CD-ROM: information at your fingertips.CD-ROM CD-ROM: see compact disc.
in full compact disc read-only memory
Type of computer storage medium that is read optically (e.g., by a laser). : INFORMATION AT YOUR FINGERTIPS "Fingertips" is a 1963 number-one hit single recorded live by "Little" Stevie Wonder for Motown's Tamla label. Wonder's first hit single, "Fingertips" was the first live, non-studio recording to reach number-one on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in the United States.
Carol Brown, CPA (Computer Press Association, Landing, NJ) An earlier membership organization founded in 1983 that promoted excellence in computer journalism. Its annual awards honored outstanding examples in print, broadcast and electronic media. The CPA disbanded in 2000. , PhD, and Mary Ellen Phillips, CPA, both assistant professors of accounting at Oregon State University Oregon State University, at Corvallis; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1858 as Corvallis College, opened 1865. In 1868 it was designated Oregon's land-grant agricultural college and was taken over completely by the state in 1885. , Corvallis, review currently available CD-ROM databases of interest to accountants.
The new era of information storage and retrieval information storage and retrieval, the systematic process of collecting and cataloging data so that they can be located and displayed on request. Computers and data processing techniques have made possible the high-speed, selective retrieval of large amounts of is here. Now you can have more than 150 reference books and software applications on a single compact disc while at a client's office or your company's branch location. A recent Wall Street Journal article reported that both Arthur Andersen For the U.S. Supreme Court case commonly known as Arthur Andersen, see .
Arthur Andersen LLP, based in Chicago, was once one of the "Big Five" accounting firms (the other four are PricewaterhouseCoopers, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, Ernst & Young and KPMG), performing and Price Waterhouse are supplying their auditors with CDs for tax, auditing and accounting rules. The American Institute of CPAs plans to publish its National Automated Accounting Research System (NAARS NAARS National Automated Accounting Research System
NAARS North Arkansas Amateur Radio Society
NAARS Northern Alberta Aquatic Rescue Society (Canada) ) library on a CD. Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr. has several services on CD and the next logical step is to publish its tax service on a disc. Matthew Bender & Company and West Publishing Company already have their tax services on CD.
STORAGE POWER OF A MAINFRAME
CD-ROMs (compact disc-read only memory) are now being used to store large volumes of material. The discs are the same as those used for stereo systems but the data are formatted to be read by a personal computer. Discs with ROM can only be read but not altered, added to or edited. In order to use a CD-ROM with a personal computer, the user needs a CD-ROM drive A device that holds and reads CD-ROM discs. CD-ROM drives generally also play audio CD discs by sending analog sound to the sound card via a 4-pin cable. For specifications of 10x, 20x, etc. drives, see CD-ROM drives. See CD-ROM, CD-ROM changer, CD-ROM server and CD-ROM audio cable. (player). Prices for CD-ROM players range from $600 to $1,000 depending on brand, supplier and configuration.
A single CD-ROM holds 550 megabytes of information, the equivalent of 270,000 pages of text, which is more than the entire Encyclopedia Britannica, or 450 high-density floppy discs. The CD-ROM has brought the storage power of a mainframe computer to the personal computer. In addition, hard discs are now available for personal computers that hold 300 megabytes of information. Thus, the power of mainframes can now be acquired either through hard discs or CD-ROMs.
The database is indexed for easy access to the desired information from a variety of viewpoints. For example, the user could access the accounting, auditing and disclosure requirements for deferred income taxes, deferred income tax liability or Financial Accounting Standards Board Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
Board composed of independent members who create and interpret Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Statement no. 96, Accounting for Income Taxes. In addition, the user can print out the desired references or import them into an existing document.
Currently, several companies are producing a variety of CD-ROM databases. The companies license their databases and provide updated discs semiannually, quarterly or even monthly. More than 1,000 CD-ROM titles have been released and more than 200,000 CD-ROM players are in use. Some accounting firms are developing CD-ROM databases for internal use only. A firm that develops its own databases internally has complete control over their contents. However, this control results in substantial costs for developing and maintaining the databases.
