Business and rehabilitation factors in the development of supported employment programs for adults with developmental disabilities.Segregated services for persons with developmental disabilities developmental disabilities (DD),
n.pl the pathologic conditions that have their origin in the embryology and growth and development of an individual. DDs usually appear clinically before 18 years of age. had been the rule and not the exception until the late 1970's (Scheerenberger, 1983). Traditionally services were provided in large or small custodial-like programs and facilities which resulted in severe restrictions on the individual's experience with a variety of non-disabled persons and integrated environments. These services while efficient in the maintenance functions of daily living did not provide a normalized lifestyle as compared to non-handicapped persons (Wolfensberger, 1977). Nevertheless, multiple services options did develop and expand, coinciding with the mandated deinstitutionalization de·in·sti·tu·tion·al·i·za·tion
The release of institutionalized people, especially mental health patients, from an institution for placement and care in the community. movement (Scheerenberger, 1983) and developmental disabilities (DD) legislation which provided for comprehensive services to meet life-long needs for support-assistance.
Within the service delivery system, vocational services was a component that developed late (Kiernan & Payne, 1982). In fact, it was not until the late 1960's that vocational services for persons with developmental disabilities received substantial attention (Kiernan & Payne, 1982, Whitehead whitehead /white·head/ (hwit´hed)
2. closed comedo.
1. , 1979). Williams (1967), in his analysis of renumerative employment for persons with mentally retardation retardation: see mental retardation. stated, "Discussion of the occupation of profoundly retarded re·tard·ed
1. Often Offensive Affected with mental retardation.
2. Occurring or developing later than desired or expected; delayed. adults is almost nonexistent non·ex·is·tence
1. The condition of not existing.
2. Something that does not exist.
non in the literature" (p. 18). The vocational system that developed, however, followed the same principles of the residential service component. This new system involved the expansion of the existing system to provide services to a population which previously was unserved. The sheltered workshop shel·tered workshop
A workplace that provides a supportive environment where physically or mentally challenged persons can acquire job skills and vocational experience.
Noun 1. model in the case of vocational and employment services had gained widespread acceptance in general rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. by 1960. Subsequently, between the late 1960's and 1970's there was a 300% increase in the growth of sheltered programs for persons with disabilities with the bulk of the growth in programs for the developmentally disabled population (Whitehead, 1979). Work and day activity services were added to the sheltered workshop approach to form a continuum or "flow through" system for the development of work skills or for providing a non-work day programming option for persons with developmental disabilities. (Bellamy, Rhodes, Bourbeaux, & Mank, 1986). While the intent of the options for persons with developmental disabilities was to provide work opportunity, in fact, the evolving service system had a negative impact on persons served and their ability to function independently in the natural work environment (Bellamy et al., 1986, Defazio & Flexer, 1983; Greenleigh, 1975; Pomerantz & Marholin, 1977; Whitehead, 1977).
The traditional vocational service system that developed for the DD population has been a continuum of sheltered employment services and a variety of near-and non-work options. The basic criticisms of the workshop options (sheltered workshop or work activity) are: lack of training for "real" work, and conflicting service/employment goals or the duality Duality (physics)
The state of having two natures, which is often applied in physics. The classic example is wave-particle duality. The elementary constituents of nature—electrons, quarks, photons, gravitons, and so on—behave in some respects of purpose problem. (Bellamy et al., 1986; Defazio & Flexer, 1983).
Lack of training for "real" work can be seen when comparing competitive work or transitional employment programs to sheltered employment services. This training problem evolves, in part, around the types of work that sheltered facilities perform versus what types of work are commonly available in the competitive job market. Generally speaking, the workshop subcontracts work that no other business performs or that other individuals would not want to do (Gold 1973). Much of the work that is performed involves tasks such as collating and sorting of material, which are not major duties in the competitive work place. As a result, skills that are specific to these restricted jobs are not generalizable gen·er·al·ize
v. gen·er·al·ized, gen·er·al·iz·ing, gen·er·al·iz·es
a. To reduce to a general form, class, or law.
b. To render indefinite or unspecific.
2. to competitive jobs. Moreover, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the data provided by Greenleigh Associates (1975), U.S. Department of Labor (1979), and Bellamy et al., (1986), the national rate of placement out of sheltered facilities was under 10% during the period surveyed.
An overriding (programming) overriding - Redefining in a child class a method or function member defined in a parent class.
