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Beyond the millennium development goals.


Women's health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psychosocial issues.
 For the Full Exercise of the Right to Health, Sexual Rights and Reproductive Rights Reproductive rights or procreative liberty is what supporters view as human rights in areas of sexual reproduction. Advocates of reproductive rights support the right to control one's reproductive functions, such as the rights to reproduce (such as opposition to forced  

In the context of the fifth anniversary of the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals “MDG” redirects here. For other uses, see MDG (disambiguation).

The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.
 (MDGs), which were approved in September 2000 at the United Nation's Millennium Summit The Millennium Summit was a meeting among many world leaders lasting three days from 6 September[1] to 8 September 2000[2] at the United Nations headquarters in New York City. , the Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network launched the 2005 Call for Action for May 28, International Day of Action for Women's Health: "Women of the Third Millennium: For the Full Exercise of the Right to Health, Sexual Rights and Reproductive Rights--Beyond the Millennium Development Goals." With this call for action, LACWHN has set the following objectives as its own goals: to encourage a critical and analytical approach to the MDGs and their objectives; to advocate for the incorporation of gender and human rights in all governmental actions; to defend women's advances in human rights, citizenship and gender equality in the last decade, issues missing from or glossed over in the Millennium Declaration and the MDGs.

Approved at a summit without participation or input from civil society of any sort, the Millennium Development Goals establish quantifiable priorities for world action to be undertaken by each government with donor support. Their aim is to combat the rising levels of poverty that plague the planet and to ensure sustainable development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union  for the entire world.

The eight basic Goals are:

1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;

2. Achieve universal primary education;

3. Promote gender equality and women's empowerment;

4. Reduce child mortality;

5. Improve maternal health Maternal health care is a concept that encompasses preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care. Goals of preconception care can include providing health promotion, screening and interventions for women of reproductive age to reduce risk factors that might affect future pregnancies. ;

6. Combat HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome , malaria and other sicknesses;

7. Ensure environmental sustainability;

8. Develop a global partnership for development.

This is clearly a positive--and technically impeccable--proposition, designed to resolve crucial contemporary problems such as the hunger and poverty that millions of human beings face, most of them women and children; the persistence of maternal and child mortality and morbidity in underdeveloped countries; and the expansion of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and increasing rates of transmission among women and adolescents. Nonetheless, the MDGs fail to incorporate explicitly the most significant conceptual advances for the promotion and recognition of the right to health, sexual rights and reproductive rights of women (and of the population as a whole), which were achieved in the international conferences of the 1990s. Specifically, the agreements from the International Conference on Population and Development The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5-13 September 1994. Its resulting Programme of Action is the steering document for the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).  (Cairo, 1994) and the Fourth World Conference on Women The United Nations convened the Fourth World Conference on Women on September 4-15, 1995 in Beijing, China. Delegates had prepared a Platform for Action that aimed at achieving greater equality and opportunity for women.  (Beijing, 1995) addressed the issues that affect the living conditions living conditions nplcondiciones fpl de vida

living conditions nplconditions fpl de vie

living conditions living
 and health of women and the general population from a comprehensive perspective.

Because the Millennium Development Goals fail to incorporate the aspect of gender in all the Goals and because gender equality is not recognized as an essential step in achieving the MDGs, they are a step backwards. Only Goal 3 explicitly calls for the promotion of gender equality and women's empowerment, and this Goal focuses only on access to education, an essential step but far from being the only change needed to ensure women's autonomy and power to make decisions about their lives.

The total absence of all aspects relating to relating to relate prepconcernant

relating to relate prepbezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc 
 sexual and reproductive health Within the framework of WHO's definition of health[1] as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene  and rights is especially worrying. The MDGs have returned to a focus on mother and child health, an old system that was discarded as obsolete long ago. Indeed, the socioeconomic, cultural and political conditions in our societies are completely glossed over by the MDGs, but these factors are crucial determinants of women's and girls' health.

