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Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru.

A distinctive feature of the Peruvian Andes is the frequent presence of 'pongos', or water gaps, which are transverse To cross from side to side.  openings in mountain ridges caused by tectonic tectonic /tec·ton·ic/ (tek-ton´ik) pertaining to construction.  activity. In some instances, rivers cut through sufficiently high uplifted up·lift  
tr.v. up·lift·ed, up·lift·ing, up·lifts
1. To raise; elevate.

2. To raise to a higher social, intellectual, or moral level or condition.

 areas to create valleys of considerable amplitude amplitude (ăm`plĭtd'), in physics, maximum displacement from a zero value or rest position. . The highest concentration of pongos in Peru is in northern Amazonas Department For the former Department of Peru, see .
Amazonas is a department of Colombia in the south of the country. Its capital is Leticia. Its name comes from the Amazon River that drains much in the department and the rainforest that covers a large part of the department.
 (Fig. 1), an area that geologists have aptly named the 'Pongos Basin' (Cobbing et al. 1981). The basin consists of a system of mesic mes·ic  
adj. Ecology
Of, characterized by, or adapted to a moderately moist habitat.


Relating or adapted to a moderately moist habitat.
 valleys separated by relatively low ridgelines; the valleys are drained by north-south and south-north flowing rivers that enter the Maranon River as it flows toward the northeast. The basin is continuously bathed by humidity from the Amazon, and the dominant vegetation is humid hu·mid  
Containing or characterized by a high amount of water or water vapor: humid air; a humid evening. See Synonyms at wet.
 lowland tropical forest. The valleys that form the adjacent upper Maranon drainage to the southwest, as well as the downstream middle Huallaga-Mayo Valley drainages to the east, are covered with dry forest. The Pongos Basin serves as a corridor for humid forest birds to cross the less restrictive narrows of the Maranon provided by the pongos. The area is occupied primarily by humid-forest species with affinities to Amazonian faunas rather than dry forest species.

This region can be difficult to work in due to territoriality Territoriality

Behavior patterns in which an animal actively defends a space or some other resource. One major advantage of territoriality is that it gives the territory holder exclusive access to the defended resource, which is generally associated with
 by indigenous Jivaro-speaking people, represented by the Aguaruna and Huambisa Amerindians. More recently, periodic armed conflicts between Peru and Ecuador have also contributed to dangerous working conditions (Palmer 1997, Landmine Monitor 2005). Some ornithological or·ni·thol·o·gy  
The branch of zoology that deals with the study of birds.

 work has occurred in the region despite the potential for adverse working conditions. Some of the most successful avian avian /avi·an/ (a´ve-an) of or pertaining to birds.

Of, relating to, or characteristic of birds.
 studies were conducted in tandem Adv. 1. in tandem - one behind the other; "ride tandem on a bicycle built for two"; "riding horses down the path in tandem"
 with anthropological studies (e.g., Berlin and O'Neill 1981, Berlin et al. 1981, Berlin and Berlin 1983, Boster et al. 1986).

Ornithological work in this region has primarily focused on single-species studies, including descriptions of new species (e.g., Lowery low·er·y   also lour·y
Overcast; threatening.
 and O'Neill 1964) and breeding biology (e.g., Dauphine dau·phine  
The wife of a dauphin.

[French, feminine of dauphin; see dauphin.]
 et al. 2007). Some general surveys were accomplished for threatened taxa (Davies et al. 1997), but comprehensive community-level studies are entirely lacking. Our objectives are to: (1) provide a comprehensive inventory of the region's avifauna a·vi·fau·na  
The birds of a specific region or period.

[Latin avis, bird; see awi- in Indo-European roots + fauna.
, (2) compare highland versus lowland avifaunas, and (3) provide natural history accounts for distributional records, threatened taxa, and migrants, based on museum specimen data.


Description of the Study Region.--The study area comprises the entire Pongos Basin. Sixteen pongos exist along the Rio Maranon between Pongo de Rentama (upstream from Pomara) and Pongo de Manseriche The Pongo de Manseriche is a gorge in northwest Peru. The Marañón River runs through this gorge before it reaches the Amazon Basin.

Manseriche means "the one who frightens".
 (a short distance downstream from the Maranon/Santiago confluence confluence /con·flu·ence/ (kon´floo-ins)
1. a running together; a meeting of streams.con´fluent

2. in embryology, the flowing of cells, a component process of gastrulation.
). To the west the basin is circumscribed circumscribed /cir·cum·scribed/ (serk´um-skribd) bounded or limited; confined to a limited space.

Bounded by a line; limited or confined.
 by distinct biogeographic bi·o·ge·og·ra·phy  
The study of the geographic distribution of organisms.

 boundaries: Cordillera cor·dil·le·ra  
An extensive chain of mountains or mountain ranges, especially the principal mountain system of a continent.

[Spanish, from cordilla, diminutive of cuerda, cord
 de Colan, a high (3,000+ m) mountain area to the southwest; Pongo de Rentama, which creates a rapid transition from the dry Tumbesian upper Maranon Valley to wet Amazonian forest; Cordillera del Condor, a high (2,200+ m) mountain area that forms a natural border with Ecuador for most of its extension; and Pongo Paute, which separates the Cordillera del Condor from the Ecuadorian Cordillera de Cutucu, divided by the Santiago River. The Cordillera Campanquiz, a relatively low (1,800 m) mountain chain, forms the eastern border of Amazonas Department and is bisected by the Maranon River at Pongo de Manseriche. The Campanquiz Range is less of a biogeographic barrier than the other ranges, but these mountains may act as a filter for certain lowland species (e.g., varzea specialists) entering the Pongos Basin.

The principal area studied comprises habitats to an upper elevation limit of 900 m, known as the humid tropical zone (Parker et al. 1982) with lowland terra See tera.  firme forest coveting most of the study region. We also report on a small collection of bird specimens from the western slope of the Campanquiz Range as a basis for comparing the avifaunal a·vi·fau·na  
The birds of a specific region or period.

[Latin avis, bird; see awi- in Indo-European roots + fauna.
 communities of the upper and lower humid tropical zones in this region.

History of Ornithological Fieldwork field·work  
1. A temporary military fortification erected in the field.

2. Work done or firsthand observations made in the field as opposed to that done or observed in a controlled environment.

.--This region was the focus of one of the earliest attempts of exploration and colonization colonization, extension of political and economic control over an area by a state whose nationals have occupied the area and usually possess organizational or technological superiority over the native population.  in Peru (Ulloa and Ulloa 1806), but our study area remained neglected by scientific explorers until ~80 years ago, mainly due to conflicts with native Amerindians. The first expedition into the area was led by Harry Watkins, who collected for the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH AMNH American Museum of Natural History (New York City, NY) ) at Pomara during 1923 to 1924. Another relatively small collection was amassed by Jose Schunke during 1928 to 1930 near the mouths of the Cenepa and Santiago rivers (now part of AMNH's Bassler Collection).

A new impetus for collecting in the area was provided in the early 1960s by the discovery of the Orange-throated Tanager tanager (tăn`əjər), any of the small, migratory perching birds of the family Thraupidae, chiefly of the tropical New World. Only five species migrate to North America; of these the scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea  (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron) among a small collection of bird skins prepared by Aguaruna Amerindians and given to missionary Mildred Larsen (Lowery and O'Neill 1964). In 1964, missionaries Jeanne Grover and Martha Jakway invited JPO JPO Joint Program Office
JPO Japanese Patent Office
JPO Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics
JPO Journal of Physical Oceanography
JPO Juvenile Probation Officer
JPO Jump If Parity Odd
JPO Joint Pipeline Office
JPO Joint Planning Office
 and John Farrand Jr. on an expedition to accompany them to find Wetmorethraupis in nature. That effort led JPO to undertake additional expeditions there, along with Louisiana State University Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, generally known as Louisiana State University or LSU, is a public, coeducational university located in Baton Rouge, Louisiana and the main campus of the Louisiana State University System.  Museum of Zoology zoology, branch of biology concerned with the study of animal life. From earliest times animals have been vitally important to man; cave art demonstrates the practical and mystical significance animals held for prehistoric man.  (LSUMZ) staff and graduate students in 1968, 1973 to 1974; and 1977 to 1980. Peter Hocking Hocking may refer to:
  • Hocking County, Ohio
  • Hocking Hills in Ohio
  • Hocking College in Ohio
  • Hocking River in Ohio
  • William Ernest Hocking, American Idealist philosopher
, collecting for the Field Museum of Natural History Field Museum of Natural History, at Chicago, Ill. Founded in 1893 through the gifts of Marshall Field and others, it was first known as the Columbian Museum of Chicago and later (1943–66) as the Chicago Natural History Museum.  (FMNH FMNH Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago, IL)
FMNH Finnish Museum of Natural History (Helsinki, Finland)
FMNH Florida Museum of Natural History (Gainesville, Florida) 
), explored the Santiago Basin during 1965 to 1966, and again during 1972 to 1974. The Museum of Vertebrate vertebrate, any animal having a backbone or spinal column. Verbrates can be traced back to the Silurian period. In the adults of nearly all forms the backbone consists of a series of vertebrae. All vertebrates belong to the subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata.  Zoology, University of California-Berkeley (MVZ MVZ Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (University of California, Berkeley)
MVZ Main Vertical Zone
MVZ Medico Veterinario Zoothanista (Mexico veterinary medicine degree) 
) led an expedition near Nazareth in 1970, and a joint LSUMZ and MVZ expedition in which MSF MSF Manufacturing, Science, and Finance (Union)  participated visited the Huampami area in 1977. The first all-Peruvian expedition, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima (MUSM) collected at Falsa Paquisha in 1987, exploring the area around a newly established military base in the remote upper Cenepa Basin.

Data Compilation.--Available data (locality 1. locality - In sequential architectures programs tend to access data that has been accessed recently (temporal locality) or that is at an address near recently referenced data (spatial locality). This is the basis for the speed-up obtained with a cache memory.
, dates, and gender in most cases) for all specimens from the localities in the Gazetteer gazetteer (găz'ĭtēr`), dictionary or encyclopedia listing alphabetically the names of places, political divisions, and physical features of the earth and giving some information about each.  (Fig. 1) were obtained from the respective museums in which the specimens were housed; the data were tabularized and condensed con·dense  
v. con·densed, con·dens·ing, con·dens·es
1. To reduce the volume or compass of.

2. To make more concise; abridge or shorten.

3. Physics
 to an applicable format. Questions that arose regarding identification or data were resolved through direct examination of specimens, generally by at least one of the authors. Specimens housed at LSUMZ were partly examined by JPO, TM, and DMB (Digital Multimedia Broadcasting) See mobile TV. . Specimens at MVZ were examined by MSE MSE Mouse (computer)
MSE Materials Science & Engineering
MSE Mean Squared Error
MSE Mean Square Error
MSE Master of Science in Engineering
MSE Manufacturing Systems Engineering
MSE Mechanically Stabilized Earth
 Specimens at MUSM were partly examined by IF, JPO, and TM. Specimens at AMNH and FMNH were partly examined by TM. Specimens at Houston Museum of Natural Science The Houston Museum of Natural Science is a science museum located on the northern border of Hermann Park in Houston, Texas, USA. The museum was established in 1909 by the Houston Museum and Scientific Society  (HMNS HMNS Houston Museum of Natural Science ) were examined by DMB, ND, and TM. For consistency we follow taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.

In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order,
 of Gill and Wright (2006) despite some accepted changes since that publication.

Species Accounts.--We obtained known elevational ranges of the Pongos Basin species from Hilty and Brown (1986), Fjeldsa and Krabbe (1990), Stotz et al. (1996), and Schulenberg et al. (2007) and compared them to elevations at collecting sites. Basic biological information (e.g., mass, breeding condition, etc.) was available for some of the specimens. However, because of its magnitude, lack of uniformity among collectors, and absence from some of the museums' electronic data bases, we report biological information only for species of special interest. Accounts are provided for distributional records of selected taxa, as well as species of conservation concern (designated by Birdlife International BirdLife International (formerly known as the International Council for Bird Preservation) is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats.  2006) as information about vulnerable species may contribute to their protection. We also provide information on both Nearctic and Austral aus·tral  
Of, relating to, or coming from the south.

