Azerbaijan - Geology.Azerbaijan has an area of 86,600 sq km and diverse resources. It is the biggest and eastern-most country in Trans-Caucasia, which occupies the southern part of the isthmus isthmus (ĭs`məs), narrow neck of land connecting two larger land areas. Since it commands the only land route between two large areas and is on two seas, an isthmus has great strategical and commercial importance and is a favorable situation between the Black and Caspian seas. It has three main petroleum provinces:
The onshore Lower Kura, Shamakhy-Gobustan and Absheron areas, and the offshore archipelagos of Baku and Absheron. Their thick sandstone formations (Fms) of the Middle Pliocene - known as Productive Series (PS) - are the main reservoirs. They have produced since the late 19th century.
The Middle Kura depression, between the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Lesser Caucasus (Azeri: Kiçik Qafqaz Dağları, Georgian: მცირე კავკასიონი, Russian: mountain ranges. Their main oil reservoirs are in the PS. There are poor reservoir properties in some of the Upper Cretaceous volcanogenic vol·ca·no·gen·ic
Of volcanic origin. rocks and the Paleogene, Miocene and Upper Pliocene Fms. There are fairly large oil and gas reservoirs in the Yevlakh-Aghjabedi trough, with oil pools having been developed in a wide stratigraphic stra·tig·ra·phy
The study of rock strata, especially the distribution, deposition, and age of sedimentary rocks.
strat range - such as the Akchagylian, Sarmatian, Chokrakian, Maikopian, Eocenian and Upper Cretaceous Fms.
The Pre-Caspian Guba region in the north of Azerbaijan. Hydrocarbons in this province are associated with Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleogene, Miocene and Pliocene sediments.
The Middle Jurassic's thickness in Azerbaijan is up to 4,300 metres. Mid-Jurassic deposits are distributed widely in the watershed section of the Major Caucasian Ridge and in its frame. These are represented by black slates inter-bedded with sandstones and aleurolites. Deposits occur within the Tengi-Beshbarmag anti-clinorium and the super-imposed trough of Gusar-Devechi.
There are deposits from Lusitanian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian stages in the watershed section in the lateral ridge of Tengi, composed of carbonaceous and sandy-argillaceous rocks and are represented by two lithofacies.
Upper Jurassic carbonaceous litho-facies, mainly of the Tithonian stage, predominate in the Shahdag region. They were traced from the massifs of Shahdag and Gyzulgaya up to the Tengi gorge. They consist of dense and highly fractured limestones and dolomites which are zoogenic and pink. There are abundant sandy-argillaceous litho-facies in the central and south-eastern Caucasus and within the lateral ridge. They consist of clayey slates, alternated with aleurolites, sandstones, marls and partially limestones. The litho-facies subside towards the Shamakhy-Gobustan region.
Lower Cretaceous deposits are trans-gressively over-lain by those of the Upper Jurassic. Upper Jurassic's thickness in these areas is up to 1,500 metres. Cretaceous deposits are spread widely in the Greater Caucasus mountains.
Jurassic sediments are post-mature for oil and gas. Generation may have been late enough to enable migration and accumulation into shallower reservoirs. Hydrocarbons remaining in situ In place. When something is "in situ," it is in its original location. may have been displaced by gas generated at high temperature.
The Cretaeous: In the south-eastern subsidence of the Greater Caucasus, the Lower Cretaceous (LC) is most common. After numerous surveys and structural drilling, the super-imposed trough of Gusar-Devechi and the Tengi-Beshbarmag anti-clinorium were found in Northern Gobustan. LC deposits consist of alternating sandy, aleurolite, carbonaceous and argillaceous ar·gil·la·ceous
Containing, made of, or resembling clay; clayey.
[From Latin argill rocks. There are Albian limestones in the upper interval. Separate blocks of LC sandstones, clays and limestones were found among the solid outbursts from mud volcanoes in Gobustan's central and southern sections. It confirmed their distribution in the depression of the south-eastern Caucasus. The thickness of the LC deposits is up to 3,300 metres.
LC deposits are common in the Shamakhy-Gobustan and Pre-Caspian Guba regions and in parts of the Shahdag-Khyzy area, represented by flysch-type alternation alternation /al·ter·na·tion/ (awl?ter-na´shun) the regular succession of two opposing or different events in turn.
alternation of generations metagenesis. of sandstones, aleurolites, limestones and clays. The number and thickness of carbonaceous and sandy beds are increased in the Upper Cretaceous (UC) section in the south and south-east and in the Gusar-Devechi trough.
