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Benchmarking maintenance practices at North American paper mills.

Paper mill managers continue to took for opportunities in the maintenance area to lower manufacturing costs and improve operating efficiency. As a starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo

commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the
 for improvement, managers need to understand their mill's status regarding current maintenance practices and benchmarks. In 1997, TAPPI's Maintenance and Mill Engineering Committee initiated an industry-wide survey of maintenance practices at pulp and paper mills throughout North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. . The purpose of the survey was to explore the prevalence and effectiveness of maintenance practices within the pulp and paper industry The global pulp and paper industry is dominated by North American (United States, Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden) and East Asian countries (such as Japan). Australasia and Latin America also have significant pulp and paper industries. . The survey was divided into three sections: General Mill Information, Mechanical Maintenance Practices, and Electrical Maintenance Practices. Surveys were sent to 571 mills, of which 141 (25%) responded. This paper summarizes the data collected from the survey as interpreted by TAPPI TAPPI Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry  Mill Maintenance Subcommittee members.


Mill profiles of survey respondents

The General Mill Information section of the survey focused on mill profiles (e.g., grades, production volume, number of employees, etc.) and select maintenance metrics (e.g., maintenance spending, scheduled and unscheduled unscheduled

not planned or intended

Adj. 1. unscheduled - not scheduled or not on a regular schedule; "an unscheduled meeting"; "the plane made an unscheduled stop at Gander for refueling"
 downtime The time during which a computer is not functioning due to hardware, operating system or application program failure. , preventive and predictive maintenance Predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed. This approach offers cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance because tasks are performed only when , etc.) Table 1 lists the types of mills that responded to the survey. Many of the responding mills could be grouped by a single product line or grade. However, 39 of the 141 mills either reported producing multiple grades or did not match any of the 10 identified types. Mills ranged in tonnages from less than 10 tons/year to 1 million tons/year, and from less than 100 to greater than 1200 employees.

Maintenance budget and organization

Figure 1 depicts the total maintenance budgets for the responding mills. Maintenance budgets at 44% of the mills amounted to US$ 5 million per year or less. The remainder of the responding mills (56%) reported maintenance budgets exceeding US$ 5 million per year. As expected, labor expenditures represented a significant portion of the maintenance budget. Figure 2 shows that labor expenditures equaled 30% to 40% of total maintenance budgets at more than two-thirds of responding mills.


Respondents reported that the number of maintenance employees equaled an average of about 20% of total mill employment. This percentage dropped slightly from the 23% and 22% reported respectively for North American North American

named after North America.

North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.

North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus.
 mills in 1986 and 1987 surveys conducted by Smith and Carpenter [1] and by Smith [2]. Three-fourths of the respondents indicated the maintenance superintendent reported through an engineering manager, maintenance manager, or the combined function of manager of engineering and maintenance.

Preventive and predictive maintenance, CMMS CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management System
CMMS Computerized Maintenance Management Software
CMMS Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services
CMMS Conceptual Model of the Mission Space
CMMS Center for Multilingual Multicultural Studies

Since earlier paper industry surveys, mills have made substantial progress in the areas of preventive maintenance The routine checking of hardware that is performed by a field engineer on a regularly scheduled basis. See remedial maintenance.

preventive maintenance - (PM) To bring down a machine for inspection or test purposes.

See provocative maintenance, scratch monkey.
 (PM) and predictive maintenance (PdM). A decade ago, preventive maintenance was becoming a recognized best-practice, and predictive maintenance was seen by most as a "nice theory." In fact, the earlier surveys did not even mention PdM. However, with advances in sensor technologies and reduced costs of measuring and diagnostic equipment, PdM has become practical and cost-effective. In 1986 and 1987, preventive maintenance ranged from 9% to 22% of the total maintenance budget. In contrast, a few of the recently surveyed mills indicated budgets for both PM and PdM covered up to 100% of the total maintenance budget, with an average of nearly 4(1% (Fig. 3). The industry average for combined PM and PdM expenditures in 1997 was 52%, as reported by Gulati [3]. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the Marshall Institute [4], world-class organizations spend about 70% on PM and PdM initiatives.


