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Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago.  did not produce ceramic This article is about ceramic materials. For the fine art, see Ceramic art.

The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos).
 tableware until 1974, when PT IKI IKI Internet-Käyttäjät Ikuisesti (Finnish: Internet Users Forever)
IKI Institut Kosmitscheski Isledowani (Russian: Space Research Institute) 
 Mutiara was established. Since then, the ceramic tableware industry has continued to grow with domestic demand and with improvements in the people's income. In the 1980's, with the rapid development of hotels, restaurants, and other businesses a number of investors started to produce high-quality ceramic tableware products. Among the more famous brands of such products are Sango Noun 1. Sango - a trade language widely used in Chad
Niger-Congo - a family of African language spoken in west Africa
 and Han Han, Chinese dynasty
Han (hän), dynasty of China that ruled from 202 B.C. to A.D. 220. Liu Pang, the first Han emperor, had been a farmer, minor village official, and guerrilla fighter under the Ch'in dynasty.

The growth in the domestic production and consumption of ceramic tableware, which was rapid during the 1980's, started to slow down early in the 1990's. This was so because the size of the domestic market for such tableware was still limited. In view of tiffs, a number of producers made efforts to export their products. In the early years of the 1990's, the volume of Indonesia's ceramic tableware exports showed significant growth. Over the last few years, however, the volume of such exports has been quite stable, despite the fact that the number of ceramic tableware producers in Indonesia has kept on growing as shown by the fact that the total production capacity of the ceramic tableware industry, has soared from 376 million pieces per annum Per annum

 in 1993 to 630 million pieces now.

Given that the per capita [Latin, By the heads or polls.] A term used in the Descent and Distribution of the estate of one who dies without a will. It means to share and share alike according to the number of individuals.  consumption of ceramic tableware products in Indonesia is still small, the domestic market for such products still has a good potential to grow. However, the opportunities on the domestic market are available more for low-quality products than for high-quality ones. Since the profit margin with low-quality ceramic tableware products is small, not many investors have been interested in developing this industry. In view of the fact that the middle-upper income market segment for ceramic tableware is still limited, this industry is attractive only to investors wishing to relocate re·lo·cate  
v. re·lo·cat·ed, re·lo·cat·ing, re·lo·cates
To move to or establish in a new place: relocated the business.

 their factories to Indonesia. Such investors already have access to technology and to export marketing networks.

This report discusses the current condition of Indonesia's ceramic tableware industry, the developments in the import and export of such products, and the obstacles to the efforts at increasing ceramic tableware exports. One of such obstacles is the high dependency dependency

In international relations, a weak state dominated by or under the jurisdiction of a more powerful state but not formally annexed by it. Examples include American Samoa (U.S.) and Greenland (Denmark).
 on import sources for basic materials. However, with its comparative advantage in terms of human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees.  and with the growing number of skilled personnel in the area of ceramic tableware production, the industry can be expected to increase its exports.

Product description

Ceramic tableware products are household appliances made of ceramic such as plates, pots, and cups & saucers. Such products are produced through several stages, from the processing of the basic materials, to the shaping of the product, the making of glazing Glazing

The application of finely ground glass, or glass-forming materials, or a mixture of both, to a ceramic body and heating (firing) to a temperature where the material or materials melt, forming a coating of glass on the surface of the ware.
 materials, and the burning process. The basic materials for such products are as follows: clay, kaolin kaolin (kā`əlĭn): see china clay. , quartz quartz, one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2. , fledspar, and certain auxiliary auxiliary

In grammar, a verb that is subordinate to the main lexical verb in a clause. Auxiliaries can convey distinctions of tense, aspect, mood, person, and number.

In the initial stage, all the basic materials are processed. Then, they are shaped into a product. Subsequently, the product is burned under certain temperatures without causing damage or defects. There are a number of different shaping processes such as casting, pressing, and jiggering. Casting is usually used to shape tea pots, pressing to shape saucers, and jiggering to shape plates. A product that has been shaped is subsequently burned, glazed glaze  
1. A thin smooth shiny coating.

2. A thin glassy coating of ice.

a. A coating of colored, opaque, or transparent material applied to ceramics before firing.

, and decorated dec·o·rate  
tr.v. dec·o·rat·ed, dec·o·rat·ing, dec·o·rates
1. To furnish, provide, or adorn with something ornamental; embellish.


Under the Indonesian Industrial Standard (SII SII Servicio de Impuestos Internos (Chile)
SII Seiko Instruments, Inc.
SII Strong Interest Inventory
SII Standards Institution of Israel
SII Securities and Investment Institute (UK) 
), the maximum limits on the contents of poisonous poi·son·ous
Relating to or caused by a poison.


having the properties of a poison.

poisonous bride's bush
 elements such as lead (Pb) and cadmium cadmium (kăd`mēəm) [from cadmia, Lat. for calamine, with which cadmium is found associated], metallic chemical element; symbol Cd; at. no. 48; at. wt. 112.41; m.p. 321°C;; b.p. 765°C;; sp. gr. 8.  (Cd) in the basic materials for ceramic tableware products have been determined because such products are used for eating and drinking purposes. This is to avoid the possibility of excessive contamination which can harm human health.

The maximum limits on the contents of chemicals in such basic materials vary according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the types and shapes of the products. Ceramic tableware products are differentiated from one another according to their shapes such as flat tableware (plates and the likes), tableware with a small cavity cavity /cav·i·ty/ (kav´i-te)
1. a hollow place or space, or a potential space, within the body or one of its organs.

2. in dentistry, the lesion produced by caries.
, and tableware with a large cavity such as cups, mugs, milk containers, tea pots, and the likes. Apart from this, the influence of acids contained in solid food and drinks on the basic materials for ceramic tableware products is also taken into account.

