Printer Friendly

Biochemical and minerals studies of K-134 variety groundnut (Arachis hypogaea. L) grown in municipal water.

Introduction

Sewage water is the result of urbanization, which contain organic and inorganic materials, which effect water quality and surrounding ecosystem. Discharge of untreated sewage water into near water bodies is so common. In Mysore (India) about 70% of population depends on agriculture and the farmers are at the mercy of seasonal, irregular and inadequate rainfall. So the farmers in urban areas of Mysore irrigating the sewage water for their agriculture lands for enhancing productivity of ground nut crop which is the common practice for many years. However the impact of such massive pollution on plant growth and metabolism is of considerable interest.

Municipal waste water contains organic and inorganic compounds including macronutrents like N.P. and K (Mara and Coirn Cross, 1998). In India many works studied the effect of sewage water on various agricultural crops like Srivastava and Singh (1990) on Abelmosehus esculentus, Devi (1991) on Coriander, and Fenugreek, Singh and Singh (1992) on Lactuca sativa, Shanmugavel (1993) on greengram and maize, Srivastava et al., (1993) on Amaranthus ssp. Nashikkar (1994) on Wheat and maize, Sharma et al., (1997) on Urd bean, Kannabiran and Harilal (1998) on Vigna mungo , Krishna and Viyaya Kumar (2000) on Adenanthera pavonina, Suresh Babu et al., (2000) on Oryza sativa, Augusthy and Mani (2001) on Vigna radiatus, Pradhan etal. (2001) on black gram, and Anil , Mosmi (2005) on Cicer arietinum and Nagajyoti et al., (2008) on ground nut. The present investigation was carried out to study the effect of untreated sewage water on mineral and biochemical content on different varieties of groundnut at different concentration.

Material and Methods

A different concentration of sewage water was used to soak the seeds of groundnut. For this purpose seed samples of DH-3-30, ICJS-11, JL-24, K-134, TMV-2 and VRI-2 varieties were collected and subjected to soaking in the sewage water. For each variety 400 seeds were randomly picked and soaked in the sewage water (1%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) for a period of 16h at 28[+ or -]2oc. The soaked seeds were then air dried under shade and subjected to standard blotter method, following the procedure of ISTA. As per the rules soaked seeds were equidistantly plated on three layers of wet blotter in Perspex plates and incubated at 22[+ or -]2oc.for a period of one week. On the 8th day cotyledons were collected for the estimation of minerals and biochemical contents.

Sodium and Potassium: Digested sample was used for potassium estimation and the content was estimated in a flame photometer, standards were prepared using potassium chloride. Phosphorous, Nitrogen, were estimated by following standard methods, like, Black (1965), Jackson (1958) respectively. Calcium and Magnesium estimated by (Yoshida et al; 1 972), Chloride estimated by (Krishnamurthy and Bhagwat 1990), Iron, Zinc and Copper estimated by (de Vries and Tiller 1980) methods.

For estimation of Protein, Lowry et al (1951), Lipid, Morton (1950), Total sugars (Nelson 1944), Starch (Summner and Somers 1949), Amino acids (Moore and Stein 1948) method followed.

Statistical values were calculated using statistical software (SPSS). Values are the means + SD of Six replicates each. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and compared for significance according to DMRT (P<0.05).

Results

Our studies relieved that the effect of different concentration of sewage water has different effect on various parameters the minerals like Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorous, Nitrogen, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Iron, Zinc and Copper and the biochemical contents like Protein, Lipid, Total sugar, Starch and Amino acid

Concentrated sewage water showed difference in the nitrogen. Highest nitrogen content (6.94 mg/dry wt) recorded in 50% concentrated water treated plants. Where as the lowest content (0.80 mg/dry wt) was recorded in control plants. Nitrogen content increased with the increase of effluent concentration. Phosphorus content increased upto 25% concentration and decreased with the increase of sewage water concentration highest content of magnesium (1.05 mg/dry wt) in cotyledon was observed in K-134 variety. The lowest (0.44 mg/dry wt) was recorded on control plants. Potassium content increased upto 25% concentration and decreased with the increase of sewage water concentration, highest content of potassium (12.73 mg/dry wt) in cotyledon was observed in K-134 variety. The lowest (0.410 mg/dry wt) was recorded on control plants. Highest content of sodium recorded (0.18 mg/g dry wt). The lowest (0.1mg/dry wt) was recorded on 100% concentration plants. Highest content of calcium recorded (0.60 mg/dry wt). The lowest (0.20 mg/dry wt) was recorded on 100% concentration plants.