Today's maintenance organizations rely on Computerized Maintenance Management Systems Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is also known as Enterprise Asset Management.

A CMMS software package maintains a computer database of information about an organization’s maintenance operations.
 (CMMS) to track machine repair histories, schedule PM tasks, and provide a means of cost control. A survey conducted by Harrison [5] reported about 85% of mills have CMMS systems; the 1997 TAPPI survey showed this level to be unchanged. The Plant Maintenance Resource Center [6] reported industry averages of 90%.

Work order completion

A commonly used key performance indicator (KPI KPI Key Performance Indicator
KPI Kuwait Petroleum International
KPI Kiev Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)
KPI Kernel Programming Interface
KPI King Pin Inclination (vehicle steering geometry angle) 
) for an effective CMMS system is the number of scheduled work orders completed on schedule. According to Smith and Black [7], for an organization with "best maintenance practices," this KPI should be 90%. As shown in Figure 4, very few mills reported such high values. Of the respondents, 83% said they documented findings when scheduled PM and PdM were completed and 88% of mills maintained repair histories for critical equipment. For an organization to be considered world-class, these values need to be near 100%.


Tracking and controlling unscheduled downtime

Most mills ranked quite high in their ability to control unscheduled downtime, with 72% of responding mills having less than 5% unscheduled downtime and 51% of the total reporting less than 3% (Fig. 5). Not illustrated in the charts, 9% of mills indicated the amount of unscheduled downtime was increasing, whereas the vast majority (91%) reported it to be declining. Mills have been tracking unscheduled downtime for a long time, with 34% having more than 10 years of records. Surprisingly, most mills were seemingly lax in follow-up analysis. Only 26% of the responding mills had a system in place to analyze the causes of downtime and initiate corrective actions A corrective action is a change implemented to address a weakness identified in a management system. Normally corrective actions are instigated in response to a customer complaint, abnormal levels if internal nonconformity, nonconformities identified during an internal audit or . Only 12% of mills indicated the amount of unscheduled downtime was increasing, whereas the vast majority (88%) reported it to he declining.


Operator-performed maintenance

The first line of defense for avoiding reactive maintenance is the operator. If properly trained and with adequate experience, operators can notice "out of the ordinary" changes in a machine and can perform minor maintenance operations (e.g., cleaning, oiling, tightening, and inspection). These operator-performed routine maintenance functions can mitigate system failures and postpone the need for major maintenance until it can be properly scheduled. Under the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM (1) See TP monitor.

(2) (Transactions Per Minute) The number of transactions processed within one minute. See TPS.

(3) (Trusted Platform M
) method, operator involvement in the overall maintenance strategy is mandatory. Figure 6 shows that significant operator performed maintenance was practiced by only a small traction of the mills surveyed. These numbers can be compared to those reported by Harrison [5], the averages of which range from 6% to 29%. For a world-class organization, Connaughton 181 reports 30% of minor maintenance work is accomplished by production personnel.



The Mechanical section of the survey covered select programs and practices used by mills for maintaining mill equipment. Programs and practices included vibration analysis, lube oil analysis, vessel inspections, and alignment checks. The survey also asked mills to provide input on the sources of maintenance that caused repair problems in the mill.

Sources of repair work

Nearly two-thirds (62%) of those responding reported mechanical wear as the greatest source of maintenance (Fig. 7). Corrosion was the second leading cause of mechanical maintenance, cited by 38% of respondents. Abuse ranked third at 33%. Only 21% of mills cited lack of preventive or predictive maintenance procedures and 13% cited vibration. Fewer than 10% of respondents noted erosion, secondary maintenance, or impact as causes for mechanical maintenance.