Not to be confused with "overloading". factor, which relates to availability of work and remuneration REMUNERATION. Reward; recompense; salary. Dig. 17, 1, 7. for work performed is an issue referred to as the duality of purpose (Pomerantz & Marholin, 1977). This criticism is targeted at the inability of workshops to provide appropriate combinations of: normalized business practices and procedures and training/habilitation that either will move the individual out of the sheltered Out of the Shelter (1970) is a novel by British author David Lodge. Plot summary
The story tells a child's experience in the Blitz during World War II and his rescue from an air-raid shelter. program and into the job market or provide significant remuneration within the sheltered program. From the habilitative standpoint The Standpoint is a newspaper published in the British Virgin Islands. It was originally published under the name Pennysaver, largely as a shopping-coupon promotional newspaper, but since emerged as one of the most influential sources of journalism in the , Flynn (1977), in evaluating 38 vocational services, found that these services did not meet the "minimal acceptable" level of service quality when looking at the overall program which included normalization In relational database management, a process that breaks down data into record groups for efficient processing. There are six stages. By the third stage (third normal form), data are identified only by the key field in their record. as a factor. Wages are historically non-remunerative (Bellamy, Rhodes, Mank, & Albin, 1986; U.S. Department of Labor, 1979) while workshops have difficulty providing enough volume of work to even approximate a work-life atmosphere. In short, the typical sheltered program for people with developmental disabilities meets neither a business criteria nor a habilitation habilitation,
n See rehabilitation. standard.
In summary, the basic findings of much literature support a negative evaluation from the standpoint of work opportunity either in preparation for competitive work or development of skill and meaningful work within the workshop program. All of the studies point to a need for alternative service delivery approaches to providing employment services to people with developmental disabilities.
Supported employment is a delivery model that has developed over the last 10-12 years as an alternative to the flow-through continuum of vocational and employment services. Durand and Neufeldt (1977) were among the first to coin the term "Employment with Support", which has now developed into the expression "Supported Employment". The supported employment model involves a few basic components (Mank, Rhodes, & Bellamy, 1986). The first is that a supported work program provides "normal benefits of working" and the second is that the service should accommodate all disabilities, even the most severe. Achieving the benefits of working for all people with disabilities requires the development of a "full range of outcomes, including income, good working conditions and other work benefits and providing ongoing support that allows persons with severe disabilities to perform available work" (Mank, Rhodes, & Bellamy, 1985, p. 140).
The next section of this article reviews approaches to supported employment from the business/habilitation perspective to document how a business approach can be blended with a habilitation function to achieve real employment opportunity for persons who are developmentally disabled. Following this review, an overview on marketing supported employment and business incentives will be provided. The purpose of these reviews is to illustrate the role of supported employment in meeting business needs and in turn how employment service delivery can also be targeted at the goal of work opportunity for the population served.
The Business/Habilitation Base for Real Work Opportunity
The Developmental Disabilities (DD) Act of 1984 (Public Law 98-527) defines supported employment as paid employment which:
1. is for persons with developmental disabilities for whom competitive employment at or above the minimum wage is unlikely and who, because of their disabilities, need intensive ongoing support to perform in a work setting;
2. is conducted in a variety of settings, particularly worksites in which persons without disabilities are employed; and
3. is supported by any activity needed to sustain paid work by persons with disabilities, including supervision, training and transportation.
Building on the DD Act Congress passed, in 1986, the Amendments to the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 defined and expanded supported employment services as an option for individuals with severe disabilities who are being served by Vocational Rehabilitation programs Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation program - a program of rehabilitation through job training with an eye to gainful employment
rehabilitation program - a program for restoring someone to good health .
Supported employment is defined by the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986 as: competitive work in integrated settings (a) for individuals with severe handicaps for whom competitive employment has not traditionally occured, or (b) for individuals for whom competitive employment has been interrupted in·ter·rupt
v. in·ter·rupt·ed, in·ter·rupt·ing, in·ter·rupts
1. To break the continuity or uniformity of: Rain interrupted our baseball game.
2. or intermittent intermittent /in·ter·mit·tent/ (-mit´ent) marked by alternating periods of activity and inactivity.