Magnesium content increased up to 50% concentration and decreased with the increase of sewage water concentration highest content of magnesium (0.07 mg/dry wt) in cotyledon was observed in K-134 variety. The lowest (0.03 mg/dry wt) was recorded on control plants. Concentrated sewage water showed difference in the chloride. Highest chloride content (0.3 mg/dry wt) recorded in 25% concentrated water treated plants. Where as the lowest content (0.26 mg/dry wt) was recorded in 100% concentration plants. Chloride content increased with the increase of effluent concentration. Highest content of iron recorded (0.05 mg/dry wt). The lowest (0.02 mg/dry wt) was recorded on control plants. Zinc content increased upto 50% concentration and decreased with the increase of sewage water concentration highest content of Zinc (0.008 mg/dry wt) in cotyledon was observed in K-134 variety. The lowest (0.004 mg/dry wt) was recorded on control plants. Concentrated sewage water showed difference in the copper. Highest copper content (0.006 mg/dry wt) recorded in 50% concentrated water treated plants. Where as the lowest content (0.001 mg/dry wt) was recorded in control plants. Copper content increased with the increase of effluent concentration (Table 1).

Protein content increased with the age of the plant, it decreased in all variety of plants studied irrespective of treatment. Among different concentration of sewage treatment, highest protein content (2.93 mg/dry wt) was recorded at 25% concentration. The lowest content (0.68 mg/dry wt) was noticed in the plants irrigated with 100% concentration sewage water. Among different concentration of water treatment highest content of lipid (20.17 mg/dry wt) was recorded in the plants irrigated with 25% concentration, the lowest (0.26 mg/dry wt) was recorded in 100% irrigated plants at harvest stage. Total sugar content of all variety plants showed an increasing trend highest content of total sugar (2.489 mg/dry wt) was recorded in the plants irrigated with 50% concentration, the lowest (2.39 mg/dry wt) was recorded in control plants. Starch content increased with the age of the plant, it decreased in all variety of plants studied irrespective of treatment. Among different concentration of sewage treatment, highest starch content (3.91 mg/dry wt) was recorded at 25% concentration. The lowest content (3.8 mg/dry wt) was noticed in the plants irrigated with 100% concentration sewage water. Amino acid content of all variety plants showed an increasing trend highest content of amino acid (5.98 mg/dry wt) was recorded in the plants irrigated with 25% concentration, the lowest (5.90 mg/dry wt) was recorded in 100% concentration irrigated plants at harvest stage (Table 2).

Conclusions

The biochemical contents like Protein, Lipid, Total sugar, Starch and Amino acid were found to be decreased with the increase in concentration. However these were found to be higher in lower concentration of sewage water treated cotyledons. The results attributed that higher concentration above tolerance level inhibit seed germination due to production of various enzymes (Agarwal et al 1981 and Shukla and Pandey 1991) or sometimes the seeds undergo physiological stress due to high salinity (Rao and Nandakumar 1983)

The minerals like Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorous, Nitrogen, Calcium, Magnesium, Chloride, Iron, Zinc and Copper also showed variation due to sewage water treatment because prevention by enriching the salinity and conductivity of solute is being absorbed by seed before germination (Neelam and Sahai 1998) or due to excess quantities of micronutrients, heavymetals and toxic chemicals (Dollar et al 1972).

Field experiments were conducted to find suitable tolerant ground nut variety and dilution factor of sewage water for getting higher yield. Among all varieties K-134 was found to be more tolerant than other varieties tested. As the stimulation of growth was observed at lower concentration. So it is advisable that sewage water has to be treated, diluted and resistant varieties to be used (Sundara moorthy 2000) before irrigating, this will prevent not only pollution problem also in increasing the yield of crop plants of that area.

Reference

[1] Agarwal, P.K., V.P. Singh and Dinesh Kumar 1981, Biochemical changes in seedling on B. nigra, and L. usitatissimum, under the stress of Mansurpur distillery effluents. J. Indian Bot. Society. 2: 60-95.

[2] Anil. K. Raina and Mosmi Raina 2005, Effect of sewage on the germination, growth and yield of Cicer arietinum, Pisum sativum and Lens esculenta. Indian J. Environ and Ecoplan. 10(3), 611-616.

[3] Augusthy PO, Mani Ann Sherin 2001, Effect of factory effluent on seed germination and seedling growth of Vigna radiatus L. J Environ Res.22 (2), 137-139.