Mechanical programs and practices

The survey requested comments on the use of specific mechanical maintenance programs and practices. Respondents selected from 19 different programs, including vibration analysis, noise inspections, lube oil analysis, alignment checks, etc. The survey also asked which programs provided the best value and the least value. Respondents could identify multiple programs used by their mills and could also select multiple programs as providing the best or least value. Table 2 lists the top five best value programs. Table 3 lists the five programs ranked by respondents as least valuable. There appeared to have been a correlation between use of a practice and perceived value of the practice. For example, of those mills reporting to use vibration analysis, 97% claimed the use of vibration analysis provided a best value and 1% claimed it provided a least value. Lube oil and wear analysis was the second best valued program at 64%. In contrast, only 5% of the mills that followed a documented foundation inspection program considered it a "best value." Coincidentally co·in·ci·den·tal  
1. Occurring as or resulting from coincidence.

2. Happening or existing at the same time.

, it was also the program reported as providing the least value by 60% of mills following the practice.

Vibration analysis

The survey sought further details on vibration analysis programs. As expected, mills paid most attention to equipment in the paper machine building and stock preparation areas. An average of 1939 vibration points monitored in the paper machine area was reported by 90 respondents. However, the range in the number of points monitored varied greatly--from a low of 10 to a high of 11,730. Twelve mills reported monitoring 5000 or more vibration points in the paper machine and stock preparation area and 13 mills reported monitoring 100 or less vibration points. The survey asked respondents about the frequency of vibration monitoring. Figure 8 shows the results. Of 131 responding mills, 54 (41%) use a monthly routing interval, with 80% of mills monitoring vibration points on a monthly or shorter frequency.


Seventy-nine percent of mills reported they establish a signature baseline for new equipment, while 42% reported they outsource vibration analysis activities.

Vessel inspection

Pressure vessels Pressure vessel

A cylindrical or spherical metal container capable of withstanding pressures exerted by the material enclosed. Pressure vessels are important because many liquids and gases must be stored under high pressure.
 are a critical safety and operating concern in all mills. Supporting this fact, the survey found that 84% of mills regularly performed some method of non-destructive examination (NDE NDE Nondestructive Examination
NDE No Diplomatic Exchange (US Department of State)
NDE Near Death Experience
NDE Nondestructive Evaluation (ultrasound material evaluation) 
). Figure 9 also shows the most frequently used NDE methods. The most favored of NDE--used by 78 (86%) of 91 responding mills--was ultrasonic testing In ultrasonic testing, very short ultrasonic pulse-waves with center frequencies ranging from 0.1-15 MHz and occasionally up to 50 MHz are launched into materials to detect internal flaws or to characterize materials. . Other popular NDE methods were magnetic particle, performed by 34 mills (37%), and liquid penetrant pen·e·trant  
Penetrating; piercing: a penetrant wind from the north.

Something that penetrates or is capable of penetrating.
, performed by 31 mills (34%). Fewer than 10% of mills performed radiography radiography: see X ray.  and acoustic emission testing Acoustic Emission (AE) is a naturally occurring phenomenon whereby external stimuli such as mechanical loading generate sources of elastic waves. AE occurs when a small surface displacement of a material is produced. . No mills reported using eddy current Eddy current

An electric current induced within the body of a conductor when that conductor either moves through a nonuniform magnetic field or is in a region where there is a change in magnetic flux. It is sometimes called Foucault current.


Lube oil sampling

Figure, 10 shows the frequency of lube oil sampling. Two-thirds (66%) of respondents reported performing lube oil sampling on at least a quarterly basis. More than one-third (37%) of respondents also reported using ferrography at their mills.


Drive coupling alignment

The survey asked mills about alignment of drive couplings. Most mills (74%) had migrated to laser alignment by 1997. The remaining mills (26%) indicated they used dial indicator Dial indicators are instruments used to accurately measure a small distance. They may also be known as a Dial gauge, Dial Test Indicator (DTI), or as a "clock".  and feeler gages Gages

Devices for determining the relative size or shape of objects. The function of gages is to determine whether parts are within or outside of the specified tolerances, which are expressed in a linear unit of measurement.
 as their method for aligning drive couplings. Mills were given four choices as their source of alignment specifications: OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) The rebranding of equipment and selling it. The term initially referred to the company that made the products (the "original" manufacturer), but eventually became widely used to refer to the organization that buys the products and , local mill, consulting, or corporate engineering. Most mills (60%) used specifications generated at the local mill level. Thirty percent of mills used specifications provided by OEMs. Less than 10% of respondents indicated they used specifications provided by either consultants or corporate engineering.