[Latin austrlis, from auster, austr-, south.
 migrant mi·grant  
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.

2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.

 species as designated by Chesser (1994), Stotz et al. (1996), and Ridgely and Greenfield Greenfield, town (1990 pop. 18,666), seat of Franklin co., NW Mass., at the confluence of the Deerfield and Green rivers, near their junction with the Connecticut; settled 1686, set off from Deerfield and inc. 1753.  (2001). Many migrant species are well known in breeding areas but information on their winter distributions and biology is limited. Parametric biological data for species accounts were obtained from data bases or gleaned directly from specimen data tags by TM. We use the term "ossified os·si·fy  
v. os·si·fied, os·si·fy·ing, os·si·fies

1. To change into bone; become bony.

" to refer to the condition of the skull as an indication of age because of its pervasiveness in the literature and on museum specimen labels.



Localities.--We considered specimens from 66 sampling sites with coordinates and seven additional generic localities for a total of 73 sites (Fig. 1). The sampling sites with coordinates were combined into 36 groups based upon close geographic proximity (Fig. 1). Generic localities, such as a river or basin, lacked any reference to the exact location.

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.--Four hundred and thirty-eight species in 52 families are presented (Appendix) from the ~4,000 specimens from the humid tropical zone region, most of which are housed at LSUMZ. Additionally, there were 36 specimens (25 species in 14 families) from the humid upper tropical zone region (Campanquiz; 1,148 m). An additional nine specimens could not be identified to species level, and were excluded from analyses.

In contrast, Berlin et al. (1981) found ~160 species during an ethno-zoological coding study, although they suggested the region could harbor as many as 500 species. Ted Parker found 210 predominantly Amazonian bird species during only a few days of surveys (27 Jul to 1 Aug 1993) at nearby Miazi, Ecuador in the Cordillera del Condor at the upper limit of the humid tropical zone (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). The present review, in which we report two to three times as many species as other nearby studies, reflects field work covering more seasons and sites.

The Campanquiz Highlands.--Thirty-six specimens representing 21 species were collected during 25-26 July 1964 and 17-20 November 1979 from the Campanquiz Range. All but one species were collected along the ridge; two female Nothocrax were collected at 350 m (Appendix). It is possible these two curassows were collected en-route to or from the higher site. Only three species present at the higher elevation were absent from the lower regions: Russet Antshrike The Russet Antshrike, Thamnistes anabatinus, is a passerine bird in the antbird family. It is the only member of the genus Thamnistes.

It is a resident breeder in the tropical New World from southern Mexico to northern Bolivia.
 (Thamnistes anabatinus), Grey-breasted Wood Wren wren, small, plump perching songbird of the family Troglodytidae. There are about 60 wren species, and all except one are restricted to the New World. The plumage is usually brown or reddish above and white, gray, or buff, often streaked, below.  (Henicorhina leucophrys), and Golden Tanager (Tangara arthus) (Appendix). Swainson's Thrush Swainson's thrush
See olive-backed thrush.

[After William Swainson (1789-1855), British naturalist.]
 (Catharus ustulatus; LSUMZ 93066, 17 Nov 1979) is the only migrant species collected from the Campanquiz Range.

Only a few days of collection at the Campanquiz highland site yielded 21 species, but only three species were unique to this higher elevation site. Tom Schulenberg and Walter Wust recorded 208 species during 3 weeks (14 Jul to 7 Aug 1994) of bird surveys at higher elevations (1,100-2,100 m) along the Peruvian side of the Cordillera del Condor (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Forty-four of these 208 species were found exclusively at upper elevations, and were not recorded at lower elevations surveyed by Ted Parker in Ecuador (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Their 44 species versus our much lower number of three species is likely the result of differences in elevation of the sites (and associated habitats) surveyed.

Elevation Records.--We report 20 new low elevation records and eight new high elevation records (Table 1). Many changes in elevational range were significant. Species for which the lower elevation limit decreased by at least 600 m include White-throated Quail-Dove (Geotrygon frenata) and Slaty Antwren The Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor, is a small passerine bird in the antbird family. It is a resident breeder in tropical Central and South America from southern Mexico to western Ecuador and eastern Peru.  (Myrmotherula schisticolor). The upper elevation limit of eight species increased and seven of these records (87.5%) were based on specimens collected at the Campanquiz (1,148 m) site.

Of the 25 species collected at Campanquiz, 33% represented upper elevation records. This emphasizes the importance of including samples from this area to enhance understanding the role of elevation in affecting avifaunal community structure in this region. The Campanquiz Range is extremely isolated in a relatively homogeneous landscape of lowlands, and many individuals from lower elevations may regularly pass over the ridge (which is as low as 385-421 m in some areas), going east or west, or through the Pongo de Manseriche. The small amount of cloud forest cloud forest
A tropical forest, often near peaks of coastal mountains, that usually has constant cloud cover throughout the year.

cloud forest 
 at the top of the ridge would not likely present a barrier to lowland species and would not likely attract many upper zone tropical species.

Distribution Records.--We report important distributional records for four species at the levels of region (i.e., Amazonia), country or Department. Catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C.  numbers provided in each account represent specimens containing data. These records support the need for additional exploration of little known areas and suggest additional species are likely to be recorded from Peru.

Pied-billed Grebe grebe (grēb), common name for swimming birds found on or near quiet waters in most parts of the world. Grebes resemble the loon and the duck; they have short wings, vestigial tails, and long, individually webbed toes on feet that are set far back  (Podilymbus podiceps). This specimen is of the resident subspecies subspecies, also called race, a genetically distinct geographical subunit of a species. See also classification.  P. p. antarcticus (S. Cardiff in litt.) and appears to be the only record for the central (Restall et al. 2007) or western (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007) Amazon Basin “Amazonian” redirects here. For other uses, see Amazonian (disambiguation).

The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
. This also represents the first record for Amazonas Department. This specimen (LSUMZ 98965), a male (testes testes
 or testicles

Male reproductive organs (see reproductive system). Humans have two oval-shaped testes 1.5–2 in. (4–5 cm) long that produce sperm and androgens (mainly testosterone), contained in a sac (scrotum) behind the penis.
 = 7 X 4 mm), may be a vagrant VAGRANT. Generally by the word vagrant is understood a person who lives idly without any settled home; but this definition is much enlarged by some statutes, and it includes those who refuse to work, or go about begging. See 1 Wils. R. 331; 5 East, R. 339: 8 T. R. 26.  from the adjacent Andes (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and was collected on 7 February 1980 at Caterpiza (200 m).

Black-faced Hawk (Leucopternis melanops). The first specimen for Peru was a female (AMNH 255077) collected on 28 November 1925 at Boca Curaray, Loreto Department. Two specimens included in our study represent the second and third specimens for the country, and the first two specimens for Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). Two adult (skulls 100% ossified) females (ovary ovary, ductless gland of the female in which the ova (female reproductive cells) are produced. In vertebrate animals the ovary also secretes the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone, which control the development of the sexual organs and the secondary sexual  = 1 mm in one, smooth in the other; MVZ 165098, LSUMZ 84289) were collected on 3 and 6 August 1977. The stomach of one contained a snake; Orthopterans and other insects were found in the other stomach. These specimens had masses of 310 and 345 g with no fat, and both were collected at Huampami (210 m).

Rufous Potoo The Rufous Potoo (Nyctibius bracteatus) is a species of bird in the Nyctibiidae family. It is found in Ecuador, (the northeast, about 25 % of the country), and Peru in the largest population, and the other large disjunct population 1600 km southwest at the Peru and  (Nyctibius bracteatus). The first specimen for Peru (AMNH 231045) was collected in 1937 at Apayacu, Loreto Department (Alvarez-Alonso and Whitney 2003). A specimen included in our study represents the second specimen for the country and the first specimen for Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). The adult (skull ossified) male (testes = 5 X 2.5 mm; LSUMZ 87299) had a mass of 48 g with little fat, and had insect remains in its stomach including beetle beetle, common name for insects of the order Coleoptera, which, with more than 300,000 described species, is the largest of the insect orders. Beetles have chewing mouthparts and well-developed antennae.  parts; it was collected on 5 August 1978 at Huampami (213 m).

White-lored Antpitta (Hylopezus fulviventris). This specimen represents the first specimen for Peru and Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). The single adult (skull ossified) male (testes = ~6 x 2.5 mm; LSUMZ 88072) had a mass of 54 g with little fat, and was collected on 10 July 1978 at Huampami (230 m).

Threatened Species.--Two Vulnerable (Birdlife International 2006) species were recorded.

Spot-winged Parrotlet (Touit stictopterus). Status: Vulnerable. This species was represented by a single female (AMNH 185573) collected on 15 July 1924 near Pomara (400 m). The single specimen was collected more than 80 years ago, well before rampant pet bird trade diminished parrot parrot, common name for members of the order Psittaciformes, comprising 315 species of colorful birds, pantropical in distribution, including the parakeet. Parrots have large heads and short necks, strong feet with two toes in front and two in back (facilitating  populations throughout the Neotropics (cf. Brooks et al. 2005). These small parakeets parakeets

one of the bird groups known as typical parrots in the family Psittacidae. Small parrots with long tails and include the budgerigar.
 seem to prefer forest ridges (1,000-2,000 m) with poor soil and stunted stunt 1  
tr.v. stunt·ed, stunt·ing, stunts
To check the growth or development of.

1. One that stunts.

2. One that is stunted.

 vegetation, a habitat that is more common to the west in Cajamarca Department. They can be fairly common in the proper habitat, although they are mainly seen in fast flying pairs or small groups, and are difficult to collect (JPO, unpubl, data).

Orange-throated Tanager (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron). Status: Vulnerable. The vast majority of the 54 specimens (LSUMZ 31457, 32891-32898, 34387-34422, 35352-35353, 42901, 48982-48983, 85547, 88971-88973; MVZ 165361) were prepared without data by Aguaruna Indians, as was the holotype (Lowery and O'Neill 1964). Of those identified to gender, five were males (Apr: testes = 12 x 7; Jul: 3 x 2; Aug: 2 X 1, 11 X 6 to 7; and Sep: 8 X 10 mm) and four were females (Apr: ovary = 11 ram, largest ovum 2.5 mm, brood brood
See litter.


offspring or pertaining to offspring.

brood mare
a mare dedicated to the production of foals.
 patch; Jul: 4 X 2; and Aug-Sep: 8 x 5 [n = 2]). Specimens with enlarged cloacal cloacal

emanating from or pertaining to cloaca.

cloacal kiss
the contact which occurs during insemination in birds when the vent of the female is everted exposing the cloacal mucosa against which the phallus of the male is pressed.
 protuberances in April, August, and September suggest a prolonged breeding season Breeding season is the most suitable season usually with favorable conditions and abundant food and water when wild animals and birds (wildlife) have naturally evolved to breed to achieve the best reproductive success. . Specimens were collected during April (n = 3), May (n = 4), July (n = 32), August (n = 10), and September (n = 5). All were collected in 1964 except for one in 1963, two in 1977, and three in 1978. Two stomachs contained "fruit" in April; one also contained seeds, pulp, and a beetle. Two females had a mass of 54 and 55 g in September and July, respectively, and a single male had a mass of 56 g in July. Six specimens were collected at Tutinum (250 m); four at Kustl on Rio Maranon (300 m); three each were from Chicais (350 m) and Nazareth (300 m); two each from Bashuim (400 m), Chiangkus (250 m), Comainas, Huampami (210 m), Quebrada Achunts (250 m), and 3.2 km west of Urakusa (250 m); and single specimens were from Chavez Valdivia (250 m), Chipi (300 m), Pagat (250 m), and Suwa (250 m). This species is probably common where it occurs (O'Neill 1969; ND, unpubl. data), but has a small geographic range threatened by habitat destruction Habitat destruction is a process of land use change in which one habitat-type is removed and replaced with another habitat-type. In the process of land-use change, plants and animals which previously used the site are displaced or destroyed, reducing biodiversity. . This bright tanager is restricted in its distribution to hills and low mountains at ~600 m, but it is not uncommon where the habitat is minimally impacted. It is almost entirely restricted to areas inhabited by indigenous Aguaruna and, thus, not easily encountered by people who are not native to the area (JPO, unpubl, data).

