Birth through kindergarten teacher training.Research indicates that children's development does not occur in one discrete, isolated area at a time. Rather, children learn to explore while they learn to talk, and they learn to manipulate materials while learning to play. Similarly, when a child has a disability, it seldom affects only one aspect of his development; his learning ability is affected in several different ways. In recognition of this truth, the Education of the Handicapped Amendments of 1986 (P. L. 99-457), which was later renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Some statements may be disputed, incorrect, , biased or otherwise objectionable.
In North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. , this move resulted in a licensure licensure
(lī´snsh program that requires teacher training to include the three strands of child development, early childhood education and early childhood special education. The previous licensure program required individuals holding preschool handicapped and prekindergarten licensures to obtain the birth through kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be licensure.
This article describes the new licensure in North Carolina and explains its effect on both preservice teacher education programs and inservice programs An Inservice Program is a professional lecture, where professionals discuss research and cases involving their work for others in their peer group. It is a key component of medical education for Physicians, Pharmacists, and other professionals. . It also examines efforts to help higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. institutions statewide develop such licensure programs. Finally, the authors tally the anticipated benefits of this new licensure approach.
Rationale for Combining the Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Early Childhood Special Education Strands
When preschool children with disabilities are integrated with typically developing children, both groups benefit. Diamond, Hestenes and O'Connor (1994) report that inclusive settings offer children greater social interactions, higher levels of play and more skill-acquisition opportunities than do segregated settings. These researchers also found more accepting and less prejudicial prej·u·di·cial
1. Detrimental; injurious.
2. Causing or tending to preconceived judgment or convictions: attitudes among non-disabled children who had more interactions with children with disabilities. Salisbury (1991) reported that nondisabled children often became advocates for their peers with disabilities, frequently helping to remove potential barriers.
Buysee and Bailey (1993) reviewed studies comparing the progress of preschool children with disabilities in both integrated and segregated settings. For students placed in integrated settings, they found:
* Play was at higher rates, was more constructive and was more sophisticated
* Language development was at the same level or more advanced
* Greater socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. skills were evident
* Adult-child interactions and peer interactions were more frequent
* Developmental outcomes for either the disabled or the non-disabled children were not negatively affected
* Teacher attitudes toward children with disabilities and their families were more positive
* Meaningful practicum practicum (prak´tikm),
n See internship. and supervised field experiences with both typically and atypically a·typ·i·cal also a·typ·ic
Not conforming to type; unusual or irregular.
atyp·i·cal developing children were developed
* Participation with interagency in·ter·a·gen·cy
Involving or representing two or more agencies, especially government agencies. / interdisciplinary in·ter·dis·ci·pli·nar·y
Of, relating to, or involving two or more academic disciplines that are usually considered distinct.
Adjective early childhood teams increased.
Many teacher training programs do not give preservice teachers a chance to work with preschool children in inclusive settings. In a study of California Part H programs, Hanson and Lovett (1992) found that few programs covered either all or a majority of early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. areas. They reported that the areas receiving the greatest amount of training were: knowledge of typical and atypical atypical /atyp·i·cal/ (-i-k'l) irregular; not conformable to the type; in microbiology, applied specifically to strains of unusual type.
adj. development, the effects of a disability on early development, and the sequence of typical development. These authors also reported that university training programs paid little attention to:
* Family issues
* Infant/toddler intervention and assessment
* Interdisciplinary teaming interdisciplinary team,
n a group that consists of specialists from several fields combining skills and resources to present guidance and information. and the processes used to develop teaming
* Case management
* Cultural diversity
* Emphasis on children between the ages of birth through 3.
Other researchers found the area of family-centered experiences to be another weakness in early childhood training programs (Bailey, Palsha & Huntington, 1990; Bredekamp, 1992). McCollum and Bailey (1991) stressed that families with special needs children need help from professionals in developing individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. family service plans (IFSPs). These researchers emphasized that this training should be interdisciplinary and collaborative, and should emphasize parents' involvement in their children's educational concerns.
Training Needs for Teachers
For at least 20 years, East Carolina University's Department of Child Development and Family Relations sought to develop a certification program that would address the above concerns. While anyone seeking employment in North Carolina elementary schools elementary school: see school. must be licensed through the State Department of Public Instruction, those individuals preparing to work with young children and their families were not required to have certification unless they were to work with young children who were handicapped or those who attended public school programs for 4- and 5-year-olds.
