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Building codes.

The model building codes and standards developed by the International Code Council (ICC ICC

See: International Chamber of Commerce
), the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NFPA National Food Processors Association
NFPA National Fluid Power Association
NFPA National Federation of Paralegal Associations (Edmonds, WA) 
) and the American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of  Society of Heating, Refrigerating re·frig·er·ate  
tr.v. re·frig·er·at·ed, re·frig·er·at·ing, re·frig·er·ates
1. To cool or chill (a substance).

2. To preserve (food) by chilling.
 and Air-Conditioning air-conditioning

Control of temperature, humidity, purity, and motion of air in an enclosed space, independent of outside conditions. In a self-contained air-conditioning unit, air is heated in a boiler unit or cooled by being blown across a refrigerant-filled coil and then
 Engineers (ASHRAE ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers ) provide a uniform basis for code enforcement Code Enforcement is the act of enforcing a set of s, principles, or laws (especially written ones) and insuring observance of a system of norms or customs. An authority usually enforces a civil code, a set of rules, or a body of laws and compel those subject to their authority to  across the country.

The complete set of codes developed by the International Code Council is particularly important. The ICC codes--and the references they include to standards developed by the other groups--provide the apartment industry with a uniform and consistent basis for construction nationwide. They allow the industry to build accessible and affordable housing cost-effectively, without any reduction in the basic requirement for life safety.

These standards are developed at the national level and then adopted and enforced en·force  
tr.v. en·forced, en·forc·ing, en·forc·es
1. To compel observance of or obedience to: enforce a law.

 at the local level. NAA/NMHC strongly support the local adoption of the ICC's set of codes. The mixing and matching of different codes--such as if a locality 1. locality - In sequential architectures programs tend to access data that has been accessed recently (temporal locality) or that is at an address near recently referenced data (spatial locality). This is the basis for the speed-up obtained with a cache memory.
 adopts the ICC's International Building Code (IBC IBC International Building Code
IBC Iraq Body Count
IBC Institutional Biosafety Committee
IBC Inflammatory Breast Cancer
IBC International Business Company
IBC Independence Blue Cross
IBC Insurance Bureau of Canada
IBC International Broadcasting Convention
) but then adopts the NFPA's Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1) instead of the ICC's International Fire Code--creates situations in which the provisions from one code contradict con·tra·dict  
v. con·tra·dict·ed, con·tra·dict·ing, con·tra·dicts
1. To assert or express the opposite of (a statement).

2. To deny the statement of. See Synonyms at deny.
 the provisions of another. In addition to creating confusion in the enforcement process, this mixing of different codes developed by different organizations usually means designing to the most restrictive provision, which results in unnecessary increases in construction costs.


ICC Model Codes

Issue Discussion: NAA/NMHC support the adoption of the model codes developed and published by ICC over any other set of model codes. The ICC model codes, developed with input from code and fire officials as well as industry, have proved to be a complete, comprehensive and coordinated set of codes that allows the apartment industry to build cost-effective cost-effective,
n the minimal expenditure of dollars, time, and other elements necessary to achieve the health care result deemed necessary and appropriate.
, safe, affordable and accessible housing.

In addition to being the only set of model codes developed and published by a single organization, the 2000 IBC with the 2001 amendments, the 2003 IBC and now the 2006 IBC, with the January January: see month.  2007 erratum [Latin, Error.] The term used in the Latin formula for the assignment of mistakes made in a case.

After reviewing a case, if a judge decides that there was no error, he or she indicates so by replying, "In nollo est erratum
 (concerning missing text), are the only model codes with the "safe harbor Safe Harbor

1. A legal provision to reduce or eliminate liability as long as good faith is demonstrated.

2. A form of shark repellent implemented by a target company acquiring a business that is so poorly regulated that the target itself is less attractive.
" designation DESIGNATION, wills. The expression used by a testator, instead of the name of the person or the thing he is desirous to name; for example, a legacy to. the eldest son of such a person, would be a designation of the legatee. Vide 1 Rop. Leg. ch. 2.
 for compliance with HUD's Fair Housing Act Accessibility Guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.

Action Requested: NAA/NMHC strongly urge local jurisdictions to adopt the full package of ICC construction codes without local amendments. NAA/NMHC further urge localities not to mix and match codes, such as adopting the ICC's International Building Code (IBC) but then adopting the NFPA Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1) instead of the ICC's International Fire Code.

NAA/NMHC also urge local jurisdictions not to adopt the NFPA Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) for anything other than medical occupancies, because that code has requirements for existing apartments that are not aligned with the requirements in the IBC.

Non-Metallic Sheathed sheath  
n. pl. sheaths
a. A case for a blade, as of a sword.

b. Any of various similar coverings.


