CEC and its application in off-the-road tires.Cabot elastomer elastomer (ĭlăs`təmər), substance having to some extent the elastic properties of natural rubber. The term is sometimes used technically to distinguish synthetic rubbers and rubberlike plastics from natural rubber. composites (CEC (Central Electronic Complex) The set of hardware that defines a mainframe, which includes the CPU(s), memory, channels, controllers and power supplies included in the box. Some CECs, such as IBM's Multiprise 2000 and 3000, include data storage devices as well. ) materials are carbon black filled natural lubber masterbatches. Unlike any traditional masterbatch production, Cabot has developed a novel technology which continuously disperses carbon black in clean natural rubber latex latex, emulsion of a polymer (e.g., rubber) in water (see colloid). Natural latexes are produced by a number of plants, are usually white in color, and often contain, in addition to rubber, various gums, oils, and waxes. (refs. 1-3). CEC material, produced by this continuous process, has the following features:
* Carbon black highly dispersed dis·perse
v. dis·persed, dis·pers·ing, dis·pers·es
a. To drive off or scatter in different directions: The police dispersed the crowd.
b. in rubber matrix;
* high bound rubber content;
* high rubber molecular weight; and
* no contamination from possible foreign materials such as dirt, leaves, sand, pieces of wood and wire.
These features bring improved performance to the products made of CEC material (refs. 4 and 5). In addition, rubber compounding process and materials handling Materials handling
The loading, moving, and unloading of materials. The hundreds of different ways of handling materials are generally classified according to the type of equipment used. can also be simplified, leading to enhanced productivity with the existing facility capacity.
In this article, we report the work on the application of CEC material to off-the road tires. On each 18.00-25 tire, two-section treads were made with CEC material as one section and the corresponding dry mixed compound as the other section. Two formulations, 100% natural rubber formulation formulation /for·mu·la·tion/ (for?mu-la´shun) the act or product of formulating.
American Law Institute Formulation and natural rubber/synthetic rubber blend formulation, were used. In the blend formulation, CEC material was blended with synthetic rubber synthetic rubber: see rubber. masterbatch. Mixing processes were carried out in plant scale mixers such as XM-140 and PN370. Compound properties, OTR OTR Over The Road (truckers)
OTR Old Time Radio
OTR On The Road
OTR Off the Record
OTR Over The Rainbow
OTR Office of Tax and Revenue
OTR Over-The-Rhine tread tread
injury to the coronet of the horse's hoof by treading on it by the opposite hoof, or by another horse when they are being worked in a team. If the coronary matrix is injured there may be a subsequent crack or deformity. wear and tread cut-and-chip results are presented.
CEC production process
The process of CEC production (figure 1) consists of carbon black slurry slurry,
n a thin mixture of insoluble material floating in liquid.
solids in suspension. Used as a method of feeding pigs—slurry is pumped through fixed lines and delivered to troughs by hoses equipped with gasoline pump fittings. make-up Make-up
The amount of deficiency when a cash flow or capital item is deficient. For example, an interest make-up relates to the interest amount above a ceiling percentage. , NR latex storage, mixing and coagulation coagulation (kōăg'ylā`shən), the collecting into a mass of minute particles of a solid dispersed throughout a liquid (a sol), usually followed by the precipitation or of carbon black slurry and latex, dewatering Dewatering (dē′wöd·ər·iŋ) is the removal of water from solid material or soil by wet classification, centrifugation, filtration, or similar solid-liquid separation processes. of the coagulum coagulum /co·ag·u·lum/ (ko-ag´u-lum) pl. coa´gula [L.] clot (1).
n. pl. co·ag·u·la
1. A clot; a curd.
2. , drying, finishing and packaging.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
The carbon black slurry is prepared by finely dispersing carbon black in water mechanically without any suffactant. The slurry is injected in·ject·ed
1. Of or relating to a substance introduced into the body.
2. Of or relating to a blood vessel that is visibly distended with blood.
1. introduced by injection.
2. congested. into the mixer mixer, either of two electronic devices in which two or more signals are combined. In the type of mixer used in radio receivers, radar receivers, and similar systems, a signal is translated upward or downward in frequency. at very high speed and mixes continuously with the NR latex stream. Under highly energetic and turbulent conditions, the mixing and coagulation of polymer with filler fill·er 1
One that fills, as:
a. Something added to augment weight or size or fill space.
b. A composition, especially a semisolid that hardens on drying, used to fill pores, cracks, or holes in wood, plaster, is completed mechanically at room temperature in less than 0.1 second, without the aid of chemicals.