As early as 1985, representatives from four-year, as well as two-year, institutions from the areas of early childhood / elementary education elementary education
or primary education
Traditionally, the first stage of formal education, beginning at age 5–7 and ending at age 11–13. , special education, and child development participated in several statewide meetings to develop an appropriate program leading to licensure. Investigations by the Interagency Coordinating Council and the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction indicated that training for early childhood teachers needed to be realigned if young children with disabilities were going to be integrated in settings with non-disabled students.
At first, the experts believed that the two existing licensures, the preschool handicapped licensure and the prekindergarten licensure, could be revised in order to accomplish this task. As individuals from early childhood special education and early childhood programs began working on this concept, however, it became apparent that a whole new licensure was needed.
As these groups attempted to realign re·a·lign
tr.v. re·a·ligned, re·a·lign·ing, re·a·ligns
1. To put back into proper order or alignment.
2. To make new groupings of or working arrangements between. existing licensures, they realized that they also needed to create an entirely new profession. One term kept reoccurring - "educarer," which can be attributed to Magda Gerba. Soon, an entirely new professional training program in early childhood evolved.
Ultimately, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction's early childhood teams concluded that three strands (early childhood education, child development and early childhood special education) needed to be included in any training program. This also meant that higher education faculty in those strands needed to become more competent in preparing teachers for the inclusion model.
In order to begin establishing guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. for early childhood education and licensure, two consultants were brought in. Sue Bredekamp Virginia Sue Bredekamp is an American early childhood educator.
While serving as Director of Professional Development for the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) from 1984 to 1998, Bredekamp instrumented the development of a national from the National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the largest nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, experts, and advocates in center-based and family day care. spoke on "National Accreditation of Early Childhood Programs," and Elizabeth Brady, Professor and Chair of Educational Psychology from the California State University Enrollment
at Northridge, spoke on "Four-Year-Olds in the California Public Schools: What Have We Learned?"
In August 1992, the North Carolina Board of Education approved "Birth Through Kindergarten (B-K) Certification Undergraduate Guidelines and Competencies." The general competencies for all programs were to include:
* An understanding of the various stages and substages of growth and development in young children
* Knowledge and skill in the design, adaptation and implementation of developmentally appropriate learning environments for young children
* An understanding of developmentally appropriate curricula and methods for children, birth to 2, and for 3 years old through kindergarten
* Enhanced skills and knowledge in the area of family collaboration
* Competence in data collection that focuses on an individual child's development.
With this memo in mind to produce graduates competent to work with both handicapped and nonhandicapped children, and after several more meetings, a conference represented by all higher education institutions took place in February 1993 (Miller, 1993). As a result, the following were identified as requirements for the Birth through Kindergarten licensure:
* Higher education faculty would need information regarding the necessary competencies for professionals involved in early intervention
* Higher education faculty would need help identifying areas that needed retooling in order to provide education in early intervention and early childhood education
* Higher education faculty throughout the state would need help developing both formal and informal networking strategies among programs offering inclusive training in birth through kindergarten teacher education programs.
In September 1992, East Carolina University East Carolina University is a public, coeducational, intensive research university located in Greenville, North Carolina, United States. Named East Carolina University by statue and commonly known as ECU or East Carolina began to develop a Birth through Kindergarten Teacher Education program. In order for students to gain licensure, the program would have to meet both State Department of Public Instruction (SDPI SDPI Sustainable Development Policy Institute
SDPI Soundings Derived Product Imagery ) and National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education The National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE) was founded in 1954 to accredit teacher certification programs at U.S. colleges and universities. NCATE is a council of educators created to ensure and raise the quality of preparation for their profession. (NCATE NCATE National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education ) program approval standards.
A program planning committee planning committee n (in local government) → comité m de planificación began to meet regularly, using the state B-K guidelines to give themselves direction. After identifying existing courses that covered the competencies, the committee also revised courses, where possible, and developed new courses as needed as needed prn. See prn order. . As a result, four new courses were developed: assessment and intervention, parent and professional collaboration, literacy development in early childhood and methods in early childhood special education. These last two courses were to be accompanied by practicums. The final plan for a B-K Teacher Education Program was approved by all regulatory bodies (both on-campus and off-campus) and first appeared in the 1995 Supplement to the 1994-1996 Undergraduate Catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C. , in June 1995.
