COOLING TOWERS.This office block prototype exploits a version of evaporative cooling Evaporative cooling is a physical phenomenon in which evaporation of a liquid, typically into surrounding air, cools an object or a liquid in contact with it. Latent heat describes the amount of heat that is needed to evaporate the liquid; this heat comes from the liquid itself and as traditionally used in the Middle East.
Passive downdraught evaporative cooling (PDEC PDEC Passive Downdraught Evaporative Cooling
PDEC Partial Decorrelator ) is a traditional means of environmental control that has been used for centuries in parts of the Middle East, notably Iran and Turkey. It operates on the premise of windcatchers guiding external air over porous pots filled with water, inducing evaporation and lowering air temperature before it enters the interior. Recent applications include the 30m high towers at the Seville Expo (AR June 1992) which employed high pressure water misting nozzles to induce downdraught cooling. Compared with air conditioning air conditioning, mechanical process for controlling the humidity, temperature, cleanliness, and circulation of air in buildings and rooms. Indoor air is conditioned and regulated to maintain the temperature-humidity ratio that is most comfortable and healthful. , the benefits of cooling buildings in this way include lower capital, maintenance and energy costs and the elimination of refrigerant re·frig·er·ant
1. Cooling or freezing; refrigerating.
2. Reducing fever.
1. A substance, such as air, ammonia, water, or carbon dioxide, used to provide cooling either as the working substance of . But the use of PDEC also has architectural implications, especially in the provision of transitional space to circulate the cooled air around the building.
Italian architect Mario Cucinella is a partner in a multi-disciplinary research group exploring the application of PDEC in non-domestic buildings. Funded by European Commission's joule programme, the research aims to investigate how this historic, passive cooling Passive cooling refers to technologies or design features used to cool houses naturally, such as those technologies discussed in the Passive house project.
In building design, the two principles of passive cooling are:
Daylighting is the practice of placing windows, or other transparent media, and reflective surfaces so that, during the day, natural light provides effective internal illumination. and natural ventilation Natural ventilation is the process of supplying and removing air through an indoor space by natural means. There are two types of natural ventilation occurring in buildings: wind driven ventilation and stack ventilation. .
The current research programme has studied three main issues: experimentation and monitoring, architectural design This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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This article has been tagged since September 2007. studies and building performance assessment. To evaluate environmental performance, Cucinella designed a full-scale experimental rig of a downdraught tower and linked office space. Wind tunnel wind tunnel, apparatus for studying the interaction between a solid body and an airstream. A wind tunnel simulates the conditions of an aircraft in flight by causing a high-speed stream of air to flow past a model of the aircraft (or part of an aircraft) being tested. tests were carried out on different forms of windcatchers to find the most efficient conduit for air flow. The research conclusions were then applied to design studies involving refurbishment and new build projects. These include the hypothetical refurbishment of the Pavilion of the Americas at the Seville Expo site, and two new office buildings for sites in Seville and Catania, Sicily. The latter also exploit another advantage of PDEC for urban locations; since air is taken in at high level, the external skin can be sealed against noise and pollution.
The design for the Catania office block evolved from an initial proposal for a building with a large atrium at its core, to a design with a more evenly distributed approach to PDEC. The energy required to cool a large volume of air in a single atrium and then circulate it around each floor is too high to be considered a fully passive strategy, so Cucinella reduced the size of the atrium and reconfigured it as a series of fluted towers that run vertically through the building. The tapering, conical form of each tower responds to the way in which cooled air flows when generated by an evaporative system. Each tower cools the immediate surrounding area. Towers are also used for night ventilation and to bring daylight into the deep plan through glazed walls, which break up and animate the office floors. Micronizers are located at the top of each cone.
Cucinella's research suggests that under this system, peak cooling loads could be reduced by a third compared with the original single atrium design (58 W/sq m compared with 82 W/sq m). Further investigations into daylighting aim to reduce the loads generated by artificial lighting, enhancing the economic and environmental potential of this intriguing prototype.