After dewatering of the coagulum in an extruder, the material is continuously fed into the dryer to further reduce the moisture to less than 1%. The residence time in the dryer is 30-60 seconds. Over the entire drying process, only for a very short period, typically 5-10 seconds, will the compound temperature reach 140-150[degrees]C. This is to say that during drying, the thermo-oxidative degradation DEGRADATION, punishment, ecclesiastical law. A censure by which a clergy man is deprived of his holy orders, which he had as a priest or deacon. of natural rubber can be essentially prevented. In the dryer, small amounts of antioxidants Antioxidants
Substances that reduce the damage of the highly reactive free radicals that are the byproducts of the cells.
Mentioned in: Aging, Nutritional Supplements
n. are also introduced as a stabilizer stabilizer: see airplane. for storage. Optionally, the small ingredients in the compounds, such as zinc oxide zinc oxide, chemical compound, ZnO, that is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in acids or alkalies. It occurs as white hexagonal crystals or a white powder commonly known as zinc white. , stearic acid stearic acid /ste·a·ric ac·id/ (ste-ar´ik) a saturated 18-carbon fatty acid occurring in most fats and oils, particularly of tropical plants and land animals; used pharmaceutically as a tablet and capsule lubricant and as an emulsifying , antiozonants, antioxidants and wax can be added in this stage.
The dried material can then be slabbed, cut or pelletized. Currently, CEC material is packaged into highly friable friable /fri·a·ble/ (fri´ah-b'l) easily pulverized or crumbled.
1. Readily crumbled; brittle.
2. Relating to a dry, brittle growth of bacteria. bales consisting of compressed small strips.
The key feature of the CEC process is the fast mixing and coagulation, and a short drying time at high temperature. This ensures excellent performance for the material as polymerfiller interaction can be better preserved and polymer degradation Polymer degradation is a change in the properties - tensile strength, colour, shape, etc - of a polymer or polymer based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals. can be nearly eliminated.
Internal mixer mixing process
For an internal mixer, the difference between conventional mixing and CEC mixing is that in the conventional process. the mixer is loaded with low viscosity rubber and free flow filler. In mixing CEC material, an internal mixer is loaded with carbon-black-filled-masterbatch which may have a high viscosity, depending oil the type and the loading of carbon black and the loading of other additives (table 1). The challenge in mixing CEC material is to set up appropriate mixing parameters and operation procedures. When mixing CEC material which has a high viscosity, control of the initial torque and the rate of increase in compound temperature are key issues in obtaining an effectively mixed CEC compound.
We have done CEC material mixing on an XM 140-mixer which has a batch size of 160 kg, a BP270 mixer which has a batch size of 200 kg and a PN370 mixer which has a batch size of 310 kg. We found that by using a smaller sized mixer, we could adapt a conventional mixing procedure to CEC mixing with minor changes in operating procedures, but in using larger sized mixers, we had to adjust mixing parameters such as rotor rotor: see generator; motor, electric. speed.
To achieve effective mixing with high viscosity CEC material, masticating the CEC masterbatch for a short period of time in the beginning of the mixing cycle is essential, because the effective mechanical breakdown of the compound happens at low compound temperature. A great deal of heat is quickly generated during compound mastication mastication /mas·ti·ca·tion/ (mas?ti-ka´shun) chewing; the biting and grinding of food.
(mas´tikā´sh . As rubber is a poor heat conductor conductor
Any of various substances that allow the flow of electric current or thermal energy. A conductor is a poor insulator because it has a low resistance to such flow. , heat removal or heat control is a critical parameter (1) Any value passed to a program by the user or by another program in order to customize the program for a particular purpose. A parameter may be anything; for example, a file name, a coordinate, a range of values, a money amount or a code of some kind. for CEC mastication efficiency. Heat removal by cooling is based on the contact area between the compound and the cooling surface of the mixer. A smaller mixer, which has a relatively high ratio of metal surface area to compound volume, is better in controlling compound temperature than a larger mixer, and hence is relatively straightforward to use the parameters set for conventional mixing. For a larger mixer, however, we adjusted mixing parameters to get a balanced rate in compound mastication and compound temperature.
As described in table 2. CEC mixing was first carried out under the same conditions and formulations as in convention al dry mixing (CEC 1 and CEC 2). A current meter an instrument for measuring the velocity, force, etc., of currents.