Table - 1 Maximum limits on contents of metals in extracts for ceramic tableware, SH-0451-81
                                           Contents (ppm)
Samples tested         Capacity
                       (ml)           Lead (Pb)   Cadmium (Cd)

Products with cavity   > 1,100            2.0         0.2
Products with cavity   < 1,100            7.0         0.7
Flat products          any capacity      20.0         2.0

Source: Data Consult

Ceramic tableware also has three different quality grades according to the types of basic materials used and the temperatures under which they are burned. One of them is tableware stoneware stoneware, hard pottery made from siliceous paste, fired at high temperature to vitrify (make glassy) the body. Stoneware is heavier and more opaque than porcelain and differs from terra-cotta in being nonporous and nonabsorbent. , which is characterized char·ac·ter·ize  
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.

 with its bottom having the light-brown or cream color. Tableware stoneware is burned in temperatures of between 1,060-1,280 centigrade centigrade /cen·ti·grade/ (sen´ti-grad) having 100 gradations (steps or degrees); see under scale.

 degrees. The second quality grade is soft-porcelain tableware and the third ultra hard porcelain porcelain [Ital. porcellana], white, hard, permanent, nonporous pottery having translucence which is resonant when struck. Porcelain was first made by the Chinese to withstand the great heat generated in certain parts of their kilns.  tableware. Both soft-porcelain and ultra hard porcelain tableware products have white bottoms. The former is burned in temperatures of between 1,280-1,350 centigrade degrees and the latter between 1,410-1,530 centigrade degrees. Ultra hard porcelain tableware products are mostly used by hotels, and they come in a wide range of shapes such as plates, trays, bowls, egg stands (double and single), containers for salt, pepper, butter, jam, and mustard mustard, common name for the Cruciferae, a large family chiefly of herbs of north temperate regions. The easily distinguished flowers of the Cruciferae have four petals arranged diagonally ("cruciform") and alternating with the four sepals. , double astrays, and cups and in a wide range of sizes.

According to the SII, ceramic tableware products of the semi-porcelain and porcelain types which are used for tea and coffee should have glazed surface with hardness of over 4 Mohs. As for saucers, their edge should have a minimum impact resistance of 0.147 him in the case their bottom parts should have a minimum impact resistance of 0.074 Nm in the case of the the former and 0.098 Nm in the case of the latter. As for ceramic tableware products with a cavity (such as pots, cups, sugar containers, and milk containers), their bottom parts should have a minimum impact resistance of 0.074 Nm in the case of those, of the semi-porcelain type and 0.098 Nm in the case of those of the porcelain type.

Thus, local ceramic tableware product can be divided into three different quality grades: superior, medium, and low. Those of superior quality are mostly consumed con·sume  
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.

 by star-rated hotels and expensive restaurants, which procures them directly from the producers. Meanwhile, ceramic tableware products of medium and low quality are mass-produced and supplied to the free market.

Production capacity 630 million pieces/annum

Currently (as per November November: see month.  1997), them are 38 ceramic tableware producers operating in Indonesia with a combined production capacity of 630 million pieces/annum. Geographically, these companies are concentrated in Java. This is so largely because most consumers of such products -- both households and hotels/restaurants -- found in Java. Another reason is that Java has good infrastructural and public facilities such as roads, drainage drainage, in agriculture
drainage, in agriculture, the removal of excess water from the soil, either by a system of surface ditches, or by underground conduits if required by soil conditions and land contour.
 systems, and gas distribution networks that are very supportive of the production and distribution of ceramic tableware products.

West Java is home to 21 producers with a combined production capacity of 338 million pieces/annum, which is 53.7% of the total. East Java East Java (Indonesian: Jawa Timur) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and also includes neighboring Madura and Bawean islands.  has 8 producers with a combined production capacity of 131 million pieces/annum, and Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept.  2 with a combined production capacity of 61.5 million pieces/annum. The remaining ceramic tableware producers are found in Bali Bali (bä`lē), island and (with two offshore islets) province (1990 pop. 2,777,356), c.2,200 sq mi (5,700 sq km), E Indonesia, westernmost of the Lesser Sundas, just E of Java across the narrow Bali Strait. The capital is Denpasar. , Pontianak Pontianak (pôntēä`näk), city (1990 pop. 398,357), capital of West Kalimantan prov., W Borneo, Indonesia, at the mouth of a small stream in the Kapuas delta near the west coast.  (West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line. ), and Jakarta Jakarta or Djakarta (both: jəkär`tə, jäkär`tä), city and special district (1990 pop. 8,227,746), capital and largest city of Indonesia, NW Java, at the mouth of the canalized Ciliwung River, on Jakarta .

Among the largest ceramic tableware producers in Indonesia are PT Sango Ceramics ceramics (sərăm`ĭks), materials made of nonmetallic minerals that have been permanently hardened by firing at a high temperature, or objects made of such materials.  Indonesia, PT Lucky Indah Keramik, PT Han Kook Ceramics Indonesia, PT Kedaung Oriental oriental

having some connection with the Orient.

oriental avian eye fluke
see philophthalmusgralli.

oriental blood fluke

oriental cattle plague
see rinderpest.
 Porcelain Industry (PT KOPIN), PT Industri Keramik Indonesia Mutiara (PT IKI Mutiara), PT Indo Keramik Inti Widya, and PT Sari Koyotoki International.

The first ceramic tableware producer to operate in Indonesia is PT IKI Nusantara, whose plant is located in Surabaya Surabaya, Surabaja, or Soerabaja (srəbī`ə, Du. s , East Java. Established under the domestic investment (PMDN PMDN Penanaman Modal Dalam Negeri ) scheme in 1974, PT IKI Nusantara currently has an annual production capacity of 6 million pieces. It products include plates with diameters of 6-10.5 inches, bowls with diameters of 6-7 inches, coffee sets, and cups.

PT Lucky Indah, whose plant is located in Tangerang For the regency of the same name, see .
Tangerang is a city in Banten, Indonesia. It is located about 20 km west of Jakarta. It is the second largest urban center in the Jabotabek region after Jakarta. It has an area of 164.54 km² and population of 1,487,000 (2003).
, West Java, came into operations in 1977 and currently has an annual production capacity of 31.5 million pieces. In 1990, the company took over the assets of PT Lucky Keramik Indonesia, which is located in Bogor Bogor (bō`gôr), formerly Buitenzorg (boi`tənzôrkh) [Du.,=free from care], city (1990 pop. 271,341), W Java, Indonesia. . These two companies are owned by the same shareholders.