Impact of PM and PdM on unscheduled downtime

Most respondents indicated that PM and PdM programs had some positive impact in decreasing unscheduled downtime. PM and PdM programs and activities significantly decreased unscheduled maintenance downtime for 111 of 137 respondents (81%). TWenty-four of 137 respondents (18%) reported that PM and PdM programs and activities had only a marginal impact on decreasing unscheduled maintenance downtime. Only 1% of the mills reported that mechanical preventive and predictive maintenance procedures had no effect on decreasing unscheduled maintenance downtime.


The Electrical section of the survey queried mills on their use and perceived value of twenty-two testing and diagnostic procedures. It also captured the frequency of certain procedures, the age of mill electrical systems, and the perceived impact of PM and PdM on unscheduled mill downtime.

Electrical programs and practices

Table 4 lists the top five best value electrical maintenance programs. Walk-down inspections was the next best value program (43%). Table 5 lists the five programs that respondents felt gave the least value. As observed with mechanical maintenance practices, the increased use of a specific practice generally correlated with its perception as a "best value."

Age of mill electrical systems

The average age of a responding mill's electrical system was 20 years. Although most mills (84%) reported the average age of their electrical systems at 30 years or less, 62% of mills reported having at least one electrical system greater than 30 years old. Nine mills reported having at least one system greater than 70 years old.

Frequency of electrical system testing (testing) system testing - (Or "application testing") A type of testing to confirm that all code modules work as specified, and that the system as a whole performs adequately on the platform on which it will be deployed.  and diagnostics

Table 6 captures the frequency of use of some of the best-used practices. Eighty-six percent of mills reported using infrared testing at least on an annual basis. Although load testing Load testing is the process of creating demand on a system or device and measuring its response.

In mechanical systems it refers to the testing of a system to certify it under the appropriate regulations (LOLER in the UK - Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment
 of switchgear The term switchgear, used in association with the electric power system, or grid, refers to the combination of electrical disconnects, fuses and/or circuit breakers used to isolate electrical equipment.  was used by 47% of mills, nearly 70% of mills indicated a time period ranging from one to five years for load testing main switchgear. (This inconsistency may be partially attributable to respondents' interpretation of the definition of "regularly"). More than two-thirds (70%) of mills using calibration of protection relays reported performing it at two- to five-year intervals. Over one-half of mills using transformer oil Transformer oil is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. It is used in oil-filled transformers, some types of high voltage capacitors, fluorescent lamp ballasts, and some types of high voltage  analysis reported performing the analysis on an annual basis.

Infrared testing

Of the responding mills, 90% were using some level of infrared testing as a preventive maintenance technique. Of those 127 respondents, almost all used this practice in motor control centers (98%) and on high voltage switchgear According to IEC, high voltage switchgear is any switchgear and switchgear assembly of rated voltage higher than 1000 volts.

245 kV Circuit breaker in air insulated substation 420 kV Gas insulated switchgear 145 kV 40 kA Compact switchgear assembly See also
  • Switchgear
 (91%). While these numbers varied by equipment type, only 44% of respondents actually used infrared testing on "all" of the listed categories (mainly due to the low percentage of mills using this technique on powered equipment). Most of the mills (84%) had this service performed by an outside contractor outside contractor ncontratista m/f independiente .

Impact of electrical preventive and predictive maintenance on unscheduled downtime

The results mirror those found for mechanical-related preventive and predictive maintenance activities. Most respondents indicated that PM and PdM programs had some positive impact in decreasing unscheduled downtime. PM and PdM programs and activities significantly decreased unscheduled maintenance downtime for 92 of 131 respondents (70%); 36 of 131 respondents (28%) said such programs and activities only marginally decreased unscheduled maintenance downtime. Only 2% of the mills reported that electrical PM and PdM procedures had no effect on decreasing unscheduled maintenance downtime.