Migrants.--We report 14 species of Nearctic migrants and a single probable Nearctic migrant, one species with subspecies of both Nearctic and Austral migrants, and five species each for Austral migrants and probable Austral migrants. Catalog numbers of specimens in each account represent those containing data.

Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). Status: Nearctic migrant. Three female (ovary = 16 X 4, 17 X 7 [not enlarged], and 18 x 6 mm) specimens (LSUMZ 91602-91604) were collected on 14 November 1979 at La Poza (180 m). All three had little fat and were adults (skulls 100% ossified).

Swallow-tailed Kite kite, in aviation and recreation
kite, in aviation, aircraft restrained by a towline and deriving its lift from the aerodynamic action of the wind flowing across it.
 (Elanoides forficatus). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species could be a resident or a Nearctic or Austral migrant in Peru, although it is likely the latter given the date (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). A single male specimen (AMNH 185548) was collected on 17 July 1924 near Pomara (400 m).

Plumbeous Kite The Plumbeous Kite, Ictinia plumbea, is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes the eagles, hawks and Old World vultures.

The Plumbeous Kite breeds in the tropical New World, from eastern Mexico through Central America to Peru, Bolivia and
 (Ictinia plumbea). Status: probable Austral migrant. Three specimens (LSUMZ 84284, 87141, 91606) were collected on 15 August 1977, an unknown date in 1978, and 7 August 1979, respectively. Collecting localities were Caterpiza (200 m) and two sites along the Rio Comainas.

Purple Gallinule gallinule: see rail.

Any of several species of marsh birds (family Rallidae) found in temperate, tropical, and subtropical regions worldwide. Gallinules are about 12–18 in.
 (Porphyrio martinicus). Status: probable Nearctic migrant. This species is both resident and migratory migratory /mi·gra·to·ry/ (mi´grah-tor?e)
1. roving or wandering.

2. of, pertaining to, or characterized by migration; undergoing periodic migration.


emanating from or pertaining to migration.
 in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. Eleven specimens included at least one male (LSUMZ 98977) and six females (AMNH 406833; LSUMZ 87170, 98975, 98978; MUSM 55715572, 5575). Testes of the male measured 7 X 4 mm on 9 February; ovaries Ovaries
The female sex organs that make eggs and female hormones.

Mentioned in: Choriocarcinoma

ovaries (ō´v
 of females measured 24 X 7 (4 Nov), 10 X 5 (29 Jan), 6 X 2 (4 Feb), 15 X 8 (9 Feb), and 6 x 3 mm (11 Feb). All specimens were collected during 4 November to 11 February; one each during 1930 and 1978, and six during the early 1980s. One female had a mass of 210 g in November. Single specimens were collected from 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m) and Rio Cenepa, and six were collected from Caterpiza (200 m).

American Golden Plover plover (plŭv`ər), common name for some members of the large family Charadriidae, shore birds, small to medium in size, found in ice-free lands all over the world.  (Pluvialis dominica). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (ovary = 6 X 3 mm; LSUMZ 91633) was collected on 22 November 1979 at La Poza (180 m).

Spotted Sandpiper sandpiper, common name for some members of the large family Scolopacidae, small shore birds, including the snipe and the curlew. Sandpipers are wading birds with relatively long legs and long, slender bills for probing in the sand or mud for their prey—all  (Actitis macularius). Status: Nearctic migrant. Eleven specimens include at least three males (LSUMZ 87194, 91637; FMNH 424578) and six females (LSUMZ 84321, 87192-87193, 8719587196; MUSM 11929). Testes were 1 mm for a young male (skull 20% ossified) on 2 November and 2 mm for an adult male (skull 100% ossified) on 23 October. Ovaries ranged from 7 X 3 to 4 mm for three young females (skulls 10 to 30% ossified) to 10 X 2 mm for a young female (skull 30% ossified) between 22 October and 2 November. Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries ranging from 6 x 2.5 to 9 x 4 mm on 15 August and 2 November, respectively. All 11 specimens were collected during 15 August to 8 December, although eight were collected between 22 October and 2 November. Six specimens were collected in 1986, two in 1987, and one each in 1965, 1977, and 1979. A young male had a mass of 26 g on 2 November, four young females ranged from 28.5 to 34 g between 22 October and 2 November, and two adult females ranged from 29 to 32 g on 15 August and 2 November, respectively. Two young females had light fat on 2 November, an unknown gender adult had abundant fat on 24 October, and an adult and a young female had no fat on 15 August and 22 October, respectively. Six specimens were collected 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m), two at Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and single specimens at Huampami (230 m), Caterpiza (200 m), and Puerto Galilea (245 m).

Black-billed Cuckoo cuckoo, common name for members of the extensive avian family Cuculidae, including the ani and the roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions.  (Coccyzus erythropthalmus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single specimen (LSUMZ 87266) was collected in 1978 in the Rio Cenepa-Rio Comaina drainage.

Yellow-billed Cuckoo The Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus, is a cuckoo.

Adults have a long tail, brown above and black-and-white below, and a black curved bill with yellow especially on the lower mandible. The head and upper parts are brown and the underparts are white.
 (Coccyzus americanus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (AMNH 406982) was collected on 17 November 1929 along the Rio Cenepa.

Dark-billed Cuckoo The Dark-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus melacoryphus) is a species of cuckoo in the Cuculidae family.

It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.
 (Coccyzus melacoryphus). Status: Austral migrant. This species was represented by four specimens (HMNS 15481550; LSUMZ 87266), including a single female (ovary = 6 x 3 mm, ova minute) collected on 17 July 1978 at Huampami (213 m).

Grey Elaenia The Grey Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela.  (Myiopagis caniceps). Status: probable Austral migrant. A single male (testes = 2 X 4 mm; LSUMZ 64399) was collected on 17 July 1968, 4 km southwest of Chiriaco (500 m).

White-crested Elaenia The White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Peru, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Uruguay.  (Elaenia albiceps). Status: Austral migrant. A single specimen (LSUMZ 85202) was collected on 11 August 1977 at Shaim (400 m).

Western Wood Pewee pewee: see flycatcher.  (Contopus sordidulus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified; LSUMZ 88359) with a mass of 14.5 g and light fat was collected on 10 November 1978, 86 km northeast of Chiriaco (~320 m).

Eastern Wood Pewee The Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens, is a small Tyrant flycatcher. This bird and the Western Wood-Pewee were formerly considered to be a single species. The two species are virtually identical in appearance, and can be distinguished most easily by their calls.  (Contopus virens). Status: Nearctic migrant. This species was represented by at least three males (LSUMZ 93841; MUSM 5560, 11972) and two females (LSUMZ 93842, 99203). Testes were 1 x 0.5 mm for a young male (skull 95% ossified) on 26 October, and 3 X 1 mm for an adult male (skull 100% ossified) on 28 October. Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries measuring 2 x 4 and 3 x 6 mm on 7 November and 5 February, respectively. Two specimens were collected on 26 and 28 October, a third on 7 November, and two on 5 February. Two specimens each were collected during 1979 and 1980, and one was collected in 1987. A young male had a mass of 9 g on 26 October, and another (unknown gender, no date) was 14.5 g. A young male had no fat on 26 October, an adult male had moderate fat on 28 October, and an unknown gender (no date) had light fat. Three specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and one each at La Poza (180 m), Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and 86 km northeast of Chiriaco (300 m).

Alder Flycatcher The Alder Flycatcher, Empidonax alnorum, is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family.

Adults have olive-brown upperparts, browner on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have a white eye ring, white wing bars, a small bill and a short
 (Empidonax alnorum). Status: Nearctic migrant. Eleven specimens included four males (LSUMZ 78745-78746, 88361, 93844) and seven females (LSUMZ 88360, 93843, 99197, 99199; MUSM 55405541, 5559). A male had 2 X 3 mm testes on 7 November, and three additional (undated un·dat·ed  
1. Not marked with or showing a date: an undated letter; an undated portrait.

) males had testes ranging from 1 x 1 to 3 X 1 mm (mean = 2 x 1 mm). Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries measuring 3 x 2 and 4 x 2 mm (not enlarged) on 2 and 7 November, respectively. Reproductive data for five unknown age females are: two females had ovaries measuring 1 x 1 and 6 X 3 mm on 5 and 27 December, respectively, and three females measured 7 x 2, 2 X 1, and 7 x 3 mm on 12 January, 6 February, and 27 February, respectively. Three specimens were collected during 2 to 7 November, two on 5 and 27 December, one on 12 January, and two on 6 and 27 February; extreme dates are apparently 2 November to 27 February. A single specimen was collected in 1978, two in 1979, and five in the early 1980s. An adult male had a mass of 12 g on 7 November, and three males (no date) ranged from 8.5 to 11 g (mean = 9.8 g); an adult female was 11 g on 2 November. Two adult females had moderate fat on 2 and 7 November. Five specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and two each 20 km southwest Chiriaco, 43 km northeast Chiriaco (320 m), and at La Poza (180 m).

Swainson's Flycatcher The Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) is a species of bird in the Tyrannidae family. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.  (Myiarchus swainsoni). Status: Austral migrant. A single female (ovary = 4 x 3 mm; LSUMZ 34317) was collected on 16 August 1964 at Tutinum (250 m).

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus). Status: Austral migrant. This species was represented by six specimens, including a male (AMNH 185874) and three females (LSUMZ 85064; MVZ 165310; MUSM 10288). All four specimens were of the migratory subspecies M. m. solitarius rather than the resident nominate nom·i·nate  
tr.v. nom·i·nat·ed, nom·i·nat·ing, nom·i·nates
1. To propose by name as a candidate, especially for election.

2. To designate or appoint to an office, responsibility, or honor.
 subspecies. An adult (skull ossified) female with no fat had a granular granular /gran·u·lar/ (gran´u-lar) made up of or marked by presence of granules or grains.

1. Composed or appearing to be composed of granules or grains.

 ovary on 17 July, and another female had a 13 x 7 mm ovary on 18 August; these birds had a mass ,of 36.5 and 40 g, respectively. All four birds were collected during 17 July to 18 August; two during 1977, and one each in 1924 and 1980. Single specimens were collected at Pomara (400 m), Huampami (210 m), Shaim (400 m), and Quebrada Achunts (250 m).

Crowned Slaty slat·y  
adj. slat·i·er, slat·i·est
1. Composed of or resembling slate.

2. Having the color of slate.

Adj. 1.
 Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus). Status: Austral migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified) female (ovary = 6.5 X 2 ram; LSUMZ 85081) was collected on 29 August 1977. This specimen had a mass of 23 g with moderate fat; its stomach contained Hymenoptera insects, and was collected at Huampami (213 m).

Tropical Kingbird The Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) is a large tyrant flycatcher. This bird breeds from southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the USA through Central America, South America as far as south as central Argentina and western Peru, and on  (Tyrannus melancholicus). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. This species was represented by four males (LSUMZ 34311, 48839, 64327, 78724) and three females (LSUMZ 85078, 88337; AMNH 185932). An adult male (skull 100% ossified) had testes measuring 1 X 2 mm on 18 December, and three additional unknown age males had testes measuring: 5.5 x 3 (n = 1) on 17 July, and 2 X 1 mm (n = 2) on 3 August. An adult female (skull 100% ossified) had a 6 x 1.5 mm ovary on 10 August, and an unknown age female had a 2 X 3 mm ovary on 18 August. Six birds were collected during 17 July to 18 August, and an additional specimen was collected on 18 December. Single birds were collected in 1924, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1978, and two birds were collected during 1964. A male had slight fat on 17 July, and an adult female had little fat and a mass of 39 g on 10 August; another female was 20 g on 18 August. Two specimens were collected at Urakusa (250 m), and single specimens were collected at Pomara (400 m), Huampami (213 m), Kusu (250 m), 20 km southwest Chiriaco (518 m), and 4 km southwest Chiriaco (500 m).

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. This species was represented by 17 individuals, of which at least one was a male (LSUMZ 85256) and three were females (LSUMZ 99215; MUSM 11889; MVZ 161095). A female had a 6 X 2 mm ovary on 4 February, and a juvenile female (ova minute) with a mass of 18 g and no fat was collected in early September; another female (skull 95% ossified) was 14.5 g with abundant fat and was collected on 22 October. A male was collected on 11 August, and females in early September, 22 October, and 4 February; five unknown gender specimens were also collected on 2 February. One specimen was collected each in 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1987, and five during 1984. Six specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m) with single specimens at Shaim (400 m), Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and 19 km south-southwest of Nazareth (367 m).

