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Camp crisis management: Responding to new challenges.

Over the past few years, the Years, The

the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]

See : Time
 scope of crisis response plans for many camp programs has expanded as camps share specific crisis experiences and network with other industries, such as schools and law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). , to find solutions. In the past, crisis response plans at camps focused on child abuse; drownings or other activity-related deaths; vehicle wrecks; and environmental disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes, hurricanes, or fires. Today, crisis response plans cover additional concerns such as suicide threats, shootings, hostage taking, pollution and hazardous waste Hazardous waste

Any solid, liquid, or gaseous waste materials that, if improperly managed or disposed of, may pose substantial hazards to human health and the environment. Every industrial country in the world has had problems with managing hazardous wastes.
 exposures, communicable disease communicable disease
A disease that is transmitted through direct contact with an infected individual or indirectly through a vector. Also called contagious disease.
 outbreaks, food poisoning food poisoning, acute illness following the eating of foods contaminated by bacteria, bacterial toxins, natural poisons, or harmful chemical substances. It was once customary to classify all such illnesses as "ptomaine poisoning," but it was later discovered that  epidemics, and the possible sudden implementations of governmental restrictions (such as airport closings). A new level of crisis response planning is emerging in many industries as professionals reevaluate what can be reasonably anticipated and identify resources to help manage these risks.

Creating a Crisis Response Plan for Your Camp

How well could your camp adapt to meet the challenges of widespread grief or hysteria hysteria (hĭstĕr`ēə), in psychology, a disorder commonly known today as conversion disorder, in which a psychological conflict is converted into a bodily disturbance. , panic-stricken children whose parents can't pick them up at the end of the camp session, interrupted communications and probable delays in vendor deliveries, and a significant reduction in EMS personnel or other professional resources who could respond to your site? With the proper resources and planning, you can minimize many of the emotional and physical traumas
Treatment of physical trauma is described here and in First aid. For medical guidelines, see Guideline (medical).

Physical trauma refers to a physical injury.
 that may occur during a crisis. Consider the following steps when creating a crisis-response plan for your camp.

Get the right people

The people you involve in your planning process will dramatically influence the scope of the crises and the planned options available to your staff. Key camp staff to include are the director, camp medical director, maintenance supervisor, and offsite trip leaders. Suggested outside resources include personnel from your state's emergency management agency, the local rescue squad
For the article rescue project, see Wikipedia:Article Rescue Squadron.

“Rescue squad” redirects here. For other uses, see Rescue squad (disambiguation).
 and sheriff's department, child protective services child protective services Sociology A state or county agency that addresses issues of child abuse and neglect , camp doctor, child psychologist child psychologist Psychology A mental health professional with a PhD in psychology who administer tests, evaluates and treats children's emotional disorders, but can't prescribe medications , local insurance agent or company, high school principal, and a public relations public relations, activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most  advisor. Your staff know your camp, but may not be familiar with procedures and resources available to others outside your camp. By utilizing these people in the planning stages, all participating will have an opportunity to address many issues that could result in conflict or confusion during a real crisis.

For instance, when EMS is called in for mass casualty responses or hazardous waste spills, EMS procedures and protocols could conflict with your camp's plans. It's not that EMS crews don't care
This page is about the music single. For the meaning relating to digital logic, see Don't-care (logic)

"Don't Care" is a 1994 (see 1994 in music) single by American death metal band Obituary.
 about your camp's reputation or your procedures for controlling the press. The priorities emphasized to them in their training are "protect yourselves" and "save lives" The camp director needs to understand that the camp's priorities and concerns in a crisis may not be the priorities and concerns of the people directly involved in the crisis. That does not mean that the camp director's concerns are not important and should not be addressed! By working cooperatively with the various agencies, perhaps camp staff could be assigned to various roles. Don't be surprised if others outside your camp program question the qualifications of those people that you want them to work with during a crisis.

Identify potential threats

Make a list of possible major threats to your camp, staff, or guests. Then start listing the people, resources, and activities that need to occur within specific time periods (such as the first twenty minutes, the first hour, etc). The crisis list should include:

* Environmental threats - earthquakes, hurricanes, forest fires This is a list of notorious forest fires: North America

Year Size Name Area Notes
1825 3,000,000 acres (12,000 km²) Miramichi Fire New Brunswick Killed 160 people.
, dam collapses, and tornadoes.

