teacher rating scale, the alpha reliability coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. was computed using the data from this sample. The resulting coefficient was .91.
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). The PPVT-R is an achievement test that measures a child's receptive receptive /re·cep·tive/ (re-cep´tiv) capable of receiving or of responding to a stimulus. vocabulary. It is considered to be a "reasonably good measure of scholastic aptitude" (Dunn & Dunn, 1981, p. 2) and may be used to identify bright children whose language at home is Standard English Stan·dard English
The variety of English that is generally acknowledged as the model for the speech and writing of educated speakers.
Usage Note: People who invoke the term Standard English . Reliability studies report coefficients that range from .73 to .84 (Dunn & Dunn, 1981). Correlations with a number of established vocabulary, achievement, and IQ tests have been used to substantiate this test's construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition. . Median correlation coefficients Correlation Coefficient
A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.
The correlation coefficient is calculated as: range from .38 to .86. The test provides standard scores with M = 100 and SD = 115.
Procedure and Classification of High- and Average Ability Children
The Brigance K & 1 screen and the K-ABC were individually administered by research assistants in the winter of Head Start. In the fall of kindergarten, children were individually tested by school personnel with the PPVT-R, a test used by the school system to make readiness decisions and to guide the decision-making process for placing children in a gifted program. The PPVTR examiners were not aware of the children's prior performance on any measures, including the Brigance and the K-ABC.
At Head Start, children were classified into one of two groups on the basis of their scores on the Mental Processing Composite (MPC) of the K-ABC. A cutoff score of 115 or higher, identified 13 children who formed the group with possible cognitive/academic giftedness (CAG CAG 1 Chronic atrophic gastritis 2 Coronary angiography, see there group). Their MPC scores ranged from 115 to 129 (M = 119.53; SD = 3.93). The MPC scores of the remaining children, who formed the nongifted (NG) group, ranged from 75.7 to 114 (M = 96.27, SD = 8.52). Gender, age, and ethnic group comparisons were conducted to explore differences between CAG and NG children. The groups were comparable on age and ethnicity. However, significantly more males (10/13) were identified in the CAG group than females (3/13) ([chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ] = 4.18, p = .04).
At the beginning of kindergarten, children were also classified into a CAG or NG group on the basis of their performance on the PPVT-R. Of the 124 children remaining in the study, 7 formed the CAG group. Their PPVT-R scores ranged from 115 to 130 (M= 119; SD = 2.93). The PPVT-R scores of the remaining 116 children, who formed the nongifted (NG) group, ranged from 90 to 114 (M = 96.27, SD = 12.76). The groups were comparable on age, sex, and ethnicity.
Two sets of analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which children's performance on the K &l screen's 12 subtests differed between the two groups and the concurrent and predictive accuracy of the screen in detecting early cognitive/academic giftedness. The first set of analyses included multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. of variance (MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance ) using the SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. GLM GLM Global Language Monitor
GLM Global Marine (stock symbol)
GLM Graduated Length Method (ski instruction)
GLM Good Looking Mom (used in pediatric practices)
GLM God Loves Me procedure (Norusis, 1993). Scores on the Brigance K & 1 screen's 12 subtests served as the dependent measures. Effect sizes were also computed and served as an index of the magnitude of differences between the groups. Effect sizes were derived by dividing the mean difference between the groups by the standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. of the NG group. This provided a conservative estimate because, as expected, the standard deviation of the NG group was consistently larger than the standard deviation of CAG group. Effect sizes were considered educationally significant when they were greater than +/- .20 standard deviation units (Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , 1988).
The second set of analyses were intended to communicate information on the level of accuracy with which the screen detects young Head Start children who may be cognitively/ academically gifted. As suggested by the literature on the evaluation of screening measures (i.e., Barnes, 1982; Gredler, 1997; Lichtenstein & Ireton, 1981; Meisels, 1989; Satz & Fletcher Fletcher may refer to one of the following: Ideas and companies
To prepare the data for the classification analyses, performance on the K & 1 screen was scored dichotomously di·chot·o·mous
1. Divided or dividing into two parts or classifications.
2. Characterized by dichotomy.
di·chot (i.e., 1 = performance in the nongifted range; 2 = potential giftedness) using: the cutoff score for cognitive/academic giftedness provided in the Brigance technical manual (i.e., performance above a raw score of 93) (Glascoe, 1997); and a series of locally derived cutoff scores based on data from the current sample.