Grey-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A young female (skull 75% ossified; LSUMZ 88638) with a 12 X 5 mm ovary and a mass of 31 g was collected on 3 November 1978, 43 km northeast Chiriaco (320 m). A second female (ovary = 5 X 3 mm) (LSUMZ 99235) was collected on 8 December 1979 at Caterpiza (200 m).

Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Status: Nearctic migrant. Forty specimens were represented by at least 15 males (including LSUMZ 88641-88643, 93063, 93066-93068, 99242; MUSM 4770-4771, 4800, 11946, 11966, 11977, 12001) and nine females (including LSUMZ 88639, 99244; MUSM 5499-5500, 5505, 5536, 5543, 5597, 5617). Testes ranged from 1 x 1 to 8 X 4 mm (mean = 2.6 X 1.5 mm, n = 15) for males collected during 19 October to 10 December, but 80% of the specimens had smaller testes (1 x 1 to 2 x 1.5mm, n = 12) and were the only age-known specimens (at least 2 sub-adults [skulls 75 to 80% ossified] and 4 adults [100% ossified]). Ovaries ranged from 4 X 1 to 7 x 3 mm (mean = 5.8 X 2.2 mm, n = 8) for females collected during 2 December to 7 February. All but one of the males (a Dec specimen) were collected 44 days earlier than the first female, perhaps to facilitate males establishing winter territories. Thirteen specimens were collected in the early 1980s, seven during 1979, five during 1987, and three during 1978. Mass of male specimens ranged from 21 to 31 g (mean = 25.8, n = 6) during 22 October to 8 November. Fat was recorded for five males between 19 and 22 October as none (n = 1), little or light (n = 3), or moderate (n = 1); an unknown gender individual had abundant fat on 25 October. Data on mass and fat were not provided for females. Twenty-four specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), five at Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), three 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m), two each at La Poza (180 m) and Cenepa/ Comainas Basin, and one at Campanquiz (1,148 m).

Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus). Status: Nearctic and Austral migrant. This species is often present in Peru throughout the year, as it is represented by subspecies that are Nearctic (V. o. olivaceus) and Austral (V. o. chivi) migrants (Schulenberg et al. 2007); both subspecies were present in the Pongos Basin. The Nearctic migrant (V. o. olivaceus) was represented by a single unknown gender individual (LSUMZ 99306) collected during February 1980 at Caterpiza (200 m). The Austral migrant (V. o. chivi) was represented by two adult (skulls 100% ossified) males (LSUMZ 89320; MVZ 165378) and one unknown gender younger (skull 80% ossified) individual (LSUMZ 93808). One adult male collected on 13 July had a mass of 11 g with moderate fat; the other adult male collected on 29 August was 15.3 g with light fat and testes measuring 1.5 x 1 mm. The young specimen collected on 4 October had moderate fat. One bird was collected each year from 1977 to 1979. Two stomachs contained insects. The two adults were collected at Huampami (213 m) and the young specimen was obtained at La Poza (180 m).

Yellow-green Vireo The Yellow-green Vireo, Vireo flavoviridis, is a small passerine bird. It breeds from the mountain ranges of western and eastern, north Mexico, (the Sierra Madre Occidentals and Sierra Madre Orientals), and southern Texas in the United States south to central Panama.  (Vireo flavoviridis). Status: Nearctic migrant. Nineteen specimens were collected including at least four males (LSUMZ 93804, 94206; MUSM 5530, 6032), 11 females (MUSM 5524-5525, 5529, 60306032, 10050; LSUMZ 93805, 93809-93810, 99297), and four unknown gender individuals (MUSM 5526-5528, 5531). Testes were 3 X 1 mm for a male collected on 25 January. Ovaries ranged from 1 x 1 to 7 X 3 mm (mean = 4.4 X 1.8 mm, n = 11) for females collected during 26 October to 8 February. Specimens (n = 19) were collected between 24 October and 8 February with four individuals (all unknown gender) collected on 2 February. Thirteen specimens were collected during the early 1980s and six during 1979. Adults (skulls 100% ossified), including a male and two females with little fat were collected on 24 October, 27 October, and 14 November, respectively, and the adult male contained Melastome fruit in his stomach. Sixteen specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and two at La Poza (180 m).

Canada Warbler warbler, name applied in the New World to members of the wood warbler family (Parulidae) and in the Old World to a large family (Sylviidae) of small, drab, active songsters, including the hedge sparrow, the kinglet, and the tailorbird of SE Asia,  (Wilsonia canadensis). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (ovary = 7 X 3 mm, LSUMZ 79030) and male (testes = 2 x 1 mm, LSUMZ 79031) were collected on 16 and 19 July 1974 with mass of 9 and 10 g, respectively, 20 km southwest Chiriaco at elevations of 457 and 518 m, respectively. A third unknown gender specimen with no data (LSUMZ 89215) was collected in 1974 in the Rio Cenepa-Rio Comaina drainage.

Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea). Status: Nearctic migrant. This species was represented by at least three males (two with data = LSUMZ 93322, 99271) and two females (LSUMZ 99269-99270). Males had testes measuring 3 X 1 and 6 X 3 mm on 5 November 1979 and 26 February 1980, respectively. Females were collected on 15 January 1980 and 11 February 1980; the ovary of the latter specimen measured 1 x 1 mm. All specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m).

Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified) female (ovary = 5 x 2 mm, not enlarged; LSUMZ 93321) was collected on 3 November 1979 with little fat at La Poza (180 m).


The Pongos Basin supports a rich avifauna and a high diversity of other taxa. Its fauna fauna

All the species of animals found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Five faunal realms, based on terrestrial animal species, are generally recognized: Holarctic, including Nearactic (North America) and Paleartic (Eurasia and northern Africa);
 and flora include both threatened species and species with limited geographic distributions, all of which are vulnerable to uncontrolled development (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). The presence of indigenous Aguaruna inhabiting the region has restricted development by people from outside their community, which translates directly to habitat protection for this region. Logging and other forest uses that may threaten bird conservation appear to occur at relatively low levels (Dauphine et al. 2008). Cracids are some of the best bio-indicators to measure sustainable harvest levels (Brooks 2006), and are often the first species to disappear due to overhunting (Brooks 1999). Six species of cracids present in the region are preferred food (Berlin and Berlin 1983) and their presence suggests the fauna in the region is not overharvested. The native inhabitants
:This article is about the video game. For Inhabitants of housing, see Residency
Inhabitants is an independently developed commercial puzzle game created by S+F Software. Details
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame.
 generally use their faunal fau·na  
n. pl. fau·nas or fau·nae
1. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group.

 resources in a sustainable fashion Sustainable fashion is fashion that is designed to be environmentally friendly. It is part of the larger trend of "ethical fashion," and according to the May 2007 Vogue appears not to be a short-term trend but one could last multiple seasons.  (Dauphine et al. 2008). Human-generated habitat disturbance in the region is not significant as roads, trails, and timber removal is minimal.

The governments of Peru and Ecuador established a transboundary protected area
This article refers to protected regions of environmental or cultural value. For the protected area of a cricket pitch, see cricket pitch.

Protected areas
 in 1998 to promote political stability in the region and to protect its contained biodiversity biodiversity: see biological diversity.

Quantity of plant and animal species found in a given environment. Sometimes habitat diversity (the variety of places where organisms live) and genetic diversity (the variety of traits expressed
 (Ponce and Ghersi 2003). In addition, the Peruvian government established (1999), and then expanded (2000), the Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone (IUCN IUCN

International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
 2007). This region presently includes the Pongos Basin and the Comaina and Cenepa river The Cenepa River rises in the Condor mountain range in Peru, South America and has a length of 185 km. It borders to the North on Ecuador, to the East on the districts of Río Santiago and Nieva, on the South with the district of Imaza, and on the West with Ecuador.  drainages. Habitat conservation To conserve habitat life for wild species and prevent their extinction or reduction in range is a priority of a great many groups that cannot be easily characterized in terms of any one ideology.  through creation of reserves with appropriate infrastructure is an important step for preservation of minimally impacted areas such as the Pongos Basin. However, population densities of the indigenous people continue to increase, as does their participation in the market economy, both of which will likely lead to a significant increase in the pressure for development of the area. Despite the existence of reserves, commercial logging and mining, as well as clearing for subsistence agriculture Subsistence agriculture (also known as self sufficiency in terms of agriculture) is a method of farming in which farmers plan to grow only enough food to feed the family farming, pay taxes or feudal dues, and perhaps provide a small marketable surplus.  are sure to increase with resulting habitat loss and degradation, and increased hunting eventually threatening populations of birds and other organisms.

Parks and other protected areas with appropriate infrastructure and long-term support, as well as sustainable development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union  projects that will provide direct economic benefit to the local people should help ensure the diverse communities of the region continue to thrive. Area conservation would benefit from further research and the assignment of reserve personnel, both of which appear to be currently lacking. Conservation education and outreach is urgently needed, primarily in colonist communities, where many people do not appear to be aware of the existence of protected areas or protected species in the region (ND, pers. obs.). Formal participation by Aguaruna and Huambisa residents in reserve protection and management should help ensure their success as protected areas.
APPENDIX. Avian inventory for the Pongos Basin lowlands and Cordillera
Campanquiz Highlands, Amazonas Department, Peru.

