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COLLEGE STUDENTS' ACADEMIC STRESS AND ITS RELATION TO THEIR ANXIETY, TIME MANAGEMENT, AND LEISURE SATISFACTION.



Abstract: This paper investigated the interrelationship in·ter·re·late  
tr. & intr.v. in·ter·re·lat·ed, in·ter·re·lat·ing, in·ter·re·lates
To place in or come into mutual relationship.



in
 among academic stress, anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction among 249 university undergraduates by age and gender. Time management behaviors had a greater buffering Downloading the first block of data. In streaming media, buffering refers to bringing in an extra amount of data (filling the buffer) before playing the audio or video. Having more audio data or video frames in memory than are actually needed at each precise moment compensates for  effect on academic stress than leisure satisfaction activities. Significant gender differences existed among all the measures. Females had more effective time management behaviors than males, but also experienced higher academic stress and anxiety. Males benefited more than females from leisure activities. Freshmen and sophomore students had higher reactions to stress than juniors and seniors. Anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction were all predictors of academic stress in the multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.

multivariate analysis,
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously.
. Anxiety reduction and time management in conjunction with leisure activities may be an effective strategy for reducing academic stress in college students.

A disturbing trend in college student health is the reported increase in student stress nationwide (Sax (Simple API for XML) A programming interface (API) for accessing the contents of an XML document. SAX does not provide a random access lookup to the document's contents. It scans the document sequentially and presents each item to the application only one time. , 1997). Stressors affecting students can be categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 as academic, financial, time or health related, and self-imposed self-im·posed
adj.
Imposed by oneself on oneself; voluntarily assumed or endured: self-imposed exile.

Adj. 1.
 (Goodman Goodman was a polite term of address, used where Mister (Mr.) would be used today. Compare Goodwife.

Goodman refers to:

Places
  • goodwife, Mississippi, USA
  • Goodman, Missouri, USA
  • Goodman, Wisconsin, USA
, 1993; LeRoy, 1988). Academic stressors include the student's perception of the extensive knowledge base required and the perception of an inadequate time to develop it (Carveth, Gesse, & Moss, 1996). Students report experiencing academic stress at predictable times each semester se·mes·ter  
n.
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.



[German, from Latin (cursus) s
 with the greatest sources of academic stress resulting from taking and studying for exams, grade competition, and the large amount of content to master in a small amount of time (Abouserie, 1994; Archer & Lamnin, 1985; Britton & Tesser, 1991; Kohn & Frazer, 1986).

When stress is perceived negatively or becomes excessive, students experience physical and psychological impairment Impairment

1. A reduction in a company's stated capital.

2. The total capital that is less than the par value of the company's capital stock.

Notes:
1. This is usually reduced because of poorly estimated losses or gains.

2.
 (Murphy & Archer, 1996). Methods to reduce stress by students often include effective time management, social support, positive reappraisal, and engagement in leisure pursuits (Blake & Vandiver, 1988; Mattlin, Wethington, & Kessler, 1990). Leisure satisfaction is defined as the positive feeling of contentment Contentment
Aglaos

poor peasant said by the Delphic oracle to be happier than the king because he was contented. [Gk. Myth.: Benét, 15]
 one perceives as a result of meeting personal needs through leisure activities (Seigenthaler, 1997). Although relationships among some leisure domains and perceived stress have been studied in a variety of settings involving retirees to school-related settings (Kabanoff & O'Brian, 1986; Kaufman, 1988; Pickens & Kiess, 1988; Ragheb & McKinney, 1993; Tice & Baumeister, 1997), relationships between leisure satisfaction and academic stress of college students have not been addressed directly. The only scientific research that specifically related leisure satisfaction to academic stress was that of Ragheb and McKinney (1993), who established a negative association between academic stress and leisure satisfaction. A limitation of this study, however, was that it measured academic stress using seven items that were extracted inclusively from occupational stress inventories.

The concept of time management is generally defined in terms of clusters of behavior that are deemed to facilitate productivity and alleviate Alleviate
To make something easier to be endured.

Mentioned in: Kinesiology, Applied
 stress (Lay & Schouwenburg, 1993). Effective time management strategies increase academic performance (Campbell & Svenson, 1992) and are frequently suggested by academic assistance personnel as aids to enhance achievement for college students. Productive study methods are characterized char·ac·ter·ize  
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.

2.
 by "time management" and "strategic studying" (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983; Kirschenbaum & Perri, 1982). Although programs emphasize starting large tasks well before due dates, breaking down large tasks into small ones, and doing small tasks on a regular schedule, students regularly ignore these techniques and find themselves in great distress before exams (Brown, 1991).

Research has reported evidence for the multidimentional nature of the time management construct (Britton & Tesser, 1991; Macan, Shahani, Dipboye & Phillips, 1990). In the present paper, time management was conceptualized in terms of setting goals and priorities, the use of mechanics (like listing priorities), preference of an organized workplace, and the perceived control of time. These components of time management were taken from Macan, et al. (1990).

