Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru.
A distinctive feature of the Peruvian Andes is the frequent presence of 'pongos', or water gaps, which are transverse To cross from side to side. openings in mountain ridges caused by tectonic tectonic /tec·ton·ic/ (tek-ton´ik) pertaining to construction. activity. In some instances, rivers cut through sufficiently high uplifted up·lift
tr.v. up·lift·ed, up·lift·ing, up·lifts
1. To raise; elevate.
2. To raise to a higher social, intellectual, or moral level or condition.
3. areas to create valleys of considerable amplitude amplitude (ăm`plĭtd'), in physics, maximum displacement from a zero value or rest position. . The highest concentration of pongos in Peru is in northern Amazonas Department For the former Department of Peru, see .
Amazonas is a department of Colombia in the south of the country. Its capital is Leticia. Its name comes from the Amazon River that drains much in the department and the rainforest that covers a large part of the department. (Fig. 1), an area that geologists have aptly named the 'Pongos Basin' (Cobbing et al. 1981). The basin consists of a system of mesic mes·ic
Of, characterized by, or adapted to a moderately moist habitat.
Relating or adapted to a moderately moist habitat. valleys separated by relatively low ridgelines; the valleys are drained by north-south and south-north flowing rivers that enter the Maranon River as it flows toward the northeast. The basin is continuously bathed by humidity from the Amazon, and the dominant vegetation is humid hu·mid
Containing or characterized by a high amount of water or water vapor: humid air; a humid evening. See Synonyms at wet. lowland tropical forest. The valleys that form the adjacent upper Maranon drainage to the southwest, as well as the downstream middle Huallaga-Mayo Valley drainages to the east, are covered with dry forest. The Pongos Basin serves as a corridor for humid forest birds to cross the less restrictive narrows of the Maranon provided by the pongos. The area is occupied primarily by humid-forest species with affinities to Amazonian faunas rather than dry forest species.
This region can be difficult to work in due to territoriality Territoriality
Behavior patterns in which an animal actively defends a space or some other resource. One major advantage of territoriality is that it gives the territory holder exclusive access to the defended resource, which is generally associated with by indigenous Jivaro-speaking people, represented by the Aguaruna and Huambisa Amerindians. More recently, periodic armed conflicts between Peru and Ecuador have also contributed to dangerous working conditions (Palmer 1997, Landmine Monitor 2005). Some ornithological or·ni·thol·o·gy
The branch of zoology that deals with the study of birds.
orni·tho·log work has occurred in the region despite the potential for adverse working conditions. Some of the most successful avian avian /avi·an/ (a´ve-an) of or pertaining to birds.
Of, relating to, or characteristic of birds. studies were conducted in tandem Adv. 1. in tandem - one behind the other; "ride tandem on a bicycle built for two"; "riding horses down the path in tandem"
tandem with anthropological studies (e.g., Berlin and O'Neill 1981, Berlin et al. 1981, Berlin and Berlin 1983, Boster et al. 1986).
Ornithological work in this region has primarily focused on single-species studies, including descriptions of new species (e.g., Lowery low·er·y also lour·y
Overcast; threatening. and O'Neill 1964) and breeding biology (e.g., Dauphine dau·phine
The wife of a dauphin.
[French, feminine of dauphin; see dauphin.] et al. 2007). Some general surveys were accomplished for threatened taxa (Davies et al. 1997), but comprehensive community-level studies are entirely lacking. Our objectives are to: (1) provide a comprehensive inventory of the region's avifauna a·vi·fau·na
The birds of a specific region or period.
[Latin avis, bird; see awi- in Indo-European roots + fauna. , (2) compare highland versus lowland avifaunas, and (3) provide natural history accounts for distributional records, threatened taxa, and migrants, based on museum specimen data.
Description of the Study Region.--The study area comprises the entire Pongos Basin. Sixteen pongos exist along the Rio Maranon between Pongo de Rentama (upstream from Pomara) and Pongo de Manseriche The Pongo de Manseriche is a gorge in northwest Peru. The Marañón River runs through this gorge before it reaches the Amazon Basin.
Manseriche means "the one who frightens". (a short distance downstream from the Maranon/Santiago confluence confluence /con·flu·ence/ (kon´floo-ins)
1. a running together; a meeting of streams.con´fluent
2. in embryology, the flowing of cells, a component process of gastrulation. ). To the west the basin is circumscribed circumscribed /cir·cum·scribed/ (serk´um-skribd) bounded or limited; confined to a limited space.
Bounded by a line; limited or confined. by distinct biogeographic bi·o·ge·og·ra·phy
The study of the geographic distribution of organisms.
bio·ge·og boundaries: Cordillera cor·dil·le·ra
An extensive chain of mountains or mountain ranges, especially the principal mountain system of a continent.
[Spanish, from cordilla, diminutive of cuerda, cord de Colan, a high (3,000+ m) mountain area to the southwest; Pongo de Rentama, which creates a rapid transition from the dry Tumbesian upper Maranon Valley to wet Amazonian forest; Cordillera del Condor, a high (2,200+ m) mountain area that forms a natural border with Ecuador for most of its extension; and Pongo Paute, which separates the Cordillera del Condor from the Ecuadorian Cordillera de Cutucu, divided by the Santiago River. The Cordillera Campanquiz, a relatively low (1,800 m) mountain chain, forms the eastern border of Amazonas Department and is bisected by the Maranon River at Pongo de Manseriche. The Campanquiz Range is less of a biogeographic barrier than the other ranges, but these mountains may act as a filter for certain lowland species (e.g., varzea specialists) entering the Pongos Basin.
The principal area studied comprises habitats to an upper elevation limit of 900 m, known as the humid tropical zone (Parker et al. 1982) with lowland terra See tera. firme forest coveting most of the study region. We also report on a small collection of bird specimens from the western slope of the Campanquiz Range as a basis for comparing the avifaunal a·vi·fau·na
The birds of a specific region or period.
[Latin avis, bird; see awi- in Indo-European roots + fauna. communities of the upper and lower humid tropical zones in this region.
History of Ornithological Fieldwork field·work
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.
2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.
3. .--This region was the focus of one of the earliest attempts of exploration and colonization colonization, extension of political and economic control over an area by a state whose nationals have occupied the area and usually possess organizational or technological superiority over the native population. in Peru (Ulloa and Ulloa 1806), but our study area remained neglected by scientific explorers until ~80 years ago, mainly due to conflicts with native Amerindians. The first expedition into the area was led by Harry Watkins, who collected for the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH AMNH American Museum of Natural History (New York City, NY) ) at Pomara during 1923 to 1924. Another relatively small collection was amassed by Jose Schunke during 1928 to 1930 near the mouths of the Cenepa and Santiago rivers (now part of AMNH's Bassler Collection).
A new impetus for collecting in the area was provided in the early 1960s by the discovery of the Orange-throated Tanager tanager (tăn`əjər), any of the small, migratory perching birds of the family Thraupidae, chiefly of the tropical New World. Only five species migrate to North America; of these the scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron) among a small collection of bird skins prepared by Aguaruna Amerindians and given to missionary Mildred Larsen (Lowery and O'Neill 1964). In 1964, missionaries Jeanne Grover and Martha Jakway invited JPO JPO Joint Program Office
JPO Japanese Patent Office
JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics
JPO Journal of Physical Oceanography
JPO Juvenile Probation Officer
JPO Jump If Parity Odd
JPO Joint Pipeline Office
JPO Joint Planning Office and John Farrand Jr. on an expedition to accompany them to find Wetmorethraupis in nature. That effort led JPO to undertake additional expeditions there, along with Louisiana State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System. Museum of Zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man. (LSUMZ) staff and graduate students in 1968, 1973 to 1974; and 1977 to 1980. Peter Hocking Hocking may refer to:
FMNH Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki, Finland)
FMNH Florida Museum of Natural History (Gainesville, Florida) ), explored the Santiago Basin during 1965 to 1966, and again during 1972 to 1974. The Museum of Vertebrate vertebrate, any animal having a backbone or spinal column. Verbrates can be traced back to the Silurian period. In the adults of nearly all forms the backbone consists of a series of vertebrae. All vertebrates belong to the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata. Zoology, University of California-Berkeley (MVZ MVZ Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (University of California, Berkeley)
MVZ Main Vertical Zone
MVZ Medico Veterinario Zoothanista (Mexico veterinary medicine degree) ) led an expedition near Nazareth in 1970, and a joint LSUMZ and MVZ expedition in which MSF MSF Manufacturing, Science, and Finance (Union) participated visited the Huampami area in 1977. The first all-Peruvian expedition, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima (MUSM) collected at Falsa Paquisha in 1987, exploring the area around a newly established military base in the remote upper Cenepa Basin.
Data Compilation.--Available data (locality 1. locality - In sequential architectures programs tend to access data that has been accessed recently (temporal locality) or that is at an address near recently referenced data (spatial locality). This is the basis for the speed-up obtained with a cache memory.
2. , dates, and gender in most cases) for all specimens from the localities in the Gazetteer gazetteer (găz'ĭtēr`), dictionary or encyclopedia listing alphabetically the names of places, political divisions, and physical features of the earth and giving some information about each. (Fig. 1) were obtained from the respective museums in which the specimens were housed; the data were tabularized and condensed con·dense
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.
2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.
a. to an applicable format. Questions that arose regarding identification or data were resolved through direct examination of specimens, generally by at least one of the authors. Specimens housed at LSUMZ were partly examined by JPO, TM, and DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) See mobile TV. . Specimens at MVZ were examined by MSE MSE Mouse (computer)
MSE Materials Science & Engineering
MSE Mean Squared Error
MSE Mean Square Error
MSE Master of Science in Engineering
MSE Manufacturing Systems Engineering
MSE Mechanically Stabilized Earth Specimens at MUSM were partly examined by IF, JPO, and TM. Specimens at AMNH and FMNH were partly examined by TM. Specimens at Houston Museum of Natural Science The Houston Museum of Natural Science is a science museum located on the northern border of Hermann Park in Houston, Texas, USA. The museum was established in 1909 by the Houston Museum and Scientific Society (HMNS HMNS Houston Museum of Natural Science ) were examined by DMB, ND, and TM. For consistency we follow taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.
