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Bacterial Vaginosis; Facts to Know.



Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is three times more common among African-American women than among women of other ethnic groups. This may help explain why African-American women have higher rates of problem pregnancies. The reason for increased BV in this population is not clear.

BV is widespread but its prevalence varies widely. BV is the most common cause of vaginitis vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina. The chief symptom is a whitish or yellowish vaginal discharge. Treatment depends on the cause: appropriate drugs for sexually transmitted diseases (often from Gardnerella bacteria or trichomonads) or yeast infections; estrogen cream for
 in women of childbearing age--five to 60 percent of women across the world have BV. In the US, the rate of BV depends on the population: it's responsible for 17 to 19 percent of vaginitis cases seen in student health or family-planning clinics; 24 to 37 percent in STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) Long distance dialing outside of the U.S. that does not require operator intervention. STD prefix codes are required and billing is based on call units, which are a fixed amount of money in the currency of that country.  clinics; and 10 to 35 percent among pregnant women.

BV increases a woman's risk of delivering prematurely or delivering a baby with low birthweight. A National Institutes of Health study found that pregnant women with BV were more likely to deliver a baby with low birthweight than those without the infection. The most common cause of premature birth from BV is premature rupture of membranes Premature Rupture of Membranes Definition

Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is an event that occurs during pregnancy when the sac containing the developing baby (fetus) and the amniotic fluid bursts or develops a hole prior to the start of labor.
.

A woman with BV may be more likely to become infected with HIV, the sexually transmitted virus that causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, see AIDS. ). Recent studies have shown a relationship between BV and HIV, so health officials now consider BV a risk factor for HIV acquisition, particularly in developing countries where BV is often untreated.

Bacterial vaginosis infection disrupts the vaginal ecosystem. Some women infected with BV have up to 1,000 times more anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that require no oxygen to live) than uninfected women. Once this imbalance occurs, the body has difficulty getting back to normal. Consequently, researchers are looking at natural ways to supplement the "good" bacteria needed to protect the genital tract from infection, and thereby reduce recurrences.

Because its symptoms mimic other vaginal infections, BV is often mistaken for a common yeast infection. Also, a low-grade infection may not cause any symptoms.

Up to 50 to 75 percent of women with BV have no symptoms. And yet studies find that as many as one-third of women entering obstetric clinics have a BV infection.

Despite adequate treatment, BV recurs in about 30 percent of women within three months. Researchers are not sure what makes some women more prone to recurrent BV.

The greatest risk factors for BV are having a new sex partner or having multiple sex partners.

References

Bacterial Vaginosis. National Women's Health Information Center. http://www.4woman.gov. Updated May 2005. Accessed September 2005.

STD Facts: Vaginitis (Most Common Causes: Yeast Infection, Trichomonas, Bacterial Vaginosis)." Minnesota Department of Health. 2004. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), agency of the U.S. Public Health Service since 1973, with headquarters in Atlanta; it was established in 1946 as the Communicable Disease Center.  National Prevention Information Network (NPIN). http://www.cdcnpin.org. Accessed September 2005.

"Bacterial Vaginosis." Feminist Women's Health Center. 2002. http://www.fwhc.org. Accessed September 2005.

Lactobacillus lactobacillus

Any of the rod-shaped, gram-positive (see gram stain) bacteria that make up the genus Lactobacillus. They are widely distributed in animal feeds, manure, and milk and milk products.
 Organisms and Bacterial Vaginosis. Saint Joseph Mercy Health System Mercy Health System is a non-profit health care provider and hospital based in Janesville, Wisconsin, with over 50 facilities in over 20 communities across a seven-county area including parts of Illinois. . Updated May 19, 2004. http://www.sjmercyhealth.org. Accessed September 2005.

Secor, R. Mimi. "Bacterial Vaginosis." Clinician Reviews. 11(11):59-68, 2001.

Yen, Sophia, et al. "Bacterial Vaginosis in Sexually Experienced and Non-Sexually Experienced Young Women Entering the Military." Obstetrics & Gynecology. 102(5):927, November 2003.

Rakel, Robert, and Edward Bope, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2004: Latest Approved Methods of Treatment for the Practicing Physician. 56th edition. St. Louis: Saunders, 2004. Page 119.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR MMWR Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report Epidemiology A news bulletin published by the CDC, which provides epidemiologic data–eg, statistics on the incidence of AIDS, rabies, rubella, STDs and other communicable diseases, causes of mortality–eg,  2002;51(No. RR-6)

"Vaginitis Due to Vaginal Infections." National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Health Matters. October 2004. http://www.niaid.nih.gov. Accessed September 2005.

Connett, H. What you need to know about bacterial vaginosis. STD Advisor, 1999; Vol. 2. Insert.

The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Institute of Medicine. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press, 1997.

Bacterial Vaginosis--CDC Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov. Last updated: May 2004. Accessed September 2005.

Bacterial Vaginosis. American Family Physician, March 15, 1998. http://www.aafp.org. Accessed September 2005.

Bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth: a comprehensive review of the literature. J Nurse Midwifery. 43(2):83-9, Mar-Apr 1998.

Urinary Tract Infections in Adults. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). NIH Publication 04-2097. November 2003. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov. Accessed September 2005.

Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, bv, women with bv, bv infection, hiv, bacteria, baby with low birth, weight, infection
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Publication:NWHRC Health Center - Bacterial Vaginosis
Article Type:Disease/Disorder overview
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 14, 2006
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