English name                         Family/Scientific name

Tinamous                             Tinamidae
  Grey Tinamou                         Tinamus too
  Great Tinamou                        T. major
  White-throated Tinamou               T. guttatus
  Cinereous Tinamou                    Crypturellus cinereus
  Little Tinamou                       C. soui
  Variegated Tinamou                   C. variegatus
  Bartlett's Tinamou                   C. bartletti
Grebes                               Podicipedidae
  Least Grebe                          Tachybaptus dominicus
  Pied-billed Grebe                    Podilymbus podiceps
Herons                               Ardeidae
  Striated Heron                       Butorides striata
  Rufescent Tiger Heron                Tigrisoma lineatum
Ducks/Geese/Swans                    Anatidae
  Blue-winged Teal                     Anas discors
  Masked Duck                          Nomonyx dominicus
Kites/Hawks/Eagles                   Accipitridae
  Grey-headed Kite                     Leptodon cayanensis
  Swallow-tailed Kite                  Elanoides forficatus
  Double-toothed Kite                  Harpagus bidentatus
  Plumbeous Kite                       Ictinia plumbea
  Bicolored Hawk                       Accipiter bicolor
  Black-faced Hawk                     Leucopternis melanops
  White Hawk                           L. albicollis
  Great Black Hawk                     Buteogallus urubitinga
  Roadside Hawk                        Buteo magnirostris
  Crested Eagle                        Morphnus guianensis
  Ornate Hawk-Eagle                    Spizaetus ornatus
  Black Hawk-Eagle                     S. tyrannus
Caracaras/Falcons                    Falconidae
  Red-throated Caracara                Ibycter americanus
  Laughing Falcon                      Herpetotheres cachinnans
  Barred Forest Falcon                 Micrastur ruficollis
  Slaty-backed Forest Falcon           M. mirandollei
  Collared Forest Falcon               M. semitorquatus
  Buckley's Forest Falcon              M. buckleyi
  Bat Falcon                           Falco rufigularis
  Orange-breasted Falcon               F. deiroleucus
Chachalacas/Curassows/Guans          Cracidae
  Speckled Chachalaca                  Ortalis guttata
  Spix's Guan                          Penelope jacquacu
  Common Piping Guan                   Pipile pipile
  Sickle-winged Guan                   Chamaepetes goudotii
  Nocturnal Curassow                   Nothocrax urumutum
  Salvin's Curassow                    Mitu salvini
New World Quail                      Odontophoridae
  Starred Wood Quail                   Odontophorus stellatus
Hoatzin                              Opisthocomidae
  Hoatzin                              Opisthocomus hoazin
Limpkin                              Aramidae
  Limpkin                              Aramus guarauna
Rails/Crakes/Coots                   Rallidae
  Chestnut-headed Crake                Anurolimnas castaneiceps
  Rufous-sided Crake                   Laterallus melanophaius
  Grey-breasted Crake                  L. exilis
  Grey-necked Wood Rail                Aramides cajanea
  Red-winged Wood Rail                 A. calopterus
  Uniform Crake                        Amaurolimnas concolor
  Purple Gallinule                     Porphyrio martinicus
Finfoots                             Heliornithidae
  Sungrebe                             Heliornis fulica
Sunbittern                           Eurypygidae
  Sunbittern                           Eurypyga helias
Plovers                              Charadriidae
  American Golden Plover               Pluvialis dominica
Sandpipers/Snipes                    Scolopacidae
  Spotted Sandpiper                    Actitis macularius
Pigeons/Doves                        Columbidae
  Pale-vented Pigeon                   Patagioenas cayennensis
  Plumbeous Pigeon                     P. plumbea
  Ruddy Pigeon                         P. subvinacea
  Blue Ground Dove                     Claravis pretiosa
  White-tipped Dove                    Leptotila verreauxi
  Grey-fronted Dove                    L. rufaxilla
  Sapphire Quail-Dove                  Geotrygon saphirina
  White-throated Quail-Dove            G. frenata
  Ruddy Quail-Dove                     G. montana
Cockatoos/Parrots                    Psittacidae
  Chestnut-fronted Macaw               Ara severus
  White-eyed Parakeet                  Aratinga leucophthalma
  Dusky-headed Parakeet                A. weddellii
  Painted Parakeet                     Pyrrhura picta
  Blue-winged Parrotlet                Forpus xanthopterygius
  Cobalt-winged Parakeet               Brotogeris cyanoptera
  Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet         Touit huetii
  Spot-winged Parrotlet                T. stictopterus
  Orange-cheeked Parrot                Pionopsitta barrabandi
  Blue-headed Parrot                   Pionus menstruus
  Red-billed Parrot                    P. sordidus
  Yellow-crowned Amazon                Amazona ochrocephala
  Orange-winged Amazon                 A. amazonica
  Mealy Amazon                         A. farinosa
Cuckoos                              Cuculidae
  Black-billed Cuckoo                  Coccyzus erythropthalmus
  Yellow-billed Cuckoo                 C. americanus
  Dark-billed Cuckoo                   C. melacoryphus
  Squirrel Cuckoo                      Piaya cayana
  Black-bellied Cuckoo                 P. melanogaster
  Greater Ani                          Crotophaga major
  Smooth-billed Ani                    C. ani
Owls                                 Strigidae
  Tropical Screech Owl                 Megascops choliba
  Tawny-bellied Screech Owl            M. watsonii
  Mottled Owl                          Strix virgata
  Black-banded Owl                     S. huhula
  Crested Owl                          Lophostrix cristata
  Spectacled Owl                       Pulsatrix perspicillata
  Ferruginous Pygmy Owl                Glaucidium brasilianum
Oilbird                              Steatornithidae
  Oilbird                              Steatornis caripensis
Potoos                               Nyctibiidae
  Great Potoo                          Nyctibius grandis
  Long-tailed Potoo                    N. aethereus
  Common Potoo                         N. griseus
  Rufous Potoo                         N. bracteatus
Nightjars                            Caprimulgidae
  Pauraque                             Nyctidromus albicollis
  Blackish Nightjar                    Caprimulgus nigrescens
Swifts                               Apodidae
  Grey-rumped Swift                    Chaetura cinereiventris
Hummingbirds                         Trochilidae
  White-tipped Sicklebill              Eutoxeres aquila
  Buff-tailed Sicklebill               E. condamini
  Rufous-breasted Hermit               Glaucis hirsutus
  Pale-tailed Barbthroat               Threnetes niger
  Green Hermit                         Phaethornis guy
  White-bearded Hermit                 P. hispidus
  Long-tailed Hermit                   P. superciliosus
  Koepcke's Hermit                     P. koepckeae
  Straight-billed Hermit               P. bourcieri
  Black-throated Hermit                P. atrimentalis
  Blue-fronted Lancebill               Doryfera johannae
  Grey-breasted Sabrewing              Campylopterus largipennis
  White-necked Jacobin                 Florisuga mellivora
  Fiery Topaz                          Topaza pyra
  Violet-headed Hummingbird            Klais guimeti
  Black-bellied Thorntail              Popelairia langsdorffi
  Spangled Coquette                    Lophornis stictolophus
  Fork-tailed Woodnymph                Thalurania furcata
  Golden-tailed Sapphire               Chrysuronia oenone
  Glittering-throated Emerald          Amazilia fimbriata
  Ecuadorian Piedtail                  Phlogophilus hemileucurus
  Gould's Jewelfront                   Heliodoxa aurescens
  Black-throated Brilliant             H. schreibersii
  Pink-throated Brilliant              H. gularis
  Black-eared Fairy                    Heliothryx auritus
  Amethyst Woodstar                    Calliphlox amethystina
Trogons                              Trogonidae
  Pavonine Quetzal                     Pharomachrus pavoninus
  Amazonian White-tailed Trogon        Trogon viridis
  Black-throated Trogon                T. rufus
Kingfishers                          Alcedinidae
  Ringed Kingfisher                    Megaceryle torquata
  Amazon Kingfisher                    Chloroceryle amazona
  Green Kingfisher                     C. americana
Motmots                              Momotidae
  Blue-crowned Motmot                  Momotus momota
  Rufous Motmot                        Baryphthengus martii
  Broad-billed Motmot                  Electron platyrhynchum
Jacamars                             Galbulidae
  White-eared Jacamar                  Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis
  Brown Jacamar                        Brachygalba lugubris
  Yellow-billed Jacamar                Galbula albirostris
  Bronzy Jacamar                       G. leucogastra
  Great Jacamar                        Jacamerops aureus
Puffbirds                            Bucconidae
  White-necked Puffbird                Notharchus macrorhynchos
  Pied Puffbird                        N. tectus
  Chestnut-capped Puffbird             Bucco macrodactylus
  Collared Puffbird                    B. capensis
  Striolated Puffbird                  Nystalus striolatus
  White-crested Puffbird               Malacoptila fusca
  Brown Nunlet                         Nonnula brunnea
  Black-fronted Nunbird                Monasa nigrifrons
  White-fronted Nunbird                M. morphoeus
  Yellow-billed Nunbird                M. flavirostris
  Swallow-winged Puffbird              Chelidoptera tenebrosa
Toucans/Barbets                      Ramphastidae
  Gilded Barbet                        Capito auratus
  Lemon-throated Barbet                Eubucco richardsoni
  Red-headed Barbet                    E. bourcierii
  Chestnut-tipped Toucanet             Aulacorhynchus derbianus
  Lettered Aracari                     Pteroglossus inscriptus
  Ivory-billed Aracari                 P. azara
  Chestnut-eared Aracari               P. castanotis
  Many-banded Aracari                  P. pluricinctus
  Golden-collared Toucanet             Selenidera reinwardtii
  Channel-billed Toucan                Ramphastos vitellinus
  Black-mandibled Toucan               R. ambiguus
  White-throated Toucan                R. tucanus
Woodpeckers                          Picidae
  Bar-breasted Piculet                 Picumnus aurifrons
  Lafresnaye's Piculet                 P. lafresnayi
  Rufous-breasted Piculet              P. rufiventris
  Yellow-tufted Woodpecker             Melanerpes cruentatus
  Little Woodpecker                    Veniliornis passerinus
  Red-stained Woodpecker               V. affinis
  White-throated Woodpecker            Piculus leucolaemus
  Spot-breasted Woodpecker             Chrysoptilus punctigula
  Scaly-breasted Woodpecker            Celeus grammicus
  Chestnut Woodpecker                  C. elegans
  Rufous-headed Woodpecker             C. spectabilis
  Lineated Woodpecker                  Dryocopus lineatus
  Red-necked Woodpecker                Campephilus rubricollis
  Crimson-crested Woodpecker           C. melanoleucus
Ovenbirds                            Furnariidae
  Pale-legged Hornero                  Furnarius leucopus
  Dark-breasted Spinetail              Synallaxis albigularis
  Dusky Spinetail                      S. moesta
  Ruddy Spinetail                      S. rutilans
  Ash-browed Spinetail                 Cranioleuca curtata
  Speckled Spinetail                   C. gutturata
  Slender-billed Xenops                Xenops tenuirostris
  Plain Xenops                         X. minutus
  Eastern Woodhaunter                  Hyloctistes subulatus
  Chestnut-winged Hookbill             Ancistrops strigilatus
  Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner        Philydor erythrocercum
  Bamboo Foliage-gleaner               Anabazenops dorsalis
  Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner        Automolus ochrolaemus
  Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner     A. rufpileatus
  Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner         A. infuscatus
  Brown-romped Foliage-gleaner         A. melanopezus
  Ruddy Foliage-gleaner                A. rubiginosus
  Short-billed Leaftosser              Sclerurus rufigularis
  Black-tailed Leaftosser              S. caudacutus
Woodcreepers                         Dendrocolaptidae
  Plain-brown Woodcreeper              Dendrocincla fuliginosa
  Long-tailed Woodcreeper              Deconychura longicauda
  Spot-throated Woodcreeper            D. stictolaema
  Olivaceous Woodcreeper               Sittasomus griseicapillus
  Wedge-billed Woodcreeper             Glyphorynchus spirurus
  Strong-billed Woodcreeper            Xiphocolaptes promeropirhyn-
  Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper         Dendrocolaptes certhia
  Ocellated Woodcreeper                Xiphorhynchus ocellatus
  Striped Woodcreeper                  X. obsoletos
  Elegant Woodcreeper                  X. elegans
  Buff-throated Woodcreeper            X. guttatus
  Red-billed Scythebill                Campyloramphus trochiliros-
Antbirds                             Thamnophilidae
  Fasciated Antshrike                  Cymbilaimus lineatus
  Undulated Antshrike                  Frederickena unduligera
  Great Antshrike                      Taraba major
  Castelnau's Antshrike                Thamnophilus cryptoleucus
  White-shouldered Antshrike           T. aethiops
  Plain-winged Antshrike               T. schistaceus
  Mouse-colored Antshrike              T. murinus
