Biochemical sociology: correlates of aggression.The authors review numerous correlates of aggression from the perspective of sociology, psychology, and the biochemical. They introduce to the reader the field of biochemical sociology.
Biochemical sociology is a new field. It relates to how relationships impact upon the biochemical. In this study, we will outline all the variables that relate to aggression, and then summarize where sociological variables interplay with biochemicals that facilitate aggression.
A few caveats must be made, before this literature review commences. They are:
1. Aggression is loosely defined for this article as "untoward behavior". Thus, the authors can aggregate numerous definitions under one common rubric.
2. Sampling is suspect in many of these studies, Some contain purposive samples, and others contain random samples.
3. Subjects vary from mice, hamsters. and monkeys to humans. We do not assume "species equivalence" but others do and we want those studies to be included.
4. Sex is not clear. In many studies, males of all kinds of creatures are measured, and their behavior is extrapolated onto females which may be incorrect or females are excluded because it is thought that their behavior is always assumed to be different, however, indirect aggression by females may be overlooked by male researchers.
5. Prison populations, mentally ill and other special demographics are collapsed with "normal populations". We do not assume that they are all equivalent, but others may do so, and so they are reviewed.
6. Research designs are inconsistent. Some use observational, experimental, double blind, cross-sectional and other strategies (panel and longitudinal). This antagonizes the saliency of some of the findings.
7. Statistical analyses range from descriptive numbers, relative numbers, and goodness of fit Goodness of fit means how well a statistical model fits a set of observations. Measures of goodness of fit typically summarize the discrepancy between observed values and the values expected under the model in question. Such measures can be used in statistical hypothesis testing, e. tests, multiple regression and epidemiological analysis. All are incorporated in this article.
8. Ratio and hard number assumptions are applied in some studies and this may confound studies that have ordinal properties at best.
9. We use numeric footnotes for parsimony; however, the bibliography is organized alphabetically and in APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.
APA - Application Portability Architecture form. Thus, we begin.
The following appear to increase or are correlated with increased aggression.
1. Testosterone is correlated with but mediated by environmental variables in these studies on aggression (Archer, 1991) (Constantino, 1998) (Mazur, et. al., 1992) (Mealy meal·y
adj. meal·i·er, meal·i·est
1. Resembling meal in texture or consistency; granular: mealy potatoes.
a. Made of or containing meal.
b. , 1998) (Mestel, 1993) (Pietrini, 2001) (Sileo, 1994) (Scott, 1998) (Sylvester, 1997).
2. Maleness is associated with aggression (Archer, 1991)(Campbell, 1999) (Manoguerra, 2000) (Mestel, 1993) (Sylvester, 1997). Females appear to be more assertive and or aggressive in hyenas and in matriarchal cultures (Sileo, 1994) (Sylvester, 1997).
3. The following biochemicals and physiological dysfunctions are correlated with aggression. They are: low nitric oxide (Associated Press, 1996) (Barchas, 1996) (White, 1998), low cholesterol (Bennet, 1990) (Guggenheim, 1995) (Mestel, 1993) (Stanley, 2000), low serotonin (Bruner, 1993) (Chen, 1994) (Stanley, 2000) (Stanley, 2000) (Stein, 2002) (Wells, 2000), decreased angine vasopressin vasopressin (văz'ōprĕs`ĭn): see antidiuretic hormone. , decreased MAO-A's (Casas, 1995) (Gianutos, 1977) (Ogawa, 1999) (Szpir, 1998), anabolic steroids (Shih, 1999). increased ER-beta (Oliveri, 1998), ER-alpha (Ogawa, 1999), dysfunctional amagdyla (Szczpka, 1998) (Wilson, 2001), stress induced damage to frontal lobes (Royalty, 1990) (Wilson, 2001), low COMT COMT Catechol-O-Methyltransferase
COMT Certified Ophthalmic Medical Technologist (Goldberg, 1995) (Largerspetz, 1999), low enkephalins enkephalins,
n.pl either of the two pentapeptides produced in the body that bind neuroreceptors in brain to alleviate pain. (Lachman, 1998) low cortisol cortisol (kôr`tĭsôl') or hydrocortisone, steroid hormone that in humans is the major circulating hormone of the cortex, or outer layer, of the adrenal gland. (Decaire, 1999), substance P (DeFlipe, 1998) and P-choloramphetamine (Gianutos, 1975).
The following when ingested by subjects appear to increase or correlate with aggression: ethanol (Sapolosky, 1990), methamphetamine (Martin, 2000), alcohol (Graham, 1996), long-term cocaine use, long-term marijuana use, lead (Spitz spitz
Any of several northern dogs, including the chow chow, Pomeranian, and Samoyed, characterized by a dense, long coat, erect pointed ears, and a tail that curves over the back. In the U.S. , 1994), increased apomorphine ap·o·mor·phine
A poisonous, white, crystalline alkaloid derived from morphine and used medicinally to induce vomiting.
an alkaloid from morphine. (Gogos, 1998), decreased fluoxetine fluoxetine /flu·ox·e·tine/ (floo-ok´se-ten) a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used as the hydrochloride salt in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. (Carraco, 1998) and caffeine.