In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order, of Gill and Wright (2006) despite some accepted changes since that publication.
Species Accounts.--We obtained known elevational ranges of the Pongos Basin species from Hilty and Brown (1986), Fjeldsa and Krabbe (1990), Stotz et al. (1996), and Schulenberg et al. (2007) and compared them to elevations at collecting sites. Basic biological information (e.g., mass, breeding condition, etc.) was available for some of the specimens. However, because of its magnitude, lack of uniformity among collectors, and absence from some of the museums' electronic data bases, we report biological information only for species of special interest. Accounts are provided for distributional records of selected taxa, as well as species of conservation concern (designated by Birdlife International BirdLife International (formerly known as the International Council for Bird Preservation) is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. 2006) as information about vulnerable species may contribute to their protection. We also provide information on both Nearctic and Austral aus·tral
Of, relating to, or coming from the south.
[Latin austrlis, from auster, austr-, south. migrant mi·grant
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.
2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.
Migratory. species as designated by Chesser (1994), Stotz et al. (1996), and Ridgely and Greenfield Greenfield, town (1990 pop. 18,666), seat of Franklin co., NW Mass., at the confluence of the Deerfield and Green rivers, near their junction with the Connecticut; settled 1686, set off from Deerfield and inc. 1753. (2001). Many migrant species are well known in breeding areas but information on their winter distributions and biology is limited. Parametric biological data for species accounts were obtained from data bases or gleaned directly from specimen data tags by TM. We use the term "ossified os·si·fy
v. os·si·fied, os·si·fy·ing, os·si·fies
1. To change into bone; become bony.
2. " to refer to the condition of the skull as an indication of age because of its pervasiveness in the literature and on museum specimen labels.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Localities.--We considered specimens from 66 sampling sites with coordinates and seven additional generic localities for a total of 73 sites (Fig. 1). The sampling sites with coordinates were combined into 36 groups based upon close geographic proximity (Fig. 1). Generic localities, such as a river or basin, lacked any reference to the exact location.
Species Richness This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details. .--Four hundred and thirty-eight species in 52 families are presented (Appendix) from the ~4,000 specimens from the humid tropical zone region, most of which are housed at LSUMZ. Additionally, there were 36 specimens (25 species in 14 families) from the humid upper tropical zone region (Campanquiz; 1,148 m). An additional nine specimens could not be identified to species level, and were excluded from analyses.
In contrast, Berlin et al. (1981) found ~160 species during an ethno-zoological coding study, although they suggested the region could harbor as many as 500 species. Ted Parker found 210 predominantly Amazonian bird species during only a few days of surveys (27 Jul to 1 Aug 1993) at nearby Miazi, Ecuador in the Cordillera del Condor at the upper limit of the humid tropical zone (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). The present review, in which we report two to three times as many species as other nearby studies, reflects field work covering more seasons and sites.
The Campanquiz Highlands.--Thirty-six specimens representing 21 species were collected during 25-26 July 1964 and 17-20 November 1979 from the Campanquiz Range. All but one species were collected along the ridge; two female Nothocrax were collected at 350 m (Appendix). It is possible these two curassows were collected en-route to or from the higher site. Only three species present at the higher elevation were absent from the lower regions: Russet Antshrike The Russet Antshrike, Thamnistes anabatinus, is a passerine bird in the antbird family. It is the only member of the genus Thamnistes.
It is a resident breeder in the tropical New World from southern Mexico to northern Bolivia. (Thamnistes anabatinus), Grey-breasted Wood Wren wren, small, plump perching songbird of the family Troglodytidae. There are about 60 wren species, and all except one are restricted to the New World. The plumage is usually brown or reddish above and white, gray, or buff, often streaked, below. (Henicorhina leucophrys), and Golden Tanager (Tangara arthus) (Appendix). Swainson's Thrush Swainson's thrush
See olive-backed thrush.
[After William Swainson (1789-1855), British naturalist.] (Catharus ustulatus; LSUMZ 93066, 17 Nov 1979) is the only migrant species collected from the Campanquiz Range.
Only a few days of collection at the Campanquiz highland site yielded 21 species, but only three species were unique to this higher elevation site. Tom Schulenberg and Walter Wust recorded 208 species during 3 weeks (14 Jul to 7 Aug 1994) of bird surveys at higher elevations (1,100-2,100 m) along the Peruvian side of the Cordillera del Condor (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Forty-four of these 208 species were found exclusively at upper elevations, and were not recorded at lower elevations surveyed by Ted Parker in Ecuador (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Their 44 species versus our much lower number of three species is likely the result of differences in elevation of the sites (and associated habitats) surveyed.
Elevation Records.--We report 20 new low elevation records and eight new high elevation records (Table 1). Many changes in elevational range were significant. Species for which the lower elevation limit decreased by at least 600 m include White-throated Quail-Dove (Geotrygon frenata) and Slaty Antwren The Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor, is a small passerine bird in the antbird family. It is a resident breeder in tropical Central and South America from southern Mexico to western Ecuador and eastern Peru. (Myrmotherula schisticolor). The upper elevation limit of eight species increased and seven of these records (87.5%) were based on specimens collected at the Campanquiz (1,148 m) site.
Of the 25 species collected at Campanquiz, 33% represented upper elevation records. This emphasizes the importance of including samples from this area to enhance understanding the role of elevation in affecting avifaunal community structure in this region. The Campanquiz Range is extremely isolated in a relatively homogeneous landscape of lowlands, and many individuals from lower elevations may regularly pass over the ridge (which is as low as 385-421 m in some areas), going east or west, or through the Pongo de Manseriche. The small amount of cloud forest cloud forest
A tropical forest, often near peaks of coastal mountains, that usually has constant cloud cover throughout the year.
cloud forest at the top of the ridge would not likely present a barrier to lowland species and would not likely attract many upper zone tropical species.
Distribution Records.--We report important distributional records for four species at the levels of region (i.e., Amazonia), country or Department. Catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C. numbers provided in each account represent specimens containing data. These records support the need for additional exploration of little known areas and suggest additional species are likely to be recorded from Peru.
Pied-billed Grebe grebe (grēb), common name for swimming birds found on or near quiet waters in most parts of the world. Grebes resemble the loon and the duck; they have short wings, vestigial tails, and long, individually webbed toes on feet that are set far back (Podilymbus podiceps). This specimen is of the resident subspecies subspecies, also called race, a genetically distinct geographical subunit of a species. See also classification. P. p. antarcticus (S. Cardiff in litt.) and appears to be the only record for the central (Restall et al. 2007) or western (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007) Amazon Basin “Amazonian” redirects here. For other uses, see Amazonian (disambiguation).
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. . This also represents the first record for Amazonas Department. This specimen (LSUMZ 98965), a male (testes testes
Male reproductive organs (see reproductive system). Humans have two oval-shaped testes 1.5–2 in. (4–5 cm) long that produce sperm and androgens (mainly testosterone), contained in a sac (scrotum) behind the penis. = 7 X 4 mm), may be a vagrant VAGRANT. Generally by the word vagrant is understood a person who lives idly without any settled home; but this definition is much enlarged by some statutes, and it includes those who refuse to work, or go about begging. See 1 Wils. R. 331; 5 East, R. 339: 8 T. R. 26. from the adjacent Andes (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and was collected on 7 February 1980 at Caterpiza (200 m).
Black-faced Hawk (Leucopternis melanops). The first specimen for Peru was a female (AMNH 255077) collected on 28 November 1925 at Boca Curaray, Loreto Department. Two specimens included in our study represent the second and third specimens for the country, and the first two specimens for Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). Two adult (skulls 100% ossified) females (ovary ovary, ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual = 1 mm in one, smooth in the other; MVZ 165098, LSUMZ 84289) were collected on 3 and 6 August 1977. The stomach of one contained a snake; Orthopterans and other insects were found in the other stomach. These specimens had masses of 310 and 345 g with no fat, and both were collected at Huampami (210 m).
Rufous Potoo The Rufous Potoo (Nyctibius bracteatus) is a species of bird in the Nyctibiidae family. It is found in Ecuador, (the northeast, about 25 % of the country), and Peru in the largest population, and the other large disjunct population 1600 km southwest at the Peru and (Nyctibius bracteatus). The first specimen for Peru (AMNH 231045) was collected in 1937 at Apayacu, Loreto Department (Alvarez-Alonso and Whitney 2003). A specimen included in our study represents the second specimen for the country and the first specimen for Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). The adult (skull ossified) male (testes = 5 X 2.5 mm; LSUMZ 87299) had a mass of 48 g with little fat, and had insect remains in its stomach including beetle beetle, common name for insects of the order Coleoptera, which, with more than 300,000 described species, is the largest of the insect orders. Beetles have chewing mouthparts and well-developed antennae. parts; it was collected on 5 August 1978 at Huampami (213 m).
White-lored Antpitta (Hylopezus fulviventris). This specimen represents the first specimen for Peru and Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). The single adult (skull ossified) male (testes = ~6 x 2.5 mm; LSUMZ 88072) had a mass of 54 g with little fat, and was collected on 10 July 1978 at Huampami (230 m).
Threatened Species.--Two Vulnerable (Birdlife International 2006) species were recorded.
Spot-winged Parrotlet (Touit stictopterus). Status: Vulnerable. This species was represented by a single female (AMNH 185573) collected on 15 July 1924 near Pomara (400 m). The single specimen was collected more than 80 years ago, well before rampant pet bird trade diminished parrot parrot, common name for members of the order Psittaciformes, comprising 315 species of colorful birds, pantropical in distribution, including the parakeet. Parrots have large heads and short necks, strong feet with two toes in front and two in back (facilitating populations throughout the Neotropics (cf. Brooks et al. 2005). These small parakeets parakeets
one of the bird groups known as typical parrots in the family Psittacidae. Small parrots with long tails and include the budgerigar. seem to prefer forest ridges (1,000-2,000 m) with poor soil and stunted stunt 1
tr.v. stunt·ed, stunt·ing, stunts
To check the growth or development of.
1. One that stunts.
2. One that is stunted.
3. vegetation, a habitat that is more common to the west in Cajamarca Department. They can be fairly common in the proper habitat, although they are mainly seen in fast flying pairs or small groups, and are difficult to collect (JPO, unpubl, data).
