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Behavioral Assessment in Sport Psychology Consulting: Applications to Swimming and Basketball.



A sport-specific behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.


behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 checklist lists, for a particular sport, psychological skills to be used at practices and competitions that an athlete can easily check off in order to provide a quick, convenient, and yet reasonably thorough assessment of those areas in which the athlete would like some help. The goal of such an assessment is to help an athlete select a few areas for which specific target behaviors and goals for improvement can subsequently be identified. This paper describes an evaluation of two such behavioral checklists, one for swimmers and one for basketball players. Both checklists showed high test-retest reliability test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument  and high face validity face validity (fāsˑ v·liˑ·di·tē),
n
. Guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 for using such checklists, and future research in their development, are discussed.

The development of options for conducting behavioral assessments has been integral to the success of behavior therapy behavior therapy or behavior modification, in psychology, treatment of human behavioral disorders through the reinforcement of acceptable behavior and suppression of undesirable behavior.  with mental health problems, and similar options may be of value for sport psychology consulting. When an individual seeks help from a behavior therapist, one of the first concerns is to clarify the nature of the problem and to identify some target behaviors. In some cases, the behavior therapist might directly observe the client in natural settings. Often, however, neither the therapist nor the client have the time or resources for the therapist to observe the client in everyday situations in which the problem behaviors occur. An effective alternative in many areas of mental health has been the use of self-report behavioral checklists to help clients identify problems of concern (Martin & Pear, 1999). This approach to behavioral assessment has been recommended for sport psychology consulting (Martin, 1997; Martin, Toogood, & Tkachuk Tkachuk or 'Tkaczuk' is a common Ukrainian surname in Ukraine and the Ukrainian diaspora.
  • David Tkachuk, Canadian Senator
  • Kevin Tkachuk, Canadian rugby player
  • Keith Tkachuk, American professional ice hockey player
, 1997). This paper describes an evaluation of two self-repo rt behavioral checklists, one for swimmers and one for basketball players.

Noted sport psychology practitioners (e.g., Orlick, 1989; Smith, 1989) have recommended increased use of ideographic id·e·o·graph  
n.
See ideogram.



ide·o·graphic adj.
 assessment methods for work with athletes. Within the spirit of such recommendations, Martin et al. (1997) described self-report behavioral checklists for 21 different sports. A sport-specific behavioral checklist lists, for a particular sport, psychological skills to be used at practices and competitions that an athlete can easily check off in order to provide a quick, convenient, and yet reasonably thorough assessment of those areas in which the athlete would like some help. Unlike checklists designed to be used for athletes in all sports, such as the Precompetition and Competition Inventory (Rushall Rushall may refer to one of these places in England:
  • Rushall, Herefordshire
  • Rushall, Norfolk
  • Rushall, West Midlands
  • Rushall, Wiltshire 1
  • Rushall railway station, Melbourne
, 1979), or the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al  
adj.
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.

2.
 Style (Nideffer, 1976), a sport-specific behavioral checklist contains items and examples for one specific sport. The jargon jargon, pejorative term applied to speech or writing that is considered meaningless, unintelligible, or ugly. In one sense the term is applied to the special language of a profession, which may be unnecessarily complicated, e.g., "medical jargon.  in such a checklist reflects the language of the sport, and is meant to be user friendly for athletes in that sport. T he goal of such an assessment is to help an athlete select a few psychological skill deficits for which specific target behaviors and goals for improvement can subsequently be identified.

In the preparation of the sport-specific behavioral checklists described by Martin et al. (1997), items were developed from several sources. First, based on assessments of psychological skills of exceptional athletes (e.g., Greenspan Green·span   , Alan Born 1926.

American economist who was appointed chairman of the board of governors of the Federal Reserve System in 1987.
 & Feltz, 1989; Mahoney Mahoney could refer to:
  • Mahoney (surname), an Irish last name.
People
  • Roger (Cardinal) Mahony
  • Tim Mahoney
  • Steve Mahoney
  • Mary Eliza Mahoney
  • Cindy Mahoney
  • Tim Mahoney (guitarist)
  • William Mahoney
  • Mike Mahoney
  • Patrick Mahoney
, Gabriel, & Perkins Per·kins   , Frances 1882-1965.