The databases an accountant might use can be grouped by the type of information indexed: specialized information such as income taxes, accounting and auditing standards; computer software and hardware; government publications; specific company information; and business periodicals and newspapers. The following review of the currently available, or forthcoming, CD-ROM databases is divided into these groups.
TAX, AUDITING AND ACCOUNTING
The following descriptions are of CD-ROMs that index tax, auditing and accounting rules and standards. Some of the CDs are for internal use by members of the firm that developed them and others are available for purchase.
* Audit Reference and Resource Discs (Arthur Andersen & Co., for internal use only). These databases contain the professional accounting literature. One disc includes all data for worldwide use; another disc contains country-specific information. The U.S. disc includes Accounting Principles Board The Accounting Principles Board (APB) is the former authoritative body of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). It was created by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants in 1959 and issued pronouncements on accounting principles until 1973, and FASB pronouncements This article is a list of Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) pronouncements, including Statements, Concepts Statements, Interpretations, and Technical Bulletins, which are issued to provide rules and guidelines in preparing, presenting, and reporting financial statements , minutes of the emerging issues task force, all AICPA AICPA
See American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). publications, Arthur Andersen's Accounting Standards, SEC Practice, Auditor's Reports and Industry Competence Manuals. These discs also contain Arthur Andersen's international phone directory, voice mail directory and client list. The discs have been used since 1988.
* Bankruptcy Library (Matthew Bender & Company, to be released in 1990). This database will include Collier on Bankruptcy, 15th edition; Collier's Bankruptcy Cases, 2d edition; Collier's Bankruptcy Practice Guide; and others.
* Bankruptcy Library (West Publishing Company, $2,640 a year, including periodic updates). This database consists of three discs that include Bankruptcy Code Bankruptcy Code may refer to:
* Bender's Federal Tax Service (Matthew Bender & Company, $1,250 a year for CD including monthly updates and $1,350 a year for CD and printed version including monthly updates). This database contains 18 volumes of information that include Internal Revenue Code The Internal Revenue Code is the body of law that codifies all federal tax laws, including income, estate, gift, excise, alcohol, tobacco, and employment taxes. These laws constitute title 26 of the U.S. Code (26 U.S.C.A. § 1 et seq. , regulations and explanations. In addition to the federal tax service, an eight-state library can be included on the disc for an additional fee.
* Federal Taxation Library (West Publishing Company, $4,500 a year including periodic updates). This database contains Federal Tax Code and Regulations, 1988; Digest--Cases and Administrative Materials; Rules of the Tax Court and the Claims Court; 1986 Tax Reform Act and Analysis; 1986 Tax Reform Act Legislative History; Revenue Rulings, 1954-1988; Revenue Procedures Revenue procedures are published statements of the Internal Revenue Service practices and procedures. Revenue procedures are published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin. , 1954-1988; Administrative Orders, 1954-1988; Actions on Decisions, 1975-1988; Letter Rulings, 1983-1988; Federal Tax Cases, 1982-1985; and Federal Tax Cases, 1986-1988. The CD-ROM database is integrated with an online database containing information that has become available subsequent to the CD's release.
* Prentice Hall Information Network--PHINet (Prentice Hall, $2,500 for one of the four discs or $7,500 for all four discs including semiannual updates) PHINet CD-ROMs have been available since 1986. The discs can be searched for occurrences of key words and are currently being used by the Internal Revenue Service. They are also integrated with Prentice Hall's online service to update information since the last issuance of the discs.
Disc 1: American Federal Tax Reports 1973 to present.
Disc 2: Tax Court Decisions Recorded and Memorandum 1973 to present.
Disc 3: Private Letter Rulings 1977 to present.
Disc 4: Revenue Rulings and Procedures 1954 to present.
* Price Waterhouse Researcher (Price Waterhouse, for internal use only). The database contains the professional accounting literature including APB APB
See Accounting Principles Board (APB). and FASB pronouncements, EITF EITF Emerging Issues Task Force
EITF Edinburgh International Television Festival
EITF Europe International Taekwon-Do Federation minutes, all AICPA publications, Price Waterhouse Accounting and Auditing Guidance, Price Waterhouse Accounting and Auditing Service and internal and external accounting and auditing information for the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, with Europe soon to be added.