Orange-throated Tanager (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron). Status: Vulnerable. The vast majority of the 54 specimens (LSUMZ 31457, 32891-32898, 34387-34422, 35352-35353, 42901, 48982-48983, 85547, 88971-88973; MVZ 165361) were prepared without data by Aguaruna Indians, as was the holotype (Lowery and O'Neill 1964). Of those identified to gender, five were males (Apr: testes = 12 x 7; Jul: 3 x 2; Aug: 2 X 1, 11 X 6 to 7; and Sep: 8 X 10 mm) and four were females (Apr: ovary = 11 ram, largest ovum 2.5 mm, brood brood
offspring or pertaining to offspring.
a mare dedicated to the production of foals. patch; Jul: 4 X 2; and Aug-Sep: 8 x 5 [n = 2]). Specimens with enlarged cloacal cloacal
emanating from or pertaining to cloaca.
the contact which occurs during insemination in birds when the vent of the female is everted exposing the cloacal mucosa against which the phallus of the male is pressed. protuberances in April, August, and September suggest a prolonged breeding season Breeding season is the most suitable season usually with favorable conditions and abundant food and water when wild animals and birds (wildlife) have naturally evolved to breed to achieve the best reproductive success. . Specimens were collected during April (n = 3), May (n = 4), July (n = 32), August (n = 10), and September (n = 5). All were collected in 1964 except for one in 1963, two in 1977, and three in 1978. Two stomachs contained "fruit" in April; one also contained seeds, pulp, and a beetle. Two females had a mass of 54 and 55 g in September and July, respectively, and a single male had a mass of 56 g in July. Six specimens were collected at Tutinum (250 m); four at Kustl on Rio Maranon (300 m); three each were from Chicais (350 m) and Nazareth (300 m); two each from Bashuim (400 m), Chiangkus (250 m), Comainas, Huampami (210 m), Quebrada Achunts (250 m), and 3.2 km west of Urakusa (250 m); and single specimens were from Chavez Valdivia (250 m), Chipi (300 m), Pagat (250 m), and Suwa (250 m). This species is probably common where it occurs (O'Neill 1969; ND, unpubl. data), but has a small geographic range threatened by habitat destruction Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. In the process of land-use change, plants and animals which previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. . This bright tanager is restricted in its distribution to hills and low mountains at ~600 m, but it is not uncommon where the habitat is minimally impacted. It is almost entirely restricted to areas inhabited by indigenous Aguaruna and, thus, not easily encountered by people who are not native to the area (JPO, unpubl, data).
Migrants.--We report 14 species of Nearctic migrants and a single probable Nearctic migrant, one species with subspecies of both Nearctic and Austral migrants, and five species each for Austral migrants and probable Austral migrants. Catalog numbers of specimens in each account represent those containing data.
Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). Status: Nearctic migrant. Three female (ovary = 16 X 4, 17 X 7 [not enlarged], and 18 x 6 mm) specimens (LSUMZ 91602-91604) were collected on 14 November 1979 at La Poza (180 m). All three had little fat and were adults (skulls 100% ossified).
Swallow-tailed Kite kite, in aviation and recreation
kite, in aviation, aircraft restrained by a towline and deriving its lift from the aerodynamic action of the wind flowing across it. (Elanoides forficatus). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species could be a resident or a Nearctic or Austral migrant in Peru, although it is likely the latter given the date (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). A single male specimen (AMNH 185548) was collected on 17 July 1924 near Pomara (400 m).
Plumbeous Kite The Plumbeous Kite, Ictinia plumbea, is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes the eagles, hawks and Old World vultures.
The Plumbeous Kite breeds in the tropical New World, from eastern Mexico through Central America to Peru, Bolivia and (Ictinia plumbea). Status: probable Austral migrant. Three specimens (LSUMZ 84284, 87141, 91606) were collected on 15 August 1977, an unknown date in 1978, and 7 August 1979, respectively. Collecting localities were Caterpiza (200 m) and two sites along the Rio Comainas.
Purple Gallinule gallinule: see rail.
Any of several species of marsh birds (family Rallidae) found in temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions worldwide. Gallinules are about 12–18 in. (Porphyrio martinicus). Status: probable Nearctic migrant. This species is both resident and migratory migratory /mi·gra·to·ry/ (mi´grah-tor?e)
1. roving or wandering.
2. of, pertaining to, or characterized by migration; undergoing periodic migration.
emanating from or pertaining to migration. in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. Eleven specimens included at least one male (LSUMZ 98977) and six females (AMNH 406833; LSUMZ 87170, 98975, 98978; MUSM 55715572, 5575). Testes of the male measured 7 X 4 mm on 9 February; ovaries Ovaries
The female sex organs that make eggs and female hormones.
Mentioned in: Choriocarcinoma
ovaries (ō´v of females measured 24 X 7 (4 Nov), 10 X 5 (29 Jan), 6 X 2 (4 Feb), 15 X 8 (9 Feb), and 6 x 3 mm (11 Feb). All specimens were collected during 4 November to 11 February; one each during 1930 and 1978, and six during the early 1980s. One female had a mass of 210 g in November. Single specimens were collected from 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m) and Rio Cenepa, and six were collected from Caterpiza (200 m).
American Golden Plover plover (plŭv`ər), common name for some members of the large family Charadriidae, shore birds, small to medium in size, found in ice-free lands all over the world. (Pluvialis dominica). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (ovary = 6 X 3 mm; LSUMZ 91633) was collected on 22 November 1979 at La Poza (180 m).
Spotted Sandpiper sandpiper, common name for some members of the large family Scolopacidae, small shore birds, including the snipe and the curlew. Sandpipers are wading birds with relatively long legs and long, slender bills for probing in the sand or mud for their prey—all (Actitis macularius). Status: Nearctic migrant. Eleven specimens include at least three males (LSUMZ 87194, 91637; FMNH 424578) and six females (LSUMZ 84321, 87192-87193, 8719587196; MUSM 11929). Testes were 1 mm for a young male (skull 20% ossified) on 2 November and 2 mm for an adult male (skull 100% ossified) on 23 October. Ovaries ranged from 7 X 3 to 4 mm for three young females (skulls 10 to 30% ossified) to 10 X 2 mm for a young female (skull 30% ossified) between 22 October and 2 November. Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries ranging from 6 x 2.5 to 9 x 4 mm on 15 August and 2 November, respectively. All 11 specimens were collected during 15 August to 8 December, although eight were collected between 22 October and 2 November. Six specimens were collected in 1986, two in 1987, and one each in 1965, 1977, and 1979. A young male had a mass of 26 g on 2 November, four young females ranged from 28.5 to 34 g between 22 October and 2 November, and two adult females ranged from 29 to 32 g on 15 August and 2 November, respectively. Two young females had light fat on 2 November, an unknown gender adult had abundant fat on 24 October, and an adult and a young female had no fat on 15 August and 22 October, respectively. Six specimens were collected 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m), two at Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and single specimens at Huampami (230 m), Caterpiza (200 m), and Puerto Galilea (245 m).
Black-billed Cuckoo cuckoo, common name for members of the extensive avian family Cuculidae, including the ani and the roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions. (Coccyzus erythropthalmus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single specimen (LSUMZ 87266) was collected in 1978 in the Rio Cenepa-Rio Comaina drainage.
Yellow-billed Cuckoo The Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, is a cuckoo.
Adults have a long tail, brown above and black-and-white below, and a black curved bill with yellow especially on the lower mandible. The head and upper parts are brown and the underparts are white. (Coccyzus americanus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (AMNH 406982) was collected on 17 November 1929 along the Rio Cenepa.
Dark-billed Cuckoo The Dark-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus melacoryphus) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family.
It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela. (Coccyzus melacoryphus). Status: Austral migrant. This species was represented by four specimens (HMNS 15481550; LSUMZ 87266), including a single female (ovary = 6 x 3 mm, ova minute) collected on 17 July 1978 at Huampami (213 m).
Grey Elaenia The Grey Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. (Myiopagis caniceps). Status: probable Austral migrant. A single male (testes = 2 X 4 mm; LSUMZ 64399) was collected on 17 July 1968, 4 km southwest of Chiriaco (500 m).
White-crested Elaenia The White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Peru, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Uruguay. (Elaenia albiceps). Status: Austral migrant. A single specimen (LSUMZ 85202) was collected on 11 August 1977 at Shaim (400 m).
Western Wood Pewee pewee: see flycatcher. (Contopus sordidulus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified; LSUMZ 88359) with a mass of 14.5 g and light fat was collected on 10 November 1978, 86 km northeast of Chiriaco (~320 m).
Eastern Wood Pewee The Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens, is a small Tyrant flycatcher. This bird and the Western Wood-Pewee were formerly considered to be a single species. The two species are virtually identical in appearance, and can be distinguished most easily by their calls. (Contopus virens). Status: Nearctic migrant. This species was represented by at least three males (LSUMZ 93841; MUSM 5560, 11972) and two females (LSUMZ 93842, 99203). Testes were 1 x 0.5 mm for a young male (skull 95% ossified) on 26 October, and 3 X 1 mm for an adult male (skull 100% ossified) on 28 October. Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries measuring 2 x 4 and 3 x 6 mm on 7 November and 5 February, respectively. Two specimens were collected on 26 and 28 October, a third on 7 November, and two on 5 February. Two specimens each were collected during 1979 and 1980, and one was collected in 1987. A young male had a mass of 9 g on 26 October, and another (unknown gender, no date) was 14.5 g. A young male had no fat on 26 October, an adult male had moderate fat on 28 October, and an unknown gender (no date) had light fat. Three specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and one each at La Poza (180 m), Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and 86 km northeast of Chiriaco (300 m).
Alder Flycatcher The Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum, is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family.