American social reformer and public official. As U.S. secretary of labor (1933-1945) she was the first woman to hold a cabinet position.
, 1987; Orlick & Partington Partington can refer to a number of places and people: Places
  • Partington - a village in Greater Manchester.
People
  • J. R. Partington - the British chemist and historian of chemistry.
  • Jonathan Partington - the British mathematician.
, 1988), items were prepared to assess deficits and strengths at practices in the areas of motivation, goal setting, self-monitoring, quality training, and simulation training, and at competitions in the areas of pre-competition and competition planning, confidence, concentration, arousal arousal /arous·al/ (ah-rou´z'l)
1. a state of responsiveness to sensory stimulation or excitability.

2. the act or state of waking from or as if from sleep.

3.
 control, team support, and post-competition evaluations (e.g., see Table 1 in the appendix). Second, items and examples were reviewed and revised by an individual with expertise in that sport. Third, items were refined on the basis of the authors' collective experience in sport psychology consulting.

Sport-specific self-report behavioral checklists, such as the one shown in Table 1, are not like traditional psychological tests Psychological Tests Definition

Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functioning of children and adults.
 such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): see psychological tests.  (Wechsler Wechsler is a German word meaning "exchanger" (from '', "(ex)change").

Wechsler (or Wexler) may refer to:
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
  • Wexler (crater), a lunar impact crater
, 1981) or the 16-Personality Factor Inventory (Cattell Noun 1. Cattell - American psychologist (born in England) who developed a broad theory of human behavior based on multivariate research (1905-1998)
R. B. Cattell, Ray Cattell, Raymond B. Cattell, Raymond Bernard Cattell

2.
, Eber EBER Electron Beam Electro-Reflectance , & Tatsuoka, 1970). They do not have norms and they are not designed to measure character or personality traits. Also, because such checklists are based on a behavioral analysis of sport psychology consulting (Martin, 1997), they are not typically evaluated in terms of the degree to which the loading of various theoretical constructs contribute to a total score. Rather, such behavioral assessment tools provide assessment information necessary to design effective interventions for remediating psychological skill deficits in specific situations with individual athletes. Therefore, in the evaluation of such a checklist for a sport, it is important to assess: (a) the extent to which individual items are important to athletes in that sport; (b) that at least some athletes in that sport have deficits in the items listed; (c) that such deficits will be reliably revealed on repeated assessments; and (d) that no potentially important items have been missed. The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate these concerns with the behavioral checklist for swimmers (see Table 1), and a checklist for basketball players.

Study 1, Evaluation of a Behavioral Checklist for Swimmers

Method

Participants. Fifteen members (11 males and 4 females) from a university swim team and fifteen members (8 males and 7 females) from an age-group competitive swim team participated in the study. The university swimmers ranged in age from 17 to 22 years, and the age-group swimmers ranged in age from 13 to 16 years.

Materials. A letter of introduction to the project was sent to the coaches of each team. All participants and/or and/or  
conj.
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.

Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing.
 their guardians completed "informed" consent forms. The 41 items from the Sport Psychology Questionnaire for Swimmers shown in Table 1 were arranged in a form with columns to allow swimmers to rate each item on four questions: (a) Is this item important for swimmers? (b) Is this something that most swimmers need to improve on? (c) Is this something you need to improve on? and (d) If you need to improve, and if a sport psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
n.
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.


psychologist 
 was available, would you like some help? Each item was rated on each question on a 9-point Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc  with 1 indicating "definitely not," 5 indicating "sometimes or to some extent," and 9 indicating "definitely yes." As indicated in Table 1, the form also contained spaces for swimmers to write in additional areas of concern at practices and at competitions.

Procedure. Data collection occurred during the third month of the fall swim season. After the coaches agreed to support the study, the first author visited each of the swim teams at a practice two weeks before a major meet. Swimmers were presented with a brief, oral introduction to the study. They were also told that, following completion of the study, they would be provided with a summary profile of their mental strengths and areas in need of improvement, and that, with their permission, a copy of these results would be made available to the coach. Swimmers were then given a copy of the checklist and a consent form, and they were requested to return the completed forms at the next practice. Test-retest reliability was assessed by administering the questionnaire again three weeks later to 15 of the swimmers, 8 from the university team and 7 from the youth team.

