Basic Confidence predictors of career decision-making self-efficacy.
The extent to which Basic Confidence Scales predicted career decision-making self-efficacy was studied in a sample of 627 undergraduate students. Six confidence variables accounted for 49% of the variance in career decision-making self-efficacy. Leadership confidence was the most important, but confidence in science, mathematics, writing, using technology, and cultural sensitivity all contributed significant incremental variance. There were some differences as a function of race and gender, but leadership confidence was the most significant predictor in all sub-groups. Implications for educational and career counseling are discussed.
One of the most visible areas of research in career development and counseling today is applications of Bandura's (1977) self-efficacy theory to the understanding and treatment of problems in both personal/social and career development. In particular, there have now been hundreds of studies investigating the importance of self-efficacy (often referred to as confidence) to educational and career development with respect to career-related behaviors. Such behaviors have included mathematics self-efficacy (Lopez, Lent Lent [Old Eng. lencten,=spring], Latin Quadragesima (meaning 40; thus the 40 days of Lent). In Christianity, Lent is a time of penance, prayer, preparation for or recollection of baptism, and preparation for the celebration of Easter. , Brown, & Gore, 1997), self-efficacy for occupational tasks taken from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles The Dictionary of Occupational Titles, commonly known as the DOT (Pronounced Dee-Oh-Tee) was the creation of the U.S. Employment Service, which used its thousands of occupational definitions to match job seekers to jobs from 1939 to the late 1990s. (Rooney & Osipow, 1992), career decision-making self-efficacy (Luzzo, 1993; Taylor & Popma, 1990), and career search efficacy (Solberg, Good, Fischer, Brown, & Nord, 1995).
Because of its importance to career decision making and career interventions, career decision-making self-efficacy has received probably the most research attention relative to other domains of career behavior. Career decision-making self-efficacy was originally defined by Taylor and Betz (1983) as the individual's belief that he or she can successfully complete tasks necessary to making career decisions. Career decision-making self-efficacy has been measured using the task domains of accurate self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, goal selection, planning, and problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. . Probably because of its centrality to successful educational and career outcomes, factors related to career decision-making self-efficacy and the design and evaluation of interventions have received extensive attention from researchers (Betz & Luzzo, 1996).
Research indicates that career decision-making self-efficacy is related to other indices of adaptive career decision making. For example, there is ample evidence that career decision-making self-efficacy is inversely in·verse
1. Reversed in order, nature, or effect.
2. Mathematics Of or relating to an inverse or an inverse function.
3. Archaic Turned upside down; inverted.
1. related to career indecision Indecision
ass unable to decide between two haystacks, he would starve to death. [Fr. Philos.: Brewer Dictionary, 154]
his irresolution usually leads to catatonia. [Am. Lit. (e.g., Bergeron & Romano, 1994; Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996; Taylor & Popma, 1990). Career decision-making self-efficacy has also been shown to be related to high versus low vocational identity (Robbins, 1985), more adaptive career beliefs (Luzzo & Day, 1999), fear of career commitment (Betz & Serling, 1993), and career exploratory behavior (Blustein, 1989). Peterson (1993a, 1993b) found that career decision-making self-efficacy was related to academic persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. versus dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human in underprepared college students and that it surpassed all other variables as a predictor of academic and social integration of college students. Other studies have suggested that career decision-making self-efficacy can be increased through verbal persuasion PERSUASION. The act of influencing by expostulation or request. While the persuasion is confined within those limits which leave the mind free, it may be used to induce another to make his will, or even to make it in his own favor; but if such persuasion should so far operate on the mind , one of Bandura's postulated pos·tu·late
tr.v. pos·tu·lat·ed, pos·tu·lat·ing, pos·tu·lates
1. To make claim for; demand.
2. To assume or assert the truth, reality, or necessity of, especially as a basis of an argument.
3. four sources of efficacy information (Luzzo & Taylor, 1994), through attributional retraining re·train
tr. & intr.v. re·trained, re·train·ing, re·trains
To train or undergo training again.
re·train (Luzzo, Funk, & Strang, 1996) and through a videotaped intervention designed to increase women's perceived career options (Foss & Slaney, 1986).
