Bolivar's letter from Jamaica.
While he was in exile in Jamaica, Simon Bolivar received a letter from a Jamaican who sympathized with hi dreams for South American independence. Bolivar's answer was originally published as "Reply of a South American to a Gentleman of This Island." It became El Libertador's most eloquent summation summation n. the final argument of an attorney at the close of a trial in which he/she attempts to convince the judge and/or jury of the virtues of the client's case. (See: closing argument) of his quest. Read the following excerpt, and answer the questions below on a separate sheet of paper.
Words to Know
* irrevocably: cannot be altered * purge: to free from an impurity im·pu·ri·ty
n. pl. im·pu·ri·ties
1. The quality or condition of being impure, especially:
a. Contamination or pollution.
b. Lack of consistency or homogeneity; adulteration.
c. * reconcile: to make agree
Kingston, Jamaica The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. It is located on the southeastern coast of the island country at Coordinates: . , September 6, 1815
My dear Sir:
I hasten to reply to your letter of August 29, which I received with great satisfaction....
"Three centuries ago," you say, "began the atrocities [horrific acts] committed by the Spaniards on this great hemisphere of Columbus." Our age has rejected these atrocities as mythical, because they appear to be beyond the human capacity for evil. [But many people have sworn that Spain's atrocities did happen.]... All this is attested [confirmed] by the foremost historians of our time....
Success will crown our efforts because the destiny of America has been irrevocably decided. The tie that bound her to Spain has been severed.... It would be easier to have the two continents meet than to reconcile the spirits of the two countries.... There is nothing we have not suffered at the hands of that unnatural stepmother, Spain....
Because successes have been partial ... we must not lose faith. In some regions the Independents triumph, while in others the tyrants have the advantage. What is the end result? Is not the entire New World in motion, armed for defense? We have but to look around us on this hemisphere to witness a simultaneous [all at once] struggle at every point....
The warlike war·like
1. Belligerent; hostile.
a. Of or relating to war; martial.
b. Indicative of or threatening war.
1. state of the [people of the] La Plata River La Plata River
River, eastern central Puerto Rico. It flows about 45 mi (70 km) northwest and north, to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Part of it is dammed to create a lake which provides hydroelectric power. provinces has purged that territory [of Spanish forces] and led their victorious armies to Upper Peru.... Nearly 1 million inhabitants
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame. there now enjoy liberty.... Two-and-a-half million people inhabit New Grenada and are actually defending that territory against the Spanish army The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra in Spanish; literally, "Land Army") is one of oldest active armies in the world and a branch of the Spanish Armed Forces, in charge of land operations. ....
Generous souls always interest themselves in the fate of a people who strive to recover the rights to which the Creator and Nature have entitled them. One must indeed be wedded to error and passion not to harbor this noble sentiment. You have given thought to my country and are concerned on its behalf. For your kindness I am warmly grateful.
1. What is "the great hemisphere of Columbus"?
2. When does the letter say the atrocities of the Spanish began?
3. Bolivar says some people claim that the crimes of the Spanish were "mythical." What is his reply?
4. Bolivar uses a physical metaphor to show how far apart Spain and her unhappy colonies are. What is it?
5. What does "simultaneous struggle at every point" mean, in the fourth paragraph?
6. What have the people of the La Plata River provinces done, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
7. What do you think Bolivar means by calling Spain an "unnatural stepmother" in the third paragraph?
8. In the last paragraph, Bolivar writes of "the rights to which the Creator and Nature have entitled them." Which important document in United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. history does this phrase echo?
1. the Western Hemisphere Western Hemisphere
Part of Earth comprising North and South America and the surrounding waters. Longitudes 20° W and 160° E are often considered its boundaries. , which Europeans believed had been "discovered" by Christopher Columbus
2. "Three centuries ago"--or just after Columbus first arrived in 1492
3. Bolivar says that the Spanish atrocities were "attested," or documented, "by the foremost historians."
4. He compares the physical distance of Europe and South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. to the difference in "the spirits" of the two places.
5. Bolivar is saying that all (or most) of the Spanish colonies are rising up at once.
6. They have "purged" the territory, or have rid it of the Spanish, Bolivar says.
7. He is saying that Spain was a kind of mother to the states of South America, the way that they developed. But Spain was not South America's natural mother-and the way it became stepmother, by conquest, was "unnatural."
8. the Declaration of Independence