  Spot-winged Antshrike                Pygiptila stellaris
  Black Bushbird                       Neoctantes niger
  Russet Antshrike                     Thamnistes anabatinus
  Plain Antvireo                       Dysithamnus mentalis
  Dusky-throated Antshrike             Thamnomanes ardesiacus
  Cinereous Antshrike                  T. caesius
  Pygmy Antwren                        Myrmotherula brachyura
  Moustached Antwren                   M. ignota
  Stripe-chested Antwren               M. longicauda
  Plain-throated Antwren               M. hauxwelli
  Stipple-throated Antwren             M. haematonota
  Ornate Antwren                       M. ornate
  Rufous-tailed Antwren                M. erythrura
  White-flanked Antwren                M. axillaris
  Slaty Antwren                        M. schisticolor
  Long-winged Antwren                  M. longipennis
  Grey Antwren                         M. menetriesii
  Banded Antbird                       Dichrozona cincta
  Dugand's Antwren                     Herpsilochmus dugandi
  Grey Antbird                         Cercomacra cinerascens
  Blackish Antbird                     C. nigrescens
  Black Antbird                        C. serva
  White-browed Antbird                 Myrmoborus leucophrys
  Black-faced Antbird                  M. myotherinus
  Warbling Antbird                     Hypocnemis cantator
  Yellow-browed Antbird                H. hypoxantha
  Silvered Antbird                     Sclateria naevia
  Spot-winged Antbird                  Schistocichla leucostigma
  Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird     Myrmeciza castanea
  White-shouldered Antbird             M. melanoceps
  Sooty Antbird                        M. fortis
  White-plumed Antbird                 Pithys albifrons
  Bicolored Antbird                    Gymnopithys leucaspis
  Hairy-crested Antbird                Rhegmatorhina melanosticta
  Spot-backed Antbird                  Hylophylax naevius
  Scale-backed Antbird                 H. poecilonotus
  Reddish-winged Bare-eye              Phlegopsis erythroptera
Antthrushes/Antpittas                Formicariidae
  Rufous-capped Antthrush              Formicarius colma
  Black-faced Antthrush                F. analis
  Striated Antthrush                   Chamaeza nobilis
  Short-tailed Antthrush               C. campanisona
  Scaled Antpitta                      Grallaria guatimalensis
  Ochre-striped Antpitta               G. dignissima
  White-lored Antpitta                 Hylopezus fulviventris
  Thrush-like Antpitta                 Myrmothera campanisona
Gnateaters                           Conopophagidae
  Ash-throated Gnateater               Conopophaga peruviana
Tapaculos                            Rhinocryptidae
  Rusty-belted Tapaculo                Liosceles thoracicus
Cotingas                             Cotingidae
  Black-necked Red Cotinga             Phoenicircus nigricollis
  Brazilian Laniisoma                  Laniisoma elegans
  Masked Tityra                        Tityra semifasciata
  Black-crowned Tityra                 T. inquisitor
  Thrush-like Schiffornis              Schiffornis turdina
  Cinereous Mourner                    Laniocera hypopyrra
  Fiery-throated Fruiteater            Pipreola chlorolepidota
  Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater          P. frontalis
  White-browed Purpletuft              Iodopleura isabellae
  Chestnut-crowned Becard              Pachyramphus castaneus
  White-winged Becard                  P. polychopterus
  Black-capped Becard                  P. marginatus
  Pink-throated Becard                 Platypsaris minor
  Grey-tailed Piha                     Snowornis subalaris
  Screaming Piha                       Lipaugus vociferans
  Purple-throated Cotinga              Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema
  Plum-throated Cotinga                Cotinga maynana
  Spangled Cotinga                     C. cayana
  Bare-necked Fruitcrow                Gymnoderus foetidus
  Purple-throated Fruitcrow            Querula purpurata
  Amazonian Umbrellabird               Cephalopterus ornatus
  Andean Cock-of-the-rock              Rupicola peruvianus
Manakins                             Pipridae
  Jet Manakin                          Chloropipo unicolor
  Green Manakin                        C. holochlora
  White-bearded Manakin                Manacus manacus
  Blue-backed Manakin                  Chiroxiphia pareola
  Wire-tailed Manakin                  Pipra filicauda
  White-crowned Manakin                P. pipra
  Golden-headed Manakin                P. erythrocephala
  Blue-crowned Manakin                 Lepidothrix coronata
  Blue-rumped Manakin                  L. isidorei
  Western Striped Manakin              Machaeropterus striolatus
  Wing-barred Piprites                 Piprites chloris
Flycatchers                          Tyrannidae
  White-lored Tyrannulet               Ornithion inerme
  Forest Elaenia                       Myiopagis gaimardii
  Grey Elaenia                         M. caniceps
  White-crested Elaenia                Elaenia albiceps
  Streak-necked Flycatcher             Mionectes striaticollis
  Olive-striped Flycatcher             M. olivaceus
  Ochre-bellied Flycatcher             M. oleagineus
  Sepia-capped Flycatcher              Leptopogon amaurocephalus
  Spectacled Bristle Tyrant            Pogonotriccus orbitales
  Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant            Myiornis ecaudatus
  Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant           Lophotriccus vitiosus
  White-eyed Tody-Tyrant               Hemitriccus zosterops
  Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher        Poecilotriccus latirostris
  Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher        P. calopterum
  Common Tody-Flycatcher               Todirostrum cinereum
  Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher        T. chrysocrotaphum
  Ringed Antpipit                      Corythopis torquatus
  Olivaceous Flatbill                  Rhynchocyclus olivaceus
  Yellow-olive Flycatcher              Tolmomyias sulphurescens
  Zimmer's Flatbill                    T. assimilis
  Grey-crowned Flatbill                T. poliocephalus
  Orange-eyed Flatbill                 T. traylori
  Ochre-lored Flatbill                 T. flaviventris
  White-throated Spadebill             Platyrinchus mystaceus
  Golden-crowned Spadebill             P. coronatus
  Amazonian Royal Flycatcher           Onycorhynchus coronatus
  Ornate Flycatcher                    Myiotriccus ornatus
  Bran-colored Flycatcher              Myiophobus fasciatus
  Olive-crested Flycatcher             M. cryptoxanthus
  Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher              Terenotriccus erythrurus
  Tawny-breasted Myiobius              Myiobius villosus
  Whiskered Myiobius                   M. barbatus
  Black-tailed Myiobius                M. atricaudus
  Dwarf Tyranneutes                    Tyranneutes stolzmanni
  Cinnamon Neopipo                     Neopipo cinnamomea
  Fuscous Flycatcher                   Cnemotriccus fuscatus
  Euler's Flycatcher                   Lathrotriccus euleri
  Western Wood Pewee                   Contopus sordidulus
  Eastern Wood Pewee                   C. virens
  Alder Flycatcher                     Empidonax alnorum
  Black Phoebe                         Sayornis nigricans
  Drab Water Tyrant                    Ochthornis littoralis
  Long-tailed Tyrant                   Colonia colonus
  Bright-rumped Attila                 Attila spadiceus
  Greyish Mourner                      Rhytipterna simplex
  Dusky-capped Flycatcher              Myiarchus tuberculifer
  Swainson's Flycatcher                M. swainsoni
  Short-crested Flycatcher             M. ferox
  Lesser Kiskadee                      Philohydor lictor
  Great Kiskadee                       Pitangus sulphuratus
  Boat-billed Flycatcher               Megarhynchus pitangua
  Social Flycatcher                    Myiozetetes similis
  Grey-capped Flycatcher               M. granadensis
  Dusky-crested Flycatcher             M. luteiventris
  Streaked Flycatcher                  Myiodynastes maculatus
  Piratic Flycatcher                   Legatus leucophaius
  Crowned Slaty Flycatcher             Griseotyrannus
  Tropical Kingbird                    Tyrannus melancholicus
Swallows/Martins                     Hirundinidae
  White-banded Swallow                 Atticora fasciata
  White-thighed Swallow                Neochelidon tibialis
  Southern Rough-winged Swallow        Stelgidopteryx ruficollis
Wrens                                Troglodytidae
  Black-capped Donacobius              Donacobius atricapilla
  Thrush-like Wren                     Campylorhynchus turdinus
  Coraya Wren                          Thryothorus coraya
  Buff-breasted Wren                   T. leucotis
  House Wren                           Troglodytes aedon
  White-breasted Wood Wren             Henicorhina leucosticta
  Grey-breasted Wood Wren              H. leucophrys
  Southern Nightingale Wren            Microcerculus marginatus
  Musician Wren                        Cyphorhinus arada
Thrushes                             Turdidae
  Andean Solitaire                     Myadestes ralloides
  Grey-cheeked Thrush                  Catharus minimus
  Swainson's Thrush                    C. ustulatus
  Pale-eyed Thrush                     Platycichla leucops
  Black-billed Thrush                  Turdus ignobilis
  White-necked Thrush                  T. albicollis
Gnatcatchers                         Polioptilidae
  Tawny-faced Gnatwren                 Microbates cinereiventris
  Long-billed Gnatwren                 Ramphocaenus melanurus
Crows/Jays                           Corvidae
  Inca Jay                             Cyanocorax yncas
  Violaceous Jay                       C. violaceus
Vireos/Greenlets                     Vireonidae
  Red-eyed Vireo                       Vireo olivaceus
  Yellow-green Vireo                   V. flavoviridis
  Dusky-capped Greenlet                Hylophilus hypoxanthus
  Tawny-crowned Greenlet               H. ochraceiceps
  Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo            Vireolanius leucotis
New World Warblers                   Parulidae
  Canada Warbler                       Wilsonia canadensis
  Buff-rumped Warbler                  Phaeothlypis fulvicauda
Tanagers and Allies                  Thraupidae
  Black-and-white Tanager              Conothraupis speculigera
  Magpie Tanager                       Cissopis leverianus
  Yellow-throated Bush Tanager         Chlorospingus flavigularis
  Yellow-backed Tanager                Hemithraupis fiavicollis
  Fulvous Shrike-Tanager               Lanio fulvus
  Flame-crested Tanager                Tachyphonus cristatus
  Fulvous-crested Tanager              T. surinamus
  White-shouldered Tanager             T. luctuosus
  Red-crowned Ant Tanager              Habia rubica
  Scarlet Tanager                      Piranga olivacea
  Summer Tanager                       P. rubra
  Masked Crimson Tanager               Ramphocelus nigrogularis
  Silver-beaked Tanager                R. carbo
  Blue-grey Tanager                    Thraupis episcopus
  Palm Tanager                         T. palmarum
  Orange-throated Tanager              Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron
  Turquoise Tanager                    Tangara mexicana
  Paradise Tanager                     T. chilensis
  Green-and-gold Tanager               T. schrankii
  Golden Tanager                       T. arthus
  Yellow-bellied Tanager               T. xanthogastra
  Spotted Tanager                      T. punctata
  Bay-headed Tanager                   T. gyrola
  Masked Tanager                       T. nigrocincta
  Opal-rumped Tanager                  T. velia
  Opal-crowned Tanager                 T. callophrys
  Black-faced Dacnis                   Dacnis lineata
  Yellow-bellied Dacnis                D. flaviventer
  Blue Dacnis                          D. cayana
  Green Honeycreeper                   Chlorophanes spiza
  Short-billed Honeycreeper            Cyanerpes nitidus
  Purple Honeycreeper                  C. caeruleus
  Black-and-white Seedeater            Sporophila luctuosa
  Yellow-bellied Seedeater             S. nigricollis
  Chestnut-bellied Seedeater           S. castaneiventris
  Lesser Seed Finch                    Oryzoborus angolensis
Buntings/New World Sparrows          Emberizidae
and Allies
  Red-capped Cardinal                  Paroaria gularis
  Orange-billed Sparrow                Arremon aurantiirostris
  Yellow-browed Sparrow                Myospiza aurifrons
Grosbeaks/Saltators and Allies       Cardinalidae
  Greyish Saltator                     Saltator coerulescens
  Buff-throated Saltator               S. maximus
  Slate-colored Grosbeak               S. grossus
  Blue-black Grosbeak                  Cyanocompsa cyanoides
New World Blackbirds                 Icteridae
  Giant Cowbird                        Molothrus oryzivorus
  Moriche Oriole                       Icterus chrysocephalus
  Venezuelan Troupial                  I. icterus
  Yellow-rumped Cacique                Cacicus cela
  Ecuadorian Cacique                   C. sclateri
  Solitary Cacique                     C. solitarius
  Casqued Oropendola                   Clypicterus oseryi
  Crested Oropendola                   Psarocolius decumanus
  Russet-backed Oropendola             P. angustifrons
  Para Oropendola                      P. bifasciatus
Finches                              Fringillidae
  Thick-billed Euphonia                Euphonia laniirostris
  Bronze-green Euphonia                E. mesochrysa
  White-lored Euphoria                 E. chrysopasta
  White-vented Euphonia                E. minuta
  Orange-bellied Euphonia              E. xanthogaster