Results

Test-retest reliability. A major question before using a behavioral checklist is that deficits can be reliably detected on repeated assessments in the absence of interventions to alleviate Alleviate
To make something easier to be endured.

Mentioned in: Kinesiology, Applied
 them. Therefore, a Pearson Pear·son   , Lester Bowles 1897-1972.

Canadian politician who served as prime minister (1963-1968). He won the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in the negotiation of a solution to the Suez crisis (1956).
 r correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient

A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.

The correlation coefficient is calculated as:
 was computed for the 15 swimmers who completed the questionnaire twice, to determine test-retest reliability to the question, "Is this something that you need to improve on?" For the total score across all items, the Pearson r was .80.

A face validity question: Are the items important for swimmers in general? Face validity was evaluated by assessing swimmers' responses on all items to the question, "Is this item important to swimmers?" For the purpose of analysis, ratings of 1 to 3 were classified as low, ratings of 4 to 6 were classified as medium, and ratings of 7 to 9 were classified as high. All items were rated by the majority of swimmers to be of medium or high importance for swimmers. Mean ratings of whether each item was important for swimmers ranged from 5.33 (SD = 2.28) to 8.73 (SD = .58), indicating high face validity. The item that was rated lowest overall was still rated to be of high importance by 4 of the 30 swimmers. Moreover, test-retest reliability for the total score across all items to the question, "Is this item important for swimmers?" yielded a Pearson r of .91.

A second face validity question: Are all items identified as needing improvement by at least some swimmers? Figure 1 shows mean ratings of swimmers to the question, "Is this something that you need to improve on?" Rating ranges for this question varied from 9 for 30 of the items to 8 for the remaining 11 items. Standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
 for these ratings ranged from 2.10 to 2.76. The item that had the lowest mean rating was still rated high by 8 swimmers.

Figure 2 shows an example of an individual swimmer's ratings on each of the items in terms of whether the swimmer needed to improve. In this example, the swimmer indicated a high need to improve on some mental skills for use during competition, as well as concerning self-evaluation after a meet. High ratings on 13 of the last 17 items indicated that this swimmer especially needed to improve on strategies to improve practice performance.

A third face validity question: Do swimmers believe that most swimmers need to improve on the items? Mean ratings of swimmers to the question, "Is this something that most swimmers need to improve On?" ranged from 4.93 to 7.21 for the various items. Standard deviations ranged from 1.52 to 2.58.

Is the checklist missing potentially important items? None of the swimmers identified additional areas of concern at practices or competitions.

Between-groups comparisons. Four independent sample t-tests were conducted on the answers to the four questions, in order to compare all males to all females, and the younger youth team to the older university team. No significant differences were found for gender or age.

Study 2, Evaluation of a Behavioral Checklist for Basketball Players

Method

Participants. Forty-seven basketball players participated in this study, including members of a male and a female high school team, and a male and a female university team. The high school participants ranged in age from 15 to 18 years, and the university participants ranged in age from 18 to 24 years.

Materials. Similar to Experiment 1, a letter of introduction was sent to the coaches by the fifth author. In addition, consent forms, a demographic questionnaire, and a sport psychology questionnaire for basketball players (Martin et al., 1997) were used. That questionnaire was very similar to the questionnaire for swimmers presented in Table 1, with parallel items and examples for basketball-players, and spaces for players to write in additional areas of concern at practices and at games. The basketball players were asked to rate each item on the same four questions indicated previously for the swimmers, using the same 9-point Likert scale.

Procedure. Data collection occurred during the third and fourth months of the basketball season. After the coaches and players agreed to participate, the coaches were given copies of the Sport Psychology Questionnaire for Basketball Players, consent forms, a demographic questionnaire, and a standardized standardized

pertaining to data that have been submitted to standardization procedures.


standardized morbidity rate
see morbidity rate.

standardized mortality rate
see mortality rate.
 script to help explain the study to the athletes. The coaches were requested to give the consent forms to the players before a practice. The players were instructed to bring the consent form to the next practice, where they would then complete the questionnaire. The coaches also explained to the players that, as a result of participating, each player would receive a summary of his or her mental strengths and areas in need of improvement from the second author, and that, with the player's permission, this information would be made available to the coach. Three weeks later, the coaches of the two female teams gave the basketball questionnaire to their players once again, in order to assess test-retest Test-retest is a statistical method used to examine how reliable a test is: A test is performed twice, e.g., the same test is given to a group of subjects at two different times.  reliabili ty.