Lucky ceramic tableware products are readily available on the market, especially at super-markets, large cities. Every Lucky product has the brand name and the word hotelware written on it. This is meant to keep up the image of Lucky products, which come in a wide range of shapes and sizes such as spoons Spoons is a fast-paced card game of matching and bluffing played with an ordinary pack of playing cards and several ordinary kitchen spoons or various other objects. Spoons is played in multiple rounds and each player's objective is to be the first in the round to have four of a , small bowls, plates, sugar containers, milk pots, and others.

One ceramic tableware product which is quite agressive in expanding its production is PT Kedaung Oriental Porcelain Industry (PT KOPIN), which operates under tile tile, one of the ceramic products used in building, to which group brick and terra-cotta also belong. The term designates the finished baked clay—the material of a wide variety of units used in architecture and engineering, such as wall slabs or blocks, floor  foreign investment (PMA PMA (papillary-marginal-attached),
n a system of epidemiologic scoring of periodontal disease devised by Schour and Massler in which the symbols denote the areas involved in gingival inflammation.

PMA Progressive muscular atrophy
) scheme and is affiliated to the Kedaung Group. With its plant located Tangerang, West Java, PT KOPIN commenced its operations in 1991. The company is jointly owned by DK Lim & Sons Investment Pte. Ltd. of Singapore and its local partners PT Kedaung Industrial Ltd. and PT Angsa Daya. PT Angsa Daya is known for its ceramic tile products, which it markets under brand name IKAD.

Initially, PT KOPIN had an annual production capacity of 19.35 million tons. Now, following the completion of its optimization optimization

Field of applied mathematics whose principles and methods are used to solve quantitative problems in disciplines including physics, biology, engineering, and economics.
 program, the company has an annual production capacity of 26 million pieces. PT KOPIN's product range includes dinner plates, meat plates, side plates, saucers, bowls, tea cups, tea pots with covers, sugar pots with covers, creamers, and platters.

PT KOPIN markets its products under the indigenous brand name "Kopin," which is less well-known than the international ones such as Sango, Han Kook, or Haeng Nam. Even so, PT KOPIN has managed to export 70% of its output to a number of countries. The company's main market segment is the household sector. However, it has also started to produce high-quality ceramic tableware products to cater to hotels and restaurants.

Another large-scale ceramic tableware producer operating under the PMA scheme is PT Han Kook Ceramics Indonesia, which is jointly owned by Han Kook Chinaware chinaware, hard, white, translucent pottery with soft glaze, known as porcelain. It originated in China but is now produced in various countries. Its composition is of kaolin and petuntse.  Co. Ltd. of South Korea and its local partner PT Indomas Tata Perdana. PT Han Kook Ceramics Indonesia established its plant on the basis of a license issued in 1991 by the Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM BKPM Badan Pengawasan Pasar Modal (Indonesian investment coordinating board) ). In 1993, the company expanded the production capacity of its plant, which is located Tangerang, West Java. The company uses bone porcelain as the main basic material for its tableware products, which it markets under brand name Super Strong. The company's leading products are named Super Bone. Up to now, PT Han Kook Ceramics Indonesia has been the only ceramic tableware producer in Indonesia to use china bone as the main basic material.

Another famous brand of ceramic tableware is Sango, which is produced by PT Sango Ceramics Indonesia. With its plant located in Semarang, PT Sango Ceramics Indonesia commenced its operations in 1980 and initially had an annual production capacity of 25.95 million pieces. In 1992, the company expanded its annual production capacity to 37.45 million pieces. Sango ceramic tableware products are widely used not only by households of middle-upper income levels but also by hotels, restaurants, and catering companies in major cities in Indonesia This is a list of cities in Indonesia, by major island or region: Java and Bali

  • Ambarawa
  • Bandung
  • Banjarnegara
  • Banyumas
  • Banyuwangi
  • Bekasi
  • Bogor
  • Brebes
  • Cianjur
  • Ciamis
  • Cilacap
  • Cilegon
  • Cinere
  • Cirebon

On the domestic market, PT Sango Ceramics Indonesia markets its products mostly under brand name Sango. On the export market, however) the company's products come in different brand names as requested by the importers. These brand names include Monroe, Gibson, and Picadilly. The company's ceramic tableware products come in different types such as ultra-hard porcelain hotelware, chinese restaurantware, and rim shape.

Sango's high-quality ceramic tableware products are now faced with a new competitor, namely PT Doulton Multifortuna, which produces similar products under brand name Royal Doulton The Royal Doulton Company is one of the world-renowned English companies producing tableware and collectables, with a history dating back to 1815. Operating originally in London, its reputation grew in the area known as The Potteries, where it was a relative latecomer compared to . Operating under the PMA scheme, PT Doulton Multifortuna--which is partially owned by an English investor--has invested US$ 31 mill to produce up to 7,250,000 pieces of tableware and 250,000 pieces of giftware per annum.

Table - 2 Ceramic tableware products and their production capacities, 1996
                          Location of                   (pieces/
Producer                  plant         Status            year)

PT Crown Porcelain Ltd.   Jakarta           PMDN         3,240,000
PT Han Kook Ceramic       Tanggerang        PMA         13,500,000
PT Jatake Keramindo       Tanggerang        PMA          5,400,000
PT Lucky Indah Keramik    Tanggerang        PMDN        31,500,000
PT Pearland               Tanggerang        PMA          4,200,000
PT Adiasa Inspirasi       Tanggerang        PMDN        12,000,000
PT Kedaung Oriental       Tanggerang        PMA         26,000,000
   Porcelain Industry
PT Kencana Foundry Tama   Tanggerang    Non-PMA/PMDN    24,000,000
PT Indo Keramik Inti      Tanggerang        PMDN        38,000,000
PT Doulton Multifortuna   Tanggerang        PMA          7,250,000
PT Haeng Nam Sejahtera    Bekasi            PMA          5,990,000
PT Sri Intan Tokai        Bogor             PMDN         2,400,000
PT Lucky Keramik          Bogor             PMDN        39,900,000
PT Quenn Setyabudhi       Semarang          PMDN        24,000,000
PT Sango Ceramics         Semarang          PMDN        37,450,000
PT Jatisuma Indah         Surabaya          PMDN         7,500,000
   Keramika Industry
   & Co.
PT Industri Keramik       Surabaya          PMDN         6,000,000
   Indonesia Mutiara
PT Sari Koyotoki          Tulungagung       PMA          7,448,000
PT Semeru Agung           Probolinggo       PMDN        25,000,000
   Keramika Indonesia
PT Gloria Megah           Sidoarjo          PMDN        21,600,000
PT Iga Sundari            Bali          Non-PMA/PMDN    23,400,000
CV Timbang Titi Jaya      Pontianak         PMDN         4,348,000