The Irregular Approach for Obtaining Licensure
Initially, inservice training was provided for teachers who already held either the preschool handicapped or the prekindergarten licensures. This was a limited endeavor, however, and all individuals holding these certifications had to have fulfilled ful·fill also ful·fil
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.
2. the training and applied for the new B-K licensure by August 1996. The second approach to the B-K licensure was strictly for undergraduates taking university courses.
Blanton (1992) reported that effective inservice training emphasizes the development of a thinking framework that encourages teachers to use previous knowledge and experience in building new skills. For individuals holding a prekindergarten or preschool handicapped licensure, North Carolina's Department of Public Instruction developed a series of inservice workshops and activities based on this premise.
The workshop series required more than 200 hours of classroom and field experiences. Admission was based on a teacher's previous classroom experience, as well as workshop credits and university coursework coursework
work done by a student and assessed as part of an educational course
Noun 1. coursework - work assigned to and done by a student during a course of study; usually it is evaluated as part of the student's . The workshops included the following activities (Baars, 1994):
* Child development. This workshop emphasized the development of the young child from the ages of birth to 5, including development of both the typically and atypically developing child.
* Program planning, evaluation and data collection. Participants considered developmentally appropriate planning of programs for both typical and atypical children. This workshop covered both formal and informal modes of evaluation and data collection (record keeping) on children's development.
* Learning environments. This workshop focused on the preparation, organization and creation of learning environments that are most conducive con·du·cive
Tending to cause or bring about; contributive: working conditions not conducive to productivity. See Synonyms at favorable. to implementing developmentally appropriate activities for both typically and atypically developing children.
* Curriculum for young children. This workshop covered the need to recognize different curriculum models and implement them for both typically and atypically developing children.
* Family dynamics. This workshop emphasized approaches for getting families involved in their children's learning and development. It also discussed how early childhood professionals can meet the needs of different types of families.
* Interdisciplinary teaming. This workshop stressed approaches for obtaining community and medical services by creating frameworks for contacting and working with professionals in other fields who offer services to young children and their families.
* Field experiences. These activities took place in an early childhood setting, with either typically developing or atypically developing preschool children.
The number of workshops to be taken was determined by two evaluators who looked at each teacher's transcript, along with other written verification of experience or training. These evaluator teams were located in regional districts and represented the three strands of child development, early childhood education and early childhood special education. Once the evaluators reached a consensus on whether the individual met all the requirements, they forwarded the paperwork to the state's Division of Certification of the Department of Public Instruction. The applicant was either issued a license or, if skills were found lacking, was required to attend workshops.
The B-K licensure was available through workshops only to individuals already holding certification. This was considered an "irregular" approach to obtaining licensure for teachers who fit one of the following descriptions:
* Teachers without a permanent or provisional license in preschool handicapped or preschool kindergarten education, but who held a valid North Carolina teacher's license
* Teachers with licensure in preschool handicapped education
* Teachers with a provisional license in preschool handicapped education
* Teachers with licensure in preschool kindergarten education
* Teachers with a provisional license in preschool kindergarten education.
Teacher Training Programs and Institutions of Higher Education
University and college-based programs are the focal point focal point
See focus. for a second approach to B-K licensure. These initial licensure programs emphasize the three strands of early childhood education, child development and early childhood special education. Both the North Carolina Governance of the University System and the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction have mandated that B-K programs should have meaningful input from child development, early childhood special education and early childhood education departments. An example of such collaboration can be found at East Carolina University (ECU ECU
See: European Currency Unit
See European Currency Unit (ECU). ), where the birth through kindergarten teacher education program is located in the Department of Child Development and Family Relations. This program requires 42 hours of general education, as do all majors at East Carolina University. The rest of the program is divided up as follows:
Child Development (48 semester hours Noun 1. semester hour - a unit of academic credit; one hour a week for an academic semester
course credit, credit - recognition by a college or university that a course of studies has been successfully completed; typically measured in semester hours ):
* Early experiences with preschool education preschool education: see kindergarten; nursery school.
Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g. (mainly observation)
* The preschool child
* Preschool methods and materials
* Marriage and the family
* The child in the family
* Assessment and intervention with the young child
* Preschool education
* Directing the behavior and development of children
* Contemporary nutrition
* Preschool practicums at all different levels, birth through kindergarten
Elementary/Early Childhood (6 hours):
* Early childhood/elementary school curriculum
* Literacy development in young children
Special Education (9 hours) - All of these courses have an emphasis on early childhood:
* Introduction to exceptional children
* Instructional programming in special education
* Methods in early childhood special education
* Practicum in early childhood special education
Professional Teacher Education Courses (16 hours):
* Introduction to American education
* Educational technology
* Teaching internship internship /in·tern·ship/ (in´tern-ship) the position or term of service of an intern in a hospital.
n the course work or practicum conducted in a professional dental clinic. with placements in birth through kindergarten, with an accompanying seminar.
Assistance for Planning and Implementation to Institutions of Higher Education
In 1993, a two-day conference was organized for all state universities and colleges. During the conference, representatives from all the institutions that were preparing birth through kindergarten licensure programs shared the extent and content of their planning to that point. Follow-up work sessions led to the development of recommendations, which were distributed to every state institution of higher learning higher learning
Education or academic accomplishment at the college or university level. (Miller, 1993). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the recommendations, quality birth through kindergarten licensure programs should include:
* An interdisciplinary focus in planning and implementation
* Essential content components in child development, early childhood special education and early childhood education
* An emphasis on working with families
* Special attention in developing competencies in programming for infants and toddlers
* An awareness of agency programs that serve infants, toddlers, preschoolers, kindergartners and families
* Diverse field experiences with infants, preschoolers and kindergartners, with and without disabilities, and their families
* The use of professional program standards for teacher preparation as the foundation for curriculum development.
First Year of Operation
The Birth through Kindergarten Teacher Education program at ECU is housed in the Department of Child Development and Family Relations (CDFR CDFR Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor ), in the School of Human Environmental Sciences. Whereas teacher education is a new program in the CDFR department, both faculty and students had to learn new requirements and procedures.
One new process concerned admission into the upper division of teacher education. Upon matriculation ma·tric·u·late
tr. & intr.v. ma·tric·u·lat·ed, ma·tric·u·lat·ing, ma·tric·u·lates
To admit or be admitted into a group, especially a college or university.
n. at ECU, students may declare a major in a teacher education program. Thus, students may declare B-K as a major at almost any time; however, to be admitted to the upper division, the student must meet the following requirements:
* A grade of "C" or better in the early experience course
* A speech and hearing screening
* Passing scores on the PRAXIS prax·is
n. pl. prax·es
1. Practical application or exercise of a branch of learning.
2. Habitual or established practice; custom. I
* An overall grade point average of 2.5 or better
* Demonstration of computer competency
* A satisfactory interview
* An essay outlining reasons for wishing to pursue a career in education.
Prospective teacher education majors are not permitted to enroll in more than 50 percent of their professional education courses prior to admission into the upper division.
Another adjustment, for both faculty and students, was learning and keeping up with the myriad requirements for the B-K major. Prior to official publication in the Undergraduate Catalog, committee members developed and distributed a check sheet listing requirements Listing requirements
Requirements, including minimum shares outstanding, market value, and income, that are laid down by an exchange for any stock to be listed for trading. for the B-K major. The check sheet helped students identify courses they should take in anticipation of declaring B-K as their major. When it became apparent that students were getting conflicting, and sometimes erroneous erroneous adj. 1) in error, wrong. 2) not according to established law, particularly in a legal decision or court ruling. , information about B-K requirements, three faculty members were identified to advise declared B-K majors. Those same three faculty serve as the interview committee for admission to the upper division. Moreover, faculty who teach methods courses or supervise field placements must hold B-K licensure. The same three faculty advisers and the department chairperson chairperson Chairman The head of an academic department. See 'Chair.', Cf Chief. all hold B-K licensure, as well. The stringent requirements for field experiences was the third adjustment for both faculty and students.
Despite having somewhat higher admission standards than other majors in the Department of Child Development and Family Relations, the B-K major is very popular. One reason for the popularity of the B-K licensure program may be the potential it offers for employment opportunities. It prepares individuals not only to obtain licensure to teach in North Carolina public schools, but also to work in a variety of diverse settings with children from birth to age 6. In a very real sense, the B-K program has created a new profession.