To compare the accuracy of the Brigance to the accuracy with which teachers' ratings detected potentially gifted children, teachers' ratings were also used as a predictor. To explore the usefulness of this predictor measure as thoroughly as possible, a series of cutoff scores in the teacher rating scale as predictors of possible giftedness were examined.
Following each analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall hit rate associated with each classification table were evaluated. The sensitivity of the test served as an indicator of the test's accuracy in identifying those children who were predicted as potentially gifted by the screen and were later identified as CAG by the criterion measures (i.e., the K-ABC and the PPVT-R). Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , the specificity of the test provided information on the proportion of children who were predicted as potentially nongifted by the screen and were later identified as NG by the criterion measures. Finally, the hit rate of the test indicated the proportion of correctly classified children in the CAG and NG groups.
It is important to note that while sensitivity and specificity are indices of correct identifications, they are also related to specific errors in prediction. For example, a test with high sensitivity will result in few undereferrals (i.e., children who tested as potentially nongifted on the screen but who performed in the gifted range on a later criterion). For this reason, both accuracy indices and referral errors must be considered together to accurately evaluate the accuracy of a screening measure. Moreover, it has been suggested that to be of value, accuracy indices must approach (Carran & Scott, 1992) or exceed (Meisels, 1989) 80%.
In addition to the accuracy indices presented above, the phi ([Psi]) coefficients associated with each classification table were examine to gain information on the strength of the relationship between the Brigance prediction classification and the classification based on each performance variable.
Performance of Potentially Gifted and Nongifted Children on the Brigance
The MANOVA that examined differences between the CAG and NG group across the Brigance subtests yielded a statistically significant multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model. effect (F = 1.96 p =.03). CAG children performed significantly better than NG children on the Brigance as indicated by the data displayed in Table 1.
Means, Standard Deviations, and Effect Sizes for the CAG and NG Group on the K & 1 Screen's Subtests
CAG NG (n = 13) (n = 19) ES M SD M SD Personal Data 7.69 1.38 6.79 2.18 .41 Color Recognition 9.62 .65 8.18 2.11 .68 Picture Vocabulary 10.00 .00 9.76 .55 .44 Visual Discrimination 8.54 2.03 7.13 3.10 .45 Visual-Motor Skills 8.31 1.60 5.76 2.27 1.12 Gross-Motor Skills 9.00 1.00 7.88 2.16 .52 Rote Counting 5.00 .00 4.46 1.07 .50 Identify Body Parts 3.38 .89 3.11 .98 .28 Follows Directions 5.00 .00 4.90 .50 .20 Numeral Comprehension 9.08 2.25 6.67 3.86 .62 Prints Personal Data 3.46 2.40 1.22 2.16 1.04 Syntax and Fluency 10.00 .00 8.99 2.65 .38 Total Scale 89.08 4.22 74.86 13.12 1.08
Effect sizes were moderately large to large on the following four subtests: Prints Personal Data (ES = 1.04), Color Recognition (ES = .68), Visual-Motor Skills (ES = 1.12), and Numeral Comprehension (ES = .62). Moderate effect sizes were obtained on five subscales (Personal Data, Picture Vocabulary, Visual Discrimination, Gross-Motor Skills, and Identifies Body Parts). Finally, small yet educationally meaningful effect sizes were obtained on three subscales (Identifies Body Parts, Follows Directions, and Syntax/Fluency). It should be noted that on four of the twelve subscales (i.e., Picture Vocabulary, Rote Counting, Follows Directions, and Syntax/Fluency) there was no variance among children in the CAG group: All thirteen children obtained the highest possible score on each of these subscales.