Bandura's (1977) formulations of self-efficacy theory include the postulate postulate: see axiom. that increases in self-efficacy expectations relative to one domain should generalize generalize /gen·er·al·ize/ (-iz)
1. to spread throughout the body, as when local disease becomes systemic.
2. to form a general principle; to reason inductively. , to some degree, to other domains. On the basis of this general statement, it would be possible to postulate statistically significant relationships among domain-specific measures of self-efficacy. Not surprisingly, then, scores on the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996) have been found to be moderately related to other measures of self-efficacy. For example, Betz and Serling (1993) found statistically significant correlations of .53, .21, and .29 with the Verbal, Quantitative, and Aesthetic subscales of Osipow and Rooney's (Osipow, Temple, & Rooney, 1993; Rooney & Osipow, 1992) Task-Specific Occupational Self-Efficacy Scale (TSOSS) in a sample of 90 students. Betz and Klein (1996) reported correlations of .38, .37, and .26 between CDMSE scores and mathematics self-efficacy.
Given preliminary findings such as these, we postulated that career decision-making self-efficacy in college students may well be related to self-efficacy as it relates to the basic competencies required of the typical liberal arts liberal arts, term originally used to designate the arts or studies suited to freemen. It was applied in the Middle Ages to seven branches of learning, the trivium of grammar, logic, and rhetoric, and the quadrivium of arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. education. Although we are not postulating causality causality, in philosophy, the relationship between cause and effect. A distinction is often made between a cause that produces something new (e.g., a moth from a caterpillar) and one that produces a change in an existing substance (e.g. , we suggest that there may be reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.
Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements. influence of self-perceived academic competencies and career decision-making self-efficacy. Understanding the extent to which various educational competencies may be related to career decision-making self-efficacy could provide additional ideas for increasing career decision-making self-efficacy in college students through efforts to develop these educational competencies as well as directly targeted career self-efficacy interventions.
There are, for example, several academic areas considered essential for a general liberal arts education. The basic elements of the assessment of student achievement in general education include English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science (Banta, 1992). Descriptions of a liberal arts education include the following components: "to use their own language effectively" and "to participate in advancing social consciousness" (cf. Pfnister, 1992, p. 1146). Other definitions of a liberal education include the concept of preparing the young person for the role of citizen and "free man" (Pfnister, 1992, p. 1147) or have emphasized the importance of leadership activities (Cress, Astin, Zimmerman-Oster, & Burkhardt, 2001; Sedlacek & Brooks, 1976). Comfort with using a computer has also been linked to positive outcomes in college students (Kuh & Hu, 2001; Lewis, Coursol, & Khan khan
Historically, the ruler or monarch of a Mongol tribe. Early on a distinction was made between the title of khan and that of khakan, or “great khan.” Later the term khan was adopted by the Seljuq and Khwarezm-Shah dynasties as a title for the highest , 2001).
The present study was designed to evaluate the relationship of self-efficacy, or confidence, with respect to several domains considered essential to the goals of a general or liberal arts education to career decision-making self-efficacy. On the basis of previous research and scholarship, we selected for examination six domains representative of broad educational goals or emphases of a college education. These six basic confidence dimensions were Mathematics, Science, Using Technology, Writing, Leadership, and Cultural Sensitivity, the last of which was designed to reflect Pfnister's (1992) goal "to participate in advancing social consciousness" (p. 1146). We conducted regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. analyses of the predictive efficacy of these competencies relative to career decision-making self-efficacy.
Participants and Procedure
Participants were 627 undergraduates enrolled in introductory psychology courses at a large, midwestern university The P.A. Program is a 2-year program that starts in the summer. The D.O.,Pharm D., and Psy.D are 4-year programs. The D.O. degree is the legal and professional equivalent of the M.D. . Students received course credit for their participation. All experiments were posted on the psychology department's Research Experience Program Web site, allowing students to select from a variety of experiments.