See also: Current was used to guide the batch dumping dumping, selling goods at less than the normal price, usually as exports in international trade. It may be done by a producer, a group of producers, or a nation. point. We observed that CEC material was mixed in a shorter time than the dry mix compound (12.5' vs. 14'), and that the mixed CEC compound showed a lower Mooney Mooney is family name, which is probably predominantly derived from the Irish Ó Maonaigh. It can also be spelled Moony, Meaney, Mauney, Moon, Money. The word can refer to: Companies
The difference between estimated transaction costs and the amount actually paid.
Slippage is usually attributed to a change in the spread.
See also: Spread, Transaction Costs
Slippage occurred after the addition of a processing aid to both CEC compound and the dry mix compound. For the dry mix compound, the processing aid provided the required compound processability after two mixing stages. For CEC compound, since a low viscosity could be quickly achieved in this scale of mixing, the processing aid was not necessary. Therefore, we made two CEC compounds without the processing aid (CEC 3 and CEC 4), and they showed a further saving of two minutes of mixing time with similar compound viscosity to the conventional mixed compounds.
In CEC 3 mixing, without adding the processing aid, CEC compound only used 75% of the conventional mixing time and gave a comparable Mooney viscosity. This means that, in a 25% shorter time, CEC compound without a processing ,aid provided the same compound processability as the conventional compound with a processing aid.
Under the same mixing conditions as used for the conventional dry mix compound, CEC compound showed a very rough surface after sheeting out from a sheet-performing machine. The batch was dumped dump
v. dumped, dump·ing, dumps
1. To release or throw down in a large mass.
a. based on the mixing time set for the conventional dry mix and compound temperature, but it looked like the batch was inadequately mixed.
The rough surface of the compound could be looked at as many hard gels gels,
n.pl herbal suspensions made from gums, gelatin, or pectin that are used on mucosae and in cases in which long-lasting, slow-acting astringent properties are needed. mixed in the smooth matrix. We believe that part of the CEC compound was in low viscosity while part of it remained in high viscosity. As we have mentioned, the non-uniform mix was related to the rapid increase in the compound temperature under shear force shear force
Force acting on a substance in a direction perpendicular to the extension of the substance, as for example the pressure of air along the front of an airplane wing. Shear forces often result in shear strain. , the poor heat conductivity conductivity /con·duc·tiv·i·ty/ (kon?duk-tiv´i-te) the capacity of a body to transmit a flow of electricity or heat; the conductance per unit area of the body.
1. of rubber, the distribution effect of rotors and the flow pattern of the compound in the mixer. Under high shear rate Shear rate is a measure of the rate of shear deformation:
For the simple shear case, it is just a gradient of velocity in a flowing material. , a high viscosity compound would experience high shear force, which is then converted to heat that raises the compound temperature and reduces compound viscosity. To let each part of the batch experience the same amount of shear force requires time. So in the early stages of mixing a batch, the compound viscosity is variable within the batch. If the variation is too large, due to the last increase of local compound temperature, the batch could be composed of hard islands within softer oceans. Since the islands were trapped inside the ocean (lower viscosity parts of the compound), the shear force could not effectively work on those higher viscosity parts of the compound. By the time the batch was dumped, a consistent viscosity batch had not been achieved, so the compound still looked nervy. While we were working oil adjusting mixing parameters and mixing procedure to obtain a smooth appearance of CEC, however, we found that the nervy appearance of the first mixing stage CEC compound became very smooth after the second mixing stage. This phenomenon was never seen for conventional mixed compounds.
It was readily apparent that the common experience in conventional mixing could not been applied exactly to CEC mixing. To overcome the inconsistent viscosity of CEC compound in the first stage of mixing, we controlled the amount of shear force by reducing the rotor speed and hence the compound temperature during mastication. The speed of the rotor was lowered at the beginning of the CEC mixing cycle and then raised up after the addition of the small chemicals. The procedure that we set up alter a few trials required the same mixing time as used for a conventional dry mix, but no processing aid was used for the CEC material and the CEC compound was lower in viscosity than the conventional compound (table 3). On the sheet-preforming machine, the batch appeared as smooth as previous mixes on a smaller scale.
Blending CEC with other polymers
In blend formulations, CEC material is required to blend uniformly with other polymers. In the plant scale mixer, we blended CEC with either a synthetic rubber masterbatch or pure polymer and free carbon black.