[4] Black C.A 1965, Methods of soil analysis Part-2, Chemical and microbiological properties American Society of Agronomy Inc. Madison. Wiscosin.

[5] De Vries M.P.C and K.G.Tiller 1980, Routine procedure for determining Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in plant materials. Common wealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia.

[6] Devi P 1991, Growth estimates of sewage irrigated Coriander and Fenugreek. Adv. Plant Sci. 4, 394-396.

[7] Dollar, S.G., I.R. Bovlet and A.D. Keenev 1972, Paper mill sludge disposal on soils. Effect of the yield and mineral nutrition of oats. J. Environ. Qual.1: 405-409.

[8] Jackson M.L 1958, Soil chemical analysis, prentice hall of Indian Private Ltd., New Delhi.

[9] Kannabiran B and Harilal C.C 1998, Studies on the effect of domestic sewage on the growth and yield of Vigna mungo. Poll. Res. 17, 33-37.

[10] Krishnamurthy .R and K.A. Bhagwat 1990, A rapid and simplified method for determination of chloride in plant material. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 28, 198-200

[11] Krishnan PN, Viyaya Kumar K 2000, Effect of aluminium and copper on growth and biochemical changes in seedlings of Adenanthera pavonina L., a fast growing multipurpose tree species. Eco Env Conserv. 6(4), 429-434

[12] Lowry, O.H, Rasebrough, N.J., Fars A.L. and Rondall R.J 1951, Protein measured with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265-275.

[13] Mara D and Coirn Cross S 1998, Guideline for the use of waste water and excrete in agriculture and aqua culture, measure for public health protection, CBS publishers and Distributors, Delhi, 184.

[14] Moore .S and W.H.Stein 1948, Photometric method for the use in the chromatography of amino acids. J. Biol. Chem. 176, 367-388.

[15] Morton R.K 1950, Methods in enzymology, S.P. Colowick and N.O.Kaplan (Eds). Academic press, New York (1), 75.

[16] Nagajyoti P.C., N. Dinakar, T.N.V.K.V. Prasad, C. Suresh and T. Damodharam 2008, Heavy metal toxicity: Industrial Effluent Effect on Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seedlings. J. of App. Sci. Res, 4(1), 110-121.

[17] Nashikkar V.J 1994, Effect of domestic waste water with various BOD levels on the germination and early seedling growth of some crops. Env. Eco. 12, 507-509.

[18] Neelam, S and R. Sahai 1998, Effect of fertilizer factory effluent on seed germination, seedling growth, pigment content and biomass of Sesamum indicum. J. Environ. Biol. 9, 45-50.

[19] Nelson, N 1944, A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi's method for the determination of reducing sugar. Anal. Chem. 31, 426-428

[20] Pradhan SK, Sarkar SK, Prakash S 2001, Effect of sewage water on the growth and yield parameters of wheat and black gram with different fertilizer levels. J Environ Bio. 22(2), 133-136

[21] Rao, M.G. and N.V. Nanda Kumar 1983, Impact of effluent on seed germ inability and chlorophyll content in Cicer arietinum, Pollut. Res. J. 2, 33-37.

[22] Shanmugavel P 1993, Impact of sewage, paper and dye industry sewage on germination of green gram and maize seeds. J. Eco. Bio. 5, 69-71.

[23] Sharma S.K., Srivastava. A and Singh V.P 1997, Effect of city waste on growth in Urd bean. Int. J. Mendel 14, 5-6.

[24] Shukla, N. and G.S. Pandye 1991, Oxalic acid manufacturing plant waste waters. Effect on germination and seedling height in selected Cereals. J. Environ. Biol. 12, 149-151.

[25] Singh R.R. and Singh V 1992, Influence of sewage water and refinery sewage on the heavy metal concentration and dry matter production of Lactuca sativa J.Res. (Birsa, Agril, Univ) 4, 105-110.

[26] Srivastava G.K. and Singh U.P1990, Effect of Municipal waste water on the yield and heavy metal content of Abelmoschus esculentus (L), Oikeassay 7, 5-7.

[27] Srivastava S.K., Depallab K. and Srivastava M 1993, The effect of sewage on Amaranthus spp. growth. New Agriculturist 4, 193-198.

[28] Summner J.B. and G.F. Somers 1949, Laboratory experiments in Biological Chemistry.2nd ed.Academic Press, New York, p.173

[29] Sundaramoorthy, P. and S. Lakshmi 2000, Screening of groundnut verities for tolerance to tannery effluent. Polln Res. 19(4), 543-548.