1. Stopping and starting at intervals.
2. as a result of a severe disability and who, because of their handicap, need ongoing support services support services Psychology Non-health care-related ancillary services–eg, transportation, financial aid, support groups, homemaker services, respite services, and other services to perform such work. Supported employment is further defined by the refinement of its components (i.e., competitive work, integrated settings, severe handicaps, and ongoing support services) in the Final Regulations (Federal Register, May 12, 1988).
Several broad guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. in the development of the supported employment approach revolve around Verb 1. revolve around - center upon; "Her entire attention centered on her children"; "Our day revolved around our work"
center, center on, concentrate on, focus on, revolve about the business/habilitation duality problem. Supported employment approaches first require a sound business base (Bellamy et al.,1988). A need for goods and/or services within the specific locale (programming) locale - A geopolitical place or area, especially in the context of configuring an operating system or application program with its character sets, date and time formats, currency formats etc.
Locales are significant for internationalisation and localisation. must be established, and, then, marketing and operational procedures The detailed methods by which headquarters and units carry out their operational tasks. must be developed in order to sell and to deliver competitively to meet the identified need. The major difference between supported employment business/operations and that of other business is that development of labor resources involves the process of providing employment services and training to people with disabilities. The learning and performance variables in terms of individual work completion involves a longer and/or modified personnel development procedure.
To achieve a sound business base two basic business approaches have been recommended: one approach is that of a personnel service (Bellamy et al., 1988). An organization with this focus helps persons with developmental disabilities to locate and to perform jobs as employees in other companies. This type of support organization functions much like personnel placement agencies and personnel departments of bigger companies. The support organization provides a service to the employer (needed labor) and provides training and normative nor·ma·tive
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.
nor employment outcomes to consumers. Supported Competitive Employment (Kregel, 1989; Wehman, 1985) and Enclaves in Industry (Rhodes & Valenta, 1985, and 1989) are the primary examples of support organizations with a personnel development focus.
The second approach which includes Mobile Work Crews (Bourbeau, 1985) and Small Business efforts (Mank, Rhodes, & Bellamy, 1986) are primarily entrepreneurial in emphasis. These approaches are like any other small business engaged in selling services and products but also combine features of a support organization. Each of these approaches is distinct and provides a range of services and business approaches to assist in developing employment options for employees who are developmentally disabled.
Business and Habilitation in the Personnel Service Approach
Supported Competitive Employment (SCE SCE (in Scotland) Scottish Certificate of Education
SCE n abbr (= Scottish Certificate of Education) → Schulabschlusszeugnis in Schottland ) provides training/support services to the individual in order to accomplish independent work in a competitive non-segregated employment setting (Kregel, 1989). The SCE model has two basic strategies (Bates Bates , Katherine Lee 1859-1929.
American educator and writer best known for her poem "America the Beautiful," written in 1893 and revised in 1904 and 1911. , 1986; Lagomarcino, 1986; Moss, Dineon, & Ford, 1986; Volgelsberg, 1986; Wehman, 1986). The first strategy requires securing a placement for a prospective employee and has a three steps: Job Development and Placement, Job Site Training and Advocacy and Follow-up and Transition (Volgelsberg, 1986; Wehman 1986). The second type usually has a four stage sequence because job site training is provided prior to placement in a competitive job and requires components of: Survey, Train, Place and Follow-up (Bates, 1986; Lagomarcino, 1986; Moss, Dinen, & Ford, 1986).
The place then train strategy focuses on training in a negotiated competitive job. Jobs are located, matched to the prospective employee, and training is provided on the chosen job. Preplacement planning is vital because the goal is to match a worker with a disability to an optimal job. Analysis in this stage involves understanding what jobs are available and making some initial assessment as to what jobs might be an acceptable match. A second level to Job Development and Placement is that of establishing potential job placements, which is achieved with specific employers that have jobs meeting the pre-established criteria in terms of employee needs.
During the Job Site Training and Advocacy Phase the specific strategy for teaching the job to the worker is developed. A variety of survival skills are the focus in this phase, ranging from learning the specific job duties to independent transportation, co-worker relationships and employee/family counseling (Kregel, 1989). The full range of survival skills for adaptation/autonomy is trained and promoted by the trainer. Additionally, through each step of the process independence is fostered until the worker may be transitioned to the third and final step.
The Follow-along and Transition component of SCE is a series of steps which follows training activities in which the employee has learned the complete job and has been trained to a level of independence. During this phase, the trainer systematically fades out of the work site and maintains contact on a periodic basis. In short, this phase of the program is to assure job retention.