* Security threats - hostile parents or visitors, hostage situations, verbalized threats, and child abduction Child abduction is the abduction or kidnapping of a child (or baby) by an older person.

Several distinct forms of child abduction exist:
  • A stranger removes a child for criminal or mischievous purposes.

* Health threats - intentional in·ten·tion·al  
1. Done deliberately; intended: an intentional slight. See Synonyms at voluntary.

2. Having to do with intention.
 or unintentional food poisoning or water contamination, child abuse, communicable disease outbreaks, staff death, and group-wide emotional stress resulting from a catastrophic world event.

* Off-site hazards - off-site trips, airports, nuclear power plants, and dangerous wildlife.

You may even want to consider evaluating a combination of crises such as a diabetic or anaphylactic anaphylactic /ana·phy·lac·tic/ (an?ah-fi-lak´tik) pertaining to anaphylaxis.
anaphylactic (an´
 medical emergency during a severe storm that has knocked down trees and power lines, making access to your camp hazardous or impossible.

Gather resources

Assemble reference resources, including building layouts and topographic maps (Data West Research Agency definition: see GIS glossary.) A map depicting terrain relief showing ground elevation, usually through either contour lines or spot elevations. The map represents the horizontal and vertical positions of the features represented.  of your site and the surrounding areas. You might also want to visit any off-site trip locations. Have the crisis response planners walk through the site and review the communications systems In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole. , medical equipment, maintenance equipment, and other resources such as camp vehicles that might be used.

Prepare for a Crisis

Can you really prepare for a crisis such as a tornado tornado, dark, funnel-shaped cloud containing violently rotating air that develops below a heavy cumulonimbus cloud mass and extends toward the earth. The funnel twists about, rises and falls, and where it reaches the earth causes great destruction.  or earthquake? Absolutely. Knowing what equipment you have (chain saws, tractors, emergency generators) is simply the beginning. Here are a few ideas to consider:

* Store a supply of trauma equipment and topographic maps of the area in a secondary location away from the health center.

* Store at least two quarts of water for every person in five-gallon containers in different locations in case the power goes out for an extended period of time.

* Stock at least three meals that do not require cooking.

* Have a secondary source of power (emergency generator) either on site or available to power phones, water pumps, or other primary equipment.

* Keep a battery-operated radio tuned to your emergency weather station.

* Investigate new technologies such as lightning detection systems.

* Determine which of your buildings is most suitable for shelter.

* Determine suitable secondary shelter locations off-site should evacuation be required.

* Determine primary and secondary locations for "crisis central" where you can manage the situation.

* Post emergency numbers by the phones and have a charged cellular phone with emergency numbers programmed.

Craft a successful response

Two rules should come into play for decision making in the face of a crisis:

1. Protect the people.

2. Perform actions that demonstrate that your camp cares for those who are emotionally or physically injured in·jure  
tr.v. in·jured, in·jur·ing, in·jures
1. To cause physical harm to; hurt.

2. To cause damage to; impair.

 even after they have departed.

One of the greatest obstacles to a successful response occurs when a leader becomes so emotionally involved he is unable to act quickly and appropriately. A timely response is important to the outcome. Consider and evaluate what factors could delay or impair im·pair  
tr.v. im·paired, im·pair·ing, im·pairs
To cause to diminish, as in strength, value, or quality: an injury that impaired my hearing; a severe storm impairing communications.
 your camp staff from responding to the crisis. Does the time of day, staff time off, demand on EMS, or the camp's isolated location prevent or just delay a response? Rarely will anyone fault you for seeking more professional help than needed ... but what kind of professional help does your camp need? Identify the availability and procedures to acquire resources such as search dogs, rescue divers Several; any number more than two; different.

Divers is a collective term used to group a number of unspecified people, objects, or acts. It is used frequently to describe property, as in divers parcels of land.
, child psychologists, air flight medical/fire rescue, Center for Disease Control, medical doctors, animal control, electrical and gas repair specialists, sources for bulldozers and industrial machinery. These are just a few of the resources that could prove beneficial if contacted at an early stage.