                                                  Lowlands   Highlands
English name                         Status (a)   (m asl)     (m asl)

  Grey Tinamou
  Great Tinamou                                     400        1,148
  White-throated Tinamou                          656-810      1,148
  Cinereous Tinamou                                 591
  Little Tinamou                                  213-400
  Variegated Tinamou
  Bartlett's Tinamou                                656
  Least Grebe                                       320
  Pied-billed Grebe                      D          656
  Striated Heron                                    591
  Rufescent Tiger Heron                             656
  Blue-winged Teal                       N          591
  Masked Duck                                       656
  Grey-headed Kite                                  210
  Swallow-tailed Kite                    A?         400
  Double-toothed Kite                               400
  Plumbeous Kite                         A?         656
  Bicolored Hawk                                  213-591
  Black-faced Hawk                       D        200-656
  White Hawk
  Great Black Hawk                                  656
  Roadside Hawk                                   210-320
  Crested Eagle
  Ornate Hawk-Eagle                                 200
  Black Hawk-Eagle                                200-300
  Red-throated Caracara
  Laughing Falcon                                 200-656
  Barred Forest Falcon                              200
  Slaty-backed Forest Falcon
  Collared Forest Falcon                            200
  Buckley's Forest Falcon                         210-213
  Bat Falcon                                        300
  Orange-breasted Falcon                            400
  Speckled Chachalaca                             200-656
  Spix's Guan                                     210-591
  Common Piping Guan
  Sickle-winged Guan                                793
  Nocturnal Curassow                              200-793       350
  Salvin's Curassow                                 793
New World Quail
  Starred Wood Quail                              200-210
  Hoatzin                                         210-656
  Limpkin                                           200
  Chestnut-headed Crake                           200-656
  Rufous-sided Crake                                591
  Grey-breasted Crake                               210
  Grey-necked Wood Rail                             591
  Red-winged Wood Rail                              210
  Uniform Crake                                     400
  Purple Gallinule                       N?       200-656
  Sungrebe                                        210-656
  Sunbittern                                        400
  American Golden Plover                 N          591
  Spotted Sandpiper                      N        213-810
  Pale-vented Pigeon                                591
  Plumbeous Pigeon                                  210
  Ruddy Pigeon                                    213-656
  Blue Ground Dove                                400-591
  White-tipped Dove                               200-400
  Grey-fronted Dove                               213-656
  Sapphire Quail-Dove                                          1,148
  White-throated Quail-Dove
  Ruddy Quail-Dove                                400-810
  Chestnut-fronted Macaw                          210-656
  White-eyed Parakeet                             213-656
  Dusky-headed Parakeet
  Painted Parakeet                                210-810
  Blue-winged Parrotlet                             656
  Cobalt-winged Parakeet                          320-656
  Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet                    210-213
  Spot-winged Parrotlet                  VU         400
  Orange-cheeked Parrot                             656
  Blue-headed Parrot                              591-810
  Red-billed Parrot                                 210
  Yellow-crowned Amazon                             656
  Orange-winged Amazon
  Mealy Amazon                                      656
  Black-billed Cuckoo                    N
  Yellow-billed Cuckoo                   N
  Dark-billed Cuckoo                     A
  Squirrel Cuckoo                                 210-656
  Black-bellied Cuckoo                              213
  Greater Ani                                       656
  Smooth-billed Ani                               305-656
  Tropical Screech Owl                            210-213
  Tawny-bellied Screech Owl                       210-591
  Mottled Owl                                       200
  Black-banded Owl                                210-591
  Crested Owl                                       656
  Spectacled Owl                                  210-656
  Ferruginous Pygmy Owl                           210-591
  Oilbird                                           732
  Great Potoo                                       210
  Long-tailed Potoo                               210-656
  Common Potoo                                      213
  Rufous Potoo                           D          213
  Pauraque                                        210-656
  Blackish Nightjar                               210-320
  Grey-rumped Swift                                 457
  White-tipped Sicklebill                         300-810
  Buff-tailed Sicklebill                          200-810
  Rufous-breasted Hermit                          100-656
  Pale-tailed Barbthroat                          200-810
  Green Hermit                                    793-850
  White-bearded Hermit                            210-656
  Long-tailed Hermit                              200-810
  Koepcke's Hermit                                300-518
  Straight-billed Hermit                          213-793
  Black-throated Hermit
  Blue-fronted Lancebill                          210-320
  Grey-breasted Sabrewing                         200-810
  White-necked Jacobin                              210
  Fiery Topaz
  Violet-headed Hummingbird                         400
  Black-bellied Thorntail                           210
  Spangled Coquette                                 400
  Fork-tailed Woodnymph                           200-850
  Golden-tailed Sapphire                          210-400
  Glittering-throated Emerald                     210-656
  Ecuadorian Piedtail                               793
  Gould's Jewelfront                              200-793
  Black-throated Brilliant                        793-823
  Pink-throated Brilliant                           793
  Black-eared Fairy                               213-400
  Amethyst Woodstar                               213-400
  Pavonine Quetzal                                305-656
  Amazonian White-tailed Trogon                   200-656
  Black-throated Trogon                             200
  Ringed Kingfisher                               656-810
  Amazon Kingfisher                                 367
  Green Kingfisher                                320-810
  Blue-crowned Motmot                               591
  Rufous Motmot                                   200-656
  Broad-billed Motmot                             200-591
  White-eared Jacamar
  Brown Jacamar                                     305
  Yellow-billed Jacamar                           200-810
  Bronzy Jacamar                                  210-656
  Great Jacamar                                   210-400
  White-necked Puffbird                           591-656
  Pied Puffbird
  Chestnut-capped Puffbird                        200-656
  Collared Puffbird                                 213
  Striolated Puffbird                               213
  White-crested Puffbird                          200-656
  Brown Nunlet                                      210
  Black-fronted Nunbird                           200-656
  White-fronted Nunbird                           200-793
  Yellow-billed Nunbird                           200-210
  Swallow-winged Puffbird
  Gilded Barbet                                   200-656
  Lemon-throated Barbet                           200-793
  Red-headed Barbet                                 793
  Chestnut-tipped Toucanet                          793
  Lettered Aracari                                210-656
  Ivory-billed Aracari                            200-762
  Chestnut-eared Aracari                            216
  Many-banded Aracari                             185-656
  Golden-collared Toucanet                        210-656
  Channel-billed Toucan                           210-656
  Black-mandibled Toucan
  White-throated Toucan                           210-656      1,148
  Bar-breasted Piculet                              810
  Lafresnaye's Piculet                            457-793
  Rufous-breasted Piculet                           367        1,148
  Yellow-tufted Woodpecker                        245-656
  Little Woodpecker                               200-656
  Red-stained Woodpecker                          210-656
  White-throated Woodpecker
  Spot-breasted Woodpecker                          210
  Scaly-breasted Woodpecker                       210-656
  Chestnut Woodpecker                             210-656      1,148
  Rufous-headed Woodpecker                        210-367
  Lineated Woodpecker                             450-810
  Red-necked Woodpecker                           200-656
  Crimson-crested Woodpecker                      200-656
  Pale-legged Hornero                             200-656
  Dark-breasted Spinetail                         210-591
  Dusky Spinetail                                 213-810
  Ruddy Spinetail                                   229
  Ash-browed Spinetail                              810
  Speckled Spinetail                              400-591
  Slender-billed Xenops                             213
  Plain Xenops                                    200-810
  Eastern Woodhaunter                             200-793
  Chestnut-winged Hookbill                        200-656
  Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner                   200-793
  Bamboo Foliage-gleaner                          213-656
  Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner                   213-300
  Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner                200-656
  Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner                    200-656
  Brown-romped Foliage-gleaner                    591-810
  Ruddy Foliage-gleaner                           210-793
  Short-billed Leaftosser                           656
  Black-tailed Leaftosser                         213-793
  Plain-brown Woodcreeper                         320-810
  Long-tailed Woodcreeper                           400
  Spot-throated Woodcreeper                         400
  Olivaceous Woodcreeper                            656
  Wedge-billed Woodcreeper                        200-810
  Strong-billed Woodcreeper                         793

  Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper                    200-656
  Ocellated Woodcreeper                           200-810
  Striped Woodcreeper                               591
  Elegant Woodcreeper                             213-591
  Buff-throated Woodcreeper                       200-591
  Red-billed Scythebill                           200-793

  Fasciated Antshrike                             200-656
  Undulated Antshrike                             213-793
  Great Antshrike                                 200-656
  Castelnau's Antshrike                             591
  White-shouldered Antshrike                        793
  Plain-winged Antshrike                          200-810
  Mouse-colored Antshrike                         200-656
  Spot-winged Antshrike                           591-656
  Black Bushbird                                  200-656
  Russet Antshrike                                             1,148
  Plain Antvireo                                    793
  Dusky-throated Antshrike                        200-810
  Cinereous Antshrike                             200-656
  Pygmy Antwren                                   200-810
  Moustached Antwren                              200-656
  Stripe-chested Antwren                            537
  Plain-throated Antwren                          200-656
  Stipple-throated Antwren                          793
  Ornate Antwren                                  591-810
  Rufous-tailed Antwren                           200-656
  White-flanked Antwren                           210-810
  Slaty Antwren                                   200-656
  Long-winged Antwren                             320-793
  Grey Antwren                                    200-810
  Banded Antbird                                    793
  Dugand's Antwren                                  591
  Grey Antbird                                    200-656
  Blackish Antbird                                  656
  Black Antbird                                   320-656
  White-browed Antbird                            210-656
  Black-faced Antbird                             200-810
  Warbling Antbird                                200-656
  Yellow-browed Antbird                           200-656
  Silvered Antbird                                  656
  Spot-winged Antbird                             200-793
  Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird                  810
  White-shouldered Antbird                        200-656
  Sooty Antbird                                     210
  White-plumed Antbird                            210-810
  Bicolored Antbird                               200-656
  Hairy-crested Antbird                             793
  Spot-backed Antbird                             200-793
  Scale-backed Antbird                            200-793      1,148
  Reddish-winged Bare-eye                           656
  Rufous-capped Antthrush
  Black-faced Antthrush                           300-656
  Striated Antthrush                                591
  Short-tailed Antthrush                            793
  Scaled Antpitta                                   400
  Ochre-striped Antpitta                            200
  White-lored Antpitta                   D          213
  Thrush-like Antpitta                            210-400
  Ash-throated Gnateater                          320-656
  Rusty-belted Tapaculo                           200-656      1,148
  Black-necked Red Cotinga                        210-656      1,148
  Brazilian Laniisoma                               656
  Masked Tityra                                   210-591
  Black-crowned Tityra                            213-367
  Thrush-like Schiffornis                         200-793
  Cinereous Mourner
  Fiery-throated Fruiteater                       210-213      1,148
  Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater                       793
  White-browed Purpletuft
  Chestnut-crowned Becard                           300
  White-winged Becard                             200-656
  Black-capped Becard
  Pink-throated Becard                              656
  Grey-tailed Piha                                793-810
  Screaming Piha                                  210-656
  Purple-throated Cotinga                           656
  Plum-throated Cotinga                             210
  Spangled Cotinga
  Bare-necked Fruitcrow                           210-656
  Purple-throated Fruitcrow                       200-656
  Amazonian Umbrellabird                                       1,148
  Andean Cock-of-the-rock                         210-400
  Jet Manakin                                       793
  Green Manakin                                   210-850
  White-bearded Manakin                           200-656
  Blue-backed Manakin                             200-656
  Wire-tailed Manakin                             200-656      1,148
  White-crowned Manakin                           400-793
  Golden-headed Manakin                           200-810
  Blue-crowned Manakin                            200-810
  Blue-rumped Manakin                             630-793
  Western Striped Manakin                         210-518
  Wing-barred Piprites                            210-656
  White-lored Tyrannulet                            656
  Forest Elaenia                                  400-500
  Grey Elaenia                           A?         500
  White-crested Elaenia                  A
  Streak-necked Flycatcher                          810
  Olive-striped Flycatcher                        210-810
  Ochre-bellied Flycatcher                        210-810
  Sepia-capped Flycatcher                         591-656
  Spectacled Bristle Tyrant                       793-810
  Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant                         400
  Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant                      200-656
  White-eyed Tody-Tyrant                          213-810
  Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher                   200-656
  Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher                   213-367
  Common Tody-Flycatcher
  Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher
  Ringed Antpipit                                 320-793
  Olivaceous Flatbill                             200-810
  Yellow-olive Flycatcher
  Zimmer's Flatbill                               210-656
  Grey-crowned Flatbill                             400
  Orange-eyed Flatbill                            200-656
  Ochre-lored Flatbill                            200-656
  White-throated Spadebill                          793
  Golden-crowned Spadebill                        400-810
  Amazonian Royal Flycatcher                      200-656
  Ornate Flycatcher                               793-810
  Bran-colored Flycatcher                           210
  Olive-crested Flycatcher
  Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher                         210-810
  Tawny-breasted Myiobius                         793-800
  Whiskered Myiobius                              200-656
  Black-tailed Myiobius                           591-656
  Dwarf Tyranneutes                               200-656
  Cinnamon Neopipo                                  793
  Fuscous Flycatcher                                210
  Euler's Flycatcher                                210
  Western Wood Pewee                     N          320
  Eastern Wood Pewee                     N        180-810
  Alder Flycatcher                       N        200-656
  Black Phoebe                                    320-810
  Drab Water Tyrant                                 245
  Long-tailed Tyrant                              367-656
  Bright-rumped Attila                            300-400
  Greyish Mourner                                 200-656
  Dusky-capped Flycatcher
  Swainson's Flycatcher                  A
  Short-crested Flycatcher                        200-656
  Lesser Kiskadee                                   325
  Great Kiskadee                                  200-656
  Boat-billed Flycatcher                          200-656
  Social Flycatcher                               305-518
  Grey-capped Flycatcher                          210-810
  Dusky-crested Flycatcher                          656
  Streaked Flycatcher                    A        210-400
  Piratic Flycatcher                              518-656
  Crowned Slaty Flycatcher               A          213