The train then place strategy adds a component of "preemployment training" in either a community-based job site or a specially designed training site. Further, this training is based upon "social and vocational survival skills identified through an assessment of job requisites in the local community" (Lagomarino, 1986, p.68). After planning activities to determine the requisite skills of the jobs in the local community, targeted skills are formulated for·mu·late
tr.v. for·mu·lat·ed, for·mu·lat·ing, for·mu·lates
a. To state as or reduce to a formula.
b. To express in systematic terms or concepts.
c. , a curriculum is developed, and a training program is implemented. Generally, this component is a "time-limited" training strategy in which community-based training stations are utilized to provide a normalized instructional environment (Lagomarcino, 1986). Ostensibly os·ten·si·ble
Represented or appearing as such; ostensive: His ostensible purpose was charity, but his real goal was popularity. , this preemployment training period is designed to instill in·still
To pour in drop by drop.
instil·lation n. all the skills necessary for independent work and to screen out most inappropriate behavior which, if exhibited in a regular placement site, could set back the regular placement process (Lagomarcino, 1986). Once trained to criteria the trainee would then move into a placement/training/ follow-up sequence similar to the place then train strategy.
Another approach which uses a personnel service business base for Supported Employment is Enclaves in Industry (Rhodes & Valenta 1985 a & b). Mank, Rhodes, & Bellamy, (1986) define an Enclave enclave /en·clave/ (en´klav) tissue detached from its normal connection and enclosed within another organ.
A detached mass of tissue enclosed in tissue of another kind. as, "a group of individuals who are trained and supervised su·per·vise
tr.v. su·per·vised, su·per·vis·ing, su·per·vis·es
To have the charge and direction of; superintend.
[Middle English *supervisen, from Medieval Latin among nonhandicapped workers in an industry or business," (p.43). In this model, no more than eight individuals with severe to moderate retardation or other severe handicaps are employed. The training is achieved in a company providing benefits and pay to these employees commensurate com·men·su·rate
1. Of the same size, extent, or duration as another.
2. Corresponding in size or degree; proportionate: a salary commensurate with my performance.
3. to those provided to the non-disabled worker (Rhodes & Valenta, 1989). Further, this small group of individuals perform duties that are guaranteed to be performed accurately and at a "fixed cost" of productivity (Mank et al., 1986). Examples of the type of work that Enclaves perform are: production lines (Rhodes & Valenta, 1989], kitchen dishwashers (Burr burr (bur) bur.
Variant of bur.
1. a plant seed capsule carrying many hooked structures which catch in animal coats thus promoting dissemination of the plant. , 1985), and building janitorial crews (Conti Conti (kôNtē`), cadet branch of the French royal house of Bourbon. Although the title of prince of Conti was created in the 16th cent. , 1982). In all of the above situations, the enclave works as a group in a single location performing specific duties with the support of trained staff.
SCE and Enclave models utilize a personnel service business base (Bellamy et al., 1988). Qualified employees, job completion, a reduction in turnover are marketed along with a "program of training and support" to insure Insure can mean:
Business and Habilitation in the Entrepreneurial Approach
The Mobile Work Crew Model is a commercial enterprise that provides work opportunities for persons who are MR/DD MR/DD Mental Retardation and Other Developmental Disability , as well as providing supportive services (Mank et al., 1986). Generally, work crews work from vans or trucks, in groups of five to six, performing service jobs in a variety of locations in the business or general community. This service structure is usually developed in areas where an industry base doesn't exist, making untenable utilization of one of the other supported work models (Bourbeau, 1985). Typically, the crews work is subcontracted sub·con·tract
A contract that assigns some of the obligations of a prior contract to another party.
intr. & tr.v. sub·con·tract·ed, sub·con·tract·ing, sub·con·tracts from individuals or businesses with jobs being temporary in nature. Some jobs may be long term; however, these jobs require periodic completion (e.g., once/week) and can be performed on a part-time basis. Common jobs performed by work crews are: grouds maintenance, house renovations, house cleaning, and farm work (Lasko, 1985). This work is generally easily mastered and thus provides a medium for quick performance.