Plan for a speedy recovery

Evaluate reentry reentry n. taking back possession and going into real property which one owns, particularly when a tenant has failed to pay rent or has abandoned the property, or possession has been restored to the owner by judgment in an unlawful detainer lawsuit.  and recovery opportunities available to your camp. It's important to have plans in place for helping you, the campers, and your staff recover physically and emotionally from the crisis. Hiring a professional public relations firm will help reaffirm re·af·firm  
tr.v. re·af·firmed, re·af·firm·ing, re·af·firms
To affirm or assert again.

 your camp's strength and stability to the general public, parents, and campers. The firm can help your camp recover its image as well as identify opportunities and methods to tell the public what they can do to help in terms of donations, equipment, and other assistance.

Train by doing

The earlier your camp can identify a crisis situation, the sooner you and your staff can start acting. Consider how your staff will detect the onset of a crisis. Also, determine the factors that would make a staff member classify a situation as a crisis. These "triggers" to identifying a crisis could be used in staff training scenarios throughout the summer to reinforce the importance of constant awareness.

Crisis managers know that the key to successful staff training isn't the length of time spent on the training, but the quality of the lessons communicated. The other important key to staff training is repetitive lessons. While there is value in discussing various scenarios that could arise, most of us learn best by doing. Assign your staff members to role-play a scripted scenario or two. Some roles they might play include neighbors posing as concerned parents, EMS personnel responding to and investigating the crisis, reporters pushing for a sensational story and immediate answers, and staff members who are overwhelmed o·ver·whelm  
tr.v. o·ver·whelmed, o·ver·whelm·ing, o·ver·whelms
1. To surge over and submerge; engulf: waves overwhelming the rocky shoreline.

 emotionally or task-wise. Because staff members will be assigned many different responsibilities, recording the roleplay with a video camera will supply a visual illustration for later review. In your group discussion, concentrate on what worked and why -- discuss the problems encountered and mistakes made during the scenario. You and the staff will likely identify resources (other people or equ ipment) that might prove helpful in the future.

Manage incoming and outgoing information

Lots of information accumulates during a crisis. Can the director or crisis manager handle all the incoming information, simultaneously delegating instructions and documenting what is occurring? Maybe, but why work that hard or risk losing important data? Assign a staff member to accompany you, record what is clone clone, group of organisms, all of which are descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction, as in a pure cell culture of bacteria. Except for changes in the hereditary material that come about by mutation, all members of a clone are genetically  and when, keep track of reports, and remind you of tasks that may be incomplete.

You also need to evaluate outgoing information. Your phone operator should have a script for responding to telephone inquiries regarding the crisis. The staff should know who the camp spokesperson is and direct all inquiries to him or her. Visitors or strangers should be escorted or at least wear visitor's badges. Do you give campers access to phones or the Internet to let parents know they are okay? This practice seems harmless, but campers could communicate inaccurate information.

Write it down

There are two other aspects to information management that are important to remember. If a lawsuit develops, written documentation of what was done to prepare, as well as what went on during the crisis, could be crucial to your camp's defense. Good documentation can also be used as a learning tool later.

Communicate your priorities

Not everyone has your perspective or understands your concerns, particularly outside resources. For example, asking your insurance company for legal consultation in developing a press release or parent information statement falls outside of insurance coverage, but it may be beneficial to both parties and it is a time-critical request.

What you consider to be an appropriate response may actually be minimal compared with what you "might have done." The last thing most directors want to face is "armchair scrutiny" of their actions months down the line that reveal actions that could be interpreted as indifferent or uncaring. Keep asking your professional resources what else can be done or what others have done in similar situations. Your camp s response will be examined in different ways by any number of groups -- the media, parents, other camp directors, the public, and government agencies.

Make crises less traumatic

Lessons learned from past mistakes, as well as successes, help you to be better prepared today to handle a crisis in a professional manner. Developing a crisis response plan is a lot of work, but the process will help your camp provide safer programs, which can save lives, resources, and reputations.

Copyright Market Corporation, used by permission.


* Emergency Management Guide for Business & Industry. Federal Emergency Management Agency The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the federal agency responsible for coordinating emergency planning, preparedness, risk reduction, response, and recovery. The agency works closely with state and local governments by funding emergency programs and providing technical .

* On-Site Emergency Response Planning Guide (2002 Edition). National Safety Council. (800) 621-7619. Guide includes emergency response plan templates on a computer disk.

* American Camping htm.