* Blending CEC material with a synthetic rubber masterbatch can be carried out by using two masterbatches with the same carbon black loading or using two masterbatches with different carbon black loading. Since the carbon black has already been dispersed and distributed in each masterbatch, the migration of carbon black from one polymer matrix into another polymer matrix is greatly constrained con·strain
tr.v. con·strained, con·strain·ing, con·strains
1. To compel by physical, moral, or circumstantial force; oblige: felt constrained to object. See Synonyms at force.
2. . In this way, carbon black loading in two rubber phases to be manipulated to a certain level.
A synthetic rubber masterbatch with the same carbon black loading as CEC material was prepared using a conventional dry mix cycle. To obtain a blend with small domain morphology morphology
In biology, the study of the size, shape, and structure of organisms in relation to some principle or generalization. Whereas anatomy describes the structure of organisms, morphology explains the shapes and arrangement of parts of organisms in terms of such , we loaded the two masterbatches into an XM-140 mixer first and mixed them for a short period of time before adding other ingredients into the blend.
* Blending CEC material with pure polymer and free carbon black can be done. In most industry plants, pursuing maximum production rate leads to the need to simplify mixing processes. Blend mixing can be done in the same way as single rubber compound mixing. So, mixing CEC material with another polymer and free carbon black can be a practical process.
In a PN370 mixer, CEC material and other rubbers were loaded and mixed for a short period of time before fillers were added. Since the carbon black dispersion dispersion, in chemistry
dispersion, in chemistry, mixture in which fine particles of one substance are scattered throughout another substance. A dispersion is classed as a suspension, colloid, or solution. obtained with CEC material is so much better than that with conventional dry mix, the carbon black dispersion in such a prepared blend is naturally inferior INFERIOR. One who in relation to another has less power and is below him; one who is bound to obey another. He who makes the law is the superior; he who is bound to obey it, the inferior. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 8. to the pure CEC material.
Special modification of mixing procedures was only needed for the first stage of CEC mixing. For the final stage, CEC compound behaved the same as the conventional mix. In this experiment, all mixes containing CEC material were performed in two stages. For the conventional dry mix, there were three stages, including the natural rubber mastication stage, masterbatch stage and final stage.
Table 4 lists the properties and performance of CEC material in two OTR tread formulations and the correspondent conventional dry mixed compounds.
Uncured compound properties
In the natural rubber formulation, CEC compound showed a slightly lower Mooney viscosity and a higher bound rubber content than the correspondent conventional dry mix. CEC compound usually possesses a higher bound rubber content due to its excellent carbon black dispersion. The achieved compound viscosity guaranteed smooth processing during extrusion. In the blend formulation, CEC compound showed a higher Mooney viscosity and a higher bound rubber content. Since two masterbatches were used in this CEC blend, while pure rubbers and free carbon black were used in the conventional dry mixed blend, the distribution of carbon black in the two lubber phases may not be the same for the CEC blend and the conventional blend. The higher viscosity of the CEC blend still produced an acceptable level of extrusion quality, however.
1. transmission electron microscope.
3. transmissible encephalopathy of mink. micro-dispersion analysis of the CEC compound (CEC 5) and the dry mix compound (conventional mix 2) can be seen in figure 2. Clearly, the dispersion of the filler in CEC compound is considerably improved over the dry mix compound. In fact, as can be seen in figure 2, carbon black dispersion and distribution in CEC compound was already complete in the CEC production process, as shown by CEC bale bale
1. a package of wool in a wool pack weighing 150-250 lb depending largely on whether it is greasy or scoured.
2. a compressed bundle of hay, either about 100 lb tied with wire or twine, or large, round, untied bales, as big as a small hay stack and referred to as 'big bales'. .
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Generally, CEC compound showed the same curing characteristics as the conventionally dry mixed compound.
There wasn't was·n't
Contraction of was not.
wasn't was not
wasn't be a significant difference in physical properties between the CEC vulcanizate and the conventional dry mixed vulcanizate. Due to the better carbon black dispersion and the low level of compound detects, CEC vulcanizate usually showed slightly higher tensile tensile,
adj having a degree of elasticity; having the ability to be extended or stretched. than the correspondent conventional compounds. In the case of pure CEC applications, CEC vulcanizate often showed a lower hardness than the correspondent conventional dry mix. This is also attributed to the better carbon black dispersion in CEC material.