The above literature suggests that the tendency to structure one's time and leisure satisfaction may be an important factor in reducing academic stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationship (and predictors) of college students' academic stress with anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. It was hypothesized that academic stress would show a significant positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation
 with anxiety, and a significant negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation
 with self-reported time management behaviors and leisure satisfaction of college students. A person engaging more frequently in time management behaviors will report fewer physical and psychological symptoms of stress. The greater satisfaction with leisure that students indicate, the lower their perceived academic stress will be. A secondary purpose of this research was to examine the differences in the study variables by gender and age. Since college women and older students report better time management skills than college men and younger students (Trueman & Hartley, 1996), we hypothesized that females and older students would have effective time management behaviors and consequently less academic stress and anxiety.

METHODS

SAMPLE

The sample consisted of 249 full-time undergraduate students at a Midwestern university The P.A. Program is a 2-year program that starts in the summer. The D.O.,Pharm D., and Psy.D are 4-year programs. The D.O. degree is the legal and professional equivalent of the M.D. . The sampling frame chosen was the University Registrar's directory of address files that provided an up-to-date address list of students by gender and class status. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  were randomly selected from the directory. Information was collected using a self-administered, voluntary, and anonymous questionnaire. Of the total 593 surveys randomly selected and mailed to the respondents, 249 completed questionnaire were returned, yielding a response rate of 42%. Consent for participation was obtained prior to the survey. The sample was 91% white, which was representative of the university. Preliminary analysis indicated no statistically significant difference in the demographic information between respondents and non-respondents except in their age and gender. More females and sophomores responded to the survey. The average age was 21 years (SD=2.0), and the majority of the sample were females (74.6%), sophomores (36%), and attended religious activities regularly (75%). In regards to health behaviors, 25% were smokers (defined as current use of any number of cigarettes) and 72.6% consumed con·sume  
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes

v.tr.
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.

2.
a.
 alcoholic beverages

Main article: Alcoholic beverage
Fermented beverages
  • Beer
  • Ale
  • Barleywine
  • Bitter ale
 (had one drink) in the last week. Most students reported bingeing alcohol on the weekend.

Instruments: Four self-report questionnaires were selected for the present study.

Academic Stress: Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SLSI SLSI
abbr.
Electronics super-large-scale integration
) (1991) is designed to assess the students' perceived academic stress and reactions to stress. There are 51 items arranged on a Likert response format (1=never true to 5=always true) that assessed five categories of academic stressors (frustrations, conflicts, pressures, changes, and self-imposed), and four categories describing reactions to stressors (physiological physiological /phys·i·o·log·i·cal/ (-loj´i-kal) pertaining to physiology; normal; not pathologic.

phys·i·o·log·i·cal or phys·i·o·log·ic
adj. Abbr. phys.
1.
, emotional, behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.


behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
, and cognitive). Validity and reliability of the instrument have been reported earlier (Gadzella, 1991; Gadzella, Masten, & Stacks, 1998). The items were summed for each subsection subsection
Noun

any of the smaller parts into which a section may be divided

Noun 1. subsection - a section of a section; a part of a part; i.e.
 to get a total score in all nine categories. A higher score was indicative of greater stress and reactions to stress. Internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  estimates ranged from 0.69 to 0.82 on the nine categories in the present study.

Leisure Satisfaction: Beard beard, hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures.  and Ragheb's (1980) Leisure Satisfaction Measurement (LSM LSM Linux Software Map
LSM Louisiana State Museum
LSM Linux Security Module
LSM Living Stream Ministry
LSM Laser Scanning Microscopy
LSM Legato Storage Manager
LSM Land-Surface Model
LSM Lutheran Student Movement
LSM Logical Storage Manager
) was used to gauge students' leisure satisfaction. The instrument contained 51 questions ranging from "Never True" (1) to "Always True" (5) and assessed six leisure satisfaction components: psychological benefits, educational benefits, social benefits, relaxation re·lax·a·tion
n.
1. The act of relaxing or the state of being relaxed.

2. Refreshment of body or mind.

3. A loosening or slackening.

4. The lengthening of inactive muscle or muscle fibers.
 benefits, physiological benefits, and aesthetic-environmental rewards. A higher score was indicative of greater benefits from leisure activities. The present study obtained an alpha reliability of 0.95 (subscales ranged from 0.85 to 0.95) as compared to 0.93 reported by Beard and Ragheb (1980).

Time Management: Macan et al. (1990) Time Management Behaviors (TMB TMB Tetramethylbenzidine
TMB Technical Management Board
TMB Twisted Metal: Black (video game)
TMB Third Millennium Bible
TMB Touch My Body (song)
TMB Text Me Back
TMB Too Many Birthdays
) scale was used to assess students' time management behaviors. The instrument contained 46 items with a range of "Seldom True" (1) to "Very Often True" (5). Four subscales of time management were examined: Perceived Control of Time (belief that one can affect how time is spent), Setting Goals and Priorities (goal setting and prioritizing of objectives to reach the goal), Mechanics of Time Management (planning and scheduling), and Preference of Organization (organizational approach to a project or workspace). Certain items were reverse scored so that a higher score indicated greater time management skills. Chronbach's alphas for each of the TMB factors and overall TMB score were as follows: Mechanics of time management (0.85), setting goals and priorities (0.84), perceived control of time (0.67), preference of organization (0.80), and overall TMB score (0.74). The alpha coefficients for this study of mechanics of time management, preference of organization, and overall TMB score were higher than those reported by Macan et al. (1990).