Issue Discussion: NAA/NMHC strongly support the cost-effective, safe electrical wiring Electrical wiring in general refers to insulated conductors used to carry electricity, and associated devices. This article describes general aspects of electrical wiring as used to provide power in buildings and structures, commonly referred to as building wiring.  provisions in the 2003 and 2006 ICC codes and the 2002, 2005 and 2008 National Electrical Code The National Electrical Code (NEC), or NFPA 70, is a U.S. standard for the safe installation of electrical wiring and equipment. It is part of the National Fire Codes series published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).  (NEC (NEC Corporation, Tokyo,, An electronics conglomerate known in the U.S. for its monitors. In Japan, it had the lion's share of the PC market until the late 1990s (see PC 98).

NEC was founded in Tokyo in 1899 as Nippon Electric Company, Ltd.
), published by the NFPA. We oppose any modifications to those provisions that raise costs without supporting technical justification justification

In Christian theology, the passage of an individual from sin to a state of grace. Some theologians use the term to refer to the act of God in extending grace to the sinner, while others use it to define the change in the condition of a sinner who has received

For nearly 20 years, NAA/NMHC have advocated widespread use of non-metallic sheathed cable (NM cable; also referred to as Romex Romex can refer to
  • A type of power cable
  • The Romex system for bridge bidding
) without consideration of building height. Earlier code requirements limited NM wiring to buildings with three or fewer stories, a costly restriction restriction - A bug or design error that limits a program's capabilities, and which is sufficiently egregious that nobody can quite work up enough nerve to describe it as a feature.  that is completely unjustified.

During the 2001 code development cycle, the ICC removed all height limitations on the use of NM cable from the International Building Code (IBC). In addition, the 2002 National Electrical Code was revised to allow the use of NM cable in any building permitted to be of Types III, IV and V construction, up to five stories in height. The 2005 and 2006 NEC retain these changes.

Expanded use of NM cable saves apartment developers $50 million in annual construction costs, without compromising life safety. These savings allow apartment developers to construct new apartments and replace old housing where previously they would not have been financially able to do so.

Action Requested: Local jurisdictions are urged to adopt the 2006 ICC codes and the 2008 NEC without any local amendments restricting re·strict  
tr.v. re·strict·ed, re·strict·ing, re·stricts
To keep or confine within limits. See Synonyms at limit.

[Latin restringere, restrict- : re-,
 the use of NM wiring.


Issue Discussion: NAA/NMHC support accessible building code provisions that are compatible with the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act Americans with Disabilities Act, U.S. civil-rights law, enacted 1990, that forbids discrimination of various sorts against persons with physical or mental handicaps.  and the Fair Housing Act. NAA/NMHC support the 10 "safe harbor" design standards Design standards

Specifications of materials, physical measurements, processes, performance of products, and characteristics of services rendered. Design standards may be established by individual manufacturers, trade associations, and national or
 designated by HUD Hud (hd), a pre-Qur'anic prophet of Islam. Hud unsuccessfully exhorted his South Arabian people, the Ad, to worship the One God. . HUD's acceptance of the ICC/ANSI A117.1 accessibility standard and the IBC as a safe harbor under HUD's Fair Housing Act Accessibility Guidelines is a major step forward in the development of a single set of national accessibility standards accessibility standards (akses´abil´itē), the requirements designed by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), by which public places must provide disabled individuals with barrier-free access to
. NAA/NMHC also support the efforts of the U.S. Access Board (a federal agency committed to accessible design) to align align (līn),
v to move the teeth into their proper positions to conform to the line of occlusion.
 the federal accessibility provisions with those contained in the model codes. We further encourage the Access Board to accept the ANSI (American National Standards Institute, New York, A membership organization founded in 1918 that coordinates the development of U.S. voluntary national standards in both the private and public sectors. It is the U.S. member body to ISO and IEC.  A117.1-2003 Standard on Accessible and Usable USable is a special idea contest to transfer US American ideas into practice in Germany. USable is initiated by the German Körber-Stiftung (foundation Körber). It is doted with 150,000 Euro and awarded every two years.  Buildings and Facilities as the basis for accessibility technical requirements.

Action Requested: NAA/NMHC support the adoption of the accessibility provisions in the 2006 ICC codes.