Mill managers and maintenance managers can use these results to broadly assess their mill maintenance practices in certain areas. They can also compare results to international surveys reported by Arommaa and Klarin [9]. While this survey's results do not suggest specific performance measures, managers may want to look into areas where significant gaps exist between their individual mill maintenance practices and the survey results. However, caution and judgment are required when comparing a single mill's performance or practices with the survey results.

It is difficult to determine a common denominator common denominator
1. Mathematics A quantity into which all the denominators of a set of fractions may be divided without a remainder.

2. A commonly shared theme or trait.
 for comparing individual mill practices with the results of a broad survey such as this. Several additional attributes not included in this survey would likely influence an individual mill's maintenance program, such as age of the mill, timing and extent of last mill modernization modernization

Transformation of a society from a rural and agrarian condition to a secular, urban, and industrial one. It is closely linked with industrialization. As societies modernize, the individual becomes increasingly important, gradually replacing the family,
, number of pieces of equipment, degree of vertical integration, frequency of grade changes, profit margin of each grade, maintenance philosophy, etc.
TABLE 1: mill types represented in the survey.

Mill type                        Number

Market pulp                         9
Boxboard                            4
Recycled paperboard                26
Linerboard                         13
Paperboard plus linerboard          9
Specialty                          16
Tissue                              5
Toweling & tissue                   6
Free sheeting                       7
Newsprint/directory/groundwood      7
Three or more product lines        15
Could not be grouped               24

Total                             141

TABLE 2: Mechanical maintenance
"best value" programs.

Mechanical maintenance      Percent of
 program of best value     program users

Vibration analysis              97%
Lube oil & wear analysis        64%
Walk-down inspections           61%
Alignment checks                54%
Temperature inspections         52%

TABLE 3: Mechanical maintenance
"least value" programs.

Mechanical maintenance       Percent of
 program of least value     program users

Foundation inspections           60%
Noise inspections                29%
Belt tension inspections         28%
Pump dismantel inspections       25%
Over-pressurization              17%

TABLE 4: electrical maintenance
"best value" programs.

Electrical maintenance              Percent of
program of best value              program users

Infrared measurements                   88%
Transformer oil analysis                68%
Calibration of protective relays        63%
Insulation resistance testing           54%
Switchgear load testing                 50%

TABLE 5: electrical maintenance
"least value" programs.

Electrical maintenance                    Percent of
program of least value                   program users

Insulation resistance of buried cables        45%
Motor surge testing                           27%
Polarization Index                            23%
Power factor test--transformers               23%
Lightning arrestor testing                    23%

TABLE 6: Frequency of selected
electrical system testing and diagnostics.

Procedure                     6 mo   1 year   2 year   3 year

Infrared electrical system     39      75       12        3
Load test main switchgear      na      47       12       19
Calibrate protection relays    na      na       49       24
Transformers--Screen test
insulating oil                 na      78       11        4
analysis on oil                 3      67        9        6

Procedure                     5 year   Infrequent   Never

Infrared electrical system      na          2         2
Load test main switchgear       20         19        19
Calibrate protection relays     20         25        13
Transformers--Screen test
insulating oil                   9         21        na
analysis on oil                  7         27        na


* Methods mills rely on most to assess their maintenance efforts

* Which mechanical end electrical programs mills consider the "best value."

* Where mills are spending their maintenance dollars.


* Enter "maintenance" as the search term for selected sections of TAPP's web site ( to find dozens of articles, conference presentations, TIPs, and other resources on this topic


[1.] Smith, K.E. and Carpenter, B.A., Pulp Paper 60(9): 60(1986).

[2.] Smith, K.E., Pulp Paper61(2): 97(1987).