Solid outbursts from mud volcanoes in the Southern Gobustan and the Lower Kura Basin have large blocks of UC limestones and sandstones. The thickness of UC deposits is up to 1,800 metres in the Shamakhy-Gobustan area and up to 600 metres in the Guba zone. The Cretaceous is characterised by poor source rocks. A very rich Late Cretaceous oil source facies facies /fa·ci·es/ (fa´she-ez) pl. fa´cies [L.]
1. the face.
2. surface; the outer aspect of a body part or organ.
3. expression (1). was obtained from a flow of debris. The facies was a potentially significant source, but sediments are unlikely to be a major petroleum source.
The Eocene: There are Paleogenic deposits in a big part of Azerbaijan, including the south-eastern Caucasus where deposits in Koun rocks are divided into Lower, Middle and Upper Eocene. The thickness of the Eocene deposits in the Shamakhy-Gobustan and the Pre-Caspian Guba regions is up to 1,500 metres, with a rise towards the south-east. In the Absheron peninsula, it is over 1,700 metres. In terms of TOC content and generative potential, the Eocene is the poorest complex in the sedimentary pile.
The Lower Eocene (LE) consists of light-gray/white marls and clays with inter-layers of sandstones, siltstones and bentonites. The ME is built up from dark-brown clays, bituminiferous marls and slates with sandstone inter-layers. The UE consists of greenish marlaceous clays with silicon sandstone inter-layers, foraminifers, shales of ostracordes. In the Koun series, the claystones of the brown (LE) and green (ME) depositions are characterised by inertinitic and woody organic matter. UE, ME and LE depositions are poor source rocks for oil as in the case of the ME black clay-stones of dark bituminous bi·tu·mi·nous
1. Like or containing bitumen.
2. Of or relating to bituminous coal.
Adj. 1. bituminous - resembling or containing bitumen; "bituminous coal" lithology li·thol·o·gy
1. The gross physical character of a rock or rock formation.
2. The microscopic study, description, and classification of rock. recorded in that region.
The Oligocene & Lower Miocene: The early stages of the Oligocene marked a turning point in the tectonic development of the Caucasus. Many troughs ceased to exist in the Greater and Lesser Caucasus. Elevation in their boundaries intensified sharply. Conversely, in the Kura depression there was a sharp strengthening of submersions. The explored parts of the Shamakhy-Gobustan Basin and the nearby Absheron peninsula in the Lower Oligocene (LO) were surrounded by relatively low land. The south-eastern end of Caucasus island, bordering from the north, had low relief and was marked by a low elevation. As a result, clays were deposited in the basin and inter-layers of sands were rare. The depth of the sea at that period was about 200 metres. Some extension of the area occurred from the beginning of the MO. This and the north of the Shamakhy-Gobustan trough were occupied by sea.
The Oligocene/Lower Miocene, or Maykop series, is found in the south-eastern Caucasus and in the inter-fluve of the Kura and Iori rivers. It is lithologically li·thol·o·gy
1. The gross physical character of a rock or rock formation.
2. The microscopic study, description, and classification of rock. represented by brownish-gray clays with jarosite tarnish tarnish,
n 1. surface discoloration or loss of luster by metals. Under oral conditions, it often results from hard and soft deposits.
2. a chemical process by which a metal surface is discolored or its luster destroyed. and inter-layers of gray, fine-grained sandstones, and by marlaceous and sideritic concretions. Most Maykopian outcrops are tied with phenomena of diapirism, which have caused the deposits to be in the surface or down along the kernels of numerous diapiric folds.
In Southern Gobustan and the Pre-Caspian region, the commercial flows of oil and gas of the Umbaki and Siazan monoclines are related to the Maykop, with thickness of up to 1,800 metres. The thickness of the Maykop in the Shamakhy-Gobustan trough is less than that in the basic part of the Kura depression, and its axial zone is slightly thicker than 1,500 metres. The Maykop series, by lithological composition, consists of dark-gray and chocolate-laminated shaly clays with numerous imprints of fish, scales of melletas and residues of stems of fossilised Cedroxylon trees. Numerous amphisyles were found in inter-layers of fish clays, exposed in ravines on the right bank of the Sumgait-Chay river. The flatness of stratification marks out the high content of jarozite. The Maykop deposits' cover is well separated by dark clays with many imprints of spririalis. Peculiar in some sections is the richness of fauna of vertebrates and a skeleton of Archalocety was found there.