Others                                                 192,388,000

Total                                                  630,000,000

PMA = Foreign Investment;

PMDN = Domestic Investment

Source: Investment Coordinating Board/Data Consult

Dependency on import sources for basic materials

The basic materials for ceramic tableware products such as clay, feldspar feldspar (fĕl`spär, fĕld`–) or felspar (fĕl`spär), an abundant group of rock-forming minerals which constitute 60% of the earth's crust. , and kaolin can be procured from local sources. However, Indonesian kaolin and clay have low quality because they contain high contents of impurities such as Fe203 and Ti02. Therefore, some producers of high-quality ceramic tableware prefer to procure To cause something to happen; to find and obtain something or someone.

Procure refers to commencing a proceeding; bringing about a result; persuading, inducing, or causing a person to do a particular act; obtaining possession or control over an item; or making a person
 such basic materials from import sources, especially from China. Feldspar, plastic clay (Geol.) one of the beds of the Eocene period; - so called because used in making pottery.

See also: Plastic
, and talc are also procured from import sources.

For the past five years (1992-1992), with the growth of the industry of high-quality ceramic tableware in Indonesia, the volume of such imports grew quite significantly at an average annual rate of 19.5%. It grew the most rapidly in 1995, from 75.6 thousand tons in 1994 to 132.1 thousand tons or by 74.6%. In 1996, despite a slight decline, the volume of such imports was still as high as 125.3 thousand tons. However, some these imports are also used by other industries such as paper, rubber products, paint, and pharmaceuticals.

The high growth in such imports in 1995 is suspected to have resulted partially from increases in the production of high-quality ceramic tiles. Then, granito tiles were in high demand. In 1995, the domestic production of ceramic tableware also rose rapidly with the commencement of operations of a large-scale producer and of a few expansion projects.

Table - 3 Indonesia's kaolin imports, 1992-1996
       Volume      Value
Year   (tons)    (US$ '000)

1992    69,595     19,529
1993    74,637     20,437
1994    75,597     20,084
1995   132,108     37,142
1996   125,343     33,353

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Investor interest low

According to data from the BKPM, the investor interest in the ceramic tableware industry has been low over the last few years, as shown by the fact that for the period of 1996-November 1997, only one new project and one expansion project in this industry were approved. This is unlike what happened late in the 1980's, when the investor interest in this industry was quite high.

The new project project belongs to PT Kuan Lin Ceramic Industry, and it was approved under the PMA scheme by the BKPM in 1996. With an investment commitment of US$ 835,000, this company will establish a plant to produce teasets and non-tableware ceramic products. As for teasets, the plant will have an annual production capacity of 180,000 sets. Meanwhile, the expansion project belongs to PT Indo Keramik Inti Widya. With an investment commitment of Rp 9 billion, this company will increase its annual capacity of ceramic tableware production by 8.4 million pieces. This expansion project, which was approved by the BKPM in 1996, is scheduled to be completed in 1999.

Earlier, in 1995, a new project in the ceramic tableware industry was approved under the PMA scheme by the BKPM, and it belongs to PT Doulton Multifortuna. Through this US$ 31 million project, PT Doulton Multifortuna wishes to have the capacity to produce up to 7.25 million pieces of ceramic tableware per annum. This project is a relocation RELOCATION, Scotch law, contracts. To let again to renew a lease, is called a relocation.
     2. When a tenant holds over after the expiration of his lease, with the consent of his landlord, this will amount to a relocation.
 of a ceramic tableware plant owned by Royal Doulton in England. Originally, the relocation was scheduled to be completed in April 1998. However, since a ceramic tableware plant is relatively easy to construct, PT Doulton Multifortuna managed to commence its commercial operations a few months ago.

Unlike Doulton, PT Global Housewares house·wares  
Cooking utensils, dishes, and other small articles used in a household, especially in the kitchen.
 Industries--whose project was also approved by the BKPM in 1995--has not commenced production up to now. With an investment commitment of US$ 2 million, PT Global Housewares Industries intends to have the capacity to produce 3 million pieces of decorative plates and 2 million pieces of decorative cups & bowls per annum. This project is scheduled to commence its commercial operations in mid-1998.

Table - 4 New investment plans in ceramic tableware industry, approved by Investment Coordinating Board in 1996 - October 1997
Name of company      Location      Status   (pieces)

New project:

PT Kuang Lin         Serang,       PMA      Tea set
Ceramic Industry     West Java              180.000 sets

Expansion project:

PT Indo Keramik      Tanggerang,   PMDN     - Dish
Inti Widya           West Java                5,040,000
                                            - Bowl
                                            - Asthray

                     Investment    Date of    Commencement
Name of company      ('mill.)      approval   of operation

New project:

PT Kuang Lin         US$ 0,83(*)     1997         2000
Ceramic Industry

Expansion project:

PT Indo Keramik      Rp 9 bill.      1996         1999
Inti Widya

(*) Including investment in non-tableware ceramic products

Source: Investment Coordinating Board/Data Consult

Production growth slows down

Unlike in the previous years, the growth in the domestic production of ceramic tableware showed a slowdown for the past five years (1992-1996). For the period of 1989-1993, Indonesia's ceramic tableware production grew at an average annual rate of 27.2%, with the highest rates achieved in 1989 and 1990 due to the commencement of operations of several new projects. For the period of 1992-1996, however, the growth in such production averaged only 7.6% per annum because not many new projects were implemented and because the supply of import ceramic tableware increased during this period.