[3.] Gulati, R, "Maintenance benchmarking: Best practices and survey results," MARCON 2000 Maintenance and Reliability Conference Proceedings, University of Tennessee The University of Tennessee (UT), sometimes called the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (UT Knoxville or UTK), is the flagship institution of the statewide land-grant University of Tennessee public university system in the American state of Tennessee. , Knoxville, Tennessee “Knoxville” redirects here. For other uses, see Knoxville (disambiguation).
Founded in 1786, Knoxville is the third-largest city in the state of Tennessee, behind Memphis and Nashville, and is the county seat of Knox CountyGR6.
, USA, 2000.

[4.] Marshall institute, Preventive/Predictive Maintenance, The Marshall Institute, Raleigh, North Carolina For other uses of this name, see Raleigh.
Raleigh (IPA: /ˈrɑli/, ral-ee) is the capital of the State of North Carolina and the county seat of Wake County.
, USA, 1998

[5.] Harrison, A., Pulp Paper67(2): 43(1993).

[6.] Plant Maintenance Resource Center, "CMMS Implementation Survey Results-2000," avail able electronically at <>.

[7.] Smith, R. and Black, C.. "How to develop and implement multiskilled training," Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals, SMRP SMRP - Simplified Multicast Routing Protocol , Knoxville, Tennessee, LISA The first personal computer to include integrated software and use a graphical interface. Modeled after the Xerox Star and introduced in 1983 by Apple, it was ahead of its time, but never caught on due to its $10,000 price and slow speed. , 2000.

[8.] Connaughton, G. "The state of the art of maintenance in North America," Proceedings of the 8th Annual Conference of the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals, SMRP, Knoxville, 2000.

[9.] Arommaa, J. and Klarin, A., eds., Materials, Corrosion Prevention and Maintenance, Fapet Oy, Helsinki, Finland, 1999.

The complete results of this survey were first presented by the authors at the TAPPI 2001 engineering/Finishing & Converting Conference.

About the authors: Mickey Bevis is with Smurfit-Stone Container Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation (NASDAQ: SSCC) is an American paperboard and paper-based packaging company based in Chicago, Illinois. It has approximately 38,600 employees.

Smurfit-Stone was formed in 1998 as a result of the merger between Jefferson Smurfit Corp.
 Corporation, Panama City, Florida Panama City is a city located along U.S. Highway 98 in Bay County, Florida. It is the largest city between Pensacola, Florida and Tallahassee, Florida. It is the larger (population wise) of two principal cities of the Panama City-Lynn Haven, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area. , USA; Michael Hayes Michael Hayes may refer to:
  • Michael Hayes (director), TV director of Dr. Who episodes, such as the serial City of Death
  • Michael Hayes (politician) (1889–1976), Irish Fine Gael politician
  • Michael Hayes (wrestler) (born 1959), American
 is with Risk Consultants, Miamisburg, Ohio Miamisburg is a city in Montgomery County, Ohio, United States. The population was 19,489 at the 2000 census. Miamisburg is known for its large industry (mainly for its nuclear operations during World War II), retail factors (such as the Dayton Mall) but is mainly known for being ; Roland O'Brien-Bills is with Inspection Services (A/S), Inc., Gloversville, New York Gloversville is a city in Fulton County, New York, that was once the hub of America's glovemaking industry. In 2000, it had a population of 15,413. History
The region, known as "Kingsborough" was acquired by Sir William Johnson, later to become one of the most important
; Bill Rodrigue is with Fluor Corporation, Greenville, South Carolina

For other places with the same name, see Greenville.

Greenville is a mid-sized city located in the upstate of South Carolina. It is the county seat of Greenville CountyGR6
; and Jerry Kahn, PE, CMRP CMRP Certified Maintenance and Reliability Professional (Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals)
CMRP Conférence Mondiale des Religions pour la Paix
CMRP Certified Materials & Resource Professional
, is with Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc., P.O. Box 2897, Peachtree City, GA 30269; email
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Title Annotation:Maintenance
Author:Rodrigue, Bill
Publication:Solutions - for People, Processes and Paper
Date:Aug 1, 2002
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