  Tropical Kingbird                      A?       213-518
  White-banded Swallow                            200-656
  White-thighed Swallow                           320-518
  Southern Rough-winged Swallow          A?       200-810
  Black-capped Donacobius                         367-656
  Thrush-like Wren                                  656
  Coraya Wren                                     200-656
  Buff-breasted Wren                                213
  House Wren                                        810
  White-breasted Wood Wren                        210-793
  Grey-breasted Wood Wren
  Southern Nightingale Wren                       200-656
  Musician Wren                                   210-367
  Andean Solitaire                                  793
  Grey-cheeked Thrush                    N        320-656
  Swainson's Thrush                      N        200-810      1,148
  Pale-eyed Thrush                                  400
  Black-billed Thrush                             200-656
  White-necked Thrush                             400-810
  Tawny-faced Gnatwren                              793
  Long-billed Gnatwren                            200-656
  Inca Jay
  Violaceous Jay                                  200-656      1,148
  Red-eyed Vireo                        N/A       210-656
  Yellow-green Vireo                     N        200-656
  Dusky-capped Greenlet                             300
  Tawny-crowned Greenlet                          210-793
  Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo
New World Warblers
  Canada Warbler                         N        457-518
  Buff-rumped Warbler                             213-810
Tanagers and Allies
  Black-and-white Tanager                         213-400
  Magpie Tanager                                  200-656
  Yellow-throated Bush Tanager                    793-810
  Yellow-backed Tanager                           200-591
  Fulvous Shrike-Tanager                          400-810      1,148
  Flame-crested Tanager                           200-656
  Fulvous-crested Tanager                         200-656
  White-shouldered Tanager                        200-300
  Red-crowned Ant Tanager                         213-656
  Scarlet Tanager                        N          656
  Summer Tanager                         N          591
  Masked Crimson Tanager                          210-656      1,148
  Silver-beaked Tanager                           200-810
  Blue-grey Tanager                               210-810
  Palm Tanager                                    210-810
  Orange-throated Tanager                VU         210
  Turquoise Tanager                               210-656
  Paradise Tanager                                200-656
  Green-and-gold Tanager                          185-810      1,148
  Golden Tanager
  Yellow-bellied Tanager                          210-793
  Spotted Tanager                                   793
  Bay-headed Tanager                              400-793      1,148
  Masked Tanager                                  210-793
  Opal-rumped Tanager                             210-400
  Opal-crowned Tanager                            210-213
  Black-faced Dacnis                              200-656
  Yellow-bellied Dacnis                           350-656
  Blue Dacnis                                     400-500
  Green Honeycreeper                              200-656
  Short-billed Honeycreeper                         656
  Purple Honeycreeper                             200-656
  Black-and-white Seedeater                       320-810
  Yellow-bellied Seedeater                        518-810
  Chestnut-bellied Seedeater                        367
  Lesser Seed Finch                               200-656
Buntings/New World Sparrows
and Allies
  Red-capped Cardinal                               656
  Orange-billed Sparrow                           210-810
  Yellow-browed Sparrow                           367-810
Grosbeaks/Saltators and Allies
  Greyish Saltator                                200-656
  Buff-throated Saltator                          200-656
  Slate-colored Grosbeak                          200-793
  Blue-black Grosbeak                             200-820
New World Blackbirds
  Giant Cowbird                                   245-656
  Moriche Oriole                                  210-810
  Venezuelan Troupial                               656
  Yellow-rumped Cacique                           210-656
  Ecuadorian Cacique                              210-213
  Solitary Cacique                                200-656
  Casqued Oropendola
  Crested Oropendola                              210-320
  Russet-backed Oropendola                        591-810      1,148
  Para Oropendola                                 213-400
  Thick-billed Euphonia                              210
  Bronze-green Euphonia                             793
  White-lored Euphoria                              213
  White-vented Euphonia                             200
  Orange-bellied Euphonia                         210-810

(a) D = Distributional record, VU = Vulnerable, N = Nearctic migrant,
A = Austral migrant, N? = probable Nearctic mgrant, and A? = probable
Austral migrant.


We thank T. S. Schulenberg for helping firm up species lists, providing localities for specimens from this region, and critically editing the manuscript. We are also grateful to Lars Pomara for preparing the map. Steve Cardiff Steve Cardiff is a Canadian politician. He currently represents the electoral district of Mount Lorne in the Yukon Legislative Assembly.

He is a member of the Yukon New Democratic Party.
 helped insure that we accounted for all the relevant specimens in the LSUMZ collections. Steve Cardiff also, along with Pete Capainolo (AMNH), and Carla Cicero and Juan Parra (MVZ), provided data from selected specimens. We thank Mildred Larson, Martha Jakway (deceased), and Jeanne Grover of the Instituto Linguistico de Verano for help in accurate location of some Aguaruna villages, as well as for their willingness to introduce JPO and colleagues to the Pongos Basin area in 1964. Finally, we are grateful to the following individuals and their respective institutions for providing material and/or providing access to collections and field logs: Steve Cardiff and Van Remsen at LSUMZ, Paul Sweet and Chris Blake at AMNH, Tom Schulenberg at FMNH, and Carla Cicero at MVZ. C. E. Braun, Terry Chesser, A1 Gardner, and an anonymous reviewer re·view·er  
One who reviews, especially one who writes critical reviews, as for a newspaper or magazine.


a person who writes reviews of books, films, etc.

Noun 1.
 commented on the manuscript and provided helpful suggestions.

Received 25 October 2007. Accepted 7 June 2008.


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BERLIN, B. AND J. P. O'NEILL. 1981. The pervasiveness of onomatopoeia onomatopoeia (ŏn'əmăt'əpē`ə) [Gr.,=word-making], in language, the representation of a sound by an imitation thereof; e.g., the cat mews. Poets often convey the meaning of a verse through its very sound.  in Aguaruna and Huambisa bird names. Journal of Ethnobiology 1:238-261.

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Branch of zoology dealing with the study of birds. Early writings on birds were largely anecdotal (including folklore) or practical (e.g., treatises on falconry and game-bird management).
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Of or relating to the preservation of peace, especially the supervision by international forces of a truce between hostile nations.

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DANIEL M. BROOKS, (1,6) JOHN R O'NEILL, (2) MERCEDES S. FOSTER, (3) TODD MARK, (1) NICO NICO Nissan Infiniti Car Owners
NICO Nicodemus National Historic Site (US National Park Service)
NICO Neuralgia-Induced Cavitational Osteonecrosis (medical)
NICO Naftiran Intertrade Co Ltd
 DAUPHINE, (4) AND IRMA An earlier trade name for a variety of host connectivity hardware and software products originally developed by Digital Communications Associates (DCA) and later acquired by Attachmate Corporation. Irma was not an acronym, rather it was the lady's name.  J. FRANKE (5)

(1) Houston Museum of Natural Science, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, 1 Hermann Circle Drive, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

(2) Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge Baton Rouge (băt`ən rzh) [Fr.,=red stick], city (1990 pop. 219,531), state capital and seat of East Baton Rouge parish, SE La. , LA 70803, USA.

(3) USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center The Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is a biological research center in Maryland. It is one of only 17 research centers in the United States run by the U.S. Geological Survey. It stands near the Patuxent River, for which it was named. , National Museum of Natural History, 10th and Constitution, NW, Washington, D.C., 20560, USA.

(4) Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia Organization
The President of the University of Georgia (as of 2007, Michael F. Adams) is the head administrator and is appointed and overseen by the Georgia Board of Regents.
, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

(5) Museo de Historia Natural, Casilla 14-0434, Lima 14, Peru.

(6) Corresponding author; e-mail:
TABLE 1. Unusual elevation ranges of avian species based on specimens
from the Pongos Basin and Cordillera Campanquiz, Peru.

English name                       Scientific name         records (m)

Great Tinamou                 Tinamus major               1,000 max (a)
White-throated Tinamou        T. guttatus                 1,100 max (c)
Sickle-winged Guan            Chamaepetes goudoth           900 min (a)
Sapphire Quail-Dove           Geotrygon saphirina         1,100 max (a)
White-throated Quail-Dove     G. frenata                    900 min (a)
Spot-winged Parrotlet         Touit stictopterus            600 min (a)
Koepcke's Hermit              Phaethornis koepckeae         450 min (c)
Blue-fronted Lancebill        Doryfera johannae             400 min (a)
Spangled Coquette             Lophornis stictolophus        500 min (a)
Red-headed Barbet             Eubucco bourcierii            900 min (a)
White-throated Toucan         Ramphastos tucanus          1,100 max (c)
Chestnut Woodpecker           Celeus elegans                800 max (a)
Bamboo Foliage-gleaner        Anabazenops dorsalis          350 min (a)
Slaty Antwren                 Myrmotherula schisticolor     800 min (c)
Black-necked Red Cotinga      Phoenicircus nigricollis      900 max (a)
Brazilian Laniisoma           Laniisoma elegans             700 min (a)
Fiery-throated Fruiteater     Pipreola chlorolepidota       300 min (b)
Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater   P. frontalis                  900 min (c)
Andean Cock-of-the-rock       Rupicola peruvianus           500 min (c)
Jet Manakin                   Chloropipo unicolor           900 min (c)
Green Manakin                 C. holochlora                 400 min (c)
Wire-tailed Manakin           Pipra filicauda               800 max (a)
Streak-necked Flycatcher      Mionectes striaticollis       500 min (c)
Cinnamon Neopipo              Neopipo cinnamomea            700 max (c)
Western Wood Pewee            Contopus sordidulus           600 min (c)
Pale-eyed Thrush              Platycichla leucops           850 min (a)
Masked Crimson Tanager        Ramphocelus nigrogularis    1,100 max (c)
Orange-throated Tanager       Wetmorethraupis               400 min (a)

English name                         New record(s)          Change (m)

Great Tinamou                 Campanquiz                    +148
White-throated Tinamou        Campanquiz                    +298
Sickle-winged Guan            Rio Kagka headwaters          -100
Sapphire Quail-Dove           Campanquiz                     +48
White-throated Quail-Dove     Shimpunts, Shaim              -500-600
Spot-winged Parrotlet         Pomara                        -200
Koepcke's Hermit              Nazareth, 43 km NE Chiriaco   -130-150
Blue-fronted Lancebill        Huampami, 43 km NE Chiriaco    -80-187
Spangled Coquette             Pomara                        -100
Red-headed Barbet             Rio Kagka headwaters          -100
White-throated Toucan         Campanquiz                     +48
Chestnut Woodpecker           Campanquiz                    +348
Bamboo Foliage-gleaner        Caterpiza, Huampami           -137-150
Slaty Antwren                 Caterpiza, Shaim              -400-600
Black-necked Red Cotinga      Campanquiz                    +248
Brazilian Laniisoma           Caterpiza                     -500
Fiery-throated Fruiteater     Huampami, Pagat                -50-87
Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater   Rio Kagka headwaters          -100
Andean Cock-of-the-rock       Huampami, Kusu, Quebrada      -100-287
                                Achunts, Nazereth,
                                Bashuin, Pomara
Jet Manakin                   Rio Kagka headwaters           -50
Green Manakin                 Villa Gonzalo, Huampami,      -100-200
                                Quebrada Achunts
Wire-tailed Manakin           Campanquiz                    +348
Streak-necked Flycatcher      Kusu                          -250
Cinnamon Neopipo              Rio Kagka headwaters          +100
Western Wood Pewee            La Poza, Caterpiza, 86 km     -280-420
                                NE Chiriaco
Pale-eyed Thrush              Pomara                        -450
Masked Crimson Tanager        Campanquiz                     -48
Orange-throated Tanager       Huampami, 3.2 km w of          -50-190
                                Urakusa, Chavez Valdivia,
                                Chiangkus, Pagat,
                                Quebrada Achunts, Suwa,
                                Tutinum, Chipi, Kusu on
                                the Rio Maranon,
                                Nazareth, Chicais

(a) Stotz et al. (1996).

(b) Hilty and Brown (1986).

(c) Schulenberg et al. (2007).
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Author:Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J
Publication:The Wilson Journal of Ornithology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3PERU
Date:Mar 1, 2009
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