Adults have olive-brown upperparts, browner on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars, a small bill and a short (Empidonax alnorum). Status: Nearctic migrant. Eleven specimens included four males (LSUMZ 78745-78746, 88361, 93844) and seven females (LSUMZ 88360, 93843, 99197, 99199; MUSM 55405541, 5559). A male had 2 X 3 mm testes on 7 November, and three additional (undated un·dat·ed
1. Not marked with or showing a date: an undated letter; an undated portrait.
2. ) males had testes ranging from 1 x 1 to 3 X 1 mm (mean = 2 x 1 mm). Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries measuring 3 x 2 and 4 x 2 mm (not enlarged) on 2 and 7 November, respectively. Reproductive data for five unknown age females are: two females had ovaries measuring 1 x 1 and 6 X 3 mm on 5 and 27 December, respectively, and three females measured 7 x 2, 2 X 1, and 7 x 3 mm on 12 January, 6 February, and 27 February, respectively. Three specimens were collected during 2 to 7 November, two on 5 and 27 December, one on 12 January, and two on 6 and 27 February; extreme dates are apparently 2 November to 27 February. A single specimen was collected in 1978, two in 1979, and five in the early 1980s. An adult male had a mass of 12 g on 7 November, and three males (no date) ranged from 8.5 to 11 g (mean = 9.8 g); an adult female was 11 g on 2 November. Two adult females had moderate fat on 2 and 7 November. Five specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and two each 20 km southwest Chiriaco, 43 km northeast Chiriaco (320 m), and at La Poza (180 m).
Swainson's Flycatcher The Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela. (Myiarchus swainsoni). Status: Austral migrant. A single female (ovary = 4 x 3 mm; LSUMZ 34317) was collected on 16 August 1964 at Tutinum (250 m).
Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus). Status: Austral migrant. This species was represented by six specimens, including a male (AMNH 185874) and three females (LSUMZ 85064; MVZ 165310; MUSM 10288). All four specimens were of the migratory subspecies M. m. solitarius rather than the resident nominate nom·i·nate
tr.v. nom·i·nat·ed, nom·i·nat·ing, nom·i·nates
1. To propose by name as a candidate, especially for election.
2. To designate or appoint to an office, responsibility, or honor. subspecies. An adult (skull ossified) female with no fat had a granular granular /gran·u·lar/ (gran´u-lar) made up of or marked by presence of granules or grains.
1. Composed or appearing to be composed of granules or grains.
2. ovary on 17 July, and another female had a 13 x 7 mm ovary on 18 August; these birds had a mass ,of 36.5 and 40 g, respectively. All four birds were collected during 17 July to 18 August; two during 1977, and one each in 1924 and 1980. Single specimens were collected at Pomara (400 m), Huampami (210 m), Shaim (400 m), and Quebrada Achunts (250 m).
Crowned Slaty slat·y
adj. slat·i·er, slat·i·est
1. Composed of or resembling slate.
2. Having the color of slate.
Adj. 1. Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus). Status: Austral migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified) female (ovary = 6.5 X 2 ram; LSUMZ 85081) was collected on 29 August 1977. This specimen had a mass of 23 g with moderate fat; its stomach contained Hymenoptera insects, and was collected at Huampami (213 m).
Tropical Kingbird The Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) is a large tyrant flycatcher. This bird breeds from southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the USA through Central America, South America as far as south as central Argentina and western Peru, and on (Tyrannus melancholicus). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. This species was represented by four males (LSUMZ 34311, 48839, 64327, 78724) and three females (LSUMZ 85078, 88337; AMNH 185932). An adult male (skull 100% ossified) had testes measuring 1 X 2 mm on 18 December, and three additional unknown age males had testes measuring: 5.5 x 3 (n = 1) on 17 July, and 2 X 1 mm (n = 2) on 3 August. An adult female (skull 100% ossified) had a 6 x 1.5 mm ovary on 10 August, and an unknown age female had a 2 X 3 mm ovary on 18 August. Six birds were collected during 17 July to 18 August, and an additional specimen was collected on 18 December. Single birds were collected in 1924, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1978, and two birds were collected during 1964. A male had slight fat on 17 July, and an adult female had little fat and a mass of 39 g on 10 August; another female was 20 g on 18 August. Two specimens were collected at Urakusa (250 m), and single specimens were collected at Pomara (400 m), Huampami (213 m), Kusu (250 m), 20 km southwest Chiriaco (518 m), and 4 km southwest Chiriaco (500 m).
Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. This species was represented by 17 individuals, of which at least one was a male (LSUMZ 85256) and three were females (LSUMZ 99215; MUSM 11889; MVZ 161095). A female had a 6 X 2 mm ovary on 4 February, and a juvenile female (ova minute) with a mass of 18 g and no fat was collected in early September; another female (skull 95% ossified) was 14.5 g with abundant fat and was collected on 22 October. A male was collected on 11 August, and females in early September, 22 October, and 4 February; five unknown gender specimens were also collected on 2 February. One specimen was collected each in 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1987, and five during 1984. Six specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m) with single specimens at Shaim (400 m), Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and 19 km south-southwest of Nazareth (367 m).
Grey-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A young female (skull 75% ossified; LSUMZ 88638) with a 12 X 5 mm ovary and a mass of 31 g was collected on 3 November 1978, 43 km northeast Chiriaco (320 m). A second female (ovary = 5 X 3 mm) (LSUMZ 99235) was collected on 8 December 1979 at Caterpiza (200 m).
Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Status: Nearctic migrant. Forty specimens were represented by at least 15 males (including LSUMZ 88641-88643, 93063, 93066-93068, 99242; MUSM 4770-4771, 4800, 11946, 11966, 11977, 12001) and nine females (including LSUMZ 88639, 99244; MUSM 5499-5500, 5505, 5536, 5543, 5597, 5617). Testes ranged from 1 x 1 to 8 X 4 mm (mean = 2.6 X 1.5 mm, n = 15) for males collected during 19 October to 10 December, but 80% of the specimens had smaller testes (1 x 1 to 2 x 1.5mm, n = 12) and were the only age-known specimens (at least 2 sub-adults [skulls 75 to 80% ossified] and 4 adults [100% ossified]). Ovaries ranged from 4 X 1 to 7 x 3 mm (mean = 5.8 X 2.2 mm, n = 8) for females collected during 2 December to 7 February. All but one of the males (a Dec specimen) were collected 44 days earlier than the first female, perhaps to facilitate males establishing winter territories. Thirteen specimens were collected in the early 1980s, seven during 1979, five during 1987, and three during 1978. Mass of male specimens ranged from 21 to 31 g (mean = 25.8, n = 6) during 22 October to 8 November. Fat was recorded for five males between 19 and 22 October as none (n = 1), little or light (n = 3), or moderate (n = 1); an unknown gender individual had abundant fat on 25 October. Data on mass and fat were not provided for females. Twenty-four specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), five at Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), three 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m), two each at La Poza (180 m) and Cenepa/ Comainas Basin, and one at Campanquiz (1,148 m).
Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus). Status: Nearctic and Austral migrant. This species is often present in Peru throughout the year, as it is represented by subspecies that are Nearctic (V. o. olivaceus) and Austral (V. o. chivi) migrants (Schulenberg et al. 2007); both subspecies were present in the Pongos Basin. The Nearctic migrant (V. o. olivaceus) was represented by a single unknown gender individual (LSUMZ 99306) collected during February 1980 at Caterpiza (200 m). The Austral migrant (V. o. chivi) was represented by two adult (skulls 100% ossified) males (LSUMZ 89320; MVZ 165378) and one unknown gender younger (skull 80% ossified) individual (LSUMZ 93808). One adult male collected on 13 July had a mass of 11 g with moderate fat; the other adult male collected on 29 August was 15.3 g with light fat and testes measuring 1.5 x 1 mm. The young specimen collected on 4 October had moderate fat. One bird was collected each year from 1977 to 1979. Two stomachs contained insects. The two adults were collected at Huampami (213 m) and the young specimen was obtained at La Poza (180 m).
Yellow-green Vireo The Yellow-green Vireo, Vireo flavoviridis, is a small passerine bird. It breeds from the mountain ranges of western and eastern, north Mexico, (the Sierra Madre Occidentals and Sierra Madre Orientals), and southern Texas in the United States south to central Panama. (Vireo flavoviridis). Status: Nearctic migrant. Nineteen specimens were collected including at least four males (LSUMZ 93804, 94206; MUSM 5530, 6032), 11 females (MUSM 5524-5525, 5529, 60306032, 10050; LSUMZ 93805, 93809-93810, 99297), and four unknown gender individuals (MUSM 5526-5528, 5531). Testes were 3 X 1 mm for a male collected on 25 January. Ovaries ranged from 1 x 1 to 7 X 3 mm (mean = 4.4 X 1.8 mm, n = 11) for females collected during 26 October to 8 February. Specimens (n = 19) were collected between 24 October and 8 February with four individuals (all unknown gender) collected on 2 February. Thirteen specimens were collected during the early 1980s and six during 1979. Adults (skulls 100% ossified), including a male and two females with little fat were collected on 24 October, 27 October, and 14 November, respectively, and the adult male contained Melastome fruit in his stomach. Sixteen specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and two at La Poza (180 m).
Canada Warbler warbler, name applied in the New World to members of the wood warbler family (Parulidae) and in the Old World to a large family (Sylviidae) of small, drab, active songsters, including the hedge sparrow, the kinglet, and the tailorbird of SE Asia, (Wilsonia canadensis). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (ovary = 7 X 3 mm, LSUMZ 79030) and male (testes = 2 x 1 mm, LSUMZ 79031) were collected on 16 and 19 July 1974 with mass of 9 and 10 g, respectively, 20 km southwest Chiriaco at elevations of 457 and 518 m, respectively. A third unknown gender specimen with no data (LSUMZ 89215) was collected in 1974 in the Rio Cenepa-Rio Comaina drainage.
Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea). Status: Nearctic migrant. This species was represented by at least three males (two with data = LSUMZ 93322, 99271) and two females (LSUMZ 99269-99270). Males had testes measuring 3 X 1 and 6 X 3 mm on 5 November 1979 and 26 February 1980, respectively. Females were collected on 15 January 1980 and 11 February 1980; the ovary of the latter specimen measured 1 x 1 mm. All specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m).
Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified) female (ovary = 5 x 2 mm, not enlarged; LSUMZ 93321) was collected on 3 November 1979 with little fat at La Poza (180 m).
