Biosensors detect Salmonella.Researchers at the University of Arkansas The University of Arkansas strives to be known as a "nationally competitive, student-centered research university serving Arkansas and the world." The school recently completed its "Campaign for the 21st Century," in which the university raised more than $1 billion for the school, used (Center of Excellence in Poultry Science, O-411 Poultry Science Building, Fayetteville, AR 72701) are developing a sensor that detects as few as 5000 Salmonella bacteria from a chicken carcass sample in 2 hr. Their innovation may lead to faster, more sensitive and more comprehensive biological sensors in the food industry.
While such food poisoning food poisoning, acute illness following the eating of foods contaminated by bacteria, bacterial toxins, natural poisons, or harmful chemical substances. It was once customary to classify all such illnesses as "ptomaine poisoning," but it was later discovered that can be prevented by hand washing and thoroughly cooking meat, the University of Arkansas researchers are building a biosensor A device that detects and analyzes body movement, temperature or fluids and turns it into an electronic signal. See lab on a chip and data glove.
Biosensor that would find Salmonella on the spot-before the meat ever leaves the packing plant. This could save consumers from buying contaminated foods and manufacturers from making costly recalls.
The investigators are pooling their expertise in bacteriology bacteriology
Study of bacteria. Modern understanding of bacterial forms dates from Ferdinand Cohn's classifications. Other researchers, such as Louis Pasteur, established the connection between bacteria and fermentation and disease. , food processing and sensor technology to create an electrochemical electrochemical /elec·tro·chem·i·cal/ (-kem´i-k'l) pertaining to interaction or interconversion of chemical and electrical energies.
adj. biosensor for use on the factory floor to detect Salmonella in products as they come off a production line. Biosensors are the better way to get to real-time detection of bacterial contamination in processing plants. The current culture method of Salmonella detection requires swabbing meat and growing the bacteria for three days, an unrealistic practice for a plant that may process and send out thousands of product each day.
The researchers created a raw chicken soup by shaking a chicken carcass in a plastic bag with a buffer. They poured the soupy soup·y
adj. soup·i·er, soup·i·est
1. Having the appearance or consistency of soup.
2. Informal Foggy: soupy weather.
3. Informal Sentimental. buffer mixture into a test tube filled with small magnetic beads coated with antibodies that bind a specific Salmonella strain. The scientists washed the mixture with another buffer, using a magnet to pull the beads over to one side with the Salmonella bound to the antibody.
Then they added an enzyme that attaches to the S. typhimurium bacteria. They washed the excess enzyme off, again using the magnetic beads to keep the antibody-bacteria-enzyme sandwich intact. The scientists added phenyl phenyl (fĕn`əl), C6H5, organic free radical or alkyl group derived from benzene by removing one hydrogen atom. phosphate to the mixture. The enzyme attached to the bacteria changed the phenyl phosphate to phenol phenol (fē`nōl), C6H5OH, a colorless, crystalline solid that melts at about 41°C;, boils at 182°C;, and is soluble in ethanol and ether and somewhat soluble in water. , which was detected by an electrode. The reaction took place in less than an hour, and the amount of phenol produced was directly proportional to the amount of bacteria in the sample.
Using this technique, as few as 5000 bacteria can be detected in 2 hr with an electrode the size of a pen. The scientists are trying to speed up the entire detection process-possibly to 1 hr-and make it possible to detect fewer bacteria, possibly 100 cells. They will focus on microbial microbial
pertaining to or emanating from a microbe.
the breakdown of organic material, especially feedstuffs, by microbial organisms. , engineering and chemical methods to speed up the reaction time. They will also try to reduce non-specific binding to the antibodies, which will increase the test's accuracy.
Although better detection methods can help reduce the incidence of Salmonella in raw animal products, it won't eliminate the problem of foodborne illness. A sensor can never guarantee that the entire volume of meat processed in a facility is free of bacteria because only a small portion of the meat processed on a given day can be tested. Salmonella contamination can also occur after the meat has left the processing plant, from unwashed hands and cross-contamination that may occur while preparing foods.
Officials at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center. estimate that every year 800,000 to 2 million people experience the fever, cramps and diarrhea that accompany S. typhimurium infection. Most of those afflicted contract the disease through contaminated food or water.
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