Camoes e a divina proporcao.This is the second edition of a book that originally appeared in 1984. Its author made some changes in the text and added to the Bibliography sixteen new titles that were published in the years that followed. Graca Moura devotes this volume to the study of the famous redondilhas "Sobre os rios que vao," a beautiful paraphrase of Psalm 136 by the Portuguese poet Camoes, included in his Rhythmas of 1595. This is thus a timely celebration of the four-hundred-year anniversary of the princeps.
Because Graca Moura is studying only one poetic composition, and a rather short one, a general overview of different aspects of the life and works of Camoes was more or less necessary in order to discuss the possible date of composition and the relation of the redondilhas to other lyrical works of the poet. Graca Moura also studies the historical moment in which "Sobre os rios que vao" is inscribed in·scribe
tr.v. in·scribed, in·scrib·ing, in·scribes
a. To write, print, carve, or engrave (words or letters) on or in a surface.
b. To mark or engrave (a surface) with words or letters. and the genre of the Biblical text to which the poem is related.
The book is divided into eight chapters. The Renaissance scholar who is not a specialist in Portuguese literature Portuguese literature, writings in Portuguese. The literature of Brazil is considered separately (see Brazilian literature). Early Works
Literature in the Portuguese language first emerged in lyric poetry, the courtly love poems collected in will find particularly useful chapter one, which is devoted to "Os Salmos e o Humanismo" and chapter six, which gives the title to the book, where Graca Moura states the question of divine proportion Divine Proportion: see Golden Section. . The Camoes scholar instead will find most attractive the ones related to the life of Camoes, particularly the years in the Far East ("O texto e o naufragio") and the chapter "Camoes and Fr. Heitor Pinto."
The title of the book refers to Luca Pacioli's treatise De divina proportione (1509) and is indicative of the author's interest in numerology numerology
Use of numbers to interpret a person's character or divine the future. It is based on the assertion by Pythagoras that all things can be expressed in numerical terms because they are ultimately reducible to numbers. and its application to literary research. Graca Moura is very knowledgeable of the latest bibliography about numerology and is aware of the dangers of simplistic sim·plism
The tendency to oversimplify an issue or a problem by ignoring complexities or complications.
[French simplisme, from simple, simple, from Old French; see simple applications of it to the study of literature (135-39). Using a continuous proportion of three terms as explained by Robert Lawlor in Sacred Geometry (1982) and applying it to the structure of Camoes's poem, Graca Moura finds a structural pattern in the number of lines as well as in the number of redondilhas; for him this seems to be related to the principles established by Pacioli's book. Therefore, the structure of the poem follows a Pythagorean order that is related to the so-called golden proportion, an order that enables the reader to better understand the redondilhas that paraphrase Psalm 136.
Chapter three, "Palinodia e rapsodia," shows Graca Moura as a careful reader, one able to define more than twenty thematic elements that can be related to the main sources that structure this poem: the Bible, Fr. H. Pinto, and other texts by Camoes himself (see also chapter five). He also establishes an interesting connection between the ideas of Pico de la Mirandola and what he sees as Camoes's efforts to reconcile his Catholic orthodoxy with Pythagorean principles.
To this reader, the best contributions of the book are not related to the numerological nu·mer·ol·o·gy
The study of the occult meanings of numbers and their supposed influence on human life.
[Latin numerus, number; see number + -logy. study that seems to be the main purpose of the author, but to the other subjects that are explored to established the background of the central theme. I am referring in particular to "Camoes e F. Heitor Pinto," "Seis SEIS Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement
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SEIS Science and Engineering Information Service poemas sobre Babel Babel (bā`bəl) [Heb.,=confused], in the Bible, place where Noah's descendants (who spoke one language) tried to build a tower reaching up to heaven to make a name for themselves. e Siao," and "A musica e a vida." In this last one the reader will find very useful and sharp comments on the relationship of Camoes's thinking and literary production and the ideas of Erasmus or Leone Battista Alberti Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 25, 1472) was an Italian author, artist, architect, poet, linguist, philosopher, and cryptographer, and general Renaissance humanist polymath. In Italy, his first name is usually spelled "Leon". , as well as an overview of the problems of translation during the Renaissance, particularly the translation of biblical texts (175-78; see 16 for the tradition in the translations of the Psalms).
Finally, I would like to call to the attention of the readers interested in "Sobre os rios" a short story by Jorge de Sena not mentioned by Graca Moura. Although Jorge de Sena's A Estrutura de "Os Lusiadas" . . ., does study some aspects of the symbolic value of numbers in literary texts, particularly in the poetic production of Camoes (as Graca Moura notes on 136 and again on 146), in my opinion, his wonderful short story "By the Rivers of Babylon" (translated by Dapne Patai and published by Rutgers University Press Rutgers University Press is a nonprofit academic publishing house, operating in Piscataway, New Jersey under the auspices of Rutgers University. The press was founded in 1936, and since that time has grown in size and in the scope of its publishing program. in 1989), is probably the best literary introduction to the reading of the famous redondilhas by Camoes.
ISAIAS LERNER City University of New York The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: [kjuni]), is the public university system of New York City. , Graduate Center