Campaigns with uniformed services change behaviors.
In Thailand, HIV HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), either of two closely related retroviruses that invade T-helper lymphocytes and are responsible for AIDS. There are two types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is responsible for the vast majority of AIDS in the United States. prevalence has declined markedly over the past decade. This has been attributed to various condom promotion campaigns, including a 100 percent condom use program implemented in 1991 that mandated consistent condom use in all brothels BROTHELS, crim. law. Bawdy-houses, the common habitations of prostitutes; such places have always been deemed common nuisances in the United States, and the keepers of them may be fined and imprisoned.
2. . The decline in HIV prevalence has been especially notable among Thai military inductees. (1) A 2002 study of some 7,000 men inducted into the Royal Thai Army The Royal Thai Army is the army of Thailand. It is the oldest and largest branch of the Royal Thai Armed Forces. The army was formed in 1874 , partly as a response to new security threats following the Bowring Treaty with Britain, which opened up the country for international trade. found that HIV prevalence fell from 11 percent among those inducted in 1991 to 2 percent among those inducted in 1998. (2)
Although not uniform throughout the country, Thailand's 100 percent condom program generally enforces condom use by requiring that sex workers be examined monthly for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and by gathering information about specific brothel use from men attending governmental clinics for STI STI systolic time intervals. treatment. Some brothels regularly associated with STIs have been closed.
In Cambodia, similar condom promotion campaigns--including a 100 percent condom use policy initiated in 1998 and expanded to all provinces in 2001--also have been highly effective. A recent report issued by the Cambodia Working Group on HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Projection found that some 35,000 new HIV infections a year were due to sex work in the mid-1990s. In contrast, by 2002, fewer than 2,000 infections a year were attributable to sex work. (3)
HIV prevalence for Cambodian police--a traditionally high-risk population--has also decreased, dropping from 6 percent in 1998 to 3 percent in 2000, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS HSS Humanities and Social Sciences
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HSS History of Science Society ) reports. (4) And policemen's reported consistent condom use with sex workers rose from 65 percent to 85 percent between 1997 and 2001, according to Behavioral Surveillance Survey (BSS See 802.11.
BSS - Block Started by Symbol ) data. Although HIV sentinel data for the Cambodian military--another traditionally high-risk population--has not been collected since 1997, BSS condom-use data showed that military personnel's reported consistent condom use with sex workers doubled from a traditional low of 43 percent in 1997 to 87 percent in 2001. During that same period, the percentage of military men reporting sex with female sex workers over the month before the survey decreased from 51 percent to 20 percent. (5)
"What Cambodia has done is remarkable," says Anthony Bennett Anthony Bennett or Tony Bennett may refer to:
One factor that may be contributing to the rising rates of condom use within these populations is the implementation in 1998 of a uniformed services The Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Public Health Services. See also Military Department; Military Service. peer education program developed by FHI's Implementing AIDS Prevention and Care (IMPACT) project and conducted in collaboration with the Cambodian Ministry of National Defense, the Cambodian Ministry of the Interior, and the Cambodian Red Cross. The program is one of several that FHI FHI Family Health International
FHI Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd
FHI Food for the Hungry International
FHI Florida Hydrogen Initiative, Inc. (Tallahassee, Florida) is conducting with military and police in selected countries in Asia and Africa to help them integrate HIV/AIDS prevention activities into their systems. As part of a comprehensive approach to HIV/STI prevention, the program provides STI services and counseling and addresses various high-risk behaviors such as substance abuse. (Recognizing that use of various, mutually reinforcing techniques holds the most promise for reducing the spread of HIV/STIs, FHI both promotes and implements what it calls an "ABC ABC
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Major U.S. television network. It began when the expanding national radio network NBC split into the separate Red and Blue networks in 1928. to Z" model: abstinence, be faithful to one partner, or--if "A" or "B" cannot be achieved--use condoms. These three strategies can be further complemented by a number of other effective HIV prevention approaches; that is, the "to Z" component of the "ABC to Z" model. [See article, page 3.])
"An estimated 78 percent or more of Cambodia's military and 23 percent of the country's police will have been reached with condom promotion and other HIV prevention messages by the end of 2003," says Michael Merrigan, senior program officer in FHI's Cambodia office. "Peer education networks are now operating in four out of five Cambodian military regions."
Condoms are promoted in a number of ways:
* Remote military bases have FHI-supplied condom boxes that men can access confidentially.
* Peer educators demonstrate correct condom use with penis models.
* Peer educators counsel that condom use is one of many HIV risk-reduction strategies. Other counseling messages are that peers should reduce their number of sexual partners and avoid heavy alcohol consumption or social situations that could lead to use of commercial sex establishments.
* Peer educators emphasize that using condoms can help one protect oneself and one's family from HIV infection.
* Peer education drama teams promote condoms during theatrical productions.
"During conversations with servicemen, peer educators also try to address and correct the many common misconceptions about condoms and HIV infection that exist," Merrigan says.
(1.) Nelson KE, Celentano DD, Eiumtrakol S, et al. Changes in sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. and a decline in HIV infection among young men in Thailand. N Engl J Med 1996;335(5):297-303; Celentano DD, Nelson KE, Lyles CM, et al. Decreasing incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases Sexually transmitted diseases
Infections that are acquired and transmitted by sexual contact. Although virtually any infection may be transmitted during intimate contact, the term sexually transmitted disease is restricted to conditions that are largely in young Thai men: evidence for success of the HIV/AIDS control and prevention program. AIDS 1998;12(5):F29-F36.
(2.) Nelson KE, Eiumtrakol S, Celentano DD, et al. HIV infection in young men in northern Thailand Northern Thailand, one of the 5 regional groups of Thailand, usually describes the area covered by 17 provinces.
(3.) The Cambodia Working Group on HIV/AIDS Projection. Projections for HIV/AIDS in Cambodia: 2000-2010. Phnom Penh Phnom Penh (nŏm pĕn, pənŏm`) or Phnum Penh (pənm`), city (1994 est. pop. , Cambodia: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, 2002.
(4.) Ministry of Health. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs. Report on HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ministry of Health. National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, 2000.
(5.) Sopheab H, Gorbach P, Bunleng H. Cambodia's Behavioral Surveillance Survey, 1997-1999 (BSS I-III). Phnom Penh, Cambodia: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs; Ministry of Health, Cambodia; San Diego State University/Family Health International, 2001; National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs. Behavioral Surveillance Survey 2001, Cambodia. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, in press.