All but 4 participants indicated their gender, and the resulting break-down was 346 (55.5%) women and 277 (44.5%) men. In racial/ethnic composition, 80% of respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. indicated they were Caucasian, 9% African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. , 6% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 2% Latino(a)/Hispanic, 1% multiracial mul·ti·ra·cial
1. Made up of, involving, or acting on behalf of various races: a multiracial society.
2. Having ancestors of several or various races. , and 1% Native American. Only the African American subgroup sub·group
1. A distinct group within a group; a subdivision of a group.
2. A subordinate group.
3. Mathematics A group that is a subset of a group.
tr.v. was deemed large enough (n = 54) to analyze separately. Eighty percent of participants indicated they were freshmen, 13% sophomores, 5% juniors, and 1.4% seniors.
Participants were tested in groups of 25 to 60 in classrooms on the campus. They were given both oral and written instructions for completing the measures. After completing the measures, students were given a handout describing the purpose of the study and providing a list of counseling referrals should their participation cause them any kind of distress.
Expanded Skills Confidence Inventory (ESCI ESCI Environmental Science
eSCI Enhanced Serial Communication Interface
ESCI Extension Start Code Identifier ). The ESCI (Betz et al., 2003) measures self-efficacy, or confidence, with respect to 17 basic dimensions of vocational activity that are parallel to the Basic Interest Scales of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII SII Servicio de Impuestos Internos (Chile)
SII Seiko Instruments, Inc.
SII Strong Interest Inventory
SII Standards Institution of Israel
SII Securities and Investment Institute (UK) ; Harmon, Hansen, Borgen, & Hammer, 1994). Although the current (1994) version of the SII contains 25 Basic Interest Scales, economy of use and interpretation, as well as substantive import, led to the decision to develop confidence scales for many, but not all, of the 1994 Basic Interest Scales. Decisions regarding which Basic Confidence Scales to develop were based on the degree to which a Basic Interest (confidence) dimension is basic and important to many, rather than to only a few, occupational groups (e.g., Public Speaking, Writing, Leadership). Other scales were developed to reflect current trends in the labor market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience . Thus, the scales Using Technology, Creative Production, Cultural Sensitivity, Project Management, and Teamwork (product, software, tool) Teamwork - A SASD tool from Sterling Software, formerly CADRE Technologies, which supports the Shlaer/Mellor Object-Oriented method and the Yourdon-DeMarco, Hatley-Pirbhai, Constantine and Buhr notations. represent either emphases of the increasingly high-tech labor market or emphases within organizations that reflect the trend toward greater focus on interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. cooperation and diversity. The focus of the present study was on six of the Basic Confidence Scales: Mathematics, Science, Writing, Using Technology, Leadership, and Cultural Sensitivity.
These scales also represent five of the six Holland (1997) themes, Investigative (Science and Mathematics), Artistic (Writing), Social (Cultural Sensitivity), Enterprising en·ter·pris·ing
Showing initiative and willingness to undertake new projects: The enterprising children opened a lemonade stand. (Leadership), and Conventional (Using Technology). Realistic was not represented, but of all the Holland themes, it tends to be associated most closely with occupations that do not require a college degree.
As with the Skills Confidence Inventory (Betz, Harmon, & Borgen, 1996), which was the prototype for the new inventory (i.e., ESCI), items for the Basic Confidence Scales were either activities (e.g., "Ride a horse") or school subjects (e.g., "Calculus calculus, branch of mathematics that studies continuously changing quantities. The calculus is characterized by the use of infinite processes, involving passage to a limit—the notion of tending toward, or approaching, an ultimate value. "). Responses rated items using a 5-point scale ranging from no confidence at all (1) to complete confidence (5). For school subject items, respondents were asked to indicate their degree of confidence in completing the course successfully. Responses rated items using the same 5-point confidence continuum used with the Activities items. The inventory was developed with samples of 972 employed adults and 934 college students. Values of coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. alpha for the final 10-item scales ranged from .80 to .94 (adults) and .84 to .94 (college students).