Trait trait (trat)
1. any genetically determined characteristic; also, the condition prevailing in the heterozygous state of a recessive disorder, as the sickle cell trait.

2. a distinctive behavior pattern.
 and State Anxiety: Spielberger's (1980) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI-Y) was used to assess both anxiety as an emotional state (state anxiety) and individual differences in anxiety as a personality trait (trait anxiety), with equal numbers of items on both. Validity and reliability of the instrument has been widely reported (Tanaka, Sakamoto, Kijima, & Kitamura, 1998; Goldenberg & Waddell, 1990). Trait anxiety implies differences between people in the disposition to respond to stressful situations with varying amounts of state anxiety. The STAI STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
STAI Strobe a Interrupt
 is a 40-item self-report Likert-type instrument in which subjects respond to items such as "I feel at ease" by marking "Not at all" (1), "Somewhat," (2) "Moderately so," (3) or "Very much so" (4). Both positive and negative items are included in the scales. The two 20-item subscales of the instrument, State Anxiety and Trait Anxiety, have possible scores ranging from 20 to 80. Anxiety based questions were reverse scored so higher scores indicated higher anxiety. Internal consistency of the four subscales were as follows: State Anxiety Absent (0.91), State Anxiety Present (0.82), Trait Anxiety Absent (0.80), and Trait Anxiety Present (0.78).

Basic demographic information: Information was collected regarding age, gender, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , class status, and health risk behaviors (smoking and drinking).

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Student t-tests and ANOVA anova

see analysis of variance.

ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there
 were used to examine gender and age differences in academic stress, anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. The acceptance level for statistical significance was lowered from 0.05 to 0.01 for the TMB and LSM subscales using a Bonferroni correction In statistics, the Bonferroni correction states that if an experimenter is testing n independent hypotheses on a set of data, then the statistical significance level that should be used for each hypothesis separately is 1/n  for the large number of tests. A Pearson product moment correlation of coefficients was utilized to test the strength of association between academic stress and anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction. Results of these analyses determined the variables that were included in subsequent regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender. , where academic stressors and reactions to stressors served as the dependent variable. Hierarchical A structure made up of different levels like a company organization chart. The higher levels have control or precedence over the lower levels. Hierarchical structures are a one-to-many relationship; each item having one or more items below it.  regression analysis was employed to control for the combined impact of anxiety, leisure satisfaction components, and time management behaviors to predict academic stress by gender and age.

RESULTS

Preliminary analyses of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.

In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality
 indicated there were some significant gender and class differences on all four measures (Table 1 and 2). Students, in general, experienced higher stress due to pressure and self-imposed stress as compared to changes, conflict, and frustration. Emotional and cognitive reactions to stressors occurred more frequently, and behavioral and physiological reactions to stressors were reported less often. Females experienced higher self-imposed stress and more physiological reactions to stressors than males; indicating they sweat, stutter stut·ter
n.
A phonatory or articulatory disorder characterized by difficult enunciation of words with frequent halting and repetition of the initial consonant or syllable.

v.
To utter with spasmodic repetition or prolongation of sounds.
, and experience headaches due to stress more than males. Males scored significantly lower than females on both trait and state anxiety, and experience significantly higher satisfaction from leisure activities. Time management behaviors, however, showed a reverse trend with females managing their time more efficiently than males in three of the four subcategories. This shows female college students' perceived better control of their time, set and prioritized goals, planned, and had an organized approach to tasks and workspace. No statistically significant age differences were observed in academic stress, anxiety, TMB and LSM subscales (except physiological benefit). Freshmen students reported significantly lower physiological benefits from leisure activities.

Table 1 Comparing Stressors and Reactions to Stressors by Class level and Gender
                         CLASS LEVEL

                   Freshmen     Sophomore    Junior       Senior
                    (N=55)      (N=90)       (N=46)       (N=53)