World Trade Center Disaster

Issue Discussion: NAA/NMHC support changes to the model codes that address technical issues identified in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's (NIST (National Institute of Standards & Technology, Washington, DC, The standards-defining agency of the U.S. government, formerly the National Bureau of Standards. It is one of three agencies that fall under the Technology Administration ( ) investigation of the September September: see month.  11 collapse of the World Trade Center On September 11, 2001, the two main towers of the World Trade Center complex were each hit by aircraft as part of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The south tower (2 WTC) collapsed at 9:59 a.m., less than an hour after being hit, and the north tower (1 WTC) followed at 10:28 a.m. . NAA/NMHC oppose any modifications

***** intended to require high-rise buildings high-rise building

Multistory building taller than the maximum height people are willing to walk up, thus requiring vertical mechanical transportation. The introduction of safe passenger elevators made practical the erection of buildings more than four or five stories tall.
 to be designed to withstand the impact of a very large, fuel-loaded airplane airplane, aeroplane, or aircraft, heavier-than-air vehicle, mechanically driven and fitted with fixed wings that support it in flight through the dynamic action of the air.  flying into the side of the building.

NIST's Final Report on the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers, concerning the attack on the World Trade Center Towers on September 11, included 30 recommendations on items that NIST was concerned about in the design, construction and operation of very tall buildings. These recommendations are now being studied by a variety of groups responsible for the development of codes and standards that form the basis for the code provisions that establish the minimum building code requirements.

Action Requested: NAA/NMHC support changes in the national codes to address issues identified during the NIST investigations. However, our members oppose any proposed changes to requirements at the local level that have not been thoroughly discussed, acted on and approved at the national level during the rigorous model code development process.
Federally Assisted Rental Housing: 2008


Section 8 program vouchers          3,356,526
HOME Rental Units Completed            23,170
CDBG Rental Units Rehabilitation       21,418
Section 236 program                   280,636


Percent Distribution of $893 billion
in Multifamily Mortgage Credit
Outstanding in 2008 (Third Quarter)

Commercial Banks                          24%
Savings Institutions                       7%
Life Insurance Companies                   6%
Fannie Mae                                13%
Freddie Mac                                8%
Mortgage Securities
Ginnie Mae                                 4%
Fannie Mae                                11%
Freddie Mac                                1%
CMBS                                      13%
Individual and others                     13%

Source: Federal Reserve Board

U.S. Households: Renters & Owners

                        NO. OF                        NO. OF
                       HOUSEHOLDS     % OF U.S.     RESIDENTS

Renter Occupied
  Housing                37,469          32%          88,558
Owner Occupied
  Housing                79,350          68%         210,548
TOTAL                   116,819         100%         299,106

Source: NMHC tabulations of 2008 Current Population Survey, Annual
Social and Economic Supplement, U.S. Census Bureau (

Apartment Construction in 2008 (through November 2008)

Apartments Authorized for Construction                      275,752
  (5+ units in structure; includes units for owner occupancy)


Value of Apartments Authorized (in thousands):          $25,544,780


State Distribution of Apartment Renters in 2007
(buildings with 5 or more apartments)

                        TOTAL          APARTMENT         SHARE OF
                      RESIDENTS        RESIDENTS          STATE

Alabama                    4,628              300                 6%
Alaska                       683               59                 9%
Arizona                    6,339              668                11%
Arkansas                   2,835              168                 6%
California                36,553            5,758                16%
Colorado                   4,862              539                11%
Connecticut                3,502              312                 9%
Delaware                     865               72                 8%
District of
  Columbia                   588              179                30%
Florida                   18,251            1,948                11%
Georgia                    9,545              977                10%
Hawaii                     1,283              162                13%
Idaho                      1,499               67                 4%
Illinois                  12,853            1,232                10%
Indiana                    6,345              475                 7%
Iowa                       2,988              223                 7%
Kansas                     2,776              188                 7%
Kentucky                   4,241              274                 6%
Louisiana                  4,293              256                 6%
Maine                      1,317               67                 5%
Maryland                   5,618              663                12%
Massachusetts              6,450              694                11%
Michigan                  10,072              751                 7%
Minnesota                  5,198              508                10%
Mississippi                2,919              163                 6%
Missouri                   5,878              365                 6%
Montana                      958               48                 5%
Nebraska                   1,775              146                 8%
Nevada                     2,565              381                15%
New Hampshire              1,316              107                 8%
New Jersey                 8,686            1,004                12%
New Mexico                 1,970              130                 7%
New York                  19,298            4,333                22%
North Carolina             9,061              706                 8%
North Dakota                 640               83                13%
Ohio                      11,467              940                 8%
Oklahoma                   3,617              249                 7%
Oregon                     3,747              402                11%
Pennsylvania              12,433              772                 6%
Rhode Island               1,058               83                 8%
South Carolina             4,408              284                 6%
South Dakota                 796               63                 8%
Tennessee                  6,157              481                 8%
Texas                     23,904            2,995                13%
Utah                       2,645              211                 8%
Vermont                      621               36                 6%
Virginia                   7,712              772                10%
Washington                 6,468              755                12%
West Virginia              1,812               76                 4%
Wisconsin                  5,602              476                 9%
Wyoming                      523               25                 5%
Total                    301,621           32,623                11%