Career decision-making self-efficacy. The short form of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE-SF; Betz, Klein, et al., 1996) was used as a measure of self-efficacy expectations for successfully completing tasks requisite to making good career decisions. The CDMSE-SF contains five subscales comprising 25 items measuring the five career choice competencies of Crites's (1978) model of career maturity: Self-Appraisal, Gathering Occupational Information, Goal Selection, Planning, and Problem-Solving. Responses rate items on a 5-point scale ranging from no confidence at all (1) to complete confidence (5). A total score is computed by summing scores for the 25 items; higher scores indicate greater levels of career decision-making self-efficacy. The CDMSE-SF has been shown to be psychometrically sound, with internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. reliabilities ranging from .73 (Self-Appraisal) to .83 (Goal Selection) for the 5-item subscales and .94 for the 25-item total score (Betz, Klein, et al., 1996).
Table 1 shows the correlations among the variables studied herein. As shown in the table, relationships varied in size from .14 (between Mathematics and Writing confidence) and .63 (Leadership and Cultural Sensitivity). Correlations of Basic Confidence Scales with career decision-making self-efficacy ranged from .35 (with Using Technology) to .59 (with Leadership).
Table 2 shows the results of multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. analyses predicting career decision-making self-efficacy using the six Basic Confidence Scales judged especially salient to the aims of a general, liberal arts-oriented college education. As shown, the six predictors all contributed significantly to the overall regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender. , which accounted for 49% of the variance in career decision-making self-efficacy. The most important predictor was Leadership, although Cultural Sensitivity, Mathematics, Science, Using Technology, and Writing all contributed some independent variance. Overall, this first set of analyses indicated that the Basic Confidence Scales were important predictors of career decision-making self-efficacy.
Analyses within gender and race indicated significant differences in variance accounted for and in the important predictors within group. First, a statistically larger proportion of variance, 79% was accounted for in the sample of African Americans, versus the 44%, 46%, and 56% accounted for in women, European Americans A European American (Euro-American) is a person who resides in the United States and is either the descendant of European immigrants or from Europe him/herself.
Overall, as the largest group, European Americans have the lowest poverty rate  , and men, respectively.
As with the total group regression analysis, leadership confidence was the most important predictor of career decision-making self-efficacy within all subgroups, but after leadership the important predictors differed by group. Confidence in cultural sensitivity was a significant predictor of career decision-making self-efficacy in women and European Americans but not in men or African Americans. For men, science confidence was next in importance after leadership, and for African Americans, using technology, mathematics, and science confidence (negatively) were next in importance. The negative beta weight for science suggests that it is acting as a suppressor sup·pres·sor
1. or sup·press·er One that suppresses: a suppressor of free speech.
2. A gene that suppresses the phenotypic expression of another gene, especially of a mutant gene. variable (pulling out the variance associated with some other variable; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994) because the bivariate bi·var·i·ate
Mathematics Having two variables: bivariate binomial distribution.
Adj. 1. correlation between science confidence and career decision-making self-efficacy in African Americans is positive (r = .40). Given the high correlation between math and science confidence in African Americans (.68), this might help to explain the suppressor effect. Thus, confidence in leadership and cultural sensitivity seem most important in women's and European Americans' career decision-making self-efficacy, whereas confidence in leadership and math/science/technology related variables seem most important for men and African Americans.
Although there were some ethnic and gender differences in which Basic Confidence Scales best predicted career decision-making self-efficacy, the overall percentages of variance accounted for were impressive. In the total group, six basic confidence predictors accounted for 49% of the variance in career decision-making self-efficacy, and within subgroups the percentages of variance accounted for ranged from 44% (women) to 79% (African Americans). Leadership confidence was the largest predictor for all groups. Confidence in cultural sensitivity was second in importance for women, and it was also important, along with confidence in science, for European Americans. Mathematics, science, and using technology were statistically significant predictors in all groups, but they were especially important for African Americans.
The importance of leadership confidence, especially to African Americans, is consistent with the model and research of Sedlacek and Brooks (1976; see also Sedlacek, 1999; Tracey & Sedlacek, 1984, 1985) showing that leadership experience is one of eight noncognitive variables critical to the academic success and persistence of African American students. More generally, the possible importance of self-efficacy expectations in the educational and career development of ethnic minority students is receiving increasing attention in the literature. Academic self-efficacy has been demonstrated to be related to persistence in college in studies by Gloria (1993) and Gloria, Robinson Kurpius, Hamilton, and Willson (1999). Whether or not the present findings concerning career decision-making self-efficacy may also be related to persistence may be an avenue for further research, given that African Americans' persistence in college continues to lag behind that of their White and Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A counterparts (e.g., Gloria et al., 1999).