STRESSORS            MEAN       MEAN         MEAN         MEAN
                     (SD)       (SD)         (SD)         (SD)
CHANGE               2.75       2.58         2.52         2.58
                     (.88)      (.70)        (.68)        (.62)
CONFLICT             3.19       3.06         3.16         2.90
                     (.61)      (.59)        (.44)        (.77)
FRUSTRATION          2.73       2.77         2.73         2.64
                     (.52)      (.54)        (.49)        (0.51)
PRESSURE             3.58       3.62         3.69         3.83
                     (.59)      (.66)        (.60)        (.55)
SELF-IMPOSED         3.70       3.68         3.78         3.78
                     (.56)      (.53)        (.51)        (.63)
REACTIONS TO         MEAN       MEAN         MEAN         MEAN
STRESSORS            (SD)       (SD)         (SD)         (SD)
EMOTIONAL            3.05       2.76         2.72         2.76
                    (1.07)      (1.02)       (.99)        (1.19)
COGNITIVE            2.92       2.82         3.03         2.76
                    (1.05)      (.94)        (.96)        (1.19)
BEHAVIORAL           2.21       2.08         1.90         1.97
                    (.77)       (.67)        (.73)        (.78)
PHYSIOLOGICAL        2.14       1.91         1.86         1.93
                    (.72)       (.72)        (.70)        (.84)

                                           GENDER

                                Males             Females
                                (N=63)            (N=186)

STRESSORS          ANOVA        MEAN         MEAN         ANOVA
                   (p-value)    (SD)         (SD)         (p-value)
CHANGE             ns           2.61         2.60         0.16
                                (.72)        (.72)        (.87)
CONFLICT           ns           3.14         3.06         0.86
                                (.59)        (.62)        (.38)
FRUSTRATION        ns           2.71         2.73         -0.13
                                (.48)        (.53)        (.89)
PRESSURE           ns           3.62         3.68         -0.68
                                (.65)        (.60)        (.49)
SELF-IMPOSED       ns           3.60         3.77         -2.08
                                (.52)        (.55)        (.03)
REACTIONS TO                    MEAN         MEAN
STRESSORS                       (SD)         (SD)
EMOTIONAL          ns           2.69         2.86         -1.07
                                (.94)        (1.09)       (.28)
COGNITIVE          ns           2.77         2.92         -1.00
                                (1.01)       (.97)        (.32)
BEHAVIORAL         ns           1.96         2.08         -1.18
                                (.69)        (.74)        (.23)
PHYSIOLOGICAL      ns           1.77         2.03         -2.43
                                (2.03)       (.77)        (.01)


ns = not significant

Table 2 Comparing Anxiety, Time Management Behaviors, and Leisure Satisfaction By Class Level and Gender
                               CLASS LEVEL

                    Freshmen    Sophomore    Junior       Senior
                    (N=55)      (N=90)       (N=46)       (N=53)

Time Management     MEAN        MEAN         MEAN         MEAN
                    (SD)        (SD)         (SD)         (SD)
Control of Time     3.00        3.04         3.03         2.98
                    (.65)       (.76)        (.63)        (.74)
Mechanics of Time   2.85        2.92         2.91         3.17
Management          (.85)       (.88)        (.86)        (.85)
Setting Goals       3.27        3.15         2.98         3.19
                    (.77)       (.66)        (.70)        (.80)
Organization        2.27        2.48         2.28         2.16
                    (.75)       (.87)        (.68)        (.74)
Leisure Satisfaction (Benefits)
Social              3.74        3.71         3.87         3.69
                    (.59)       (.58)        (.47)        (.58)
Physiological       3.02        3.27         3.49         3.27
                    (.82)       (.88)        (.81)        (.94)
Relaxation          4.05        3.99         4.12         4.24
                    (.70)       (.71)        (.61)        (.72)
Psychological       3.13        3.10         3.12         3.17
                    (.34)       (.32)        (.32)        (.31)
Educational         3.37        3.26         3.28         3.28
                    (.74)       (.54)        (.70)        (.87)
Aesthetics          3.43        3.36         3.33         3.38
                    (.65)       (.62)        (.79)        (.66)
Anxiety
Trait Absent        2.22        2.18         2.22         2.16
                    (.33)       (.29)        (.34)        (.32)
Trait Present       2.52        2.53         2.51         2.47
                    (.31)       (.28)        (.27)        (.27)
State Absent        2.64        2.80         2.71         2.56
                    (.65)       (.59)        (.58)        (.67)
State Present       2.01        1.81         1.87         1.97

                    (.65)       (.56)        (.60)        (.66)

                                                  GENDER

                                Males             Females
                                (N=63)            (N=186)

Time Management     ANOVA       MEAN         MEAN         ANOVA
                    (p-value)   (SD)         (SD)         (p-value)
Control of Time     0.08        3.52         3.80         -2.16
                    (.97)       (.99)        (.83)        (.03)(*)
Mechanics of Time   1.49        2.52         3.11         -4.89
Management          (.21)       (.81)        (.83)        (.001)(*)
Setting Goals       1.40        2.92         3.23         -2.95
                    (.24)       (.77)        (.69)        (.004)(*)
Organization        2.08        3.19         3.24         -0.73
                    (.10)       (.47)        (.45)        (.46)
Leisure Satisfaction (Benefits)
Social              1.05        3.86         3.72         1.60
                    (.37)       (.55)        (.57)        (.10)
Physiological       2.46        3.37         3.23         1.08
                    (.05)(*)    (.92)        (.86)        (.27)
Relaxation          1.50        4.28         4.02         2.48
                    (.21)       (.56)        (.73)        (.01)(*)
Psychological       0.48        3.23         3.10         2.64
                    (.69)       (.32)        (.32)        (.009)(*)
Educational         0.26        3.32         3.31         0.09
                    (.85)       (.73)        (.69)        (.92)
Aesthetics          0.19        3.41         3.38         0.29
                    (.90)       (.64)        (.69)        (.76)
Anxiety
Trait Absent        0.52        2.23         2.10         2.85
                    (.66)       (.33)        (.31)        (.005)(*)
Trait Present       4.54        2.49         2.52         -0.74
                    (.71)       (.33)        (.26)        (.46)
State Absent        1.83        2.87         2.64         2.46
                    (.14)       (.54)        (.64)        (.01)(*)
State Present       1.51        1.78         1.94         -1.83
                    (.21)       (.52)        (.63)        (.05)(*)