Successful Crisis Response

Successful response actions have many common threads, including:

* Disseminating dis·sem·i·nate  
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.

 early warnings and clear instructions to all concerned if a crisis occurs.

* Initiating nearly all of the crisis response actions within the first few minutes to four hours of the event.

* Acting quickly to manage the physical and emotional care of children and staff directly and indirectly affected by the crisis.

* Effectively coordinating activities among the organizations that have a management or response role.

* Communicating professionally with media, EMS workers, and parents.

* Continuing assessment of actual and potential consequences of the crisis with contingency plans A plan involving suitable backups, immediate actions and longer term measures for responding to computer emergencies such as attacks or accidental disasters. Contingency plans are part of business resumption planning. .

* Continuing business operations Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. Compare business processes. The outcome of business operations is the harvesting of value from assets  during and immediately after the crisis.

* Ensuring the camp can safely survive in isolation for several days if an environmental emergency, such as an earthquake or hurricane occurs.

* Preparing an evacuation plan.

* Managing incoming and outgoing information.

* Understanding that no single person is going to have all the best answers all the time. Be conscious about egos getting in the way of the best solutions.

* Preparing for crises that occur on field trips, overnights, or in remote areas of the camp. Even though resources may be available, they may not be located where they can be best used.

Make a New Plan

The crisis response plan is crucial, and should be in place well before a crisis occurs. Your plan should be:

* Accessible -- Staff should know where the plan (including backup copies A disk, tape or other machine readable copy of a data or program file. Making backup copies is a discipline most computer users learn the hard way-- after months of work is lost. See backup and LAN free backup. ) is kept and what it contains. Keep backup copies in alternative locations in case the primary location is inaccessible inaccessible Surgery adjective Unreachable; referring to a lesion that unmanageable by standard surgical techniques–eg, lesions deep in the brain or adjacent to vital structures–ie, not accessible. See Accessible.  or unsafe. Include maps of the camp and diagrams of major buildings in your plan.

* Practical -- Your plan should be user friendly. It shouldn't take thirty minutes to tell thirty people their job assignments. Assign jobs ahead of time or prepare job descriptions to pull out of a notebook and hand to staff members as needed as needed prn. See prn order. . Also, develop a procedure for staff to inform the director when they need additional help.

* Accountable -- It's essential that you can prove that the camp followed the plan. To do so, you need an effective procedure to collect information and written or verbal documentation of actions taken, press releases, and information released to parents. You also need to be flexible enough to adapt to problems that arise -- just make sure to document the changes and the results.

* Coordinated -- Your plan should answer these questions. Who will "pick up the ball" if key staff members are missing or unable to fulfill their roles in the crisis plan? Does the plan have alternatives for missing or unavailable outside professional resources (child psychologists, medical professionals, and vendors on a weekend or at night)? Who is in charge when EMS arrives and who coordinates efforts? Does your crisis plan conflict with other resources (Social Services social services
Noun, pl

welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs

social services nplservicios mpl sociales 
, EMS, FEMA, etc.) that may become involved?

One critical component to the outcome of a crisis is the extent to which the leadership is psychologically immobilized or distracted from acting on the situation because of emotions (shock, distress, etc.). A non-camp example of this involved a train that collided with a school bus. The school principal was understandably overwrought o·ver·wrought  
1. Excessively nervous or excited; agitated.

2. Extremely elaborate or ornate; overdone: overwrought prose style.
 with grief, and he couldn't function for over two hours to begin implementing the crisis plan that sat adjacent to his desk. It took the arrival of a state emergency management agency employee asking him if the school had a crisis response plan to start the response. The principal was later dismissed from his position because of this delay and his inability to function during a crisis.

Will Evans is the Director of Safety Education for Market Insurance Company where he inspects summer camps, Boys and Girls boys and girls

 Clubs, YMCA's and day care centers across the country. Over the past nine years, he has written a number of award-winning safety articles and brochures. Evans has provided numerous presentations to the American Camping Association and to a wide variety of camp organizations including the Girl Scouts of the USA For Girl Scouts worldwide, see Girl Guide and Girl Scout.

The Girl Scouts of the United States of America (GSUSA) is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad.
, United Way, and National Wilderness Risk Manager's Conference.
COPYRIGHT 2002 American Camping Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2002, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Evans, Will
Publication:Camping Magazine
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2002
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