[30] Suresh Babu G, Farooq M, Singh J, Viswanathan PN, Joshi PC, Hans RK 2000, Metabolic alterations due to exposure to lindane in basmati rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. Polln Res.19 (4), 523-528.

[31] Yoshida. S. D. Fordo, J. Cock, and K. Gomez 1972, Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. 3rd Ed. The international Rice Research Institute, Philippines

S.T. Girisha *, M.H. Niranjan (1), Vinay B. Raghavendra (2) and N.S.Raju (3)

* Department of Biotechnology, JB campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore-56 E.Mail-stgirisha@gmail.com

(1) Department of Botany, Mysore University, Mysore-06

(2) Department of Applied Botany and Biotechnology, Mysore University, Mysore-06

(3) Department of Environmental science, Mysore University, Mysore-06
Table 1: Minerals studies of K-134 Variety Groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea. L) Grown in Municipal Water.

Sewage Water Concentration (%)

In           Control
Cotyledon
             MEAN         [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     0.800        [+ or -]   0.082
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   0.500        [+ or -]   0.058
(mg/g dry
Potassium    0.410        [+ or -]   0.008
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.15D        [+ or -]   0.005
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.020        [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.030        [+ or -]   0.000
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.260        [+ or -]   0.013
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.01D        [+ or -]   0.003
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.004        [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.001        [+ or -]   0.000
(mg/g dry
wt)

In           1
Cotyledon
             1            [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     1.94 ***     [+ or -]   0.045
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   0.85 ***     [+ or -]   0.012
(mg/g dry
Potassium    0.63 ***     [+ or -]   0.016
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.16 **      [+ or -]   0.007
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.02NS       [+ or -]   0.004
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.04 ***     [+ or -]   0.005
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.26NS       [+ or -]   0.031
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.02 ***     [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.005 *      [+ or -]   0.000
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.002 **     [+ or -]   0.000
(mg/g dry
wt)

In           5
Cotyledon
             5            [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     3.96 ***     [+ or -]   0.043
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   0.9 ***      [+ or -]   0.021
(mg/g dry
Potassium    183 ***      [+ or -]   OA20
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.17 ***     [+ or -]   0.009
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.03 ***     [+ or -]   0.002
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.04 ***     [+ or -]   0.004
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.27NS       [+ or -]   OA30
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.03 ***     [+ or -]   D.002
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.006 **     [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.003 ***    [+ or -]
(mg/g dry
wt)

             10

In           10           [+ or -]   SD
Cotyledon
             3.88 ***     [+ or -]   0.310

Nitrogen
(mg/g dry    0.96 ***     [+ or -]   0.067
wt)
Phosphorus   10.84 ***    [+ or -]   1.010
(mg/g dry
Potassium    0.17 **      [+ or -]   0.009
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.04 ***     [+ or -]   0.005
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.05 ***     [+ or -]   0.006
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.28 *       [+ or -]   0.017
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.04 ***     [+ or -]   0.005
(mg/g dry
Iron
(mg/g dry    0.007 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
wt)
Zinc         0.003 ***    [+ or -]   0.000
(mg/g dry
Copper
(mg/g dry
wt)

In           25
Cotyledon
             25           [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     9.8 ***      [+ or -]   0.860
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   1.05 ***     [+ or -]   0.040
(mg/g dry
Potassium    12.73 ***    [+ or -]   1.320
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.18 ***     [+ or -]   0.010
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.06 ***     [+ or -]   0.008
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.06 ***     [+ or -]   0.007
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.3 *        [+ or -]   0.040
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.05 ***     [+ or -]   0.003
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.007 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.005 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
wt)

In           50
Cotyledon
             50           [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     6.94 ***     [+ or -]   0.870
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   0.26 ***     [+ or -]   0.032
(mg/g dry
Potassium    9.38 ***     [+ or -]   0.871
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.17 **      [+ or -]   0.012
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.05 ***     [+ or -]   0.007
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.07 ***     [+ or -]   0.009
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.31         [+ or -]   0.040
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.6 ***      [+ or -]   0.009
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.008 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.006 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
wt)