(*) Significant correlation at p < 0.05 level of significance

To test the interrelationship between academic stress (stressors and reactions to stressors) and anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction, Pearson product-moment correlations were performed (Table 3 and 4). There was a greater association of stressors and reactions to stressors with time management behaviors than with leisure satisfaction. All four TMB subscales were strongly (negatively) correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates

v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2.
 to academic stressors and reactions to stressors. Setting goals and priorities reduced behavioral reactions to stressors, and increased their cognitive reaction (strategies for handling those situations), Mechanics of Time Management, i.e., planning and scheduling, was correlated with cognitive and emotional reactions to stressors. Organization of tasks reduced behavioral reactions and increased cognitive reactions. The cognitive reactions to stressors showed a positive association with time management strategies indicating it improves students' problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
 ability, Many of the associations, although statistically significant, were not strongly correlated (r [is less than] 0.30). This could be attributed to other confounding confounding

when the effects of two, or more, processes on results cannot be separated, the results are said to be confounded, a cause of bias in disease studies.


confounding factor
 factors not measured in this research (e.g. life stressors, cultural factors).

Table 3 Correlation between Academic Stressors and Time Management, Leisure Satisfaction, and Anxiety
   STRESSOR VARIABLE

TMB SCALES             Change        Conflict      Frustration

CONTROL OF TIME        -.229(**)     -.251(**)      -.393(**)
MECHANIC OF TIME       -.135(*)       .025          -.169(**)
GOALS                  -.123          .006          -.221(**)
ORGANIZATION           -.316(**)     -.134(*)       -.396(**)
LSM SUBSCALES
SOCIAL                 -.007          .045          -.031
PHYSIOLOGICAL          -.141(*)      -.130(*)       -.186(**)
RELAXATION             -.117          .017          -.148(*)
PSYCHOLOGICAL          -.096         -.074          -.088
EDUCATIONAL            -.011          .098          -.014
ENVIRONMENT            -.078         -.032          -.176(**)
ANXIETY
TRAIT ABSENT           -.234(*)      -.123(*)       -.242(**)
TRAIT PRESENT           .144(*)       .063           .134(*)
STATE ABSENT           -.367(**)     -.064          -.330(**)
STATE PRESENT           .406(*)       .043           .396(**)

TMB SCALES             Pressure      Self-imposed

CONTROL OF TIME        -.268(**)     -.232(**)
MECHANIC OF TIME        .057          .170(**)
GOALS                   .041          .058
ORGANIZATION           -.127(*)      -.052
LSM SUBSCALES
SOCIAL                 -.001          .067
PHYSIOLOGICAL           .001          .097
RELAXATION             -.086          .001
PSYCHOLOGICAL          -.101          .011
EDUCATIONAL             .029          .069
ENVIRONMENT            -.109          .001
ANXIETY
TRAIT ABSENT           -.120(**)     -.259(*)
TRAIT PRESENT           .172(**)      .243(**)
STATE ABSENT           -.420(**)     -.202(**)
STATE PRESENT           .382(**)      .269(**)


(*) Significant correlation at p < 0.05 level of significance

(**) Significant correlation at p < 0.01 level of significance

Table 4 Correlation between Reactions to Stressors and Time Management, Leisure Satisfaction, and Anxiety
TMB SCALES          COGNITIVE   BEHAVIORAL   EMOTIONAL   PHYSIOLOGI-
                                                         CAL

CONTROL OF TIME     .125        -.218(**)    -.300(**)     .158(**)
MECHANIC OF TIME    .236(**)    -.073        -.060        -.005
GOALS               .352(**)    -.077        -.101        -.015
ORGANIZATION        .214(**)    -.207(**)    -.093        -.110
LSM SUBSCALES
SOCIAL              .082         .032         .002         .033
PHYSIOLOGICAL       .182(**)    -.194(**)    -.053        -.052
RELAXATION          .106         .013        -.027         .047
PSYCHOLOGICAL       .089        -.067         .017        -.26
EDUCATIONAL         .191(**)     .094        -.120        -.133(*)
AESTHETICS          .117         .030         .042         .062
ANXIETY
TRAIT ABSENT        .058        -.119(*)     -.220(**)    -.107
TRAIT PRESENT       .007         .041         .148(**)     .050
STATE ABSENT        .002        -.225(**)    -.354(**)    -.230(**)
STATE PRESENT       .050         .349(**)     .430(**)     .356(**)


(*) Significant correlation at p < 0.05 level of significance

(**) Significant correlation at p < 0.01 level of significance

Physiological benefits from leisure activities significantly reduced academic stressors (conflict, change, and frustration) and reactions to stressors (behavioral and cognitive) among college students. An aesthetic environment and relaxation benefits reduced academic stressors (frustration), and educational benefits lessened less·en  
v. less·ened, less·en·ing, less·ens

v.tr.
1. To make less; reduce.