In 1990, as has been mentioned earlier, the growth in the domestic production of ceramic tableware reached its peak level due to the commencement of operations of several new projects such as PT Kedaung Oriental Porcelain, PT Haeng Nam Sejahtera, PT Haft Kook Ceramic Indonesia, PT Jatake Keramindo Kharisma, and others. Besides, the continued improvement in Indonesian economi led to hike in the consumption of various types of manufactured products, including ceramic tableware.

Meanwhile, a new tendency is growing among people in major cities to present cash instead of gifts to wedding couples. This has had a significant impact on the domestic demand for ceramic tableware. However, the growing demand of hotels and restaurants for high-quality ceramic tableware has prevented the domestic production of such products from declining sharply. Moreover, the export demand for Indonesian ceramic tableware has remained high although its growth tends to be stable.

Given that the production capacity of Indonesia's ceramic tableware industry is 630 million pieces/annum and that the actual output for 1996 was 494.8 million pieces, the rate of production capacity utilization Capacity Utilization measures the rate at which a firm makes use of their capital productive capacities, such as factories and machinery. Capacity Utilization generally rises when the economy is healthy and falls when demand softens.  with this industry is optimum, i.e. 78.5%, although it is low compared to 93.9% in 1993.

Table - 5 Indonesia's ceramic tableware production, 1992- 1996
        Production    Growth
Year   ('000 units)    (%)

1992     338,528          -
1993     352,987        4.3
1994     374,200        6.0
1995     434,072       16.0
1996     494,842       14.0

Source: Department of Industry and Trade/Data Consult

Ceramic tableware products can be divided into four major categories as follows: all kinds of plates, cups & saucers, bowls, and others. Of these four categories, all kinds of plates is the most produced, followed by others, which comprises mugs, tea pots, pepper shakers Shakers, popular name for members of the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, also called the Millennial Church. Members of the movement, who received their name from the trembling produced by religious emotion, were also known as Alethians. , ashtrays, and creamers.

Table - 6 Indonesia's 1996 ceramic tableware production, by type
                Production     Share in
Description    ('000 pieces)   total(%)

Plate             192.88         39.0
Cup & Saucer       74.26         15.0
Bowl               84.24         17.0
Others            143.04         29.0

Total             494.42        100.0

Source: Data Consult

Imports up steadily

For the period of 1992-1996, the volume of Indonesia's ceramic tableware imports continued to grow and it did so the most rapidly in 1995 and 1996. In 1995, it reached 10,732 tons, up 149.1% from 4,309 tons in 1994. In 1996, it rose by 27.4% to 13,674 tons.

Of the different types, ceramic tableware of the porcelain types is the most imported. In 1996, for example, Indonesia imported a total of 13,674 tons of ceramic tableware, of which some 88.8% was of the porcelain type while the remaining 11.2% was of the pottery type. One reason for the continued growth in ceramic tableware imports is that people of middle-upper income levels feel good about having foreign products. Another reason is that the prices of import ceramic tableware products, especially those from China, are highly competitive on the domestic market.

Table - 7 Indonesia's ceramic tableware imports by type, 1992 - 1996
US$ '000

Type of product                         1992    1993    1994

Porcelain :

- Plate of all kinds of                  476     103   1,399
  porcelain or china                     300     244     878

- Tea or Coffee cups and saucer        1,037     765   1,552
  of porcelain or china                  509     800     987

- Tea or coffee cups of                   92     134      55
  porcelain or china                     134     158      89

- Tea or coffee saucers of                15       1     228
  porcelain or china                      16       3      97

- Tea or coffee cups of                   87       2      11
  porcelain or china                     117       5       8

- Bowl of size of less than 6"            32      20      34
  of porcelain or china                   22      12      52

- Bowl of size 6" & more of               97      59      24
  porcelain or china                      72      24      39

- Other tableware, kitchenware         1,768   1,210     632
  of porcelain or china                1,941   1,698     798

Subtotal                               3,604   2,294   3,935
                                       3,111   2,944   2,948


- Plates of all kinds other               41      29      14
  than of porcelain or china              31      18      38

- Tea or coffee cups and saucers         173      64      27
  other than of porcelain or china        86      43       8

- Tea or coffee cups other than           19       8     263
  of porcelain or china                   18       7     322

- Tea or coffee saucers other than        21       -       -
  of porcelain or china                   10

- Tea or coffee pots other than of         -       -       -
  porcelain or china

- Bowl of size of less than 6" other       -       -      26
  than of porcelain or china                              20

- Bowl of size 6" and more other          55       4       2
  than of porcelain or china              37       4       2

- Other ceramic tableware,               153      88      42
  kitchenware                            200     108      37

Subtotal                                 462     193     374
                                         382     180     427

Total                                  4,066   2,487   4,309
                                       3,493   3,124   3,375

Type of product                          1995     1996

Porcelain :

- Plate of all kinds of                 6,029
  porcelain or china                    2,046

- Tea or Coffee cups and saucer         1,335
  of porcelain or china                   625

- Tea or coffee cups of                    86
  porcelain or china                       71

- Tea or coffee saucers of                222
  porcelain or china                       71

- Tea or coffee cups of                    12
  porcelain or china                       28

- Bowl of size of less than 6"            337
  of porcelain or china                   108

- Bowl of size 6" & more of               316
  porcelain or china                      202

- Other tableware, kitchenware          1,942
  of porcelain or china                 1,059

Subtotal                               10,279   12,143
                                        4,210    5,317


- Plates of all kinds other                58
  than of porcelain or china               68

- Tea or coffee cups and saucers           93
  other than of porcelain or china         43

- Tea or coffee cups other than            25
  of porcelain or china                    20

- Tea or coffee saucers other than          -
  of porcelain or china

- Tea or coffee pots other than of          1
  porcelain or china                        4

- Bowl of size of less than 6" other        9
  than of porcelain or china               10

- Bowl of size 6" and more other           37
  than of porcelain or china               13

- Other ceramic tableware,                230
  kitchenware                             981

Subtotal                                  453    1,531
                                        1,139    1,801

Total                                  10,732   13,674
                                        5,349    7,118

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Every year, China is the largest supplier of ceramic tableware to Indonesia. In 1996, for example, China supplied Indonesia with 10,833 tons, which accounted for 79.2% of the latter's total ceramic tableware imports. The second largest supplier is Hongkong, which in most cases serves as a broker for Chinese ceramic tableware products. The volume of such imports from European countries like England has been relatively small but the value quite high. This is so because ceramic tableware products imported from European countries are not mass-produced; they are hand-made and have an artistic design.