* Tax Management Portfolios (Tax Management, Inc., The Bureau of National Affairs BNA (The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc.) is a Washington, D.C.-based publisher of news and information on legislation, regulations, and court decisions for professionals in business and government. It is the oldest wholly employee-owned company in the United States. , Inc. and West Publishing Company, $3,360 a year including periodic updates). This database contains over 280 individual portfolios in the Active Portfolios in the U.S. Income Series, Active Portfolios in the Estates, Gifts and Trusts Series and Active Portfolios in the Foreign Income Series. Tax Management Portfolios is a companion database to the Federal Tax Library, which is published by West Publishing Company.
COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE
Accountants are interested in information about the available computer software and hardware both personally and professionally, especially for advising clients. The following lists descriptions of the CD-ROMs currently available that have information on software and hardware products. In addition, periodical indexes in libraries can be used to find software and hardware reviews about computer-related products.
* Computer Database (Information Access Co., $3,000 a year including monthly updates). This database focuses on computer journals and is designed for public access libraries. Each disc includes abstracts of 120,000 articles from more than 130 publications for the prior 30 months.
* Computer Library (Ziff Communications, $695 a year including monthly updates). This database focuses on computer journals and is designed for individual or local area network use with full text search capabilities. Each disc covers more than 60,000 articles from over 130 publications from the prior 12 months. The database includes abstracts of all the articles, full text of articles from 25 computer magazines, PC Magazine utility programs in binary form Binary form is a way of structuring a piece of music into two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. Note that Binary is also a structure used to choreograph dance. , PC Week's Buyer's Guide, a 3,500-term computer glossary See The Computer Glossary. and key industry newsletter.
* Computer-SPECS (Silver-Platter Information Inc., $1,250 a year including semiannual updates or $795 for a single disc). This database contains over 12,000 listings of computer products from more than 1,500 companies. Each entry provides detailed characteristics, prices and descriptions of computers, as well as computer-related products.
* ICP (1) (Internet Cache Protocol) A protocol used by one proxy server to query another for a cached Web page without having to go to the Internet to retrieve it. See CARP and proxy server. Software Information Data Base (Bureau of Electronic Publishing An umbrella term for non-paper publishing, which includes publishing online or on media such as CDs and DVDs. , Inc., $975 a year including semiannual updates). The database covers more than 15,000 software programs including price, availability, specifications, hardware platforms Each hardware platform, or CPU family, has a unique machine language. All software presented to the computer for execution must be in the binary coded machine language of that CPU. Following is a list of the major hardware platforms in existence today. See platform. , compatibility and operating systems Operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. .
* SOFTWARE-CD (Silver-Platter Information Inc., $1,250 a year including semiannual updates). The database contains more than 10,000 listings of software products for business. Each has a 250-word description of the features and functions of the software package including hardware, operating system operating system (OS)
Software that controls the operation of a computer, directs the input and output of data, keeps track of files, and controls the processing of computer programs. , programming languages, prices, potential users, date first available, number of installations, related packages, other manufacturer services, documentation and support available.
Several CD-ROM databases index government documents. The following lists these databases, some of which are available at local libraries. Publishers may provide information on which libraries have their CD-ROMs.
* Business Indicators (Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc., $2,200 a year including monthly updates). This database includes National Income and Product (GNP GNP
See: Gross National Product ) Accounts, Personal Income and Expenditures, Business Statistics published by the U.S. Department of Commerce and Income and Employment by State.
* Consu/Stats 1 (Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc., $99 per disc). This database contains unabridged information from U.S. government economic databases for consumer expenditures for the 1984-88 period.
* County Statistics (Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc., $1,200 per disc). This database includes items such as population, housing, health, education, business and agriculture for each county, state and metropolitan area. Population centers under 25,000 are also included but with limited data. The disc also includes the Census Bureau's CO-Stat 2.