The Pongos Basin supports a rich avifauna and a high diversity of other taxa. Its fauna fauna
All the species of animals found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Five faunal realms, based on terrestrial animal species, are generally recognized: Holarctic, including Nearactic (North America) and Paleartic (Eurasia and northern Africa); and flora include both threatened species and species with limited geographic distributions, all of which are vulnerable to uncontrolled development (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). The presence of indigenous Aguaruna inhabiting the region has restricted development by people from outside their community, which translates directly to habitat protection for this region. Logging and other forest uses that may threaten bird conservation appear to occur at relatively low levels (Dauphine et al. 2008). Cracids are some of the best bio-indicators to measure sustainable harvest levels (Brooks 2006), and are often the first species to disappear due to overhunting (Brooks 1999). Six species of cracids present in the region are preferred food (Berlin and Berlin 1983) and their presence suggests the fauna in the region is not overharvested. The native inhabitants
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame. generally use their faunal fau·na
n. pl. fau·nas or fau·nae
1. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group.
2. resources in a sustainable fashion Sustainable fashion is fashion that is designed to be environmentally friendly. It is part of the larger trend of "ethical fashion," and according to the May 2007 Vogue appears not to be a short-term trend but one could last multiple seasons. (Dauphine et al. 2008). Human-generated habitat disturbance in the region is not significant as roads, trails, and timber removal is minimal.
The governments of Peru and Ecuador established a transboundary protected area
Protected areas in 1998 to promote political stability in the region and to protect its contained biodiversity biodiversity: see biological diversity.
Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment. Sometimes habitat diversity (the variety of places where organisms live) and genetic diversity (the variety of traits expressed (Ponce and Ghersi 2003). In addition, the Peruvian government established (1999), and then expanded (2000), the Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone (IUCN IUCN
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. 2007). This region presently includes the Pongos Basin and the Comaina and Cenepa river The Cenepa River rises in the Condor mountain range in Peru, South America and has a length of 185 km. It borders to the North on Ecuador, to the East on the districts of Río Santiago and Nieva, on the South with the district of Imaza, and on the West with Ecuador. drainages. Habitat conservation To conserve habitat life for wild species and prevent their extinction or reduction in range is a priority of a great many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology. through creation of reserves with appropriate infrastructure is an important step for preservation of minimally impacted areas such as the Pongos Basin. However, population densities of the indigenous people continue to increase, as does their participation in the market economy, both of which will likely lead to a significant increase in the pressure for development of the area. Despite the existence of reserves, commercial logging and mining, as well as clearing for subsistence agriculture Subsistence agriculture (also known as self sufficiency in terms of agriculture) is a method of farming in which farmers plan to grow only enough food to feed the family farming, pay taxes or feudal dues, and perhaps provide a small marketable surplus. are sure to increase with resulting habitat loss and degradation, and increased hunting eventually threatening populations of birds and other organisms.
Parks and other protected areas with appropriate infrastructure and long-term support, as well as sustainable development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union projects that will provide direct economic benefit to the local people should help ensure the diverse communities of the region continue to thrive. Area conservation would benefit from further research and the assignment of reserve personnel, both of which appear to be currently lacking. Conservation education and outreach is urgently needed, primarily in colonist communities, where many people do not appear to be aware of the existence of protected areas or protected species in the region (ND, pers. obs.). Formal participation by Aguaruna and Huambisa residents in reserve protection and management should help ensure their success as protected areas.
APPENDIX. Avian inventory for the Pongos Basin lowlands and Cordillera Campanquiz Highlands, Amazonas Department, Peru. English name Family/Scientific name Tinamous Tinamidae Grey Tinamou Tinamus too Great Tinamou T. major White-throated Tinamou T. guttatus Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus Little Tinamou C. soui Variegated Tinamou C. variegatus Bartlett's Tinamou C. bartletti Grebes Podicipedidae Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps Herons Ardeidae Striated Heron Butorides striata Rufescent Tiger Heron Tigrisoma lineatum Ducks/Geese/Swans Anatidae Blue-winged Teal Anas discors Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus Kites/Hawks/Eagles Accipitridae Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor Black-faced Hawk Leucopternis melanops White Hawk L. albicollis Great Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus Black Hawk-Eagle S. tyrannus Caracaras/Falcons Falconidae Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans Barred Forest Falcon Micrastur ruficollis Slaty-backed Forest Falcon M. mirandollei Collared Forest Falcon M. semitorquatus Buckley's Forest Falcon M. buckleyi Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis Orange-breasted Falcon F. deiroleucus Chachalacas/Curassows/Guans Cracidae Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata Spix's Guan Penelope jacquacu Common Piping Guan Pipile pipile Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudotii Nocturnal Curassow Nothocrax urumutum Salvin's Curassow Mitu salvini New World Quail Odontophoridae Starred Wood Quail Odontophorus stellatus Hoatzin Opisthocomidae Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin Limpkin Aramidae Limpkin Aramus guarauna Rails/Crakes/Coots Rallidae Chestnut-headed Crake Anurolimnas castaneiceps Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius Grey-breasted Crake L. exilis Grey-necked Wood Rail Aramides cajanea Red-winged Wood Rail A. calopterus Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinicus Finfoots Heliornithidae Sungrebe Heliornis fulica Sunbittern Eurypygidae Sunbittern Eurypyga helias Plovers Charadriidae American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica Sandpipers/Snipes Scolopacidae Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius Pigeons/Doves Columbidae Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis Plumbeous Pigeon P. plumbea Ruddy Pigeon P. subvinacea Blue Ground Dove Claravis pretiosa White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi Grey-fronted Dove L. rufaxilla Sapphire Quail-Dove Geotrygon saphirina White-throated Quail-Dove G. frenata Ruddy Quail-Dove G. montana Cockatoos/Parrots Psittacidae Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severus White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalma Dusky-headed Parakeet A. weddellii Painted Parakeet Pyrrhura picta Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet Touit huetii Spot-winged Parrotlet T. stictopterus Orange-cheeked Parrot Pionopsitta barrabandi Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus Red-billed Parrot P. sordidus Yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala Orange-winged Amazon A. amazonica Mealy Amazon A. farinosa Cuckoos Cuculidae Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus Yellow-billed Cuckoo C. americanus Dark-billed Cuckoo C. melacoryphus Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana Black-bellied Cuckoo P. melanogaster Greater Ani Crotophaga major Smooth-billed Ani C. ani Owls Strigidae Tropical Screech Owl Megascops choliba Tawny-bellied Screech Owl M. watsonii Mottled Owl Strix virgata Black-banded Owl S. huhula Crested Owl Lophostrix cristata Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata Ferruginous Pygmy Owl Glaucidium brasilianum Oilbird Steatornithidae Oilbird Steatornis caripensis Potoos Nyctibiidae Great Potoo Nyctibius grandis Long-tailed Potoo N. aethereus Common Potoo N. griseus Rufous Potoo N. bracteatus Nightjars Caprimulgidae Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Blackish Nightjar Caprimulgus nigrescens Swifts Apodidae Grey-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris Hummingbirds Trochilidae White-tipped Sicklebill Eutoxeres aquila Buff-tailed Sicklebill E. condamini Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes niger Green Hermit Phaethornis guy White-bearded Hermit P. hispidus Long-tailed Hermit P. superciliosus Koepcke's Hermit P. koepckeae Straight-billed Hermit P. bourcieri Black-throated Hermit P. atrimentalis Blue-fronted Lancebill Doryfera johannae Grey-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora Fiery Topaz Topaza pyra Violet-headed Hummingbird Klais guimeti Black-bellied Thorntail Popelairia langsdorffi Spangled Coquette Lophornis stictolophus Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata Golden-tailed Sapphire Chrysuronia oenone Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata Ecuadorian Piedtail Phlogophilus hemileucurus Gould's Jewelfront Heliodoxa aurescens Black-throated Brilliant H. schreibersii Pink-throated Brilliant H. gularis Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx auritus Amethyst Woodstar Calliphlox amethystina Trogons Trogonidae Pavonine Quetzal Pharomachrus pavoninus Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis Black-throated Trogon T. rufus Kingfishers Alcedinidae Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona Green Kingfisher C. americana Motmots Momotidae Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum Jacamars Galbulidae White-eared Jacamar Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis Brown Jacamar Brachygalba lugubris Yellow-billed Jacamar Galbula albirostris Bronzy Jacamar G. leucogastra Great Jacamar Jacamerops aureus Puffbirds Bucconidae White-necked Puffbird Notharchus macrorhynchos Pied Puffbird N. tectus Chestnut-capped