Table - 8 Indonesia's 1996 ceramic tableware imports, by country of origin
Country of    Volume     Value
origin        (tons)   (US$ '000)


China         10,833     3,643
Hongkong         856       264
England          260     1,082
Singapore         77        63
Japan             50        79
Thailand          14        98
Others            53        88

Subtotal      12,143     5,317


China            980       734
Australia        463       942
Hongkong          36        14
Netherlands       17        11
Singapore         15        20
Others            20        80

Subtotal       1,531     1,801

Total         13,674     7,118

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Exports stagnant stagnant /stag·nant/ (stag´nant)
1. motionless; not flowing or moving.

2. inactive; not developing or progressing.

For the past five years (1992-1996), the volume of Indonesia's ceramic tableware exports showed the tendency to be stagnant, with an average annual growth rate of only 3.2%. In 1996, it even declined by 7.1% from 22,715 tons in 1995 to 21,899 tons. However, the value of such exports rose by 4.1% from US$ 54.13 million to US$ 56.37 million.

Compared to imports, ceramic tableware exports have been high, more so in terms of value. The value of such exports has been high because Indonesia exports mostly high-quality ceramic tableware products to Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia, and the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . On the other hand, Indonesia's ceramic tableware imports are mostly "cheap" products from China.

Indonesian ceramic tableware products have high competitive power on the international market because the producers which export them are companies operating under the PMA scheme in which the foreign partners have not only the necessary technology to produce such products but also access to the global market. They are, for example, "Sango" and "Han Kook," two brand names that are already popular on the international market.

One exporter-producer, namely PT Kedaung Oriental Porcelain (KOPIN), exports its products using a local brand name, Kopin. Initially, the company had difficulties penetrating penetrating

breaching the tissues of the body.
 the international market due to the local brand name it uses. However, thanks to its agressive promotional campaigns and to its establishment of marketing offices in several countries, PT KOPIN has managed to export some 70% of its output.

Table - 9 Indonesia's ceramic tableware exports, by type 1992 - 1996
Type of product                        1992     1993     1994

Porcelain :
- Plates of all kinds of                980      342      275
  porcelain or china                  1,011      305      309
- Tea or Coffee cups and saucers        384       69       49
  of porcelain or china                 561       95       77
- Tea or coffee cups of               1,293      966      799
  porcelain or china                 20,566    1,669    1,668
- Tea or coffee saucers of               23        8        -
  porcelain or china                     43       13
- Tea or coffee pots of                  44       13       29
  porcelain or china                    118       63       42
- Bowl of size of less than               1        1       15
  6" of porcelain or china                5        7        3
- Bowl of size 6" & more of             284       28       59
  porcelain or china                    402       80       54
- Other tableware, kitchenware        1,601    1,883    4,594
  of porcelain or china               4,791    7,891   13,669

Subtotal                              4,610    3,310    5,765
                                     27,497   10,123   15,821

Pottery :
- Plates of all kinds other           3,330    4,789    3,077
  than of porcelain or china          2,407    2,307    1,540
- Tea or coffee cups and saucers         99      733    1,090
  other than of porcelain or china      222      840    1,698
- Tea or coffee cups other than         225      568      949
  of porcelain or china                 369    1,076    2,072
- Tea or coffee saucers other            16        -        5
  than of porcelain or china             21                 2
- Tea or coffee pots other than           1       11       12
  of porcelain or china                   3       20      189
- Bowls, size of less than 6-other        6       20       24
  than of porcelain or china             15       42       40
- Bowl of size 6" and more other        405      535       96
  than of porcelain or china            322      239       73
- Other ceramic tableware,           10,599   10,155   10,235
  kitchenware                        14,748   16,837   16,778

Subtotal                             14,681   16,811   15,488
                                     18,107   21,361   22,392

Total                                19,291   20,121   21,253
                                     45,604   31,484   38,213

                                              US$ '000

of product                             1995     1996

Porcelain :
- Plates of all kinds of                162
  porcelain or china                    295
- Tea or Coffee cups and saucers         89
  of porcelain or china                 148
- Tea or coffee cups of                 587
  porcelain or china                    668
- Tea or coffee saucers of                2
  porcelain or china                      4
- Tea or coffee pots of                  21
  porcelain or china                     37
- Bowl of size of less than              18
  6" of porcelain or china               65
- Bowl of size 6" & more of              76
  porcelain or china                    134
- Other tableware, kitchenware        7,323
  of porcelain or china              26,328

Subtotal                              8,276    8,028
                                     29,018   30,296

Pottery :
- Plates of all kinds other             894
  than of porcelain or china            799
- Tea or coffee cups and saucers      1.183
  other than of porcelain or china    1.801
- Tea or coffee cups other than         760
  of porcelain or china               1.712
- Tea or coffee saucers other            16
  than of porcelain or china             22
- Tea or coffee pots other than         205
  of porcelain or china                 435
- Bowls, size of less than 6-other        3
  than of porcelain or china              3
- Bowl of size 6" and more other        139
  than of porcelain or china             98
- Other ceramic tableware,           11,439
  kitchenware                        20,242

Subtotal                             14,439   13,071
                                     25,112   26,073

Total                                22,715   21,099
                                     54,130   56,369

Source: CBS/Data Consult

So far, the largest buyers of Indonesian ceramic tableware have been advanced countries. In 1996, for example, the United States imported 9,732 tons, which accounted for 74.5% of Indonesia's total ceramic tableware exports for the same year, France 1,455 tons (11.1% of the total), and Australia 1,253 tons (9.6% of the total).