                                       NUMBER OF
                      NUMBER OF         OCCUPIED        CHANGE IN
                       OCCUPIED        APARTMENTS       APARTMENTS
                      APARTMENTS          2000          SINCE 2000

Alabama                       165              152                13
Alaska                         30               28                 2
Arizona                       312              305                 7
Arkansas                       91               76                14
California                  2,429            2,408                21
Colorado                      280              274                 5
Connecticut                   173              181                -7
Delaware                       36               37                -1
District of
  Columbia                     97              104                -7
Florida                       925              887                38
Georgia                       429              388                41
Hawaii                         78               78                 1
Idaho                          36               32                 3
Illinois                      658              741               -84
Indiana                       271              257                13
Iowa                          132              119                13
Kansas                        113              106                 6
Kentucky                      152              150                 2
Louisiana                     139              155               -16
Maine                          43               46                -3
Maryland                      337              340                -3
Massachusetts                 385              414               -30
Michigan                      439              451               -12
Minnesota                     302              300                 2
Mississippi                    79               74                 6
Missouri                      219              216                 4
Montana                        28               26                 2
Nebraska                       89               90                -1
Nevada                        178              154                24
New Hampshire                  58               63                -4
New Jersey                    505              507                -1
New Mexico                     70               62                 8
New York                    1,927            2,010               -83
North Carolina                365              293                72
North Dakota                   53               44                 9
Ohio                          548              564               -16
Oklahoma                      137              131                 6
Oregon                        213              199                14
Pennsylvania                  482              494               -13
Rhode Island                   51               61                -9
South Carolina                143              119                24
South Dakota                   39               35                 4
Tennessee                     249              243                 6
Texas                       1,377            1,305                73
Utah                           90               80                10
Vermont                        20               20                 0
Virginia                      389              384                 5
Washington                    407              384                24
West Virginia                  45               45                 0
Wisconsin                     287              280                 7
Wyoming                        15               14                 0
Total                      16,117           15,929               188

Source: Census 2000 and 2007 American Community Survey. For information
about these data sources, please visit

State Distribution of New Apartment Construction in 2008
(November Year-to-Date as of Nov. 2008) (5+ units in
structure; includes units for owner occupancy)

                           NUMBER OF         TOTAL VALUE

Alabama                       3,492                   $267,623
Alaska                          105                    $15,354
Arizona                       6,277                   $456,029
Arkansas                      2,646                   $169,271
California                   25,218                 $3,172,727
Colorado                      6,601                   $842,912
Connecticut                   2,078                   $279,349
Delaware                        445                    $33,341
District of Columbia            280                    $25,337
Florida                      19,541                 $1,994,974
Georgia                       8,097                   $748,294
Hawaii                        1,333                   $319,542
Idaho                           281                    $26,762
Illinois                      7,844                   $800,025
Indiana                       3,721                   $249,885
Iowa                          1,602                   $162,004
Kansas                        2,387                   $192,533
Kentucky                      2,764                   $181,704
Louisiana                     3,604                   $299,003
Maine                           465                    $33,340
Maryland                      4,979                   $529,872
Massachusetts                 3,555                   $374,506
Michigan                      1,391                   $116,026
Minnesota                     1,925                   $207,462
Mississippi                   2,628                   $146,366
Missouri                      3,237                   $233,402
Montana                         192                    $15,649
Nebraska                      1,473                   $115,811
Nevada                        6,440                   $496,579
New Hampshire                   645                    $54,206
New Jersey                    7,881                   $711,863
New Mexico                      653                    $54,275
New York                     36,421                 $3,393,729
North Carolina               13,661                   $985,096
North Dakota                  1,039                    $91,941
Ohio                          3,792                   $256,768
Oklahoma                      1,281                    $95,270
Oregon                        3,739                   $496,017
Pennsylvania                  3,472                   $334,136
Rhode Island                     94                    $17,565
South Carolina                5,506                   $525,946
South Dakota                    867                    $65,948
Tennessee                     4,341                   $308,137
Texas                        45,281                 $3,408,164
Utah                          2,815                   $283,704
Vermont                         173                    $13,295
Virginia                      5,742                   $522,599
Washington                    8,676                 $1,060,986
West Virginia                   600                    $31,965
Wisconsin                     4,250                   $315,905
Wyoming                         222                    $11,583
Totals                      275,752                $25,544,780

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Title Annotation:2009 Legislative & Regulatory Priorities
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