Clearly these data must be interpreted cautiously because this study did not use a causal causal /cau·sal/ (kaw´z'l) pertaining to, involving, or indicating a cause.
relating to or emanating from cause. design. Also, there may well be a general factor accounting for the moderate to strong correlations of all the Basic Confidence Scales with career decision-making self-efficacy. However, the fact that the Basic Confidence Scales themselves were not highly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. (e.g., Writing and Using Technology correlated .19, and Writing and Mathematics .14) suggests that any general factor present does not encompass a range of basic activity areas.
Because these findings are not based on causal data, it cannot be said that programs that increase a student's confidence in the basic educational skills will increase career decision-making self-efficacy, or the reverse, but it may be hypothesized that students expressing concern with career indecision or lack of confidence in their career decision-making skills may also lack confidence in these basic academic skill areas. Because academic confidence has also been shown to be related to persistence in college, a focus on strengthening students' efficacy beliefs using efficacy interventions may prove doubly useful. Efficacy-based interventions are developed using the sources of efficacy information from Bandura's (1977) theory: performance accomplishments, vicarious vicarious /vi·car·i·ous/ (vi-kar´e-us)
1. acting in the place of another or of something else.
2. occurring at an abnormal site.
1. learning, anxiety management, and social encouragement. Although there are other methods of attempting to increase career decision-making self-efficacy (see Betz & Luzzo, 1996), being aware of the possibility that in some cases it is related to low confidence in academic skills may prove useful for counselors and educators in collegiate col·le·giate
1. Of, relating to, or held to resemble a college.
2. Of, for, or typical of college students.
3. Of or relating to a collegiate church. settings or in high school settings, where the building blocks of both educational and career decisional confidence are established.
TABLE 1 Correlations Between the Basic Confidence Scales and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1.Mathematics (a) - 2.Science (a) .54 - 3.Using .41 .43 - Technology (a) 4.Writing (a) .14 .33 .24 - 5.Leadership (a) .21 .34 .25 .62 - 6.Cultural .19 .35 .19 .55 .63 - Sensitivity (a) 7.Career .36 .44 .35 .49 .59 .52 - Decision-Making Self-Efficacy (b) Note. For a sample of 627 college undergraduates, r values of .09, .12, and .15 are significant at .05, .01, and .001, but for reasons of practical significance, values below .20 should not be interpreted. (a) Basic Confidence Scale. (b) Measured by the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form. TABLE 2 Regression Analyses Predicting Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Using the Six Basic Confidence Scales Total Group Predictor B t R [R.sup.2] F (6, 549) .70 .49 86.65 *** Mathematics .14 3.7 *** Science .13 3.2 *** Using Technology .11 3.1 *** Writing .11 2.8 *** Leadership .32 7.2 *** Cultural Sensitivity .18 4.3 *** Subgroups Men Women (n = 232) (n = 323) Predictor [R.sup.2] B [R.sup.2] B .56 *** .44 *** Mathematics .11 * .15 ** Science .19 ** .11 * Using Technology .12 * .12 * Writing .13 * .09 Leadership .41 *** .25 *** Cultural Sensitivity .06 .23 *** Subgroups European American African American (n = 449) (n = 54) Predictor [R.sup.2] B [R.sup.2] B .46 *** .79 *** Mathematics .13 ** .23 * Science .17 *** -.39 *** Using Technology .10 * .31 ** Writing .11 * .19 Leadership .30 *** .43 ** Cultural Sensitivity .16 *** .19 * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001.
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
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The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and theory (3rd ed.). New York New York, state, United States
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Alisa M. Paulsen and Nancy E. Betz, Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University Ohio State University, main campus at Columbus; land-grant and state supported; coeducational; chartered 1870, opened 1873 as Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College, renamed 1878. There are also campuses at Lima, Mansfield, Marion, and Newark. . Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Nancy E. Betz, Department of Psychology, 137 Townshend Hall, 1885 Neil Avenue, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).