Improvements Needed in the B-K Licensure Program
At least three areas needing attention have been identified, all of which will soon be addressed. First, and perhaps foremost, are the concerns about field placements. Issues that have been identified include 1) being sure that each B-K major has experiences across the age span encompassed by birth through kindergarten with both typically and atypically developing children, 2) establishing standards of quality for field placements sites and monitoring the quality of field experiences obtained by the students and 3) increasing the variety of placements to include, for example, home-based programs.
Second, since completing its work, members of the planning committee have not met again. The interdisciplinary nature of the B-K major suggests that they should do so on a regular basis.
Third, an advisory board for the B-K Teacher Education Program needs to be considered. Input from students, faculty, on-site field placement supervisors, parents and others could offer valuable input.
North Carolina's B-K teacher education program stresses an inclusive approach for training teachers at both the preservice and inservice levels. The concept of collaboration among the fields of child development, early childhood education and special education should result in quality teacher education. At East Carolina University, teaming attempts and closer planning allow for a real alignment in the training program. The authors hope that these inclusive efforts will spill over Verb 1. spill over - overflow with a certain feeling; "The children bubbled over with joy"; "My boss was bubbling over with anger"
bubble over, overflow
seethe, boil - be in an agitated emotional state; "The customer was seething with anger"
2. into classrooms elsewhere in the state and that teachers and other professional staff will collaborate more often. Furthermore, this unique licensure program may spread to the elementary grades, as well as the middle school and high school levels.
All aspects of this program have implications for reviewing and redesigning education programs for all age levels. Families need to be more involved, education programs need to be more developmentally appropriate, and outside agencies, along with other professionals, should be used for the betterment bet·ter·ment
1. An improvement over what has been the case: financial betterment.
2. Law An improvement beyond normal upkeep and repair that adds to the value of real property. of all children.
Baars, K. (1994). Birth-kindergarten add-on licensure process. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction.
Bailey, D., Palsha, S., & Huntington, G. (1990). Preservice preparation of special educators to serve infants with handicaps and their families: Current status and training needs. Journal of Early Intervention, 14, 43-54.
Blanton, L. (1992). Preservice education: Essential knowledge for the effective special education teacher. Teacher Education and Special Education, 15, 87-96.
Bredekamp, S. (1992). The early childhood profession coming together. Young Children, 47, 36-39.
Buysee, V., & Bailey, D. (1993). Behavioral and developmental outcomes in young children with disabilities in preschool: Problems and promise. The Journal of Special Education, 26, 434-461.
Diamond, K., Hestenes, L., & O'Connor, C. (1994). Integrating young children with disabilities in preschool: Problems and promise. Young Children, 49, 68-73.
Hanson, M., & Lovett, D. (1992). Personnel preparation for early interventionists: A cross disciplinary survey. Journal of Early Intervention, 16, 123-135.
McCollum, J., & Bailey, D. (1991). Developing comprehensive personnel systems: Issues and alternatives. Journal of Early Intervention, 15, 57-65.
Miller, P. (1993). Building quality teacher education programs in early education and early intervention (birth through kindergarten): A state planning conference for interdisciplinary teams in higher education. Raleigh, NC: Interagency Coordinating Council for Services to Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers with Special Needs and Their FamiLies.
Salisbury, C. (1991). Mainstreaming during the early childhood years. Exceptional Children, 58, 146-155.
Virginia L. Myers is Instructor, Developmental Psychology developmental psychology
Branch of psychology concerned with changes in cognitive, motivational, psychophysiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span. , Manatec Community College, Venice, Florida Venice is a city in Sarasota County, Florida, United States. The population was 17,764 at the 2000 census. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2004 estimates, the city had a population of 19,990. It is noted for its large snowbird population. . Harold C. Griffin is Assistant Professor, Special Education, Jane Telekei is Associate Professor, Child Development, James Taylor
James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, born in Belmont, Massachusetts. is Director, Early Childhood Intervention Early Childhood Intervention is a support system for children with developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.
If a child experiences a developmental delay, this can compound over time. Center, and Linda Wheeler is Teacher, Early Childhood Intervention Center, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina
Greenville, one of the fastest growing cities in North Carolina, is the county seat of Pitt County, and is the principal city of the Greenville, North Carolina Metropolitan Statistical Area. .