The fourth and final supported work model is that of the Entrepreneurial/Small Business Model (O'Bryan, 1989). This model is designed to function as a small business subcontracting electronics assembly work or similar low overhead assembly work. The focus of the subcontracting is on developing work that requires skills or duties that exist in other businesses in the community and that can be maintained for long periods. The business, which consists of no more than eight persons with mental retardation mental retardation, below average level of intellectual functioning, usually defined by an IQ of below 70 to 75, combined with limitations in the skills necessary for daily living. or developmental disabilities and having a staff-to-worker ratio of 1:4, is generally located proximal proximal /prox·i·mal/ (-mil) nearest to a point of reference, as to a center or median line or to the point of attachment or origin.
adj. to a variety of normalized settings in which multitude of interactions can occur. While the literature has generally discussed electronics work, Mank et al., (1986) provide three components which, if met, could be used for other types of businesses.
"First, large capital investments are not required to begin operation... Second, there are small initial requirements for space Third, the manufacturers of small assemblies having little space allows companies to contract work from customers several hundred miles away without incurring excessive shipping expenses" (p.147).
Thus, if one looks for small component assemblies, that require a small amount of space and limited initial outlay of funds, the model could be replicated.
The mobile crew and small business models utilize an entrepreneurial approach. Real work opportunity is provided through the business goal of selling products and services that are needed (for which there is a market) while the support organization provides training, support and habilitation, meeting employer needs for job completion and carrer goals of employees. Further, the integration requirements must be met through providing for interactions by hiring other non-disabled workers or planning and implementing interactions with non-disabled persons during break and lunch activities.
Analysis of Marketing Factors in Supported Employment
Marketing of supported employment services to employers is perhaps the "crucial" factor in developing supported employment services. Without work opportunity the benefits of working can not be realized by consumers while market analysis is the first and prerequisite pre·req·ui·site
Required or necessary as a prior condition: Competence is prerequisite to promotion.
n. step in developing a supported employment program. Moreover, rehabilitation staff typically have the least experience, knowledge and comfort in dealing with the business world (Defazio & Flexer, 1983).
The marketing step, therefore will be given an overview treatment. We would like to re-examine re·ex·am·ine also re-ex·am·ine
tr.v. re·ex·am·ined, re·ex·am·in·ing, re·ex·am·ines
1. To examine again or anew; review.
2. Law To question (a witness) again after cross-examination. the process from two angles, one is by looking at the literature on factors in hiring decisions (positive and negative) as file another angle would be analysis of market planning to determine the history of business interaction with rehabilitation and to determine the possible motivation structure of employers. From this, we derive a set of basic assumptions in terms of "selling" the idea of employing persons with developmental disabilities.
A second perspective are the incentives for employers to get involved in supported employment. While the former considerations may pique employers' interest, the incentives may be utilized to "seal the deal."
Factors in Hiring Decisions
Bellamy et al., (1988) cite the more general reasons that employers choose to employ persons with disabilities. Among the reasons are: 1. The company benefits from having good employees, which
assists in problems in absenteeism ab·sen·tee·ism
1. Habitual failure to appear, especially for work or other regular duty.
2. The rate of occurrence of habitual absence from work or duty. , turnover, motivation
and job performance. 2. Hiring people with disabilities benefits community relations 1. The relationship between military and civilian communities.
2. Those public affairs programs that address issues of interest to the general public, business, academia, veterans, Service organizations, military-related associations, and other non-news media entities.
through demonstrating corporate responsibility and enhancing
the companies public image. 3. Hiring persons with disabilities enriches a company's culture
and serves to show their concern for all employees. 4. The capability to hire persons with disabilities gives companies
an edge in a labor short economy. 5. Because work opportunity reduces social service needs, businesses
taxes can be positively affected. 6. Employment of persons with disabilities demonstrates responsiveness
to affirmative action affirmative action, in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women. requirements and allows
the company to take advantage of government incentive (p.
A survey conducted at RRTC RRTC Rehabilitation Research and Training Center
RRTC Rochester Rail Transit Committee
RRTC Red River Trade Council
RRTC Rice Research and Training Centre (Egypt) at Virginia Commonwealth University Formed by a merger between the Richmond Professional Institute and the Medical College of Virginia in 1968, VCU has a medical school that is home to the nation's oldest organ transplant program. (Shafer, Hill, Seyfarth, & Wehman, 1987) polled three groups of employers (those using supported employment; those using traditional job placement services; and those never hiring) to determine factors important in hiring decisions of individuals with mental retardation. A commitment to provide an opportunity to works for persons with developmental disabilities was the most often mentioned reason cited for hiring for all employer groups employer group Association of employers Managed care An entity with a current group benefits agreement in effect with a health plan to provide covered health care services to its employee-subscribers and eligible dependents. . Besides having an available position, follow-along services and assured job completion provided through supported employment were among the strongest factors which determined hiring decision for the group which used supported employment services. Employees with developmental disabilities also were rated favorably fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. in their work performance, particularly attendance and punctuality Punctuality
completes world circuit at exact minute he wagered he would. [Fr. Lit.: Around the World in Eighty Days]
disciplined family brought up to abide by strict, punctual standards. [Am. Lit. , by the employer group. It appears from these data that a concept of supported employment for employers must incorporate strong philosophical, motivational and factual bases - an employment and business point of reference must be coupled with advocacy if favorable fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. hiring decisions are to be made.