Europe currently imposes antidumping import duties on ceramic tableware products from China. Therefore, China supplies its ceramic tableware products in large quantities to the United States, which does not impose such import duties. According to an export marketing executive of PT KOPIN, Europe is a potential market for Indonesian ceramic tableware products becauset it is no longer efficient to produce such products on a mass-production basis in this region. In Europe, many ceramic tableware producers have switched to exclusive products with some artistic value that are expensive.

Table - 10 Indonesia's 1996 ceramic tableware exports, by country of destination
Country of    Volume     Value
destination   (tons)   (US$ '000)

USA            2,636       11,873
France         1,166        3,020
Italy            552        3,584
Netherlands      462        1,319
Canada           400        1,279
Germany          322          908
Australia        310        1,078
Japan            249        1,108
Others         1,931        6,127

Subtotal       8.028       30.296

USA            7,096       14,288
England        1,244        2,442
Australia        943        1,967
Netherlands      408          540
Italy            312          858
France           289          543
Canada           282          535
Japan            272          661
Pakistan         216          559
Others         2,037        3,680

Subtotal      13,071       26,073

Total         21,099       56,369

Source: CBS/Dam Consult

Consumption up 11.7% annually

Figures on the domestic consumption of ceramic tableware can be obtained using the following formula: consumption = production + imports - exports. With the assumption that the domestic supply Of ceramic tableware for a certain year is totally consumed in the same year, the annual growth in the domestic consumption of such products for the past five years (1992-1996) can be estimated at an average 11.7%. The highest rates of such growth were achieved in 1995 (19.2%) and 1996 (17.4%). In 1995, the domestic consumption of ceramic tableware rose to 398 million pieces from 313.9 million in 1994. In 1996, it increased to 467.1 million pieces.

One major reason for the growth in the domestic consumption of ceramic tableware is an increase in the population of middle-upper income people in urban areas. These people buy ceramic, tableware products both for practical purposes and for collection purposes. Another reason is the continued hike in the population of non-star rated hotels, star-rated hotels, and medium- and large-size restaurants.

In 1995 and 1996, the growth in the domestic consumption of ceramic tableware was especially rapid because there was a high increase in domestic supply due to the commencement of operations of several new and expansion projects.

Table - 11 Indonesia's ceramic tableware consumption, 1992 - 1996
Year   Consumption   Growth
       ('000 pcs)     (%)

1992     302,528         -
1993     313,882       3.8
1994     333,845       6.4
1995     397,959      19.2
1996     467,081      17.4

Source: Data Consult

Ceramic tableware users

In addition to glassware, a growing number of middle-upper income households have started to use ceramic tableware products as household appliances. These products include coffee/tea sets, dinner sets, and coffee mugs. However, they are mostly of medium and low quality.

Ceramic tableware products for home use started to be produced in Indonesia by PT IKI Mutiara in 1974. Three years later, PT Crown Porselain Ltd. and PT Lucky Indah Keramik started to do the same. Nowadays, ceramic tableware of low quality is widely consumed by ordinary people, including food vendors. Among the more famous brands of such ceramic tableware is Lucky.

Households seldom go directly to ceramic tableware producers for purchases because they usually require such products in small quantities. In rare cases, households of upper-income levels buy ceramic plates in considerable quantities directly from the producers because the want to give them away as gifts on wedding and other occasions. Until very recently, ceramic tableware products of medium quality were widely used as gifts for presenting to wedding couples.

Besides the household sector, another user of ceramic tableware is the hotelry sector. Hotels require ceramic tableware products of high/superior quality in considerable quantities, and this is good for producers. Generally, star-rated hotels in Indonesia use such products for purposes related to room service, dinning rooms, and banquet A banquet is a large public meal or feast, complete with main courses and desserts. It usually serves a purpose, such as a charitable gathering, a ceremony, or a celebration. Sometimes a banquet consists of only desserts, but it is advisable to include main courses as well.  needs.

Unlike households, which purchase such products from retailers, hotels generally procure ceramic tableware directly from certain producers on a contract basis so that it can be easy for them to replace certain parts of their ceramic tableware supply due to losses or damage.

The demand of hotels for ceramic tableware was not met by local producers until 1980, when PT Sango Ceramic Indonesia came into operations, followed by PT Indo Keramika Widya (1981), and PT Sari Koyotoki International (PT Sad Keramindo Indah). In the 1990's, PT Han Kook Ceramic Indonesia and PT Haeng Nam Sejahtera came into operations under the PMA scheme, and they also supply their products to hotels. Subsequently, PT Kedaung Oriental Porcelain--which is oriented o·ri·ent  
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.

a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.

b. A pearl having exceptional luster.

 to the middle-income market segment and to the export market--came into operations and supply its ceramic tableware products to the hotelry sector as well.

Despite the lact of accurate statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.


a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them.
 data, restaurants certainly make up a considerable market segment for ceramic tableware as can be seen from the fact that the population of large restaurants in urban areas is high. In Data Consult's observations, the restaurants which use ceramic tableware to serve food and drinks are mostly those of large size (with 100 seat) and of medium size (with 50 seats).

Many franchised restaurants in provincial capitals such as Kentucky Kentucky, state, United States
Kentucky (kəntŭk`ē, kĭn–), one of the so-called border states of the S central United States. It is bordered by West Virginia and Virginia (E); Tennessee (S); the Mississippi R.
 Fried Chicken Fried chicken is chicken which is dipped in a breading mixture and then deep fried, pan fried or pressure fried. The breading seals in the juices but also absorbs the fat of the fryer, which is sometimes seen as unhealthy. , Texas Fried Chicken, California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).  Fried Chicken, and Pizza Hut as well as restaurants that are part of large hotels use ceramic tableware products. In addition, a considerable number of foreign restaurants (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and western) in Indonesia also use ceramic tableware products of high quality. These restaurants use ceramic tableware products of the same quality as those used by hotels.