Nor is there any discussion in the MDGs of countries' failure to adopt and implement legal mechanisms to ensure that women enjoy the same legal rights as men in the areas of health, the workplace, in economic and educational opportunity and in politics. Women's status as second-class citizens has prevented them from obtaining the benefits of development. Additionally, the MDGs fail to address the current world context in which fundamentalist fundamentalist

An investor who selects securities to buy and sell on the basis of fundamental analysis. Compare technician.
 religious forces and neoliberal ne·o·lib·er·al·ism  
A political movement beginning in the 1960s that blends traditional liberal concerns for social justice with an emphasis on economic growth.

 economic models impede women's full exercise of their rights as citizens. A commitment to the promotion and defense of human rights is also lacking in the MDGs. Nor do the Goals explicitly call for peace among all peoples.

Critical Analysis

The women's movement women's movement: see feminism; woman suffrage.
women's movement

Diverse social movement, largely based in the U.S., seeking equal rights and opportunities for women in their economic activities, personal lives, and politics.
 has examined the political process that has developed around the MDGs and the official discourse from governments, donor agencies and international organizations expressing a strong commitment to the Goals. We realize that many organizations of civil society view working on the MDGs as a necessary source of funding at a time in which international cooperation is increasingly restricted. We call for a reinterpretation re·in·ter·pret  
tr.v. re·in·ter·pret·ed, re·in·ter·pret·ing, re·in·ter·prets
To interpret again or anew.

 of the MDGs from a perspective based on rights, equality and gender.

The women's movement also demands the incorporation of issues of crucial importance for women, as well as the concepts contained in the ICPD ICPD International Conference on Population and Development
ICPD Institute for Counselling and Personal Development (Northern Ireland)
ICPD Institute for Conflict Management Peace and Development
ICPD International Conference on the Prevention of Dementia
 Programme of Action and the Beijing Platform for Action and their successive follow-up processes (ICPD+5, +10, Beijing+5, +10). The Millennium Development Goals will only be achieved by implementing the agreements from Cairo and Beijing, historical landmarks in the struggle for women's equality, equity and social justice.

The ethical and political commitment to women, the defense of health as a universal right of all citizens, and the reaffirmation of the paradigm of sexual and reproductive health, sexual rights and reproductive rights established at Cairo and re-enforced and broadened at Beijing, are non-negotiable issues on the agenda of the women's movement. The official evaluation of the MDGs' progress at the five-year mark will culminate culminate, in astronomy, the maximum height in the sky reached by a celestial body on a given day. At the culminate the body is crossing the observer's celestial meridian and is said to be in upper transit.  with a meeting of high-ranking officials of the United Nations in September 2005. In this evaluation process, the governments involved must listen to women's demands. These concerns are shared by many other sectors, organizations, a few governments that are sensitive to these issues, and even the UN agencies responsible for the Millennium Project A parallel computing project at the University of California at Berkeley. Using nearly a thousand computers donated by Intel, its focus is on developing a multi-level "system of systems" that uses local clusters of SMP machines called a "CLUMP. , whose report "Investing in Development" maintains that broadening access to sexual and reproductive health services and information can contribute significantly to the achievement of the MDGs. The inclusion of sexual and reproductive health in the MDGs will be a priority demand in the document to be discussed and approved in September 2005, particularly in light of the Cairo Consensus that promises to guarantee sexual and reproductive health for all by the year 2015.

The Latin American and Caribbean Women's Health Network encourages member groups and allies to undertake actions that invite reflection on the MDGs or to develop advocacy campaigns to encourage government officials and members of parliament to take actions for women's health beyond the MDGs. At the same time, United Nations officials must be urged to reconceptualize the MDGs in keeping with the paradigms set forth at the Cairo and Beijing conferences, including the sexual and reproductive health and rights as detailed in the five-year revisions of Cairo and Beijing.

To provide our readers with more information about these issues, we have included several useful documents in this focus section: an English-language translation of the CLADEM position paper, WEDO's Information and Action Guide, and an article by Ana Maria Pizarro, member of the LACWHN Board of Directors and Executive Director of SI Mujerin Nicaragua. Upcoming issues of the Women's Health Journal will feature more news on this important topic.
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Publication:Women's Health Journal
Date:Jan 1, 2005
Previous Article:Support for Latinas in the U.S.
Next Article:The Beijing platform for action: a crucial foundation for achieving the millennium development goals.

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