The Shafer et al. study (1987) would suggest that getting good employees and an edge in labor short economies (business reasons) at least initially are stronger than altruistic al·tru·ism
1. Unselfish concern for the welfare of others; selflessness.
2. Zoology Instinctive cooperative behavior that is detrimental to the individual but contributes to the survival of the species. or sociological motivational factors. An overall marketing plan of supported employment should include development and implementation of strategies which are based on employer needs. The marketing strategies should be aimed at enhancing the image of persons with developmental disabilities as employees and at explaining the role of supported employment options in meeting community/business labor needs. While the mission and philosophy of the Supported Employment organization is the driving force behind the marketing approach, the final outcome of any marketing plan is to increase supported employment options for persons with developmental disabilities.
Market Planning in Supported Employment
The problem with most traditional marketing approaches in increasing employer awareness is that awareness alone is the only objective these approaches achieve. Available print and video media utilized in marketing in rehabilitation makes the employer more aware, but willingness to employ persons with disabilities or to work cooperatively with professionals to develop new options are not increased or systematically addressed. (Shafer, Hill, Segfarth, & Wehman, 1989). We think that this is because previous efforts have been directed at awareness and not education and the methods used lack a systematic approach to tapping into the needs of employers and to describing the capability of the population of persons the employment service is representing.
In developing a marketing plan, there is a need to develop strategies which are specifically geared to employers as the consumers of the marketing program. The broad consensus which must be incorporated in the marketing approach include: persons with developmental disabilities as productive employees, and a labor resource and supported employment as service with additional benefits beyond providing a qualified pool of potential employees. Another component in the marketing process for supported employment involves concerns, attitudes, and misconceptions Misconceptions is an American sitcom television series for The WB Network for the 2005-2006 season that never aired. It features Jane Leeves, formerly of Frasier, and French Stewart, formerly of 3rd Rock From the Sun. (Mithuag, 1979; Renzaglia, 1986). Among employers there are minorities at either end of the continuum of willingness to try supported employment - those who need no great realignment re·a·lign
tr.v. re·a·ligned, re·a·lign·ing, re·a·ligns
1. To put back into proper order or alignment.
2. To make new groupings of or working arrangements between. of their beliefs and attitudes to be "sold" and those who would not try it no matter what. The large majority sitting on the fence must be systematically cultured to help them overcome their reluctance and to improve their ideas about the capabilities of persons with disabilities. Enhancing images of our consumers as people worth knowing and as competent employees (McCord, 1983; Wolfensberger, 1986) must be coupled with strong factual information dealing with workman's compensation and related concerns (Bellany, Rhodes, Mank, & Albin, 1988; E.E. Dupont, 1982). Although philosophical and motivational factors have had some impact in hiring decisions, it is obvious that from the employer's point of view there still remain objections to employment of persons with disabilities in the areas of insurance, physical modification, safety and special privileges. As in the Dupont study (1982), a supported employment concept must include answers to these objections-supported employment options are safe, require no great costs in modification or insurance, and reflect an expectation of equal treatment with accomodations to which other employees have no objection A formal attestation or declaration of disapproval concerning a specific point of law or procedure during the course of a trial; a statement indicating disagreement with a judge's ruling. .
Marketing strategies need to be developed that go beyond awareness and impact upon willingness. Based upon the authors review of the literature and our experience, broad guidelines in developing a marketing approach should include; 1. People with developmental disabilities are their own best
salesperson. Any approach to changing willingness must
utilize people with developmental disabilities displaying
their competence (enhancing their image) as employees and
must allow them to speak and advocate for themselves
(Vandergoot, 1986). 2. Employers have the most credibility with other employers.