* Econ/Stats (Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc., $99 per disc). This database includes the unabridged information from a variety of U.S. government economic databases including the Consumer Price Index, Producers Price Index, Industrial Production Index, Export/Import Price Index, Selected Interest Rates, Capacity Utilization Capacity Utilization measures the rate at which a firm makes use of their capital productive capacities, such as factories and machinery. Capacity Utilization generally rises when the economy is healthy and falls when demand softens. , Money Stock, as well as Employment Hours and Earnings.
* Indexes for bibliographic citations to federal government publications: GPO Monthly Catalog (SilverPlatter Information Inc., $600 a year including bimonthly bi·month·ly
1. Happening every two months.
2. Happening twice a month; semimonthly.
1. Once every two months.
2. Twice a month; semimonthly.
n. pl. updates), Government Documents Catalog Service (Auto-Graphics, Inc., $1,100 a year including monthly updates or $660 a year including bimonthly updates), Government Printing Office Monthly Catalog/Index to U.S. Government Periodicals (H. W. Wilson Co., $795 a year including annual disc updates and continuous online updates) and Government Publications (Information Access Co., $1,500 a year including monthly updates). These correspond to the Monthly Catalog of United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. Government Publications and provide access to reports, studies, fact sheets, handbooks, bills, hearings, presidential statements, treaties, conference proceedings and other government publications. The topics covered include finance, business, law, demographics, agriculture, medicine and public health. The documents indexed are from 1976 to the present. In addition, the disc from H. W. Wilson Co. provides article citations for over 185 periodicals produced by more than 100 government agencies from 1980 to date. Subjects include accounting, banking, law, business, commerce and industry.
* Microsoft Small Business Consultant (Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc., $120 per disc, Microsoft Corporation (company) Microsoft Corporation - The biggest supplier of operating systems and other software for IBM PC compatibles. Software products include MS-DOS, Microsoft Windows, Windows NT, Microsoft Access, LAN Manager, MS Client, SQL Server, Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC), MS Mail, , $149 per disc). A database of more than 220 government publications from the Small Business Administration, Department of Commerce, Veterans Administration, Defense Department and General Services Administration The General Services Administration (GSA) was established by section 101 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (40 U.S.C.A. § 751). The GSA sets policy for and manages government property and records. . The database also includes publications of interest to small businesses from the CPA firm Deloitte & Touche.
* Microsoft Stat Pack (Bureau of Electronic Publishing, Inc., $145 per disc; Microsoft Corporation, $125 per disc). A compilation of official U.S. government statistics on the economy, manufacturing, industry, trade, business, agriculture, demographics and politics. The database includes Statistical Abstracts of the United States, U.S. Business Statistics and Agricultural Statistics.
INFORMATION ABOUT COMPANIES
The following is a list of the CD-ROMs that provide specific company information. If a user does not want to invest in the CDs, some of these databases may also be available from the various online service providers.
* CIRR CIRR Commercial Interest Reference Rate
CIRR Configuration Item Requirements Review (SilverPlatter Information Inc., $1,250 a year including quarterly updates). This database contains company and industry research reports issued since 1979 by 68 securities and institutional investment firms. The disc includes 75,000 reports that analyze more than 7,000 North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. and 1,000 foreign companies.
* CorFile (SilverPlatter Information Inc., $1,495 a year, forthcoming in 1990). This is a database of public, private and not-for-profit enterprises that combines directory type information; annual reports; news releases; benefits, career and recruitment literature; company publications; and investment analysts' reports.
* Compact Disclosure (Disclosure Inc., $5,000 a year including quarterly updates). The database includes information on 12,000 public companies and stockholder information on 5,500 companies. The information is from 10-K and 10-Q documents, annual reports and proxy statements. Libraries and investment firms are the primary customers.
* Moody's 5000 Plus (Moody's Investors Service Moody's Investors Service
A leading global credit rating, research and risk analysis firm.