2. Archaic To make little of; belittle.

v.intr.
To become less; decrease.
 physiological reactions to stressors. Both state and trait anxiety were significantly correlated with stressors. However, state anxiety had a greater association with reactions to stressors than trait anxiety.

Although Tables 3 and 4 do not reflect the association of variables by gender, significant differences were observed between males and females. Male college students reduced their academic stress due to changes and frustration (daily hassles) when they perceived themselves to be in control of their time, able to set goals, and organized. Perceived Control of Time reduced academic stress due to changes in female college students, but unlike males, it did not reduce stress due to frustration. Those females who were goal oriented o·ri·ent  
n.
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

2.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

3.
 had less frustration. Planning lowered stress for females, but lacked association for males. Preference of Organization reduced academic stress for females in all the categories, hut associated with only "change" and "frustration" for males. Setting goals and priorities among females reduced emotional reactions and increased cognitive reactions to stressors. Similarly, planning and scheduling (Mechanics of Time Management) reduced emotional reactions and increased cognitive reactions among both males and females. Organization, however, lowered behavioral, emotional, and physiological reactions to stressors only among females. Physiological benefits from leisure activities reduced academic stress from change and frustration for females but not for males. Leisure satisfaction reduced reaction to stress more for females than males. Exercise decreased behavioral reactions in both males and females but increased cognitive reactions to stress only in females. Unlike males, females reported leisure activities in an aesthetic environment improved coding with stress.

To test the relative contribution of anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction to perceived academic stress, hierarchical multiple regression Multiple regression

The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable.
 analyses were performed. The two dependent variables, stressors and reactions to stressors, were created by summing all items under those categories. Age, gender, and years of schooling were also used as predictor variables Noun 1. predictor variable - a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
variable quantity, variable - a quantity that can assume any of a set of values
 in the regression equations Regression equation

An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables.
. The results of the hierarchical regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
regression

In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set.
 analyses are summarized in Table 5. Use of step-wise regression allows the researcher to determine the importance of predictor variables entered early in the equation when accounting for the total amount of the variance explained (Pedhazur, 1982).

Table 5 Predictors of Stressors and Reactions to Stressors
                               R        BETA    [R.sup.2]   P-VALUE

Step STRESSORS
1. Trait Anxiety Present     .557        2.10      .310      .001
2. Organization              .609       -.117      .371      .023
3. Educational benefit
   of leisure activities     .631       -8.45      .398      .005
4. Trait Anxiety Absent      .648       -2.58      .420      .003
5. Control of Time           .659       -7.99      .422      .020
   Constant                                                  .001

F=34.23, Significance of F < 0.001
Step REACTIONS TO STRESSORS
1. Control of time           .311       -.243      .097      .001
2. Age                       .348       -.195      .114      .001
3. Educational benefit       .372       -.134      .129      .019
4. Trait anxiety present     .393       .128       .142      .027
Constant                                                     .93


F=12.1, Significance of F <0.001

Once the effects of independent variables were controlled, no statistically significant or substantively important difference in academic stress was found between males and females. Trait Anxiety emerged as the strongest predictor of academic stressors. Other variables that were significant in the regression model were Preference of Organization, educational benefit derived from leisure activities, and Perceived Control of Time. All these variables were negatively associated with academic stressors except trait anxiety. Academic stress was lower for those college students with high Perceived Control of Time, low anxiety, who used their leisure time to learn and increase their knowledge, used an organizational approach to tasks, and preferred a well-organized work place. Forty-two percent of the variance in academic stress was explained by these variables.

A significant age difference existed in students' reactions to academic stress. Perceived Control of Time, educational component of leisure satisfaction, and lower anxiety were the other variables that predicted reactions to stressors. Older students with high Perceived Control of Time, low anxiety, and who utilized their leisure time to learn and increase knowledge, had less physical and psychological reactions to academic stress. These variables contributed to 14% of the variance.

DISCUSSION

OVERVIEW OF RESULTS

Results supported the initial hypotheses that a negative correlation would be found between time management behaviors, leisure satisfaction components and perceived academic stress, Leisure satisfaction, however, had a weak correlation (bivariate bi·var·i·ate  
adj.
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.

Adj. 1.
) with academic stress and further validates the findings reported by Ragheb and McKinney's (1993) study. They found the strength of correlation did not exceed - 0.32 with 13 out of 51 as nonsignificant non·sig·nif·i·cant  
adj.
1. Not significant.