Children's performance was also examined on the total, 71-item-scale. The difference between the group means was large. CAG children (M = 89.08, SD = 4.22) outperformed NG children (M = 74.86, SD - 13.12) on the screen by 1.08 standard deviations.
CAG children also differed from their NG peers on teacher ratings of cognitive competence (t = 2.07, p = .04). Teachers rated CAG children (M = 3.39, SD = .60) as significantly more competent in the cognitive/academic area than NG children (M = 2.96, SD = .72). However the effect size related to this group comparison was moderate (ES = .60).
Accuracy of the Brigance in the Early Detection of Cognitive/Academic Giftedness
Accuracy Related to Concurrent Performance on the K-ABC This analysis evaluated the accuracy of the K & 1 screen against performance on the KABC KABC Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Cognitive Ability measure, administered concurrently with the screen during Head Start. Results are reported in Table 2.
Classification Results Based on the K&I Screen Prediction and the K-ABC Outcome at Head Start
K-ABC Classification Brigance Cutoff Score Prediction NG CAG K&I Recommended Nongifted 111 9 Cutoff Potentially Gifted 8 4 Local Cutoffs for Potentially Gifted Prediction > [P.sub.60] / 81.5 Nongifted 78 1 Potentially Gifted 41 12 > [P.sub.65] / 84.0 Nongifted 84 1 Potentially Gifted 35 12 > [P.sub.70] / 85.0 Nongifted 88 2 Potentially Gifted 31 11 > [P.sub.75] / 86.5 Nongifted 95 4 Potentially Gifted 24 9 > [P.sub.80] / 88.0 Nongifted 100 4 Potentially Gifted 19 9 > [P.sub.85] / 89.0 Nongifted 105 5 Potentially Gifted 14 8 > [P.sub.90] / 91.0 Nongifted 110 9 Potentially Gifted 9 4 Prediction Sens. Spec. Hit [Psi] Nongifted .31 .93 .87 .25(*) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .92 .66 .68 .35(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .92 .71 .72 .39(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .85 .74 .75 .38(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .69 .80 .79 .33(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .69 .84 .89 .39(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .62 .88 .86 .40(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .31 .92 .86 .23(*) Potentially Gifted
Note. Sens. = Sensitivity; Spec. = Specificity
(*) p < .01; (**) p< .0001
The classification matrix based on the Brigance-recommended cutoff score of 93 or higher for possible giftedness/academic talent, was examined first. This classification resulted in low sensitivity (31%), high specificity (93%) and a high hit rate (87%). Use of this cutoff for making referrals for further assessment to identify possible giftedness/talent, would underrefer as notpotentially-gifted 9 of the 13 CAG children (69%)
Next, the classification accuracy of the screen was examined across a range of locally-derived prediction cutoffs for identifying possible giftedness/academic talent. The highest sensitivity level (i.e., correct identification of performance in the gifted range) was obtained when the prediction for potential giftedness was set at/above a raw score of 84 ([P.sub.65]). With this predictive criterion the test was 92% sensitive in identifying cognitively/academically gifted children. Also, the test was 71% specific in identifying those children with average-to-low scores on the performance outcome. It should be pointed out that the screen overreferred as potentially gifted 35 children (26.5% of the total sample) who performed in the nongifted range on the K-ABC. Finally, it is noteworthy that the screen underreferred as not-potentially-gifted only 1 of the 13 CAG children.
Inspection of the data shown in Table 2, further indicated that selection of more stringent prediction cutoffs (e.g., raw scores at/above 86.5) yielded less-than-optimal accuracy data. That is, while the specificity levels increased there was an accompanying increase in underreferral errors and a decrease in sensitivity levels.
The classification analyses using teachers' ratings of academic competence as the prediction criterion for possible cognitive/academic giftedness was also conducted across a range of cutoff scores. However, the highest indices obtained (sensitivity = 62% and specificity = 64%) were less-than-optimal and were associated with high misclassification rates.
Accuracy Related to Performance on the PPVT-R at Kindergarten The classification analyses based on the PPVT-R outcome are presented in Table 3. As noted earlier, these analyses are based on a sample of 123 children (7 CAG and 116 NG).