Results

Test-retest reliability. For the 23 players who completed the questionnaire twice, test-retest reliability for the total score across all items to the question, "Is this something you need to improve on?" yielded a Pearson requal to .86.

A face validity question: Are the items important for basketball players in general? Face validity was calculated by assessing the answers of the players across all of the items to the question, "Is this item important for basketball players?" As described previously for the swimmers, ratings were categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 as low, medium, or high. Thirty-nine of the 41 items were rated by the majority of participants to be of high importance for basketball players (with mean ratings from 7.2 to 8.7). The remaining two items, "setting specific goals for every practice" and "keeping a written record of progress and meeting practice goals" each averaged 5.3. Test-retest reliability across all items to the importance question yielded a Pearson r of .94.

A second face validity question: Are all items identified as needing improvement by at least some basketball players? Mean ratings of basketball players as to whether they needed to improve on each of the items varied from 5.2 to 7.4. Rating ranges for this question varied from 6.0 to 8.0. Standard deviations for the ratings ranged from 1.7 to 3.0. The item that had the lowest mean rating was still rated high by 16 basketball players.

A third face validity question: Do basketball players believe that most basketball players need to improve on the items? Mean ratings to this question varied from 6.2 to 7.8 for the various items. Standard deviations ranged from 1.2 to 2.5.

Is the checklist missing potentially important items? None of the basketball players identified additional areas of concern at practices or competitions.

Between-groups comparisons. Four independent sample t-tests were conducted on the answers to the four questions, in order to compare all males to all females, and the younger high school players to the older university players. No significant differences were found for gender or age.

Discussion

The sport psychology questionnaires for swimmers and basketball players each contain 41 items that assess a swimmer's or basketball player's mental skill strengths and deficits concerning practices, competitions, and post-competition evaluations. The results indicated that each questionnaire has high test-retest reliability and high face validity. None of the athletes in either study identified missing areas of concern. Moreover, there were no differences between sexes or between the two different age groups in either study. Overall, the checklists appeared to be useful tools for identifying mental skill areas in need of improvement for swimmers and basketball players, respectively.

Sport-specific behavioral checklists have a number of benefits. The use of examples in a checklist for a particular sport gives it face validity with athletes in that sport. They can be completed by the athlete as a homework assignment, saving both time and money in the sport psychology consultation process. Some athletes who may initially be reluctant to discuss their needs might find the completion of a sport-specific questionnaire somewhat less threatening. Moreover, with the athlete's permission, a questionnaire concerning the athlete's needs can be completed by the athlete, the coach, and perhaps a parent, in order to provide multiple perspectives on potential mental preparation areas in need of improvement (e.g., see Martin & Toogood, 1997). Also, such checklists might be administered at various stages of an intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant.  as a way of monitoring progress.

Martin et al. (1997) identified several general considerations for use of sport-specific behavioral checklists. First, they are designed to facilitate the sport consulting process with individual athletes. They are not designed to be used for team selection and retention. Second, they can be used to help the athlete select several areas for which specific target behaviors and goals for improvement can subsequently be identified. They are not meant to be used to compare that athlete to standardized norms nor to assess the degree to which they tap into underlying theoretical constructs. Third, the checklists are not meant as a substitute for lack of sport-specific knowledge by the consultant. Ravizza (1988) identified lack of sport-specific knowledge on the part of a consultant as a common barrier which makes it difficult for a sport psychologist to gain entry to the athletic world. Fourth, it is assumed that practitioners who use the checklists are familiar with assessment and ethical guidelines for sport psy chologists (e.g., see Heil HEIL Home Equity Installment Loan  & Henschen, 1996; Martin, 1997). Finally, it is assumed that a sport psychology consultant who might use information obtained from such checklists has experience in translating such information into the identification of specific target behaviors and the development of effective interventions.