Besides hotels and restaurants, another business which also uses ceramic tableware is catering services, which supply food/drinks to airline, mining, and other companies. In addition, ceramic tableware products are also used by medium-scale private companies for purposes related to promotional campaigns, office decoration, and other needs. The ceramic tableware products used by such companies for promotional purposes vary in type and quality according to the products that are being promoted and to the target audiences.

Distribution system

Ceramic tableware for home use is readily available at general retailers, which also sell other household appliances, and at supermarkets. Such retailers and supermarkets sell other household appliances such as kitchen utensils, brooms, and pails in addition to ceramic tableware.

Ceramic tableware products for home use are readily available in major cities and in provincial capitals. In suburban areas and in small towns, they are not easily available because people in these areas prefer to use glassware, which is more affordable to them than ceramic products.

Generally, the distribution system for ceramic tableware is the same as that for ceramic tile products: it involves both direct and indirect sale approaches. The direct sale approach is used when the producer deals with large-scale users such as hotels and restaurants. The indirect sale approach is used to serve general consumers (i.e. households), which purchase such products in small/medium quantities.

The indirect sales approach involves the use of distributors. PT Lucky Indah Keramik, for example, supplies its products through a distributor called Mediana & Co. to the traditional markets, supermarkets, and retailers/stores. The company deals with large-scale buyers (i.e. hotels and restaurants) both through its distributor and directly. Those which purchase between 1,000-3,000 pieces can determine the color of the products and have their own company logos attached to the products.

PT Sango Ceramic Indonesia sells its products directly to consumers, both institutions and individuals. The company also serves orders for minimum quantifies which it has determined. In addition, it also serves retail purchases through its showrooms, head office, and representative offices (in Jakarta, Bandung, and Semarang). Sango tableware products are also available at supermarkets and retail stores. As for hotels, they can purchase ceramic tableware products directly from the company or through its distributor, namely PT Keisi Indonesia (Toko Tian Tian
 or T'ien
(Chinese; “Heaven”)

In indigenous Chinese religion, the supreme power reigning over humans and lesser gods. The term refers to a deity, to impersonal nature, or to both.
 Liong), which also serves as a distributor for other ceramic tableware brands and other hotel appliances.

PT Sari Koyotoki International and PT Indo Keramik Inti Widya supply their products through general distributors, which also distribute other brands such as Sango, Queen, Indo Keramik, Crown, and Lucky. In their export marketing, these companies supply their products through trading companies as well as directly to importers.

Meanwhile, the marketing of PT Kedaung Oriental Porcelain Industry's products is handled by the company's distributor, namely PT Kedaung Trading Division. Besides handling the distribution of ceramic tableware, PT Kedaung Trading Division also distributes all the products produced by the Kedaung Group's other factories.

Prices vary

Generally, the retail prices of ceramic tableware products vary from one producer to another according to quality and design. The retail pricing of such products takes into account the following profit margins for the following parties: 10-20% for distributors/agents; 15-20% for retailers/stores/supermarkets. In addition, it also takes into account a 10% VAT VAT

See: Value-added tax


See value-added tax (VAT).
. This means that consumers generally pay 51.8% over the base price of such products as determined by the producer.

Table - 12 Formulation formulation /for·mu·la·tion/ (for?mu-la´shun) the act or product of formulating.

American Law Institute Formulation
 of retail price of ceramic tableware

- Base price (producer-level)         100%
- Distributor margin                   15%
- Agent/retailer margin (20% x 15)     23%
- VAT (10% x 138)                    13.8%

Retail price (consumer-level)       151.8%

Source: Data Consult

Prospects and conclusions

Given that there are only one new project and one expansion project in the ceramic tableware industry until the year 2000, the growth in the production capacity of this industry is likely to be slow. In the year 2000, the production capacity of this industry will reach 650 million pieces/annum. Meanwhile, the domestic consumption of ceramic tableware products is not likely to grow rapidly either. It can be projected to grow at only 5% annually until the year 2000. Thus, in 2000, the domestic consumption of such products will reach 540 million piece.

If all the domestic demand for ceramic tableware products is locally met, the rate of production capacity utilization with this industry will reach 83% in the year 2001. Ceramic tableware producers will seek to maintain their shares of the domestic market. The problem is that the prices of such products on the domestic market are relatively low due to tight competition. Furthermore, domestic consumers mostly buy ceramic tableware products of medium/low quality. Thus, it is difficult for producers to determine high profit margins.

In fact, Indonesian ceramic tableware products still have good export opportunities, given the fact that they--especially those of medium/low quality--are quite competitive in terms of price and quality to Chinese products. In advanced countries such as those in Europe and the united States, Indonesia ceramic tableware products are quite competitive.

Besides advanced countries, Indonesia also has good opportunities to export its ceramic tableware to developing countries in Asia and Africa, given the fact that efforts to export such products to these countries have not been made to the optimum. Furthermore, Indonesia also good opportunities to export such products to Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies.  and South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa. . This is so because Indonesian glassware products are already known for their competitive quality and price in Latin America, especially in Peru, Chile, and Argentina, as well as in South Africa.

One problem with exporting ceramic tableware products to these regions is that Indonesian producers still do not have access to these markets. Most of them are still oriented to the domestic market. Therefore, it is necessary for them to change their market orientation. The Kedaung Group s success in increasing its ceramic tableware exports is attributable to its efforts at establishing an export marketing network by opening representative offices in countries with a good potential to import such products. Earlier, the Kedaung Group also managed to increase its glassware exports by making similar efforts. Such efforts can also be made by other ceramic tableware producers.

Table - 13 Projections of Indonesia's ceramic tableware production capacity and consumption, 1997 - 2001

('million pcs)
Year   Production   Consumption

1997      630           467
1998      630           490
1999      640           514
2000      650           540
2001      650           567

Source: Data Consult
COPYRIGHT 1997 P.T. Data Consult, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1997 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Publication:Indonesian Commercial Newsletter
Date:Dec 8, 1997

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