There are good source rocks in the Early, Middle and Upper Maykop (UM). They are best developed and most abundant in the UM, mainly in the east towards the Caspian Sea where they are the richest and most oil-prone. Offshore, these sediments are likely to be richer and more uniform. Onshore, there are big variations both vertically and laterally, recording short- and long-term differences in the environment of deposition. The Upper and Middle Maykop have the same geochemical composition.
The Middle-Upper Miocene: The Middle Miocene of Helvetian and Tortonian stages can be traced in the Gobustan and Pre-Caspian Guba and in the inter-fluve of the Kura and Iori, where the Tortonian is spread to the Absheron region. Tortonian deposits are clays with marls, quartz sands and sandstones. The sands and sandstones in the Pre-Caspian Guba and Gobustan regions and, to some extent, on the Absheron peninsula, are abundant in gas and oil. The thickness of these deposits is up to 8,000 metres.
The Upper Miocene (UM) of the Sarmatian and Meotis stages is widely developed in the south-eastern subsidence of the Greater Caucasus and in the inter-fluve of Kura and Iori. The deposits are clays, brecciated dolomites, organogenous limetones, with inter-lays of conglomerates. There are Sarmatian limestones among the solid outbursts from the Akhtarma-Pashaly mud volcano. The Sarmatian sandstones and sands in the inter-fluve of Kura and Iori are stained with oil.
There are weakly petroliferous Petroliferous is a word used to describe a rock or geologic formation containing or yielding petroleum.
See Bituminous rocks Sarmatian sands and sandstones in the Pre-Caspian Guba, Absheron and Shamakhy-Gobustan regions. The thickness of the UM deposits ranges from 1,200 to 2,000 metres in the south-eastern Caucasus and from 2,200 to 2,300 metres in the inter-fluve of Kura and Iori. There are Diatom diatom (dī`ətŏm', -tōm'), unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies. sections consisting mainly of UM sediments and containing an amount of Middle Miocene sediments. They are common in the west of the Absheron peninsula and in Gobustan. Their thickest part is 220 metres and is in the south-west of Gobustan.
The shallow Karagan basin was separated from the Mediterranean Sea. During the Kounian age, but for a short period, it communicated with the ocean. As a result, its salinity increased and the oceanic forms of duraminifers crossed into the Karagan basin. During the latter part of the Sarmatian period, the basin became shallow and fresh-water fauna appeared. A considerable regression occurred at the end of the Sarmatian and throughout the Meotisian. The sea was only preserved in the Shamakhy-Gobustan trough, where maximum depth was 500 metres.
Most of the clay-stones from the Diatom series are poor source facies for gas. But in the same section, there are several intervals of good source rocks for oil, with each interval being a few metres thick. On biomarkers, the Diatom series cannot be distinguished from the Upper Maykop, but its carbon isotope composition is distinctively different.
Middle Pliocene - PS - has the main oil reserves in Azerbaijan. It is well spread by alternation of sandy-argillaceous rocks in the oil and gas bearing regions of Shamakhy-Gobustan, Pre-Caspian Guba, Absheron and Pre-Kura, as well as in the Caspian Sea. The conglomerates and coarse-grained sandstones predominate in the section of the Pre-Caspian Guba region and in the inter-fluve of Kura and Iori. The most abundant oil and gas pools of Eastern Azerbaijan are related with the Middle Pliocene sandy-silty deposits. Thickness is up to 3,500 metres.
The PS is a poor quality source rock with kerogen kerogen
or kerogen shales or kerogenites
Complex mixture of compounds with large molecules containing mainly hydrogen and carbon but also oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. Kerogen is a precursor of petroleum and the organic component of oil shales. types II/III, consisting of inertinite, algal algal
pertaining to or caused by algae.
is very rare but systemic and udder infections are recorded. See protothecosis.
the algae Prototheca trispora and P. , herbaceous her·ba·ceous
1. Relating to or characteristic of an herb as distinguished from a woody plant.
2. Green and leaflike in appearance or texture. and woody material. The TOC content in the PS is quite low, indicating these sediments are generally immature. The PS's organic matter was accumulated in deltaic and near-shore/marine environments. The oil accumulations in the PS may be partly syn-genetic, with the bulk of the oil generated in the Diatomaceous diatomaceous /di·a·to·ma·ceous/ (di?ah-to-ma´shus) composed of diatoms; said of earth composed of the siliceous skeletons of diatoms. series and then migrated upwards.
Geochemical coincidence of oils and organic matter in the lower PS and Diatomaceous series leads to the supposition of complex paleogeographical conditions.