Classification Results Based on the K&I Screen Prediction and the PPVT-R Outcome at the Beginning of Kindergarten
PPVT-R Classification Brigance Cutoff Score Prediction NG CAG K&I Recommended Nongifted 108 6 Cutoff Potentially Gifted 8 1 Local Cutoffs for Potentially Gifted Prediction > [P.sub.60] / 81.5 Nongifted 71 1 Potentially Gifted 45 6 > [P.sub.65] / 84.0 Nongifted 77 1 Potentially Gifted 39 6 > [P.sub.70] / 85.0 Nongifted 81 1 Potentially Gifted 35 6 > [P.sub.75] / 86.5 Nongifted 89 1 Potentially Gifted 27 6 > [P.sub.80] / 88.0 Nongifted 94 1 Potentially Gifted 22 6 > [P.sub.85] / 89.0 Nongifted 99 2 Potentially Gifted 17 5 > [P.sub.90] / 91.0 Nongifted 105 5 Potentially Gifted 11 2 Prediction Sens. Spec. Hit [Psi] Nongifted .14 .93 .89 .07 Potentially Gifted Nongifted .86 .61 .63 .22(*) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .86 .66 .67 .25(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .86 .70 .70 .27(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .86 .78 .77 .33(***) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .86 .81 .81 .37(***) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .71 .85 .84 .34(**) Potentially Gifted Nongifted .29 .91 .87 .14(*) Potentially Gifted
Note. Sens.= Sensitivity; Spec. = Specificity
(*) p < .05; (**) p < .01; (***) p < .0001
Performance at/above a cutoff score of 88 ([P.sub.80) on the K & 1 screen, effectively identified those children with scores in the gifted range on the PPVT-R (sensitivity = 86%). In addition, this cutoff correctly identified 81% of the NG children (sensitivity = 81%). The overall hit rate associated with this classification was 81% ([Psi] = .37). Although use of this cutoff score resulted in 22 children being overreferred as potentially gifted (18% of the total sample), only one of the seven CAG children was underreferred by the screen as not-potentially-gifted.
As shown in Table 3, selection of more liberal prediction criteria for the identification of potential giftedness did not substantially alter the sensitivity of the screen but compromised its specificity and resulted in higher over-referral errors. For example, use of a raw score of 81.5 overreferred as potentially gifted 45 children (37% of the total sample). Conversely, use of more conservative prediction criteria (e.g. a cutoff score of 91 and the Brigance-recommended cutoff score of 93) produced high specificities with an accompanying decrease in the sensitivity levels. Such low sensitivities and high underreferral errors would counterindicate use of conservative cutoffs the early detection of giftedness among low-income children.
Use of Head Start teachers' ratings as predictors of PPVT-R performance at kindergarten yielded low sensitivities across a range of prediction cutoffs. The highest sensitivity level (57%) was associated with a high overreferral error (59% of the total sample) and a low specificity (37%).
The results of this study provided support for the use of the Brigance K & 1 screen in the early identification of economically disadvantaged children with possible cognitive/academic giftedness. Potentially gifted Head Start children in this sample performed significantly better on the K & 1 screen than their average-ability peers. Educationally meaningful group differences were observed on all 12 subscales of the screen. Moreover, the group differences on the K & 1 total score were large and exceeded one standard deviation. Classification analyses further substantiated that performance on the Brigance accurately predicted a child's cognitive ability level as measured by the K-ABC. In addition, the predictive accuracy of the screen in relationship to the PPVT-R met the standards for screening measures set forth in the literature (i.e., Carran & Scott, 1992; Meisels, 1989).
It should be noted that these accuracy indices were obtained with cutoff-scores lower - than-recommended in the technical report for the screen (Glascoe, 1997). However, the technical report did not include data on the predictive value of the screen with potentially gifted children from low-income backgrounds. Rather, the recommended cut off score of 93 was derived from a diverse sample of 75 children, 10 of whom were considered to be cognitively/academically gifted. While Glascoe (1997) did comment that adjustments to the recommended cutoff scores may be needed when screening children who come from multiple risk backgrounds, there are no data to guide test users. Clearly, the results of this investigation substantiate the need to explore the levels at which the screening results may be used to increase the accuracy of referrals for further assessments intended to identify young children with giftedness.