Presentations of ideas of supported employment and viability
of the approach must be communicated by employers
who have found it successful - has met their labor needs
without disruption disruption /dis·rup·tion/ (dis-rup´shun) a morphologic defect resulting from the extrinsic breakdown of, or interference with, a developmental process. and with relatively little risk (Vandergoot,
1986). 3. Supported employment network must be described as a program
in a common sense way and with business oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
concepts. A variety of situations in which it has worked
must be used to highlight the highly individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
that is utilized. (Kiernan, Carter, & Bronstein,
1989; Shafer, Parent, & Everson, 1989). 4. Education/awareness programs must be developed and
tested both to determine criteria for the content to be delivered
to employers and formats of delivery. (Kiernan et al.,
1989; Shafer et al., 1989).
Business Incentive for Use of Supported Employment
Employers have a whole array of values/needs through which their perception of supported employment may be affected. The values/needs come from two areas/concerns: 1. What are advantages/disadvantages from business perspectives; 2. How compatible is supported employment with how work gets done (Kiernan, et al., 1989; Shafer et al., 1989; Vandergoot, 1986). We have addressed the business compatibility issues and some major advantages and disadvantages. To round off our discussion, a description of incentives will be provided. This description will include the delineation of areas relative to financial supports for employees with disabilities, tax benefits, skill training for persons with disabilities, and special supports in the areas of accomodation and job enabling.
Employment incentives, many established in law, are the last group of factors that could have a significant impact on employers' hiring decisions and should be part of marketing strategy. Besides monetary incentives, funds may be made available to absorbed excess costs in hiring a disabled person incurred either because of more On the Job Training (OJT OJT On-The-Job Training
OJT Office de Justification des Tirages (predecessor of OJD) ) or accommodations required. These funds are available from three basic sources: Vocational Rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society (VR), United States Employment Services The United States Employment Service (abbreviated as USES) is an agency of the United States government responsible for "assisting coordination of the State public employment services in providing labor exchange and job finding assistance to job seekers and employers (USES), and the Private Industry Council (PIC (1) (Programmable Interrupt Controller) An Intel 8259A chip that controls interrupts. Starting with the 286-based AT, there are two PICs in a PC, providing a total of 15 usable IRQs. ). While both agencies have different criteria, the basic intent of the program is to support employers for training workers with a disability. These funds are restricted to training only, are time limited, reimburse re·im·burse
tr.v. re·im·bursed, re·im·burs·ing, re·im·burs·es
1. To repay (money spent); refund.
2. To pay back or compensate (another party) for money spent or losses incurred. the employer on a ratio or need basis and must result in the person being employed. Another monetary incentive is Targeted Jobs Tax Credits (TJTC TJTC Targeted Jobs Tax Credit ). With the TJTC "for-profit" businesses can obtain tax credits for hiring workers with handicaps. Generally speaking for each individual with a handicap hired, up to $2,400 may deducted de·duct
v. de·duct·ed, de·duct·ing, de·ducts
1. To take away (a quantity) from another; subtract.
2. To derive by deduction; deduce.
v.intr. from the employing business' taxes. The resultant This article is about the resultant of polynomials. For the result of adding two or more vectors, see Parallelogram rule. For the technique in organ building, see Resultant (organ).
In mathematics, the resultant of two monic polynomials tax relief varies with each business; however, there is generally significant savings (Internal Revenue Service, 1989).
A third incentive available to the employer that may be interested in hiring a person with a disability is that of tax deductions Tax deduction
An expense that a taxpayer is allowed to deduct from taxable income.
See deduction. for expenditures related to the modification or adaptation of business facilities. This benefit allows the employer to deduct de·duct
v. de·duct·ed, de·duct·ing, de·ducts
1. To take away (a quantity) from another; subtract.
2. To derive by deduction; deduce.
v.intr. up to $35,000 in expenses relative to accessibility related modifications to enable persons with disabilities to work. This deduction can be taken in one year verses amortizing their business expense over a number of years (Internal Revenue Service, 1989).