Future research might proceed in several directions. First, although the 21 sport-specific questionnaires described by Martin et al. (1997) were developed by individuals with expertise in sport psychology consulting in conjunction with individuals with expertise in the different sports, only the questionnaires for swimmers and basketball players have been formally examined for their test-retest reliability and face validity. Each of the remaining questionnaires needs to be similarly examined. Second, only one study has examined the concurrent validity concurrent validity,
n the degree to which results from one test agree with results from other, different tests.
 of such a questionnaire from the point of view of athletes compared to the views of coaches and parents (Martin & Toogood, 1997). Future research is needed in this area. Third, although there is some evidence that information from a sport-specific questionnaire for figure skaters is useful in developing effective sport psychology interventions with skaters (Martin & Toogood, 1997), more research is needed to examine this process in other sports.

Traditional psychological tests are considered by some practitioners (e.g., Martin, 1998; Orlick, 1989; Rushall, 1979) to be of little practical value in working with high performance athletes because they fail to aid in the identification of specific target behaviors that occur in specific situations with individual athletes. For this same reason, many behavior therapists consider traditional psychological tests to be of little help in identifying target behaviors in the process of behavior therapy (Martin & Pear, 1999). An alternative to assessment adopted by many behavior therapists has been the development of self-report behavioral checklists. The current study assessed two such checklists for athletes.

Address Correspondence To: Garry L. Martin, University of Manitoba Location
The main Fort Garry campus is a complex on the Red River in south Winnipeg. It has an area of 2.74 square kilometres. More than 60 major buildings support the teaching and research programs of the university.
, 129 St. Paul's
This article refers to the Canadian electoral district, for other uses see Saint Paul (disambiguation), Cathedral of Saint Paul, St. Paul's Church
St.
 College, 70 Dysart Dysart may refer to the following locations:

In the United Kingdom (Scotland):
  • Dysart, Fife
In the United States of America:
  • Dysart, Iowa
  • Dysart, Pennsylvania
In Australia:
  • Dysart, Queensland
  • Dysart, Tasmania
 Road, Winnipeg Winnipeg, city, Canada
Winnipeg (wĭn`ĭpĕg), city (1991 pop. 616,790), provincial capital, SE Man., Canada, at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers.
, MB R3T R3T Real Text Three Dimensional  2M6, Canada Canada (kăn`ədə), independent nation (2001 pop. 30,007,094), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of .

Grateful appreciation is expressed to the members and coaches of the men's and women's basketball Women's basketball is one of the few games which developed in tandem with men's. It became popular, spreading from the east coast of the United States to the west coast, in large part via women's colleges.  teams and the swimming team at the University of Manitoba, the men's basketball team at Daniel McIntyre Collegiate col·le·giate  
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or held to resemble a college.

2. Of, for, or typical of college students.

3. Of or relating to a collegiate church.
, and the women's basketball team at St. Mary's high school St. Mary's High School may refer to: Canada
  • St. Mary's High School (Calgary)
  • St. Mary's High School (Kitchener), Ontario
  • St. Mary's Catholic Secondary (Hamilton), Ontario
  • St. Mary's Catholic High School, Woodstock, Ontario
  • St.
, for their cooperation and support during this study. An expanded version of Experiment 2 was submitted by the second author in partial fulfillment ful·fill also ful·fil  
tr.v. ful·filled, ful·fill·ing, ful·fills also ful·fils
1. To bring into actuality; effect: fulfilled their promises.

2.
 of the B.A. Honours degree Noun 1. honours degree - a university degree with honors
honours

academic degree, degree - an award conferred by a college or university signifying that the recipient has satisfactorily completed a course of study; "he earned his degree at Princeton summa
 at the University of Manitoba.

References

Cattell, R. B., Eber, H. W., & Tatsuoka, M. M. (1970). Handbook
For the handbook about Wikipedia, see .

This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
"Pocket reference" redirects here.
 for the 16 personality factor questionnaire. Champaign Champaign (shămpān`), city (1990 pop. 63,502), Champaign co., E central Ill.; inc. 1860. It adjoins the city of Urbana and is a commercial and industrial center in a fertile farm area. The Univ. , IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing.

