Bluewater sparks snowmobile debate.In January, 1998, Bluewater Network sent a petition signed by 60 organizations to the National Park Service (NPS NPS National Park Service
NPS Naval Postgraduate School
NPS Net Promoter Score (customer management)
NPS Non-Point Source pollution
NPS Native Plant Society
NPS Norfolk Public Schools (Virginia) ). The petition urges NPS to ban snowmobiles throughout the park system, based on their effects on air and water quality, wildlife, and public health and safety Since we sent NPS our analysis, we have been finding increasing evidence of snowmobile damage.
We reported several endangered species endangered species, any plant or animal species whose ability to survive and reproduce has been jeopardized by human activities. In 1999 the U.S. government, in accordance with the U.S. threatened by snowmobile use -- grizzly bear grizzly bear or grizzly, large, powerful North American brown bear, characterized by gray-streaked, or grizzled, fur. Grizzlies are 6 to 8 ft (180–250 cm) long, stand 3 1-2 to 4 ft (105–120 cm) at the humped shoulder, and weigh up to , bald eagle bald eagle
Species of sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that occurs inland along rivers and large lakes. Strikingly handsome, it is the only eagle native solely to North America, and it has been the U.S. national bird since 1782. The adult, about 40 in. , and gray wolf. Recently, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) declared the Canada lynx an endangered species and reported that snowmobiles are a "significant threat" to the lynx. By compacting deep snow, snowmobiles allow bobcats and coyotes into lynx habitat, decreasing lynx survival.
Snowmobile noise has also become a key issue. The National Park Service is required to protect "natural quiet," which Park regulations term a "park resource" and define as "the natural sound conditions found in National Parks when people with normal hearing can perceive nothing but sounds produced by the natural and cultural components of the parks."
According to the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), a member of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, is mandated to conduct and support biomedical and behavioral research and research training in the normal and disordered processes of hearing, balance, , people near snowmobiles (as cross-country skiers often are) commonly experience noise levels exceeding 100 decibels. The Park Service at Yellowstone has received complaints that snowmobiles can be heard at Shoshone Lake, about two and half miles from snowmobile traffic, and at Heart Lake, almost six miles from snowmobile access.
Snowmobiles are dangerous. A study in. January's Public Health Reports found that, in 1993 and 1994, snowmobile injuries or deaths in Alaska were 17 per 100 million miles driven, compared with only two injury/deaths for on-road motor vehicles. NPS contacts have commented that our petition and such new evidence have prompted NPS to consider new rules.
Snowmobilers have argued that the way snowmobiles pack trails provides easier access to prey, allows animals to travel further, and boosts wildlife populations. But studies have shown that packed trails change predator-prey relationships and energy dynamics, causing longer-term population decreases for predators, prey, and other wildlife. For example, though grizzlies The name Grizzlies may refer to:
Snowmobile proponents have also commented that snowmobile-effects are minor and leave no permanent mark. Unfortunately, as found in Denali National Park's environmental impact assessment of snowmobile use, evidence of snowmobile trails is seen in the summer. Further, the pollutants that accumulate in the snow-pack from snowmobile emissions lead to springtime 'water pollution, high death rates for aquatic species, and other wilderness degradation.
In January we petitioned the Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), independent agency of the U.S. government, with headquarters in Washington, D.C. It was established in 1970 to reduce and control air and water pollution, noise pollution, and radiation and to ensure the safe handling and to regulate snowmobile emissions. Less than one month later, the EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, eicosapentaenoic.
n. announced that it would begin the rulemaking process, noting that snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles alone produce a quarter of the pollution emitted by all on-road cars and trucks in the US combined. There are more than 66 times as many on-road cars and trucks in use as there are snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles.
Bluewater Network has been fighting to stop another thrill-craft -jet skis -- from destroying our parks. Besides dumping 25 to 30 percent of their fuel unburned into the water, jet skis harass wildlife and destroy natural quiet and the experience of other recreationists. Over the past year, Bluewater Network has convinced 20 park superintendents to ban jet skis, including at Grand Teton National Park Grand Teton National Park (tētŏn`, tē`tŏn), 309,993 acres (125,503 hectares), NW Wyo.; est. 1929. The park, which includes Jackson Lake and part of Jackson Hole, embraces the most scenic portion of the glaciated, snow-covered Teton , Golden Gate National Recreation Area Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Calif.: see National Parks and Monuments (table). , and Olympic National Park Olympic National Park
National park, northwestern Washington, U.S. Established in 1938 to preserve the Olympic Mountains and their forests and wildlife, it covers 1,442 sq mi (3,735 sq km); it includes a strip of Pacific Northwest shoreline geographically separated from the .
In December 1998, Bluewater Network convinced the California Air Resources Board California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the "clean air agency" of the state of California in the United States. Established originally in 1967, it is a part of the California Environmental Protection Agency, an organization which reports directly to the California (CARB) to effectively ban the sale of new conventional two-stroke engine craft as of 2001 in California. CARB also adopted Bluewater Network's innovative environmental label program for marine engines, and some manufacturers are expected to provide the labels nationwide.
Sheila Gallagher is Project Coordinator at Bluewater Network. Reach Bluewater Network at 300 Broadway, Suite 28. SF CA 94133, email@example.com or <www. earthisland.org/bw>.