Moody's Investors Service
A leading firm engaged in credit rating, risk analysis, and research of fixed-income securities and their issuers. , $5,000 a year including quarterly updates). The database provides complete information on all New York Stock Exchange New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
World's largest marketplace for securities. The exchange began as an informal meeting of 24 men in 1792 on what is now Wall Street in New York City. , American Stock Exchange American Stock Exchange (AMEX)
Stock exchange in the U.S. Originally known as “the Curb,” it began as an outdoor marketplace in New York City c. 1850. It moved indoors to its present location in the Wall Street area in 1921. and over-the-counter national market system companies as well as year-to-date Moody's News Reports.
* One Source: CD/Banking (Lotus Development Corp., commercial banks $10,000 a year, savings and loans savings and loan n. a banking and lending institution, chartered either by a state or the Federal government. Savings and loans only make loans secured by real property from deposits, upon which they pay interest slightly higher than that paid by most banks. $10,000 a year, bank holding companies $10,000 a year, and mutual savings banks Mutual savings bank
A state-chartered savings bank which is owned by its depositors and managed by a fiduciary board of trustees. $5,000 a year including quarterly updates; prices are reduced for multiple copies and multiple databases). Data, compiled from the Sheshenoff information services See Information Systems. database, cover 14,000 commercial banks, 6,000 bank holding companies and 3,000 savings and loans.
* One Source: CD/Corporate (Lotus Development Corp., $20,000 a year including monthly updates). Data cover 12,000 public companies, all standard industry classification codes, 50 industries and 80,000 officers and directors collected from seven major databases (Disclosure, Technical Data International, Predicast, UMI/Data Courier, Media General, Macmillan and Market Guide).
* One Source: CD/International (Lotus Development Corp., $15,000 a year including quarterly updates). Fundamental data are provided on 4,500 international industrial corporations, banks, insurance companies and financial services firms. The database also includes Worldscope and Moody's Report.
* One Source: CD/Investment (Lotus Development Corp., $20,000 a year including weekly disc updates and online daily updates). This provides comprehensive financial information on companies, stocks and other financial issues from seven industry-standard databases (Compustat, Daily Stock Price History, I/B/E/S, Media General, Value Line, Ford Investor Services and Bonds).
* One Source: CD/Private (Lotus Development Corp., $7,000 a year including quarterly updates). The database includes summary information on more than 110,000 private companies, subsidiaries and divisions including the location, phone number, name of the chief executive officer, year formed, parent, company hierarchy, industries and SIC codes. The emphasis is on hard-to-find data on private companies. Information is compiled from Ward's Business Directory, Directory of Leading Private Companies and Disclosure II.
* Standard & Poor's Corporations (Dialog Information Services, Inc., $4,250 a year including bimonthly updates). The database combines information from three other databases: Standard & Poor's Corporate Descriptions, Standard & Poor's Register (both biographical and corporate), as well as Standard & Poor's Compustat Services.
PERIODICAL AND NEWSPAPER INDEXES
Libraries are subscribing to CD-ROM indexes for journals, magazines, newspapers and books. Most medium-sized to large libraries now have CD-ROMs for general indexes of periodicals and many have indexes for business periodicals. CD-ROM facilities are available at libraries and can be used to search for articles (for example, software reviews) on topics of interest. The indexes of business periodicals that are currently available include ABI/INFORM (University Microfilms International University Microfilms International, UMI, was founded in the 1930s by Eugene Power in Ann Arbor. By June of 1938, Power worked in two rented rooms from a downtown Ann Arbor funeral parlor, specializing in microphotography to preserve libraries. ), Business Index (Information Access Co.), Business Periodicals Index (H. W. Wilson Co.) and Business Periodicals on Disc (University Microfilms International). The following indexes include both general interest periodicals and newspaper articles: General Periodicals Index (Information Access Co.) and Magazine Index Plus (Information Access Co.). The following indexes contain abstracts and/or full articles from leading newspapers: Newspaper Abstracts on Disc (University Microfilms International) and National Newspaper Index (Information Access Co.).
The publishing world is in a major transition with massive amounts of information, previously in printed form, now being stored on CD-ROM for use with personal computers. Many of the references that we use are now, or soon will be, available on CD-ROM. As a result, professional libraries will require less space and can be carried from place to place, making them readily available to accountants at all locations.