Greenspan, M. J., & Feltz, D. L. (1989). Psychological interventions with athletes in competition situations: A review. The Sport Psychologist, 3,219-236.

Heil, J., & Henschen, K. (1996). Assessment in sport and exercise psychology. In J. L. Van Raalte, & B. W. Brewer (Eds.), Exploring sport and exercise psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association The American Psychological Association (APA) is a professional organization representing psychology in the US. Description and history
The association has around 150,000 members and an annual budget of around $70m.
.

Mahoney, M. J., Gabriel, T. J., & Perkins, T. S. (1987). Psychological skills and exceptional athletic performance. The Sport Psychologist, 1, 181-199.

Martin, G. L. (1997). Sport psychology consulting: Practical guidelines from behavior analysis. Winnipeg, Canada: Sport Science Press.

Martin, G. L., & Pear, J. J. (1999). Behavior modification behavior modification
n.
1. The use of basic learning techniques, such as conditioning, biofeedback, reinforcement, or aversion therapy, to teach simple skills or alter undesirable behavior.

2. See behavior therapy.
: What it is and how to do it, 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Martin, G. L., & Toogood, S. A. (1997). Cognitive and behavioral components of a seasonal psychological skills training program for competitive figure skaters. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 4, 383-404.

Martin, G. L., Toogood, S. A., & Tkachuk, G. A. (1997). Behavioral assessment forms for sport psychology consulting. Winnipeg, Canada: Sport Science Press.

Nideffer, R. M. (1976). Test of attentional and interpersonal style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (often referred to as JPSP) is a monthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. It is considered one of the top journals in the fields of social and personality psychology. , 34, 394-404.

Orlick, T. (1989). Reflections on sport psych consulting with individual and team sport athletes at summer and winter Olympic games Olympic games, premier athletic meeting of ancient Greece, and, in modern times, series of international sports contests. The Olympics of Ancient Greece


Although records cannot verify games earlier than 776 B.C.
. The Sport Psychologist, 3, 358-365.

Orlick, T., & Partington, J. (1988). Mental links to excellence. The Sport Psychologist, 2, 105-130.

Ravizza, K. (1988). Gaining entry with athletic personnel for season-long consulting. The Sport Psychologist, 2,243-254.

Rushall, B. S. (1979). Psyching in sport: The psychological preparation for serious competition in sport. London: Pelham Noun 1. Pelham - a bit with a bar mouthpiece that is designed to combine a curb and snaffle
bit - piece of metal held in horse's mouth by reins and used to control the horse while riding; "the horse was not accustomed to a bit"
 Books.

Smith, R. E. (1989). Applied sport psychology in an age of accountability. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 1, 166-180.

Weschler, D. (1981). Manual for the Weschler adult intelligence scale - revised. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Psychological Corporation.

Appendix

A Sport Psychology Questionnaire for Swimmers

COMPETITION

Would you say that, just before or during a meet, you need to improve at:

1. Thinking positive thoughts? (e.g., "I know I can hit the splits I'm going for", "I'm going for a best time", etc.)

2. Tuning out negative thoughts? (e.g., "I hope I don't come in last", "These swimmers are really fast", etc.)

3. Staying loose and not getting too nervous:

a) just before a race?

b) in pressure situations?

4. Maintaining/regaining your confidence in difficult situations? (e.g., you have a bad start/split, you're behind, you feel really nervous, etc.)

5. Maintaining your concentration during a race? (e.g., focusing on technique, concentrating on turns, etc.)

6.Blocking out distractors over which you have no control? (e.g., the time of day of your race, who you're competing against, etc.)

7. Blocking out what people might say if you don't perform well? (e.g., comments from your parents, coach, friends, or spectators) Other? ___

8. Blocking out distractors that don't involve swimming? (e.g., school, family, or relationship problems) Other? ___

9. Refocusing Noun 1. refocusing - focusing again
focalisation, focalization, focusing - the act of bringing into focus
 after you get distracted dis·tract·ed  
adj.
1. Having the attention diverted.

2. Suffering conflicting emotions; distraught.



dis·tract
 for any reason? (e.g., while waiting behind the blocks during the heat before yours, a competitor invades your space, etc.)