CEC vulcanizate showed higher rebound rebound (rē´bownd),
n/v 1. a recovery from illness.
n 2. an outbreak of fresh reflex activity after withdrawal of a stimulus
rebound adjective and lower hysteresis hysteresis (hĭs'tərē`sĭs), phenomenon in which the response of a physical system to an external influence depends not only on the present magnitude of that influence but also on the previous history of the system. than the correspondent conventional dry mix. In figure 3, we can see that CEC vulcanizate had a lower Payne effect The Payne effect is a particular feature of the stress-strain behaviour of rubber, especially rubber compounds containing fillers such as carbon black. It is named after the British rubber scientist A. R. Payne, who made extensive studies of the effect (e.g. Payne 1962). than the conventional dry mix, which substantiates the excellent carbon black micro-dispersion in CEC material. For blend compounds, it was found (ref. 6) that their dynamic properties are related to how they are prepared. In this work, CEC 4 was blended in a different way from the conventional dry blend. The vulcanizates showed similar dynamic properties.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Epiphora. and cut-and-chip
CEC vulcanizate showed higher tear strength than the conventional dry mix. The natural rubber compounds had better tear strength than the NR/synthetic rubber blends. This is also reflected in the cut-and-chip testing result where the loss percentage in the wheel diameter was larger for the blends than for the NR compounds. But in both NR and blend formulations, CEC vulcanizates changed less than the conventional dry mix.
Fatigue fatigue, in engineering
fatigue, in engineering, microscopic cracking of materials, especially metals, after repeated applications of stress. Fissures may be formed within pieces of metal during their manufacture when, while cooling from the molten state,
Fatigue characteristics were measured by two tests, including crack growth rate which was described in a previous work (ref. 4) and fatigued physical properties.
CEC vulcanizates showed a lower crack growth rate than the correspondent conventional dry mix and similar fatigued physical properties to the conventional dry mix.
Abrasion abrasion /abra·sion/ (ah-bra´zhun)
1. a rubbing or scraping off through unusual or abnormal action; see also planing.
2. a rubbed or scraped area on skin or mucous membrane.
Abrasion tests were carried out on both a Cabot Abrader and a DIN Abrader. On both machines, CEC vulcanizates showed higher abrasion resistance than the conventional dry mix. Blended compounds were better than the NR compounds in abrasion resistance.
Tire building and road test
The best test of a new material is in its real world application. However, experience tells us that real world field tests have more chaos than a lab test, so even with a single formulation, a high variation can be obtained in the results. To minimize the known variables during the road test, such as different trucks, more than one driver and at least six tire positions in a track, we decided to build each tire with two tread sections, i.e., half of the tread used the conventional dry mix and the other half used CEC material.
The size of the OTR tires was 18.00-25 (figure 4). Section A was compared with section B in one tire, and section C was compared with section D in one tire. Section A was made with 100% CEC compound, and section B was made with 100% NR conventional dry mix. Section C was the blend made of 60% CEC material and 40% conventional synthetic rubber blend, and section D was the blend made by the conventional dry mix of 60% NR and 40% synthetic rubber blend.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
The tires were equipped on 50-ton trucks which run on the field of an open mine in the center of China.
Road test results and discussion
The tires were run on very rough roads with heavy loads. On several tires, sharp rocks cut through the tread, and the tires had to be removed from the truck to be repaired. Cutting and chipping along the tire shoulders was evident at all times. However, the overall service life of the tire depended mainly on the wear of the tread. By measuring the remaining tread thickness of the tire at a fixed distance from one shoulder, at the end of their service life, we obtained comparable data on the material wear resistance. Figure 5 shows photos of the treads of four materials after their service life. As can be seen, the treads of the conventional dry mix sections (i.e., B and D) were worn through in the center and this made getting a representative measurement nearly impossible. We measured the tread wherever it could be found on the tire and used that to represent the remaining thickness of the conventional tread. For the two CEC sections (A and C), treads were left intact with a certain thickness, it was therefore obvious that if the tread were made with only CEC compound, the tire life would be longer. We used the above measurement technique to determine the average wear indexes from 22 tires. These are calculated and listed in table 5. Taking CEC counterparts as the reference, we can see that CEC material improved wear resistance at least 16% in the NR formulation and 12% in the blend formulation. Given that the CEC tread sections remained fully intact, it is evident that these wear resistance indexes are highly conservative, and that actual tire service life using the CEC material would have been longer.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
We also compared the cut-and-chip performance of the two formulations and four compounds by counting the size and number of chipped patterns. To quantify Quantify - A performance analysis tool from Pure Software. the cut-and-chip performance, we classified the chips based on their size and used the whole pattern as one unit. If a whole unit of pattern was chipped, we took it as one chip at a size equal to "1 pattern." If a half unit of pattern was chipped, we took it as one chip at a size equal to "1/2 pattern." We counted the number of 1 pattern, 1/2 pattern and 1/4 pattern along the two shoulders of each section of each tire. These were averaged across the total number of tires and then normalized the 1 pattern and 1/2 pattern to 1/4 pattern. From table 6 we can see that the NR compounds were better than the blend compounds in cut-and-chip resistance, and CEC compounds were better than the correspondent conventional compounds.