2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence.
 relationships. Educational benefit from leisure satisfaction was the only predictor of academic stress and did not fully support Cleaver and Eisenhart's (1982) emphasis of association with hobbies It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome. This is a list of hobbies.  and physical activities.

Time management behaviors had a greater buffering effect on academic stress than leisure satisfaction activities. Important relationships were found between some aspects of time management and academic stress. The correlational and regression analyses revealed that affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.

af·fec·tive
adj.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.

2.
 measures of stress were significantly related to the Perceived Control of Time in this college population. The findings are also consistent with stress research showing that feeling in control of the situation is related to lower levels of stress. Furthermore, using an organizational approach in the work place reduced academic stressors. Our hypothesis regarding effective time management was supported for females but not for older college students. This complements prior research on time management in female college students (Allen Al·len , Edgar 1892-1943.

American anatomist who is noted for his studies of hormones and for the discovery (1923) of estrogen.
 & Hiebert, 1991; Rawson, Bloomer & Kendall Ken·dall , Edward Calvin 1886-1972.

American biochemist. He shared a 1950 Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning the hormones of the adrenal cortex.
, 1994; Wohlgemuth & Betz, 1991). Efficient time management in females reduced stress (frustration and change), and its reactions (behavioral, emotional, and physiological). Cognitive reaction to stress increased with more effective time management and satisfaction from leisure activities, demonstrating that thinking about stress and upcoming stressful situations is a positive reaction to stressors among college students. Higher scores on cognitive reactions for both male and female students indicated their use of problem-solving ability to lower stress. Previous studies have shown that problem solving is an important coping strategy that can reduce, minimize, or prevent stress by enabling a person to better manage daily problematic situations and their emotional effects (D'Zurilla & Sheedy, 1991).

Females had more effective time management scores than males but this did not lower academic stress as hypothesized (Table 5). Although the t-test t-test,
n an inferential statistic used to test for differences between two means (groups) only. This statistic is used for small samples (e.g.,
N < 30). Also called
t-ratio, stu-dent's t.
 indicated a significant gender difference in stressors and reactions to stressors, controlling for other variables in the regression model, gender difference became spurious spu·ri·ous
adj.
Similar in appearance or symptoms but unrelated in morphology or pathology; false.



spurious

simulated; not genuine; false.
. Higher anxiety and lower leisure satisfaction among females might be a plausible reason for offsetting their relative advantage of time management skills over males. Furthermore, higher academic stress among female respondents may reflect not an actual inequality inequality, in mathematics, statement that a mathematical expression is less than or greater than some other expression; an inequality is not as specific as an equation, but it does contain information about the expressions involved.  in number of stressors by gender, but females rating negative events more often and more markedly than males (Allen & Hiebert, 1991). Lower reactions to stressors for male college students may result from their socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.

so·cial·i·za·tion
n.
, which teaches them that emotional expression is an admission of weakness and not masculine MASCULINE. That which belongs to the male sex.
     2. The masculine sometimes includes the feminine, vide an example under the article Man, and see also the articles Gender, Worthiest of blood; Poth. Intr. au titre 16, des Testamens et Donations Testamentaires, n.
 (Davidson-Katz, 1991).

A positive association was found between anxiety and academic stress as predicted, Trait anxiety was a significant predictor of academic stress in the regression analysis. Individuals who scored high on trait anxiety experienced higher stressors and rections to stressors. Females exhibited higher anxiety (both trait and state) than males (Table 2). This could possibly explain their higher scores on academic stress. Males, however, had greater satisfaction than females from leisure time activities.

THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF FINDINGS

Effective time management seemed to lower academic stress in this sample. Hence, faculty members and counselors should emphasize participation in time management seminars to improve academic success of students. It is recommended that college students be made aware of time management's potential impact on academic stress, and of what activities should be undertaken instead of leaving it to trial and error. Courses offered for credit and sessions on time management at the student recreation centers Student Recreation Center may refer to:
  • A Lesiure centre
  • The Student Recreation Center at University of California, Riverside
 and residence halls could enhance efficiency. However, these are not well advertised and utilized. For example a course offered in this campus is entitled en·ti·tle  
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.

2. To furnish with a right or claim to something:
 "Academic Planning and Development" and emphasizes the importance of attendance, time management skills, study habits, teacher/student relationships, and scheduling important events. Although the class has open enrollment for all students, it is only required for those students on academic probation Academic probation is a trial period in which a student is given time to try to redeem failing grades or bad conduct. The student will be monitored closely for changes in grades.  or suspension. Other efforts to help students utilize their time and decrease their stress are offered through the university recreation center and individual sororities and fraternities. Freshman week orientation programs and workshops on coping with stress, although helpful, may still not be adequate. Publicity for these events may help students better utilize these services and improve academic performance.