The following mood states (affect) and cognitions are correlated with aggression: low arousal and brain dysfunction (Schal, et. al., 1996) anxiety, hyperactivity, early aggressiveness, early violence unto others. early antisocial behavior, beliefs favorable to aggression, and low IQ (Kenrick, 1998).
The following changes in relationships appear to be correlated with aggression. They are: sex role changes in females (Manoguerra, 2000), competition (Mealy, 1998), other's aggressive behavior (Sileo, 1994), failure. continuance of behavior beyond age-out phase, parental criminality, neglect, abuse, indulged or strict discipline, inconsistent punishment, low parental involvement, poor family bonding, parent's support of punishment, frequent residential moves, parent-child separation, academic failure, low bonding to school, and dropping out of school (Kenrick, 1998).
With this literature review (see above) one can quickly see that the neat paradigm illustrated overlaps. To illustrate our model, we suggest the following:
A young male with a happy temperament and "ideal" parents grows into an aggressive, violent, sharp-tongued adult. The parents remain stable and supportive and take the young adult to a psychiatrist. Both the analysis and brain scan strongly suggests paranoid schizophrenia. In this instance, sociology or the analysis of relationships does not apply or indirectly applies. It would appear in our example that as the youngster grew there was a psychobiological change and the relationship with the parents and the boy was not directly applicable.
Where biochemical sociology may apply, is:
A happy youngster loses his parents in an auto accident and is placed with relatives that are abusive and violent. This aggressive relationship is sociological. It gives rise to the psychological phenomena of negative mood states and the biochemical response may be lowered seratonin and increased testosterone. The individual becomes so aggressive at school that he is placed in alternative school. He fails there and becomes part of prison industries.
This an extreme example, but we would suggest that if you looked at the literature reviewed above, it is not so out of line in terms of extrapolation.
Thus, relationship (sociology) gives rise to affect (psychology) gives rise to biochemical changes (see above) gives rise to changes in behavior (sociology.) Further, there is interplay between the forces as they antagonize each other to create behavior that further places the individual at risk.
At this point, we would suggest that early intervention would remove the child from the household, prescribe medications, check diet, and encourage exercise and meditation in therapy. Further, help the youngster with non-violent strategies and hopefully the individual can change cognition, biochemically, and create new relationships.
It is as simple and as complex as that. We do not want to be deterministic. The transpersonal trans·per·son·al
Transcending or reaching beyond the personal or individual. must be considered as well as the lawful moral choice made by the young adult. If he continues with an aggressive criminal pattern, he must be punished for choices and actions rendered.
Further, the case above can be measured. Although the measurements are inexact, there are indexes and related for aggressive behavior, negative mood states, level of biochemicals (through blood, saliva, urine, and related) as well as changes in aggressive behavior.
Last, the review listed above would suggest that numerous sociological variables are as salient as the biochemical. However, our position is that they evolve together in the interplay of nature and nurture.
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DeFlipe, Carmen Carmen
throws over lover for another. [Fr. Lit.: Carmen; Fr. Opera: Bizet, Carmen, Westerman, 189–190]
See : Faithlessness
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Any of a class of drugs used to treat psychotic conditions.
Mentioned in: Stuttering, Tardive Dyskinesia : differential alteration by antimuscarinics and naloxone naloxone /nal·ox·one/ (nal-ok´son) an opioid antagonist, used as the hydrochloride salt in opioid toxicity, opioid-induced respiratory depression, and hypotension associated with septic shock. . Pharmacology Biochemical Behavior, June, 4, 6, 639-42.
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In sociology, a theoretical perspective that derives social processes (such as conflict, cooperation, identity formation) from human interaction. It was Georg Simmel who first stated that “society is merely the name for a number of individuals connected . Behavioral and Brain Sciences Behavioral and Brain Sciences (BBS), founded in 1978 and published by Cambridge University Press, is a journal of Open Peer Commentary modeled on the journal Current Anthropology , June, p. 380.
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n. Chiefly British Slang
1. Aggressive or violent behavior.
2. Irritation or exasperation: ? New Scientist, April 17, p. 816.
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A past tense of speak.
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Activated by or capable of liberating serotonin, especially in transmitting nerve impulses.
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See social phobia. and generalized anxiety disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Definition
Generalized anxiety disorder is a condition characterized by "free floating" anxiety or apprehension not linked to a specific cause or situation. : serotonergic and dopaminergic dopaminergic /do·pa·min·er·gic/ (do?pah-men-er´jik) activated or transmitted by dopamine; pertaining to tissues or organs affected by dopamine.
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Study of the development and function of the nervous system, with emphasis on how nerve cells generate and control behavior. The major goal of neurobiology is to explain at the molecular level how nerve cells differentiate and develop their of self-esteem and aggression. Educational Leadership, February, v. 54, n.5, p. 75.
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Joel Snell, M.A., M.I.B.A., Medical Sociologist, Kirkwood College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Mitchell Marsh, Ph.D., M.D., Clinical Psychopharmacologist, St. Elizabeth Medical Center St. Elizabeth Medical Center may refer to:
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Joel Snell, Medical Sociologist, Kirkwood College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Email: email@example.com.