CEC materials have shown at least 12% to 16% improvement in the tread life in an OTR tire application, used in a NR/synthetic rubber blend formulation and in a 100% natural rubber formulation. With CEC material, the OTR tire plant was able to eliminate the natural rubber mastication stage from the tire process and, in total, save mixing time by at least 30%. Better performance, a simplified process and higher productivity have been achieved by using CEC materials.
Table 1 - viscosity of same CEC grades CB grade and loading Storage viscosity Grade/phr ML(1+4)@100[degrees]C N134/50 185 N134/45 167 N234/50 170 N234/45 153 N220/50 174 Table 2 - XM-140 mixing conditions and results CEC CEC Conventional CEC CEC Formulations 1 2 mix 1 3 4 CEC 150 90 -- 150 90 Synthetic blend 60 60 NR -- -- 100 -- -- Carbon black -- -- 50 -- -- Processing aid 8 8 8 -- -- Other ingredients 15 15 15 15 15 Mixing condition Mixing procedures: rotor speed 20 rpm, ram pressure 5.0 kg/[cm.sup.2], 160 kg Add CEC 0" -- -- 0" -- Add CEC and synthetic MB -- 0" -- -- 0" Add masticated NR -- -- 0" -- -- Add 2/3 of carbon black -- -- 2' -- -- Add rest of carbon black -- -- 4' -- -- Add additive 1 3' 4' 4' 4' 4' Add additive 2 5' 6' 6' 5.5' 5.5' Add processing aid 8.5' 10' 9.5' -- -- Dump (min.) 12.5' 14' 14' 10.5' 11' Dump temperature, [degrees]C 135 135 145 155 160 Compound viscosity ML(1+4)@100[degrees]C 73.6 72.9 97.5 95.5 94.6 Table 3 - PN370 mixing conditions and results CEC Conventional Formulations 5 mix 2 CEC 150 -- NR -- 100 Synthetic blend -- -- Carbon black -- 50 Processing aid -- 8 Other ingredients 15 15 Mixing condition Rotor speed, rpm 30 then 40 40 Ram pressure, kg/[cm.sup.2] Fill factor 0.75 0.75 Mixing procedures Add CEC 0" -- Add CEC and synthetic rubber -- -- Add masticated NR and synthetic rubber -- 0" Add all fillers -- 0" Add all additives 40" 0" Add processing aid -- at 125[degrees]C Dump (min.) at 150[degrees]C at 150[degrees]C Compound viscosity ML(1+4)@100[degrees]C 97.7 103.2 CEC Conventional Formulations 6 mix 3 CEC 90 -- NR -- 60 Synthetic blend 40 40 Carbon black 20 50 Processing aid -- 8 Other ingredients 15 15 Mixing condition Rotor speed, rpm 30 then 40 40 Ram pressure, kg/[cm.sup.2] Fill factor 0.75 0.75 Mixing procedures Add CEC -- -- Add CEC and synthetic rubber 0" -- Add masticated NR and synthetic rubber -- 0" Add all fillers 60" 0" Add all additives 60" 0" Add processing aid -- at 125[degrees]C Dump (min.) at at 150[degrees]C at 150[degrees]C Compound viscosity ML(1+4)@100[degrees]C 110.5 109.4 Table 4 - compound properties and performance CEC 3 Conventional mix 1 Formulations CEC 150 -- Synthetic blend -- -- NR -- 100 Synthetic rubber -- -- Carbon black -- 50 Processing aid -- 8 Other ingredients 15 15 Bound rubber, % 60 52 ML(1+4)@100[degrees]C, final stage 76.6 78 ML, dN.m (150[degrees]C) 7 8 MH, dN.m 31.3 30.3 T10 14.9 13.7 T90 35.9 30.0 Scorch time (120[degrees]C) >60' 