Rehabilitation engineering Rehabilitation engineering is the systematic application of engineering sciences to design, develop, adapt, test, evaluate, apply, and distribute technological solutions to problems confronted by individuals with disabilities. is also available to employers as a result of the Amendments to the 1973 Rehabilitation Act. The federal/state VR program can provide employers with assistance in adapting specific jobs in their attempts to accommodate the specific needs of the prospective employee. Examples of adaptations might be specialized spe·cial·ize
v. spe·cial·ized, spe·cial·iz·ing, spe·cial·iz·es
1. To pursue a special activity, occupation, or field of study.
2. chairs, adaptive machinery, or a computer with special adaptations. In every case, the equipment is the property of the consumer and the state agency and the employer does not retain the use of the adaptation if the consumer is not maintained in the position.
Another significant but little known incentive that exist is the "Second Injury provision" of the Workman's Compensation Fund that affords a protection for the business if an injury occurs on the job that is a direct result of the employee's disability (Larson, 1952). In Ohio, for example, the accidents are reviewed and the outcome (the sharing of cost) is determined on a percentage basis as to the degree to which the disability "caused" the accident.
An overlooked benefit that many employers view as necessary is that of the employment specialist that provides placement, training, and long term support to the consumer and the employer. Many employers consider this benefit a very strong incentive if the placement program is capable of demonstrating that they are willing to train, support and maintain the consumer in their new work setting. Many employers are concerned that they have little or no ability in dealing person with disabilities and it is the supports of the "experts" in the field that will be the deciding factor as to whether the individual will be hired (Vandergoot, 1986).
Related to the employment specialist incentive there is the availability of funds for specific skill training and related training for persons with disabilities. These funds are available in a grant type service delivery method through State Employment Services or local PIC. Grants are reviewed and funded according to their effectiveness and the grant's specifications in meeting the PIC's criteria of need. These funds can be accessed through either private "non-profit" or "for profit" business.
A final employer incentive related to hiring persons with disabilities is that of special Department of Labor (DOL DOL - Display Oriented Language. Subsystem of DOCUS. Sammet 1969, p.678. ) regulations which enables an employer to hire consumers that are not, at present, able to produce work at competitive rates. The mechanism for accessing this program is a simple application that specifies only the necessary information and can be filled out with ease. This information has to be updated semi-annually and can be incorporated in the employers usual employee review process. The focus of this DOL waiver The voluntary surrender of a known right; conduct supporting an inference that a particular right has been relinquished.
The term waiver is used in many legal contexts. is to allow the employer time to train the individual and apply them at below commensurate rates (the usual wages that is earned in the market place). The intent of this waiver is to provide a temporary reduction wage and that, after the training period is concluded, the consumer would be producing at competitive rates. This reduction in wages, however, can go on indefinetely if the consumer continues to demonstrate below competitive production (Federal Register, May 20, 1988).
Several government and other incentive programs have been developed to assist in the acquisition of employment for persons with disabilities. However, states and localities may vary in terms of utilization and implementational. Inequality inequality, in mathematics, statement that a mathematical expression is less than or greater than some other expression; an inequality is not as specific as an equation, but it does contain information about the expressions involved. does exist and uniformity must be sought.
A systematic method/approach must be developed which is directed at employers beliefs, attitudes and willingness and which is validated val·i·date
tr.v. val·i·dat·ed, val·i·dat·ing, val·i·dates
1. To declare or make legally valid.
2. To mark with an indication of official sanction.
3. with employers. The approach recommended would utilize examples of successful supported employment placements of persons with developmental disabilties as the primary means of communicating to employers.
The future success of the employment programs for persons with DDrests squarely square·ly
1. Mathematics At right angles: sawed the beam squarely.
2. In a square shape.
3. on the supported employment movement. We have attempted to trace the roots and relationships of supported employment in terms of traditional sheltered workshop services. Supported employment was described as a refined approach to developing work opportunity and also meeting the needs both of consumers for training and support and of employers for needed labor resources. Approaches to supported employment were described which provide a blend of strategies dealing with the business/habilitation duality problem. Critical factors in the marketing of supported employment were examined to highlight the initial steps in the building of a positive and effective interface with the business community in the development of work opportunity.
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French-born economist and politician who took part in negotiations after the American Revolution (1783) and in the acquisition of the Louisiana Territory (1803). & Co. (1982). Equal to the task: 1981 du Pont Du Pont (dpŏnt), family notable in U.S. industrial history. The Du Pont family's importance began when Eleuthère Irénée Du Pont established a gunpowder mill on the survey of employment of the handicapped. Wilmington, DE: E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Federal Register (May 12, 1988). Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986: The state of Supported Employment Service Program; Final Regulations (34 CFR CFR
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