The analysis of the teacher ratings did not support their use in the early detection of academic talent over the K & 1 screen. This finding parallels prior work in which it has been suggested that teacher reports may be unreliable unless teachers are given specific training on the characteristics of gifted students (Hadaway & Schroer, 1992). Possibly, the lower accuracy of the teacher ratings in this study may have been a function of the scale that the teachers were asked to complete. In earlier studies (e.g., Borland & Wright, 1994; Glascoe, 1996), teachers provided nominations for students they thought might be gifted, while in this study teachers simply rated children's cognitive competence. It was assumed that academically gifted children would be given the highest ratings by their teachers on a cognitive/academic competence measure. It is not clear, therefore, whether or not teachers would have been more accurate if they had been explicitly asked to nominate nom·i·nate
tr.v. nom·i·nat·ed, nom·i·nat·ing, nom·i·nates
1. To propose by name as a candidate, especially for election.
2. To designate or appoint to an office, responsibility, or honor. specific students.
A limitation of the study is the use of the K-ABC and the PPVT-R measure to determine early cognitive/academic giftedness. These measures present a narrow view of competence and may be considered a screening tool, much like the Brigance. However, that both these tests were used for decision-making in the public school school system, served as the rationale for their inclusion in the current investigation.
Another drawback DRAWBACK, com. law. An allowance made by the government to merchants on the reexportation of certain imported goods liable to duties, which, in some cases, consists of the whole; in others, of a part of the duties which had been paid upon the importation. of the study may be the use of liberal performance criteria (i.e., MPC scores of 115 or higher) in the classification of potentially gifted and nongifted children. It could be argued that these criterion cutoffs allowed for the inclusion of children who had potentially good cognitive and academic skills but who were not necessarily gifted. In response, the I 15- point cutoff score was considered appropriate for this population because economically disadvantaged children generally, tend to perform less well on standardized tests A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent"  . Ideally, it would be important to document the predictive accuracy of the screen against a criterion of giftedness based on the number of children actually identified by public school or program procedures. Such procedures were not undertaken at the Head Start center, where a major concern was the identification and provision of appropriate services to those at-risk for school-related problems. Later, as children from this sample transitioned to public school only one of the 13 children in the potentially gifted subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. (and none from the nongifted subgroup) was identified as gifted. This is not surprising, in light of the documented underidentification rates for economically disadvantaged and minority children in the public schools (United States Department of Education, 1991). Evidence on measures and procedures that facilitate the early detection of academic talent is one of the steps needed to improve this process.
In conclusion, there is evidence that when used with preschool children from disadvantaged backgrounds, the Brigance K & 1 screen effectively identifies those children who may be cognitively/academically gifted. The findings are preliminary, and considering the popularity of the screen, more empirical data are necessary to establish the efficacy of this measure in the early detection of academic talent.
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Health and Human Services, HHS , Head Start Bureau. Available Internet Address There are two kinds of addresses that are widely used on the Internet. One is a person's e-mail address, and the other is the address of a Web site, which is known as a URL. Following is an explanation of Internet e-mail addresses only. For more on URLs, see URL and Internet domain name. : http//www2.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb
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In mathematics, use of a function or formula to derive a solution or make a prediction. Unlike approximation, it has precise connotations. In statistics, for example, it connotes the careful selection and testing of a function called an estimator. of the K-ABC sequential and simultaneous processing for research and screening. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18(4), 305-313.
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v.tr. intersection intersection /in·ter·sec·tion/ (-sek´shun) a site at which one structure crosses another.
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Manuscript submitted July, 1998.
Revision accepted April, 1999.
Panayotan Mantzicopoulos is associate professor of Educational Psychology,Department of Educational Studies, Purdue University Purdue University (pərdy`, -d`), main campus at West Lafayette, Ind. .