10. Staying energized in difficult situations? (e.g., when you feel fatigued or ill, your opponents have much faster entry times, etc.)

11. Making adjustments as the race progresses? (e.g., to deal with an opponent's tactics, etc.)

12. Staying positive throughout a race? (e.g., you're feeling pain, you're falling behind, etc.)

13. Managing troublesome emotions? (e.g., excitement, anger, disappointment, etc.)

14. Giving 100% effort when there are excuses not to? (e.g., you are swimming against people you have swum swum  
v.
Past participle of swim.


swum
Verb

the past participle of swim

swum swim
 against several times, you are placing poorly in a race, you begin to feel fatigued, etc.)

15. Setting challenging yet attainable at·tain  
v. at·tained, at·tain·ing, at·tains

v.tr.
1. To gain as an objective; achieve: attain a diploma by hard work.

2.
 goals for each meet?

16. Having a better health management plan before and during a meet? (e.g., getting enough sleep, drinking enough water, eating properly, etc.)

17. Preparing and following a detailed precompetition and competition plan?

18. Communicating your precompetition needs to others? (e.g., parent(s), coach, teammates, and friends, etc.)

19. Staying supportive of and praising teammates' performance?

IMMEDIATELY AFTER A MEET

Would you say that you need to improve at:

1. Evaluating your mental preparation and swimming performance for that meet?

2. Putting aside a poor performance and focusing on the next race/meet?

3. Remembering the good things that happened, and incorporating them into mental preparation for the next race/meet?

4. Communicating with your coach? (e.g., "How was my technique?", "My turns?", etc.)

5. Learning from your mistakes so that you can improve? (e.g., "Explode (1) To break down an assembly into its component pieces. Contrast with implode.

(2) To decompress data back to its original form.
 more off the turn", etc.)

Additional Concerns about Competitions

TRAINING

Would you say that, at practices, you need to improve at:

1. Setting specific physical, technical, tactical, and mental goals for every practice?

2. Keeping a written record of progress in meeting your goals?

3. Arriving at practice totally committed to do your best? (e.g., consistently be stretched before the practice is scheduled to start, etc.)

4. Maintaining your concentration, especially when practice gets long, repetitive, or uninteresting (jargon) uninteresting - 1. Said of a problem that, although nontrivial, can be solved simply by throwing sufficient resources at it.

2. Also said of problems for which a solution would neither advance the state of the art nor be fun to design and code.
?

5. Maintaining your effort and focus, especially when you are tired or don't feel like being there?

6. Making better use of full practice time? (e.g., swimming all sets under the set time, practicing good turns at both ends, etc.)

7. Staying positive when you're having a bad practice?

8. Remaining positive when an injury forces you to stop training?

9. Constantly working on improving your technique? (i.e., don't just go through the motions)

10. Trying new and challenging skills? (e.g., trying to perfect a new stroke or turn, etc.)

11. Practicing mental skills, as well as physical skills?

12. Not worrying about what other swimmers are doing? (i.e., concentrating on what you have to do to improve)

13. Using key words and self-talk self-talk,
n in behavioral medicine, internal monologues that can have a positive or negative influence upon the individual.
 to improve your skills? (e.g., on backstroke: "Head still", "Hips high", etc.)

14. Making better use of visualization/mental rehearsal re·hears·al
n.
The process of repeating information, such as a name or a list of words, in order to remember it.



re·hearse v.
 before practices to improve your skills?

15. Focusing on having quality practices?

16. Doing serious race simulations during some practices? (e.g., using a start gun, timing your splits, swimming against other club members, wearing competitive suits, etc.)

17. Using self-talk, key words, and imagery before and during race simulations? Additional Concerns about Practices

Note. The original questionnaire (Martin et al., 1997) listed the above items, and also provided a scoring section to enable a swimmer to rate each item on a 1-5 scale (Definitely don't need to improve to Definitely need to improve), and to check the items for which they would like help to improve.
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Author:Lines, Jolyon B.; Schwartzman, Lisa; Tkachuk, Gregg A.; Leslie-Toogood, S. Adrienne; Martin, Garry L
Publication:Journal of Sport Behavior
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 1999
Words:4240
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