60'5" Curing time, 137[degrees]C x min. 40' 80' 40' 80' Tensile, MPa 27.8 26.8 25.2 25.5 Elongation, % 560 555 585 490 M300, MPa 13.8 13.3 11.8 12.0 Permanent set, % 26 25 29 23 Hardness 69 69 72 72 Tear strength, (KN/m) 162 152 145 141 Akron abrasion, [cm.sup.3]/1.61 km 0.22 0.30 After 100K cycle fatigue Tensile, MPa 25.4 24.5 Elongation, % 520 530 Fatigue coefficient 0.89 0.86 80' sample, aged @ 100[degrees]C x h 24 72 24 72 Tensile, MPa 24.6 21.1 23.3 18.2 Elongation, % 465 405 490 385 Tear strength, (KN/m) 137 111 121 82 Aging coefficient 0.77 0.57 0.76 0.46 Akron abrasion, [cm.sup.3]/1.61 km 0.24 0.37 Curing temp. 150[degrees]C Rebound, %, r.t. 47.3 39.7 Rebound, %, 60[degrees]C 56.2 48.1 Tan [[delta].sub.max]@60[degrees]C, 10Hz 0.188 0.238 Cut and chip, diameter loss, % 8.3 9.1 Crack growth rate (x10e-6), cm/million cycle 3.59 4.76 Cabot abrader index, 7% slip 120 107 Cabot abrader index, 14% slip 109 106 CEC 3 Conventional mix 3 Formulations CEC 90 -- Synthetic blend 60 -- NR -- 60 Synthetic rubber -- 40 Carbon black -- 50 Processing aid -- 8 Other ingredients 15 15 Bound rubber, % 44 36 ML(1+4)@100[degrees]C, final stage 80 73 ML, dN.m (150[degrees]C) 7.9 7.9 MH, dN.m 34.2 33.5 T10 16.1 14.9 T90 40.9 40.2 Scorch time (120[degrees]C) >60' 57'14" Curing time, 137[degrees]C x min. 40' 80' 40' 80' Tensile, MPa 23.1 25.6 23.8 22.8 Elongation, % 570 535 590 515 M300, MPa 10.8 13.4 10.6 11.7 Permanent set, % 23 18 26 17 Hardness 68 71 67 69 Tear strength, (KN/m) 129 140 136 106 Akron abrasion, [cm.sup.3]/1.61 km 0.13 0.16 After 100K cycle fatigue Tensile, MPa 22.8 22.2 Elongation, % 480 480 Fatigue coefficient 0.80 0.91 80' sample, aged @ 100[degrees]C x h 24 72 24 72 Tensile, MPa 22.6 18.0 21.4 17.5 Elongation, % 420 385 420 350 Tear strength, (KN/m) 90 70 104 94 Aging coefficient 0.69 0.45 0.77 0.52 Akron abrasion, [cm.sup.3]/1.61 km 0.14 0.18 Curing temp. 150[degrees]C Rebound, %, r.t. 42.5 41.3 Rebound, %, 60[degrees]C 49.6 49.6 Tan [[delta].sub.max]@60[degrees]C, 10Hz 0.209 0.211 Cut and chip, diameter loss, % 9.9 10.3 Crack growth rate (x10e-6), cm/million cycle 3.41 3.76 Cabot abrader index, 7% slip 146 116 Cabot abrader index, 14% slip 110 63 Table 5 - wear resistance of treads after road test Tread Compound Average Tread section type service life initial (day) (mm) A CEC 3 122.7 38 B Convent. 1 122.7 38 C CEC 4 132 38 D Convent. 3 132 38 Tread Average Tread Wear section tread wear index remained (mm/day) (mm) A 10.1 0.227 116 B 5.68 0.263 100 C 11.2 0.203 112 D 7.95 0.228 100 Table 6 - cut-and-chip resistance of treads after road test Tread Compound Average section type service life (day) A CEC 3 122.7 B Convent. 1 122.7 C CEC 4 132 D Convent. 3 132 Tread Average pattern Normalized section chipped at shoulder 1 1/2 1/4 1/4 (unit) (unit) (unit) (unit) A 0.2 1.3 1.6 5 B 0.2 1.4 1.4 5.2 C 0.8 1.2 5.4 11.0 D 1.4 2.0 4.2 13.8
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