Puffbird Bucco macrodactylus Collared Puffbird B. capensis Striolated Puffbird Nystalus striolatus White-crested Puffbird Malacoptila fusca Brown Nunlet Nonnula brunnea Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons White-fronted Nunbird M. morphoeus Yellow-billed Nunbird M. flavirostris Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa Toucans/Barbets Ramphastidae Gilded Barbet Capito auratus Lemon-throated Barbet Eubucco richardsoni Red-headed Barbet E. bourcierii Chestnut-tipped Toucanet Aulacorhynchus derbianus Lettered Aracari Pteroglossus inscriptus Ivory-billed Aracari P. azara Chestnut-eared Aracari P. castanotis Many-banded Aracari P. pluricinctus Golden-collared Toucanet Selenidera reinwardtii Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus Black-mandibled Toucan R. ambiguus White-throated Toucan R. tucanus Woodpeckers Picidae Bar-breasted Piculet Picumnus aurifrons Lafresnaye's Piculet P. lafresnayi Rufous-breasted Piculet P. rufiventris Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus Red-stained Woodpecker V. affinis White-throated Woodpecker Piculus leucolaemus Spot-breasted Woodpecker Chrysoptilus punctigula Scaly-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus Chestnut Woodpecker C. elegans Rufous-headed Woodpecker C. spectabilis Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis Crimson-crested Woodpecker C. melanoleucus Ovenbirds Furnariidae Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus Dark-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albigularis Dusky Spinetail S. moesta Ruddy Spinetail S. rutilans Ash-browed Spinetail Cranioleuca curtata Speckled Spinetail C. gutturata Slender-billed Xenops Xenops tenuirostris Plain Xenops X. minutus Eastern Woodhaunter Hyloctistes subulatus Chestnut-winged Hookbill Ancistrops strigilatus Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner Philydor erythrocercum Bamboo Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner A. rufpileatus Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner A. infuscatus Brown-romped Foliage-gleaner A. melanopezus Ruddy Foliage-gleaner A. rubiginosus Short-billed Leaftosser Sclerurus rufigularis Black-tailed Leaftosser S. caudacutus Woodcreepers Dendrocolaptidae Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa Long-tailed Woodcreeper Deconychura longicauda Spot-throated Woodcreeper D. stictolaema Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus Strong-billed Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes promeropirhyn- chus Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia Ocellated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus ocellatus Striped Woodcreeper X. obsoletos Elegant Woodcreeper X. elegans Buff-throated Woodcreeper X. guttatus Red-billed Scythebill Campyloramphus trochiliros- tris Antbirds Thamnophilidae Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus Undulated Antshrike Frederickena unduligera Great Antshrike Taraba major Castelnau's Antshrike Thamnophilus cryptoleucus White-shouldered Antshrike T. aethiops Plain-winged Antshrike T. schistaceus Mouse-colored Antshrike T. murinus Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris Black Bushbird Neoctantes niger Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis Dusky-throated Antshrike Thamnomanes ardesiacus Cinereous Antshrike T. caesius Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura Moustached Antwren M. ignota Stripe-chested Antwren M. longicauda Plain-throated Antwren M. hauxwelli Stipple-throated Antwren M. haematonota Ornate Antwren M. ornate Rufous-tailed Antwren M. erythrura White-flanked Antwren M. axillaris Slaty Antwren M. schisticolor Long-winged Antwren M. longipennis Grey Antwren M. menetriesii Banded Antbird Dichrozona cincta Dugand's Antwren Herpsilochmus dugandi Grey Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens Blackish Antbird C. nigrescens Black Antbird C. serva White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys Black-faced Antbird M. myotherinus Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator Yellow-browed Antbird H. hypoxantha Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia Spot-winged Antbird Schistocichla leucostigma Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird Myrmeciza castanea White-shouldered Antbird M. melanoceps Sooty Antbird M. fortis White-plumed Antbird Pithys albifrons Bicolored Antbird Gymnopithys leucaspis Hairy-crested Antbird Rhegmatorhina melanosticta Spot-backed Antbird Hylophylax naevius Scale-backed Antbird H. poecilonotus Reddish-winged Bare-eye Phlegopsis erythroptera Antthrushes/Antpittas Formicariidae Rufous-capped Antthrush Formicarius colma Black-faced Antthrush F. analis Striated Antthrush Chamaeza nobilis Short-tailed Antthrush C. campanisona Scaled Antpitta Grallaria guatimalensis Ochre-striped Antpitta G. dignissima White-lored Antpitta Hylopezus fulviventris Thrush-like Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona Gnateaters Conopophagidae Ash-throated Gnateater Conopophaga peruviana Tapaculos Rhinocryptidae Rusty-belted Tapaculo Liosceles thoracicus Cotingas Cotingidae Black-necked Red Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis Brazilian Laniisoma Laniisoma elegans Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata Black-crowned Tityra T. inquisitor Thrush-like Schiffornis Schiffornis turdina Cinereous Mourner Laniocera hypopyrra Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater P. frontalis White-browed Purpletuft Iodopleura isabellae Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus White-winged Becard P. polychopterus Black-capped Becard P. marginatus Pink-throated Becard Platypsaris minor Grey-tailed Piha Snowornis subalaris Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans Purple-throated Cotinga Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema Plum-throated Cotinga Cotinga maynana Spangled Cotinga C. cayana Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruvianus Manakins Pipridae Jet Manakin Chloropipo unicolor Green Manakin C. holochlora White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus Blue-backed Manakin Chiroxiphia pareola Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda White-crowned Manakin P. pipra Golden-headed Manakin P. erythrocephala Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata Blue-rumped Manakin L. isidorei Western Striped Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus Wing-barred Piprites Piprites chloris Flycatchers Tyrannidae White-lored Tyrannulet Ornithion inerme Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii Grey Elaenia M. caniceps White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albiceps Streak-necked Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis Olive-striped Flycatcher M. olivaceus Ochre-bellied Flycatcher M. oleagineus Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus Spectacled Bristle Tyrant Pogonotriccus orbitales Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant Myiornis ecaudatus Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant Lophotriccus vitiosus White-eyed Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus zosterops Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus latirostris Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher P. calopterum Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher T. chrysocrotaphum Ringed Antpipit Corythopis torquatus Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens Zimmer's Flatbill T. assimilis Grey-crowned Flatbill T. poliocephalus Orange-eyed Flatbill T. traylori Ochre-lored Flatbill T. flaviventris White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus Golden-crowned Spadebill P. coronatus Amazonian Royal Flycatcher Onycorhynchus coronatus Ornate Flycatcher Myiotriccus ornatus Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus Olive-crested Flycatcher M. cryptoxanthus Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus Tawny-breasted Myiobius Myiobius villosus Whiskered Myiobius M. barbatus Black-tailed Myiobius M. atricaudus Dwarf Tyranneutes Tyranneutes stolzmanni Cinnamon Neopipo Neopipo cinnamomea Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri Western Wood Pewee Contopus sordidulus Eastern Wood Pewee C. virens Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans Drab Water Tyrant Ochthornis littoralis Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus Greyish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer Swainson's Flycatcher M. swainsoni Short-crested Flycatcher M. ferox Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarhynchus pitangua Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis Grey-capped Flycatcher M. granadensis Dusky-crested Flycatcher M. luteiventris Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus Swallows/Martins Hirundinidae White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis Wrens Troglodytidae Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapilla Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus Coraya Wren Thryothorus coraya Buff-breasted Wren T. leucotis House Wren Troglodytes aedon White-breasted Wood Wren Henicorhina leucosticta Grey-breasted Wood Wren H. leucophrys Southern Nightingale Wren Microcerculus marginatus Musician Wren Cyphorhinus arada Thrushes Turdidae Andean Solitaire Myadestes ralloides Grey-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus Swainson's Thrush C. ustulatus Pale-eyed Thrush Platycichla leucops Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis White-necked Thrush T. albicollis Gnatcatchers Polioptilidae Tawny-faced Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus Crows/Jays Corvidae Inca Jay Cyanocorax yncas Violaceous Jay C. violaceus Vireos/Greenlets Vireonidae Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus Yellow-green Vireo V. flavoviridis Dusky-capped Greenlet Hylophilus hypoxanthus Tawny-crowned Greenlet H. ochraceiceps Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius leucotis New World Warblers Parulidae Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis Buff-rumped Warbler Phaeothlypis fulvicauda Tanagers and Allies Thraupidae Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera Magpie Tanager Cissopis leverianus Yellow-throated Bush Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis fiavicollis Fulvous Shrike-Tanager Lanio fulvus Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus Fulvous-crested Tanager T. surinamus White-shouldered Tanager T. luctuosus Red-crowned Ant Tanager Habia rubica Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea Summer Tanager P. rubra Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis Silver-beaked Tanager R. carbo Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus Palm Tanager T. palmarum Orange-throated Tanager Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana Paradise Tanager T. chilensis Green-and-gold Tanager T. schrankii Golden Tanager T. arthus Yellow-bellied Tanager T. xanthogastra Spotted Tanager T. punctata Bay-headed Tanager T. gyrola Masked Tanager T. nigrocincta Opal-rumped Tanager T. velia Opal-crowned Tanager T. callophrys Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata Yellow-bellied Dacnis D. flaviventer Blue Dacnis D. cayana Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza Short-billed Honeycreeper Cyanerpes nitidus Purple Honeycreeper C. caeruleus Black-and-white Seedeater Sporophila luctuosa Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis Chestnut-bellied Seedeater S. castaneiventris Lesser Seed Finch Oryzoborus angolensis Buntings/New World Sparrows Emberizidae and Allies Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris Yellow-browed Sparrow Myospiza aurifrons Grosbeaks/Saltators and Allies Cardinalidae Greyish Saltator Saltator coerulescens Buff-throated Saltator S. maximus Slate-colored Grosbeak S. grossus Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides New World Blackbirds Icteridae Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus Moriche Oriole Icterus chrysocephalus Venezuelan Troupial I. icterus Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela Ecuadorian Cacique C. sclateri Solitary Cacique C. solitarius Casqued Oropendola Clypicterus oseryi Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus Russet-backed Oropendola P. angustifrons Para Oropendola P. bifasciatus Finches Fringillidae Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris Bronze-green Euphonia E. mesochrysa White-lored Euphoria E. chrysopasta White-vented Euphonia E. minuta Orange-bellied Euphonia E. xanthogaster Campanquiz Lowlands Highlands English name Status (a) (m asl) (m asl) Tinamous Grey Tinamou Great Tinamou 400 1,148 White-throated Tinamou 656-810 1,148 Cinereous Tinamou 591 Little Tinamou 213-400 Variegated Tinamou Bartlett's Tinamou 656 Grebes Least Grebe 320 Pied-billed Grebe D 656 Herons Striated Heron 591 Rufescent Tiger Heron 656 Ducks/Geese/Swans Blue-winged Teal N 591 Masked Duck 656 Kites/Hawks/Eagles Grey-headed Kite 210 Swallow-tailed Kite A? 400 Double-toothed Kite 400 Plumbeous Kite A? 656 Bicolored Hawk 213-591 Black-faced Hawk D 200-656 White Hawk Great Black Hawk 656 Roadside Hawk 210-320 Crested Eagle Ornate Hawk-Eagle 200 Black Hawk-Eagle 200-300 Caracaras/Falcons Red-throated Caracara Laughing Falcon 200-656 Barred Forest Falcon 200 Slaty-backed Forest Falcon Collared Forest Falcon 200 Buckley's Forest Falcon 210-213 Bat Falcon 300 Orange-breasted Falcon 400 Chachalacas/Curassows/Guans Speckled Chachalaca 200-656 Spix's Guan 210-591 Common Piping Guan Sickle-winged Guan 793 Nocturnal Curassow 200-793 350 Salvin's Curassow 793 New World Quail Starred Wood Quail 200-210 Hoatzin Hoatzin 210-656 Limpkin Limpkin 200 Rails/Crakes/Coots Chestnut-headed Crake 200-656 Rufous-sided Crake 591 Grey-breasted Crake 210 Grey-necked Wood Rail 591 Red-winged Wood Rail 210 Uniform Crake 400 Purple Gallinule N? 200-656 Finfoots Sungrebe 210-656 Sunbittern Sunbittern 400 Plovers American Golden Plover N 591 Sandpipers/Snipes Spotted Sandpiper N 213-810 Pigeons/Doves Pale-vented Pigeon 591 Plumbeous Pigeon 210 Ruddy Pigeon 213-656 Blue Ground Dove 400-591 White-tipped Dove 200-400 Grey-fronted Dove 213-656 Sapphire Quail-Dove 1,148 White-throated Quail-Dove Ruddy Quail-Dove 400-810 Cockatoos/Parrots Chestnut-fronted Macaw 210-656 White-eyed Parakeet 213-656 Dusky-headed Parakeet Painted Parakeet 210-810 Blue-winged Parrotlet 656 Cobalt-winged Parakeet 320-656 Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet 210-213 Spot-winged Parrotlet VU 400 Orange-cheeked Parrot 656 Blue-headed Parrot 591-810 Red-billed Parrot 210 Yellow-crowned Amazon 656 Orange-winged Amazon Mealy Amazon 656 Cuckoos Black-billed Cuckoo N Yellow-billed Cuckoo N Dark-billed Cuckoo A Squirrel Cuckoo 210-656 Black-bellied Cuckoo 213 Greater Ani 656 Smooth-billed Ani 305-656 Owls Tropical Screech Owl 210-213 Tawny-bellied Screech Owl 210-591 Mottled Owl 200 Black-banded Owl 210-591 Crested Owl 656 Spectacled Owl 210-656 Ferruginous Pygmy Owl 210-591 Oilbird Oilbird 732 Potoos Great Potoo 210 Long-tailed Potoo 210-656 Common Potoo 213 Rufous Potoo D 213 Nightjars Pauraque 210-656 Blackish Nightjar 210-320 Swifts Grey-rumped Swift 457 Hummingbirds White-tipped Sicklebill 300-810 Buff-tailed Sicklebill 200-810 Rufous-breasted Hermit 100-656 Pale-tailed Barbthroat 200-810 Green Hermit 793-850 White-bearded Hermit 210-656 Long-tailed Hermit 200-810 Koepcke's Hermit 300-518 Straight-billed Hermit 213-793 Black-throated Hermit Blue-fronted Lancebill 210-320 Grey-breasted Sabrewing 200-810 White-necked Jacobin 210 Fiery Topaz Violet-headed Hummingbird 400 Black-bellied Thorntail 210 Spangled Coquette 400 Fork-tailed Woodnymph 200-850 Golden-tailed Sapphire 210-400 Glittering-throated Emerald 210-656 Ecuadorian Piedtail 793 Gould's Jewelfront 200-793 Black-throated Brilliant 793-823 Pink-throated Brilliant 793 Black-eared Fairy 213-400 Amethyst Woodstar 213-400 Trogons Pavonine Quetzal 305-656 Amazonian White-tailed Trogon 200-656 Black-throated Trogon 200 Kingfishers Ringed Kingfisher 656-810 Amazon Kingfisher 367 Green Kingfisher 320-810 Motmots Blue-crowned Motmot 591 Rufous Motmot 200-656 Broad-billed Motmot 200-591 Jacamars White-eared Jacamar Brown Jacamar 305 Yellow-billed Jacamar 200-810 Bronzy Jacamar 210-656 Great Jacamar 210-400 Puffbirds White-necked Puffbird 591-656 Pied Puffbird Chestnut-capped Puffbird 200-656 Collared Puffbird 213 Striolated Puffbird 213 White-crested Puffbird 200-656 Brown Nunlet 210 Black-fronted Nunbird 200-656 White-fronted Nunbird 200-793 Yellow-billed Nunbird 200-210 Swallow-winged Puffbird Toucans/Barbets Gilded Barbet 200-656 Lemon-throated Barbet 200-793 Red-headed Barbet 793 Chestnut-tipped Toucanet 793 Lettered Aracari 210-656 Ivory-billed Aracari 200-762 Chestnut-eared Aracari 216 Many-banded Aracari 185-656 Golden-collared Toucanet 210-656 Channel-billed Toucan 210-656 Black-mandibled Toucan White-throated Toucan 210-656 1,148 Woodpeckers Bar-breasted Piculet 810 Lafresnaye's Piculet 457-793 Rufous-breasted Piculet 367 1,148 Yellow-tufted Woodpecker 245-656 Little Woodpecker 200-656 Red-stained Woodpecker 210-656 White-throated Woodpecker Spot-breasted Woodpecker 210 Scaly-breasted Woodpecker 210-656 Chestnut Woodpecker 210-656 1,148 Rufous-headed Woodpecker 210-367 Lineated Woodpecker 450-810 Red-necked Woodpecker 200-656 Crimson-crested Woodpecker 200-656 Ovenbirds Pale-legged Hornero 200-656 Dark-breasted Spinetail 210-591 Dusky Spinetail 213-810 Ruddy Spinetail 229 Ash-browed Spinetail 810 Speckled Spinetail 400-591 Slender-billed Xenops 213 Plain Xenops 200-810 Eastern Woodhaunter 200-793 Chestnut-winged Hookbill 200-656 Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner 200-793 Bamboo Foliage-gleaner 213-656 Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner 213-300 Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner 200-656 Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner 200-656 Brown-romped Foliage-gleaner 591-810 Ruddy Foliage-gleaner 210-793 Short-billed Leaftosser 656 Black-tailed Leaftosser 213-793 Woodcreepers Plain-brown Woodcreeper 320-810 Long-tailed Woodcreeper 400 Spot-throated Woodcreeper 400 Olivaceous Woodcreeper 656 Wedge-billed Woodcreeper 200-810 Strong-billed Woodcreeper 793 Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper 200-656 Ocellated Woodcreeper 200-810 Striped Woodcreeper 591 Elegant Woodcreeper 213-591 Buff-throated Woodcreeper 200-591 Red-billed Scythebill 200-793 Antbirds Fasciated Antshrike 200-656 Undulated Antshrike 213-793 Great Antshrike 200-656 Castelnau's Antshrike 591 White-shouldered Antshrike 793 Plain-winged Antshrike 200-810 Mouse-colored Antshrike 200-656 Spot-winged Antshrike 591-656 Black Bushbird 200-656 Russet Antshrike 1,148 Plain Antvireo 793 Dusky-throated Antshrike 200-810 Cinereous Antshrike 200-656 Pygmy Antwren 200-810 Moustached Antwren 200-656 Stripe-chested Antwren 537 Plain-throated Antwren 200-656 Stipple-throated Antwren 793 Ornate Antwren 591-810 Rufous-tailed Antwren 200-656 White-flanked Antwren 210-810 Slaty Antwren 200-656 Long-winged Antwren 320-793 Grey Antwren 200-810 Banded Antbird 793 Dugand's Antwren 591 Grey Antbird 200-656 Blackish Antbird 656 Black Antbird 320-656 White-browed Antbird 210-656 Black-faced Antbird 200-810 Warbling Antbird 200-656 Yellow-browed Antbird 200-656 Silvered Antbird 656 Spot-winged Antbird 200-793 Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird 810 White-shouldered Antbird 200-656 Sooty Antbird 210 White-plumed Antbird 210-810 Bicolored Antbird 200-656 Hairy-crested Antbird 793 Spot-backed Antbird 200-793 Scale-backed Antbird 200-793 1,148 Reddish-winged Bare-eye 656 Antthrushes/Antpittas Rufous-capped Antthrush Black-faced Antthrush 300-656 Striated Antthrush 591 Short-tailed Antthrush 793 Scaled Antpitta 400 Ochre-striped Antpitta 200 White-lored Antpitta D 213 Thrush-like Antpitta 210-400 Gnateaters Ash-throated Gnateater 320-656 Tapaculos Rusty-belted Tapaculo 200-656 1,148 Cotingas Black-necked Red Cotinga 210-656 1,148 Brazilian Laniisoma 656 Masked Tityra 210-591 Black-crowned Tityra 213-367 Thrush-like Schiffornis 200-793 Cinereous Mourner Fiery-throated Fruiteater 210-213 1,148 Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater 793 White-browed Purpletuft Chestnut-crowned Becard 300 White-winged Becard 200-656 Black-capped Becard Pink-throated Becard 656 Grey-tailed Piha 793-810 Screaming Piha 210-656 Purple-throated Cotinga 656 Plum-throated Cotinga 210 Spangled Cotinga Bare-necked Fruitcrow 210-656 Purple-throated Fruitcrow 200-656 Amazonian Umbrellabird 1,148 Andean Cock-of-the-rock 210-400 Manakins Jet Manakin 793 Green Manakin 210-850 White-bearded Manakin 200-656 Blue-backed Manakin 200-656 Wire-tailed Manakin 200-656 1,148 White-crowned Manakin 400-793 Golden-headed Manakin 200-810 Blue-crowned Manakin 200-810 Blue-rumped Manakin 630-793 Western Striped Manakin 210-518 Wing-barred Piprites 210-656 Flycatchers White-lored Tyrannulet 656 Forest Elaenia 400-500 Grey Elaenia A? 500 White-crested Elaenia A Streak-necked Flycatcher 810 Olive-striped Flycatcher 210-810 Ochre-bellied Flycatcher 210-810 Sepia-capped Flycatcher 591-656 Spectacled Bristle Tyrant 793-810 Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant 400 Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant 200-656 White-eyed Tody-Tyrant 213-810 Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher 200-656 Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher 213-367 Common Tody-Flycatcher Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Ringed Antpipit 320-793 Olivaceous Flatbill 200-810 Yellow-olive Flycatcher Zimmer's Flatbill 210-656 Grey-crowned Flatbill 400 Orange-eyed Flatbill 200-656 Ochre-lored Flatbill 200-656 White-throated Spadebill 793 Golden-crowned Spadebill 400-810 Amazonian Royal Flycatcher 200-656 Ornate Flycatcher 793-810 Bran-colored Flycatcher 210 Olive-crested Flycatcher Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher 210-810 Tawny-breasted Myiobius 793-800 Whiskered Myiobius 200-656 Black-tailed Myiobius 591-656 Dwarf Tyranneutes 200-656 Cinnamon Neopipo 793 Fuscous Flycatcher 210 Euler's Flycatcher 210 Western Wood Pewee N 320 Eastern Wood Pewee N 180-810 Alder Flycatcher N 200-656 Black Phoebe 320-810 Drab Water Tyrant 245 Long-tailed Tyrant 367-656 Bright-rumped Attila 300-400 Greyish Mourner 200-656 Dusky-capped Flycatcher Swainson's Flycatcher A Short-crested Flycatcher 200-656 Lesser Kiskadee 325 Great Kiskadee 200-656 Boat-billed Flycatcher 200-656 Social Flycatcher 305-518 Grey-capped Flycatcher 210-810 Dusky-crested Flycatcher 656 Streaked Flycatcher A 210-400 Piratic Flycatcher 518-656 Crowned Slaty Flycatcher A 213 Tropical Kingbird A? 213-518 Swallows/Martins White-banded Swallow 200-656 White-thighed Swallow 320-518 Southern Rough-winged Swallow A? 200-810 Wrens Black-capped Donacobius 367-656 Thrush-like Wren 656 Coraya Wren 200-656 Buff-breasted Wren 213 House Wren 810 White-breasted Wood Wren 210-793 Grey-breasted Wood Wren Southern Nightingale Wren 200-656 Musician Wren 210-367 Thrushes Andean Solitaire 793 Grey-cheeked Thrush N 320-656 Swainson's Thrush N 200-810 1,148 Pale-eyed Thrush 400 Black-billed Thrush 200-656 White-necked Thrush 400-810 Gnatcatchers Tawny-faced Gnatwren 793 Long-billed Gnatwren 200-656 Crows/Jays Inca Jay Violaceous Jay 200-656 1,148 Vireos/Greenlets Red-eyed Vireo N/A 210-656 Yellow-green Vireo N 200-656 Dusky-capped Greenlet 300 Tawny-crowned Greenlet 210-793 Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo New World Warblers Canada Warbler N 457-518 Buff-rumped Warbler 213-810 Tanagers and Allies Black-and-white Tanager 213-400 Magpie Tanager 200-656 Yellow-throated Bush Tanager 793-810 Yellow-backed Tanager 200-591 Fulvous Shrike-Tanager 400-810 1,148 Flame-crested Tanager 200-656 Fulvous-crested Tanager 200-656 White-shouldered Tanager 200-300 Red-crowned Ant Tanager 213-656 Scarlet Tanager N 656 Summer Tanager N 591 Masked Crimson Tanager 210-656 1,148 Silver-beaked Tanager 200-810 Blue-grey Tanager 210-810 Palm Tanager 210-810 Orange-throated Tanager VU 210 Turquoise Tanager 210-656 Paradise Tanager 200-656 Green-and-gold Tanager 185-810 1,148 Golden Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager 210-793 Spotted Tanager 793 Bay-headed Tanager 400-793 1,148 Masked Tanager 210-793 Opal-rumped Tanager 210-400 Opal-crowned Tanager 210-213 Black-faced Dacnis 200-656 Yellow-bellied Dacnis 350-656 Blue Dacnis 400-500 Green Honeycreeper 200-656 Short-billed Honeycreeper 656 Purple Honeycreeper 200-656 Black-and-white Seedeater 320-810 Yellow-bellied Seedeater 518-810 Chestnut-bellied Seedeater 367 Lesser Seed Finch 200-656 Buntings/New World Sparrows and Allies Red-capped Cardinal 656 Orange-billed Sparrow 210-810 Yellow-browed Sparrow 367-810 Grosbeaks/Saltators and Allies Greyish Saltator 200-656 Buff-throated Saltator 200-656 Slate-colored Grosbeak 200-793 Blue-black Grosbeak 200-820 New World Blackbirds Giant Cowbird 245-656 Moriche Oriole 210-810 Venezuelan Troupial 656 Yellow-rumped Cacique 210-656 Ecuadorian Cacique 210-213 Solitary Cacique 200-656 Casqued Oropendola Crested Oropendola 210-320 Russet-backed Oropendola 591-810 1,148 Para Oropendola 213-400 Finches Thick-billed Euphonia 210 Bronze-green Euphonia 793 White-lored Euphoria 213 White-vented Euphonia 200 Orange-bellied Euphonia 210-810 (a) D = Distributional record, VU = Vulnerable, N = Nearctic migrant, A = Austral migrant, N? = probable Nearctic mgrant, and A? = probable Austral migrant.
We thank T. S. Schulenberg for helping firm up species lists, providing localities for specimens from this region, and critically editing the manuscript. We are also grateful to Lars Pomara for preparing the map. Steve Cardiff Steve Cardiff is a Canadian politician. He currently represents the electoral district of Mount Lorne in the Yukon Legislative Assembly.
He is a member of the Yukon New Democratic Party. helped insure that we accounted for all the relevant specimens in the LSUMZ collections. Steve Cardiff also, along with Pete Capainolo (AMNH), and Carla Cicero and Juan Parra (MVZ), provided data from selected specimens. We thank Mildred Larson, Martha Jakway (deceased), and Jeanne Grover of the Instituto Linguistico de Verano for help in accurate location of some Aguaruna villages, as well as for their willingness to introduce JPO and colleagues to the Pongos Basin area in 1964. Finally, we are grateful to the following individuals and their respective institutions for providing material and/or providing access to collections and field logs: Steve Cardiff and Van Remsen at LSUMZ, Paul Sweet and Chris Blake at AMNH, Tom Schulenberg at FMNH, and Carla Cicero at MVZ. C. E. Braun, Terry Chesser, A1 Gardner, and an anonymous reviewer re·view·er
One who reviews, especially one who writes critical reviews, as for a newspaper or magazine.
a person who writes reviews of books, films, etc.
Noun 1. commented on the manuscript and provided helpful suggestions.
Received 25 October 2007. Accepted 7 June 2008.
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DANIEL M. BROOKS, (1,6) JOHN R O'NEILL, (2) MERCEDES S. FOSTER, (3) TODD MARK, (1) NICO NICO Nissan Infiniti Car Owners
NICO Nicodemus National Historic Site (US National Park Service)
NICO Neuralgia-Induced Cavitational Osteonecrosis (medical)
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(1) Houston Museum of Natural Science, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, 1 Hermann Circle Drive, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
(2) Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge Baton Rouge (băt`ən rzh) [Fr.,=red stick], city (1990 pop. 219,531), state capital and seat of East Baton Rouge parish, SE La. , LA 70803, USA.
(3) USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is a biological research center in Maryland. It is one of only 17 research centers in the United States run by the U.S. Geological Survey. It stands near the Patuxent River, for which it was named. , National Museum of Natural History, 10th and Constitution, NW, Washington, D.C., 20560, USA.
(4) Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia Organization
The President of the University of Georgia (as of 2007, Michael F. Adams) is the head administrator and is appointed and overseen by the Georgia Board of Regents. , Athens, GA 30602, USA.
(5) Museo de Historia Natural, Casilla 14-0434, Lima 14, Peru.
(6) Corresponding author; e-mail: email@example.com
TABLE 1. Unusual elevation ranges of avian species based on specimens from the Pongos Basin and Cordillera Campanquiz, Peru. Previous English name Scientific name records (m) Great Tinamou Tinamus major 1,000 max (a) White-throated Tinamou T. guttatus 1,100 max (c) Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudoth 900 min (a) Sapphire Quail-Dove Geotrygon saphirina 1,100 max (a) White-throated Quail-Dove G. frenata 900 min (a) Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictopterus 600 min (a) Koepcke's Hermit Phaethornis koepckeae 450 min (c) Blue-fronted Lancebill Doryfera johannae 400 min (a) Spangled Coquette Lophornis stictolophus 500 min (a) Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcierii 900 min (a) White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus 1,100 max (c) Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans 800 max (a) Bamboo Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis 350 min (a) Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor 800 min (c) Black-necked Red Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis 900 max (a) Brazilian Laniisoma Laniisoma elegans 700 min (a) Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota 300 min (b) Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater P. frontalis 900 min (c) Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruvianus 500 min (c) Jet Manakin Chloropipo unicolor 900 min (c) Green Manakin C. holochlora 400 min (c) Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda 800 max (a) Streak-necked Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis 500 min (c) Cinnamon Neopipo Neopipo cinnamomea 700 max (c) Western Wood Pewee Contopus sordidulus 600 min (c) Pale-eyed Thrush Platycichla leucops 850 min (a) Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis 1,100 max (c) Orange-throated Tanager Wetmorethraupis 400 min (a) sterrhopteron English name New record(s) Change (m) Great Tinamou Campanquiz +148 White-throated Tinamou Campanquiz +298 Sickle-winged Guan Rio Kagka headwaters -100 Sapphire Quail-Dove Campanquiz +48 White-throated Quail-Dove Shimpunts, Shaim -500-600 Spot-winged Parrotlet Pomara -200 Koepcke's Hermit Nazareth, 43 km NE Chiriaco -130-150 Blue-fronted Lancebill Huampami, 43 km NE Chiriaco -80-187 Spangled Coquette Pomara -100 Red-headed Barbet Rio Kagka headwaters -100 White-throated Toucan Campanquiz +48 Chestnut Woodpecker Campanquiz +348 Bamboo Foliage-gleaner Caterpiza, Huampami -137-150 Slaty Antwren Caterpiza, Shaim -400-600 Black-necked Red Cotinga Campanquiz +248 Brazilian Laniisoma Caterpiza -500 Fiery-throated Fruiteater Huampami, Pagat -50-87 Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater Rio Kagka headwaters -100 Andean Cock-of-the-rock Huampami, Kusu, Quebrada -100-287 Achunts, Nazereth, Bashuin, Pomara Jet Manakin Rio Kagka headwaters -50 Green Manakin Villa Gonzalo, Huampami, -100-200 Quebrada Achunts Wire-tailed Manakin Campanquiz +348 Streak-necked Flycatcher Kusu -250 Cinnamon Neopipo Rio Kagka headwaters +100 Western Wood Pewee La Poza, Caterpiza, 86 km -280-420 NE Chiriaco Pale-eyed Thrush Pomara -450 Masked Crimson Tanager Campanquiz -48 Orange-throated Tanager Huampami, 3.2 km w of -50-190 Urakusa, Chavez Valdivia, Chiangkus, Pagat, Quebrada Achunts, Suwa, Tutinum, Chipi, Kusu on the Rio Maranon, Nazareth, Chicais (a) Stotz et al. (1996). (b) Hilty and Brown (1986). (c) Schulenberg et al. (2007).