Our results indicated that within this college population, the freshmen and sophomore students had higher reactions to stress than juniors and seniors. This could be due to slightly higher anxiety, lower time management behaviors and leisure activities among them as compared to juniors and seniors. Within a college social system, freshmen and sophomores lack the strong social support networks and have not yet developed the coping mechanisms coping mechanism Psychiatry Any conscious or unconscious mechanism of adjusting to environmental stress without altering personal goals or purposes  used by juniors and seniors to deal with college stress (Allen & Heibert, 1991). Hence, they have fewer resources for managing stress and anxiety to demanding schoolwork and tasks. This has important implications for stress management. Institutions should include problem-solving training especially for freshmen and sophomores that emphasizes the use of cognitive components to deal with academic stress. Social support networks provided to freshmen, i.e., through freshmen week, special programs, advising, and counselors, although helpful, may still not be adequate.

The lack of a strong correlation between leisure satisfaction and perceived academic stress somewhat limits their theoretical and practical significance. Campus recreation practitioners may plan leisure activities and social-recreational pursuits that increase the educational benefit from leisure pursuits to help students handle their academic stress. Recreation centers and student unions should be planned, equipped, and furnished fur·nish  
tr.v. fur·nished, fur·nish·ing, fur·nish·es
1. To equip with what is needed, especially to provide furniture for.

2.
 to encourage leisure activities that give students a broader experience, encourage learning new skills, improve knowledge about things around them, and help satisfy their curiosity.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The correlational nature of this study precludes making any causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.

causal

relating to or emanating from cause.
 statements. Therefore, several explanations of our finding can be proposed. For example, there is the possibility that poor time management behaviors may cause academic stress. Alternatively, academic stress may cause poor time management, i.e., students who are performing poorly and are dissatisfied dis·sat·is·fied  
adj.
Feeling or exhibiting a lack of contentment or satisfaction.



dis·satis·fied
 with the present situation may, as a result of the accompanying stress, be less able to manage and control their time.

Another limitation of this study is its reliance on self-reported measures, and is based on a small sample from a predominantly pre·dom·i·nant  
adj.
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.

2.
 teaching Midwestern university. The results should be considered in context, and not be generalized gen·er·al·ized
adj.
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.

2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.

3.
 to other segments of the population without further investigations. In particular, similar studies should be conducted on a more heterogeneous Not the same. Contrast with homogeneous.

heterogeneous - Composed of unrelated parts, different in kind.

Often used in the context of distributed systems that may be running different operating systems or network protocols (a heterogeneous network).
 population and larger university setting consisting of minority students to determine the associations between the constructs. Such studies are needed to help focus stress management efforts for this population. For college students, research needs to explore the lower leisure satisfaction and its underlying factors, e.g., a sedentary lifestyle
For anthropology, see sedentism.


Sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle most commonly found in modern (particularly Western) cultures. It is characterized by sitting or remaining inactive for most of the day (for example, in an office.
, lack of facilities, or cultural factors.

More objective measures of academic stress such as observed stress reactions should be used in future research. The general rule of thumb for internal consistency of scales is over 0.70 (Nunally, 1078). Some of the scale reliabilities were lower than 0.70 but none below 0.67. Future research should explore the associations of these constructs with higher scale reliabilities.

Despite these limiting factors A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies, lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions, distance, transit or overflight rights, , the present research is the first study that examined the interrelationship of academic stress with anxiety, time management, and leisure satisfaction of college students. Results provide important insights for using time management and anxiety reduction in conjunction with certain leisure activities to reduce academic stress.

IDEAS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

Future research should explore the other mediator variables A mediator variable (or mediating variable) in statistics is a variable that describes how rather than when effects will occur by accounting for the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.  that could possibly explain the weak, or lack of, correlation between academic stress and other measures: career goals, academic performance, work and life stress, employment status, social support, and coping mechanisms. Furthermore, any differences in life stress and work experiences should be investigated to ascertain if an environmental difference could account for higher stress levels by gender and age. Use of experimental and longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
adj.
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts.
 designs will improve the strength of the findings. There is also a need for replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.

There are various replication methods.
 on a more heterogeneous population and larger university setting so as to increase generalizations.

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A wood or grove; a copse.



[Middle English, from Old English.]

holt
Noun

the lair of an otter [from
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Ranjita Misra, Ph.D., CHIS CHIS Chiapas (Estado de México)
CHIS Channel Islands National Park (US National Park Service) 
*, Assistant Professor, School of Health Sciences, 307,4, The Tower, Ohio University Ohio University, main campus at Athens; state supported; coeducational; chartered 1804, opened 1809 as the first college in the Old Northwest. There are additional campuses at Chiillicothe, Lancaster, and Zanesville, as well as facilities throughout the state. , Athens, OH 45701, (740) 593-0528, (740) 593-0555 (Fax), misra@ohio.edu. Michelle McKean, Junior, Health Science (Pre-Nutrition Major), Truman State University Campus
Situated in the southern part of the city of Kirksville, Truman's main campus is situated around a slightly wooded quadrangle. By long standing policy, the entire campus is officially "dry," meaning that alcohol is not allowed (though the president of the university has
.
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