In           75
Cotyledon
             75           [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     6.98 ***     [+ or -]   0.880
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   0.13 ***     [+ or -]   0.014
(mg/g dry
Potassium    8.18 ***     [+ or -]   0.890
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.14NS       [+ or -]   0.020
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.05 ***     [+ or -]   0.007
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.04 ***     [+ or -]   0.005
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.27NS       [+ or -]   0.030
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.03 ***     [+ or -]   0.005
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.006 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.005 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
wt)

In           100
Cotyledon
             100          [+ or -]   SD

Nitrogen     4.92 ***     [+ or -]   0.650
(mg/g dry
wt)
Phosphorus   0.44NS       [+ or -]   0.056
(mg/g dry
Potassium    9.39 ***     [+ or -]   0.898
(mg/g dry
Sodium       0.01 ***     [+ or -]   0.020
(mg/g dry
Calcium      0.02NS       [+ or -]   0.004
(mg/g dry
Magnesium    0.04 ***     [+ or -]   0.006
(mg/g dry
Chloride     0.26NS       [+ or -]   0.032
(mg/g dry
Iron         0.02 ***     [+ or -]   0.003
(mg/g dry
wt)
Zinc         0.006 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
Copper       0.004 ***    [+ or -]   0.001
(mg/g dry
wt)

Values are the means [+ or -] SE   of Six replicates each.

Data were subjected to analysis of variance and compared for
significance according to DMRT

(*** P<0.001, ** P<0.01, * P<0.05, NS=Non Significant)

Table 2: Biochemical studies of K-134 Variety Groundnut
(Arachis hypogaea. L) Grown in Municipal Water

Sewage Water Concentration (%)

In             Control
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      2.83         [+ or -]   0.05
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      3.46         [+ or -]   0.19
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.39         [+ or -]   0.12
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.82         [+ or -]   0.07
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.90         [+ or -]   1028
wt.)

In             1
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      0.59 ***     [+ or -]   0.03
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      2.39 ***     [+ or -]   0.04
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.41 NS      [+ or -]   0.04
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.83NS       [+ or -]   0.10
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.9NS        [+ or -]   10.15
wt.)

In             5
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      0.76 ***     [+ or -]   0.06
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      9.42 ***     [+ or -]   D.10
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.43NS       [+ or -]   0.04
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.85NS       [+ or -]   0.08
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.92NS       [+ or -]   0.18
wt.)

In             10
Cotyledons

               Mean         SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      0.39 ***     0.04
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      0.72 ***     0.02
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.43NS       0.13
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.85NS       0.29
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.94NS       0.39
wt.)

In             25
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      2.93NS       [+ or -]   0.15
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      20.17 ***    [+ or -]   0.56
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.5NS        [+ or -]   0.30
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.91 NS      [+ or -]   0.24
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.98NS       [+ or -]   0.15
wt.)

In             50
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      0.59 ***     [+ or -]   0.05
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      9.02 ***     [+ or -]   0.35
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.489NS      [+ or -]   0.08
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.9NS        [+ or -]   0.20
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.96NS       [+ or -]   0.07
wt.)

In             75
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      1.15 ***     [+ or -]   0.05
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      19.03 ***    [+ or -]   0.87
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.47NS       [+ or -]   0.09
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.82NS       [+ or -]   0.15
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.93NS       [+ or -]   0.17
wt.)

In             100
Cotyledons

               Mean         [+ or -]   SD
Protein
(mg/g dry      0.68 ***     [+ or -]   0.05
wt.)
Lipid
(mg/g dry      0.26 ***     [+ or -]   0.01
wt.)
Total sugars
(mg/g dry      2.47NS       [+ or -]   0.11
wt.)
Starch
(mg/g dry      3.8NS        [+ or -]   0.13
wt.)
Amino acids
(mg/g dry      5.91 NS      [+ or -]   0.20
wt.)

Values are the means [+ or -] SE of Sis replicates each.
Data were subjected to analysis of variance and compared
for significance according to DMRT (*** p<0.O01,
** P<0.01, * p<0.05, NS-Non Significant)
COPYRIGHT 2009 Research India Publications
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Girisha, S.T.; Niranjan, M.H.; Raghavendra, Vinay B.; Raju, N.S.
Publication:International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Mar 1, 2009
Words:3683
Previous Article:An assessment of water quality of SEFIDRUD river after removal of silt of SEFIDRUD dam.
Next Article:Environmental assessment for benthic pigment structure in newly formed aquatic ecosystems at Abou-Zabal depressions-Egypt.
Topics:


Related Articles
Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Arachis hypogaea in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Evaluation of nutritional quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) from Ghana.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters