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Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru.

A distinctive feature of the Peruvian Andes is the frequent presence of 'pongos', or water gaps, which are transverse openings in mountain ridges caused by tectonic activity. In some instances, rivers cut through sufficiently high uplifted areas to create valleys of considerable amplitude. The highest concentration of pongos in Peru is in northern Amazonas Department (Fig. 1), an area that geologists have aptly named the 'Pongos Basin' (Cobbing et al. 1981). The basin consists of a system of mesic valleys separated by relatively low ridgelines; the valleys are drained by north-south and south-north flowing rivers that enter the Maranon River as it flows toward the northeast. The basin is continuously bathed by humidity from the Amazon, and the dominant vegetation is humid lowland tropical forest. The valleys that form the adjacent upper Maranon drainage to the southwest, as well as the downstream middle Huallaga-Mayo Valley drainages to the east, are covered with dry forest. The Pongos Basin serves as a corridor for humid forest birds to cross the less restrictive narrows of the Maranon provided by the pongos. The area is occupied primarily by humid-forest species with affinities to Amazonian faunas rather than dry forest species.

This region can be difficult to work in due to territoriality by indigenous Jivaro-speaking people, represented by the Aguaruna and Huambisa Amerindians. More recently, periodic armed conflicts between Peru and Ecuador have also contributed to dangerous working conditions (Palmer 1997, Landmine Monitor 2005). Some ornithological work has occurred in the region despite the potential for adverse working conditions. Some of the most successful avian studies were conducted in tandem with anthropological studies (e.g., Berlin and O'Neill 1981, Berlin et al. 1981, Berlin and Berlin 1983, Boster et al. 1986).

Ornithological work in this region has primarily focused on single-species studies, including descriptions of new species (e.g., Lowery and O'Neill 1964) and breeding biology (e.g., Dauphine et al. 2007). Some general surveys were accomplished for threatened taxa (Davies et al. 1997), but comprehensive community-level studies are entirely lacking. Our objectives are to: (1) provide a comprehensive inventory of the region's avifauna, (2) compare highland versus lowland avifaunas, and (3) provide natural history accounts for distributional records, threatened taxa, and migrants, based on museum specimen data.


Description of the Study Region.--The study area comprises the entire Pongos Basin. Sixteen pongos exist along the Rio Maranon between Pongo de Rentama (upstream from Pomara) and Pongo de Manseriche (a short distance downstream from the Maranon/Santiago confluence). To the west the basin is circumscribed by distinct biogeographic boundaries: Cordillera de Colan, a high (3,000+ m) mountain area to the southwest; Pongo de Rentama, which creates a rapid transition from the dry Tumbesian upper Maranon Valley to wet Amazonian forest; Cordillera del Condor, a high (2,200+ m) mountain area that forms a natural border with Ecuador for most of its extension; and Pongo Paute, which separates the Cordillera del Condor from the Ecuadorian Cordillera de Cutucu, divided by the Santiago River. The Cordillera Campanquiz, a relatively low (1,800 m) mountain chain, forms the eastern border of Amazonas Department and is bisected by the Maranon River at Pongo de Manseriche. The Campanquiz Range is less of a biogeographic barrier than the other ranges, but these mountains may act as a filter for certain lowland species (e.g., varzea specialists) entering the Pongos Basin.

The principal area studied comprises habitats to an upper elevation limit of 900 m, known as the humid tropical zone (Parker et al. 1982) with lowland terra firme forest coveting most of the study region. We also report on a small collection of bird specimens from the western slope of the Campanquiz Range as a basis for comparing the avifaunal communities of the upper and lower humid tropical zones in this region.

History of Ornithological Fieldwork.--This region was the focus of one of the earliest attempts of exploration and colonization in Peru (Ulloa and Ulloa 1806), but our study area remained neglected by scientific explorers until ~80 years ago, mainly due to conflicts with native Amerindians. The first expedition into the area was led by Harry Watkins, who collected for the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) at Pomara during 1923 to 1924. Another relatively small collection was amassed by Jose Schunke during 1928 to 1930 near the mouths of the Cenepa and Santiago rivers (now part of AMNH's Bassler Collection).

A new impetus for collecting in the area was provided in the early 1960s by the discovery of the Orange-throated Tanager (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron) among a small collection of bird skins prepared by Aguaruna Amerindians and given to missionary Mildred Larsen (Lowery and O'Neill 1964). In 1964, missionaries Jeanne Grover and Martha Jakway invited JPO and John Farrand Jr. on an expedition to accompany them to find Wetmorethraupis in nature. That effort led JPO to undertake additional expeditions there, along with Louisiana State University Museum of Zoology (LSUMZ) staff and graduate students in 1968, 1973 to 1974; and 1977 to 1980. Peter Hocking, collecting for the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH), explored the Santiago Basin during 1965 to 1966, and again during 1972 to 1974. The Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California-Berkeley (MVZ) led an expedition near Nazareth in 1970, and a joint LSUMZ and MVZ expedition in which MSF participated visited the Huampami area in 1977. The first all-Peruvian expedition, Museo de Historia Natural, Lima (MUSM) collected at Falsa Paquisha in 1987, exploring the area around a newly established military base in the remote upper Cenepa Basin.

Data Compilation.--Available data (locality, dates, and gender in most cases) for all specimens from the localities in the Gazetteer (Fig. 1) were obtained from the respective museums in which the specimens were housed; the data were tabularized and condensed to an applicable format. Questions that arose regarding identification or data were resolved through direct examination of specimens, generally by at least one of the authors. Specimens housed at LSUMZ were partly examined by JPO, TM, and DMB. Specimens at MVZ were examined by MSE Specimens at MUSM were partly examined by IF, JPO, and TM. Specimens at AMNH and FMNH were partly examined by TM. Specimens at Houston Museum of Natural Science (HMNS) were examined by DMB, ND, and TM. For consistency we follow taxonomy of Gill and Wright (2006) despite some accepted changes since that publication.

Species Accounts.--We obtained known elevational ranges of the Pongos Basin species from Hilty and Brown (1986), Fjeldsa and Krabbe (1990), Stotz et al. (1996), and Schulenberg et al. (2007) and compared them to elevations at collecting sites. Basic biological information (e.g., mass, breeding condition, etc.) was available for some of the specimens. However, because of its magnitude, lack of uniformity among collectors, and absence from some of the museums' electronic data bases, we report biological information only for species of special interest. Accounts are provided for distributional records of selected taxa, as well as species of conservation concern (designated by Birdlife International 2006) as information about vulnerable species may contribute to their protection. We also provide information on both Nearctic and Austral migrant species as designated by Chesser (1994), Stotz et al. (1996), and Ridgely and Greenfield (2001). Many migrant species are well known in breeding areas but information on their winter distributions and biology is limited. Parametric biological data for species accounts were obtained from data bases or gleaned directly from specimen data tags by TM. We use the term "ossified" to refer to the condition of the skull as an indication of age because of its pervasiveness in the literature and on museum specimen labels.



Localities.--We considered specimens from 66 sampling sites with coordinates and seven additional generic localities for a total of 73 sites (Fig. 1). The sampling sites with coordinates were combined into 36 groups based upon close geographic proximity (Fig. 1). Generic localities, such as a river or basin, lacked any reference to the exact location.

Species Richness.--Four hundred and thirty-eight species in 52 families are presented (Appendix) from the ~4,000 specimens from the humid tropical zone region, most of which are housed at LSUMZ. Additionally, there were 36 specimens (25 species in 14 families) from the humid upper tropical zone region (Campanquiz; 1,148 m). An additional nine specimens could not be identified to species level, and were excluded from analyses.

In contrast, Berlin et al. (1981) found ~160 species during an ethno-zoological coding study, although they suggested the region could harbor as many as 500 species. Ted Parker found 210 predominantly Amazonian bird species during only a few days of surveys (27 Jul to 1 Aug 1993) at nearby Miazi, Ecuador in the Cordillera del Condor at the upper limit of the humid tropical zone (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). The present review, in which we report two to three times as many species as other nearby studies, reflects field work covering more seasons and sites.

The Campanquiz Highlands.--Thirty-six specimens representing 21 species were collected during 25-26 July 1964 and 17-20 November 1979 from the Campanquiz Range. All but one species were collected along the ridge; two female Nothocrax were collected at 350 m (Appendix). It is possible these two curassows were collected en-route to or from the higher site. Only three species present at the higher elevation were absent from the lower regions: Russet Antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus), Grey-breasted Wood Wren (Henicorhina leucophrys), and Golden Tanager (Tangara arthus) (Appendix). Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus; LSUMZ 93066, 17 Nov 1979) is the only migrant species collected from the Campanquiz Range.

Only a few days of collection at the Campanquiz highland site yielded 21 species, but only three species were unique to this higher elevation site. Tom Schulenberg and Walter Wust recorded 208 species during 3 weeks (14 Jul to 7 Aug 1994) of bird surveys at higher elevations (1,100-2,100 m) along the Peruvian side of the Cordillera del Condor (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Forty-four of these 208 species were found exclusively at upper elevations, and were not recorded at lower elevations surveyed by Ted Parker in Ecuador (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). Their 44 species versus our much lower number of three species is likely the result of differences in elevation of the sites (and associated habitats) surveyed.

Elevation Records.--We report 20 new low elevation records and eight new high elevation records (Table 1). Many changes in elevational range were significant. Species for which the lower elevation limit decreased by at least 600 m include White-throated Quail-Dove (Geotrygon frenata) and Slaty Antwren (Myrmotherula schisticolor). The upper elevation limit of eight species increased and seven of these records (87.5%) were based on specimens collected at the Campanquiz (1,148 m) site.

Of the 25 species collected at Campanquiz, 33% represented upper elevation records. This emphasizes the importance of including samples from this area to enhance understanding the role of elevation in affecting avifaunal community structure in this region. The Campanquiz Range is extremely isolated in a relatively homogeneous landscape of lowlands, and many individuals from lower elevations may regularly pass over the ridge (which is as low as 385-421 m in some areas), going east or west, or through the Pongo de Manseriche. The small amount of cloud forest at the top of the ridge would not likely present a barrier to lowland species and would not likely attract many upper zone tropical species.

Distribution Records.--We report important distributional records for four species at the levels of region (i.e., Amazonia), country or Department. Catalog numbers provided in each account represent specimens containing data. These records support the need for additional exploration of little known areas and suggest additional species are likely to be recorded from Peru.

Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps). This specimen is of the resident subspecies P. p. antarcticus (S. Cardiff in litt.) and appears to be the only record for the central (Restall et al. 2007) or western (Hilty and Brown 1986, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007) Amazon Basin. This also represents the first record for Amazonas Department. This specimen (LSUMZ 98965), a male (testes = 7 X 4 mm), may be a vagrant from the adjacent Andes (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and was collected on 7 February 1980 at Caterpiza (200 m).

Black-faced Hawk (Leucopternis melanops). The first specimen for Peru was a female (AMNH 255077) collected on 28 November 1925 at Boca Curaray, Loreto Department. Two specimens included in our study represent the second and third specimens for the country, and the first two specimens for Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). Two adult (skulls 100% ossified) females (ovary = 1 mm in one, smooth in the other; MVZ 165098, LSUMZ 84289) were collected on 3 and 6 August 1977. The stomach of one contained a snake; Orthopterans and other insects were found in the other stomach. These specimens had masses of 310 and 345 g with no fat, and both were collected at Huampami (210 m).

Rufous Potoo (Nyctibius bracteatus). The first specimen for Peru (AMNH 231045) was collected in 1937 at Apayacu, Loreto Department (Alvarez-Alonso and Whitney 2003). A specimen included in our study represents the second specimen for the country and the first specimen for Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). The adult (skull ossified) male (testes = 5 X 2.5 mm; LSUMZ 87299) had a mass of 48 g with little fat, and had insect remains in its stomach including beetle parts; it was collected on 5 August 1978 at Huampami (213 m).

White-lored Antpitta (Hylopezus fulviventris). This specimen represents the first specimen for Peru and Amazonas Department (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). The single adult (skull ossified) male (testes = ~6 x 2.5 mm; LSUMZ 88072) had a mass of 54 g with little fat, and was collected on 10 July 1978 at Huampami (230 m).

Threatened Species.--Two Vulnerable (Birdlife International 2006) species were recorded.

Spot-winged Parrotlet (Touit stictopterus). Status: Vulnerable. This species was represented by a single female (AMNH 185573) collected on 15 July 1924 near Pomara (400 m). The single specimen was collected more than 80 years ago, well before rampant pet bird trade diminished parrot populations throughout the Neotropics (cf. Brooks et al. 2005). These small parakeets seem to prefer forest ridges (1,000-2,000 m) with poor soil and stunted vegetation, a habitat that is more common to the west in Cajamarca Department. They can be fairly common in the proper habitat, although they are mainly seen in fast flying pairs or small groups, and are difficult to collect (JPO, unpubl, data).

Orange-throated Tanager (Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron). Status: Vulnerable. The vast majority of the 54 specimens (LSUMZ 31457, 32891-32898, 34387-34422, 35352-35353, 42901, 48982-48983, 85547, 88971-88973; MVZ 165361) were prepared without data by Aguaruna Indians, as was the holotype (Lowery and O'Neill 1964). Of those identified to gender, five were males (Apr: testes = 12 x 7; Jul: 3 x 2; Aug: 2 X 1, 11 X 6 to 7; and Sep: 8 X 10 mm) and four were females (Apr: ovary = 11 ram, largest ovum 2.5 mm, brood patch; Jul: 4 X 2; and Aug-Sep: 8 x 5 [n = 2]). Specimens with enlarged cloacal protuberances in April, August, and September suggest a prolonged breeding season. Specimens were collected during April (n = 3), May (n = 4), July (n = 32), August (n = 10), and September (n = 5). All were collected in 1964 except for one in 1963, two in 1977, and three in 1978. Two stomachs contained "fruit" in April; one also contained seeds, pulp, and a beetle. Two females had a mass of 54 and 55 g in September and July, respectively, and a single male had a mass of 56 g in July. Six specimens were collected at Tutinum (250 m); four at Kustl on Rio Maranon (300 m); three each were from Chicais (350 m) and Nazareth (300 m); two each from Bashuim (400 m), Chiangkus (250 m), Comainas, Huampami (210 m), Quebrada Achunts (250 m), and 3.2 km west of Urakusa (250 m); and single specimens were from Chavez Valdivia (250 m), Chipi (300 m), Pagat (250 m), and Suwa (250 m). This species is probably common where it occurs (O'Neill 1969; ND, unpubl. data), but has a small geographic range threatened by habitat destruction. This bright tanager is restricted in its distribution to hills and low mountains at ~600 m, but it is not uncommon where the habitat is minimally impacted. It is almost entirely restricted to areas inhabited by indigenous Aguaruna and, thus, not easily encountered by people who are not native to the area (JPO, unpubl, data).

Migrants.--We report 14 species of Nearctic migrants and a single probable Nearctic migrant, one species with subspecies of both Nearctic and Austral migrants, and five species each for Austral migrants and probable Austral migrants. Catalog numbers of specimens in each account represent those containing data.

Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors). Status: Nearctic migrant. Three female (ovary = 16 X 4, 17 X 7 [not enlarged], and 18 x 6 mm) specimens (LSUMZ 91602-91604) were collected on 14 November 1979 at La Poza (180 m). All three had little fat and were adults (skulls 100% ossified).

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species could be a resident or a Nearctic or Austral migrant in Peru, although it is likely the latter given the date (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.). A single male specimen (AMNH 185548) was collected on 17 July 1924 near Pomara (400 m).

Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea). Status: probable Austral migrant. Three specimens (LSUMZ 84284, 87141, 91606) were collected on 15 August 1977, an unknown date in 1978, and 7 August 1979, respectively. Collecting localities were Caterpiza (200 m) and two sites along the Rio Comainas.

Purple Gallinule (Porphyrio martinicus). Status: probable Nearctic migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. Eleven specimens included at least one male (LSUMZ 98977) and six females (AMNH 406833; LSUMZ 87170, 98975, 98978; MUSM 55715572, 5575). Testes of the male measured 7 X 4 mm on 9 February; ovaries of females measured 24 X 7 (4 Nov), 10 X 5 (29 Jan), 6 X 2 (4 Feb), 15 X 8 (9 Feb), and 6 x 3 mm (11 Feb). All specimens were collected during 4 November to 11 February; one each during 1930 and 1978, and six during the early 1980s. One female had a mass of 210 g in November. Single specimens were collected from 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m) and Rio Cenepa, and six were collected from Caterpiza (200 m).

American Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (ovary = 6 X 3 mm; LSUMZ 91633) was collected on 22 November 1979 at La Poza (180 m).

Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularius). Status: Nearctic migrant. Eleven specimens include at least three males (LSUMZ 87194, 91637; FMNH 424578) and six females (LSUMZ 84321, 87192-87193, 8719587196; MUSM 11929). Testes were 1 mm for a young male (skull 20% ossified) on 2 November and 2 mm for an adult male (skull 100% ossified) on 23 October. Ovaries ranged from 7 X 3 to 4 mm for three young females (skulls 10 to 30% ossified) to 10 X 2 mm for a young female (skull 30% ossified) between 22 October and 2 November. Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries ranging from 6 x 2.5 to 9 x 4 mm on 15 August and 2 November, respectively. All 11 specimens were collected during 15 August to 8 December, although eight were collected between 22 October and 2 November. Six specimens were collected in 1986, two in 1987, and one each in 1965, 1977, and 1979. A young male had a mass of 26 g on 2 November, four young females ranged from 28.5 to 34 g between 22 October and 2 November, and two adult females ranged from 29 to 32 g on 15 August and 2 November, respectively. Two young females had light fat on 2 November, an unknown gender adult had abundant fat on 24 October, and an adult and a young female had no fat on 15 August and 22 October, respectively. Six specimens were collected 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m), two at Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and single specimens at Huampami (230 m), Caterpiza (200 m), and Puerto Galilea (245 m).

Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single specimen (LSUMZ 87266) was collected in 1978 in the Rio Cenepa-Rio Comaina drainage.

Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (AMNH 406982) was collected on 17 November 1929 along the Rio Cenepa.

Dark-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus melacoryphus). Status: Austral migrant. This species was represented by four specimens (HMNS 15481550; LSUMZ 87266), including a single female (ovary = 6 x 3 mm, ova minute) collected on 17 July 1978 at Huampami (213 m).

Grey Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps). Status: probable Austral migrant. A single male (testes = 2 X 4 mm; LSUMZ 64399) was collected on 17 July 1968, 4 km southwest of Chiriaco (500 m).

White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps). Status: Austral migrant. A single specimen (LSUMZ 85202) was collected on 11 August 1977 at Shaim (400 m).

Western Wood Pewee (Contopus sordidulus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified; LSUMZ 88359) with a mass of 14.5 g and light fat was collected on 10 November 1978, 86 km northeast of Chiriaco (~320 m).

Eastern Wood Pewee (Contopus virens). Status: Nearctic migrant. This species was represented by at least three males (LSUMZ 93841; MUSM 5560, 11972) and two females (LSUMZ 93842, 99203). Testes were 1 x 0.5 mm for a young male (skull 95% ossified) on 26 October, and 3 X 1 mm for an adult male (skull 100% ossified) on 28 October. Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries measuring 2 x 4 and 3 x 6 mm on 7 November and 5 February, respectively. Two specimens were collected on 26 and 28 October, a third on 7 November, and two on 5 February. Two specimens each were collected during 1979 and 1980, and one was collected in 1987. A young male had a mass of 9 g on 26 October, and another (unknown gender, no date) was 14.5 g. A young male had no fat on 26 October, an adult male had moderate fat on 28 October, and an unknown gender (no date) had light fat. Three specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and one each at La Poza (180 m), Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and 86 km northeast of Chiriaco (300 m).

Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum). Status: Nearctic migrant. Eleven specimens included four males (LSUMZ 78745-78746, 88361, 93844) and seven females (LSUMZ 88360, 93843, 99197, 99199; MUSM 55405541, 5559). A male had 2 X 3 mm testes on 7 November, and three additional (undated) males had testes ranging from 1 x 1 to 3 X 1 mm (mean = 2 x 1 mm). Two adult females (skulls 100% ossified) had ovaries measuring 3 x 2 and 4 x 2 mm (not enlarged) on 2 and 7 November, respectively. Reproductive data for five unknown age females are: two females had ovaries measuring 1 x 1 and 6 X 3 mm on 5 and 27 December, respectively, and three females measured 7 x 2, 2 X 1, and 7 x 3 mm on 12 January, 6 February, and 27 February, respectively. Three specimens were collected during 2 to 7 November, two on 5 and 27 December, one on 12 January, and two on 6 and 27 February; extreme dates are apparently 2 November to 27 February. A single specimen was collected in 1978, two in 1979, and five in the early 1980s. An adult male had a mass of 12 g on 7 November, and three males (no date) ranged from 8.5 to 11 g (mean = 9.8 g); an adult female was 11 g on 2 November. Two adult females had moderate fat on 2 and 7 November. Five specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and two each 20 km southwest Chiriaco, 43 km northeast Chiriaco (320 m), and at La Poza (180 m).

Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni). Status: Austral migrant. A single female (ovary = 4 x 3 mm; LSUMZ 34317) was collected on 16 August 1964 at Tutinum (250 m).

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus). Status: Austral migrant. This species was represented by six specimens, including a male (AMNH 185874) and three females (LSUMZ 85064; MVZ 165310; MUSM 10288). All four specimens were of the migratory subspecies M. m. solitarius rather than the resident nominate subspecies. An adult (skull ossified) female with no fat had a granular ovary on 17 July, and another female had a 13 x 7 mm ovary on 18 August; these birds had a mass ,of 36.5 and 40 g, respectively. All four birds were collected during 17 July to 18 August; two during 1977, and one each in 1924 and 1980. Single specimens were collected at Pomara (400 m), Huampami (210 m), Shaim (400 m), and Quebrada Achunts (250 m).

Crowned Slaty Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus). Status: Austral migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified) female (ovary = 6.5 X 2 ram; LSUMZ 85081) was collected on 29 August 1977. This specimen had a mass of 23 g with moderate fat; its stomach contained Hymenoptera insects, and was collected at Huampami (213 m).

Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. This species was represented by four males (LSUMZ 34311, 48839, 64327, 78724) and three females (LSUMZ 85078, 88337; AMNH 185932). An adult male (skull 100% ossified) had testes measuring 1 X 2 mm on 18 December, and three additional unknown age males had testes measuring: 5.5 x 3 (n = 1) on 17 July, and 2 X 1 mm (n = 2) on 3 August. An adult female (skull 100% ossified) had a 6 x 1.5 mm ovary on 10 August, and an unknown age female had a 2 X 3 mm ovary on 18 August. Six birds were collected during 17 July to 18 August, and an additional specimen was collected on 18 December. Single birds were collected in 1924, 1968, 1974, 1977, 1978, and two birds were collected during 1964. A male had slight fat on 17 July, and an adult female had little fat and a mass of 39 g on 10 August; another female was 20 g on 18 August. Two specimens were collected at Urakusa (250 m), and single specimens were collected at Pomara (400 m), Huampami (213 m), Kusu (250 m), 20 km southwest Chiriaco (518 m), and 4 km southwest Chiriaco (500 m).

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis). Status: probable Austral migrant. This species is both resident and migratory in Peru (T. S. Schulenberg in litt.), and it is possible these specimens represent migrants. This species was represented by 17 individuals, of which at least one was a male (LSUMZ 85256) and three were females (LSUMZ 99215; MUSM 11889; MVZ 161095). A female had a 6 X 2 mm ovary on 4 February, and a juvenile female (ova minute) with a mass of 18 g and no fat was collected in early September; another female (skull 95% ossified) was 14.5 g with abundant fat and was collected on 22 October. A male was collected on 11 August, and females in early September, 22 October, and 4 February; five unknown gender specimens were also collected on 2 February. One specimen was collected each in 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1987, and five during 1984. Six specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m) with single specimens at Shaim (400 m), Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), and 19 km south-southwest of Nazareth (367 m).

Grey-cheeked Thrush (Catharus minimus). Status: Nearctic migrant. A young female (skull 75% ossified; LSUMZ 88638) with a 12 X 5 mm ovary and a mass of 31 g was collected on 3 November 1978, 43 km northeast Chiriaco (320 m). A second female (ovary = 5 X 3 mm) (LSUMZ 99235) was collected on 8 December 1979 at Caterpiza (200 m).

Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus). Status: Nearctic migrant. Forty specimens were represented by at least 15 males (including LSUMZ 88641-88643, 93063, 93066-93068, 99242; MUSM 4770-4771, 4800, 11946, 11966, 11977, 12001) and nine females (including LSUMZ 88639, 99244; MUSM 5499-5500, 5505, 5536, 5543, 5597, 5617). Testes ranged from 1 x 1 to 8 X 4 mm (mean = 2.6 X 1.5 mm, n = 15) for males collected during 19 October to 10 December, but 80% of the specimens had smaller testes (1 x 1 to 2 x 1.5mm, n = 12) and were the only age-known specimens (at least 2 sub-adults [skulls 75 to 80% ossified] and 4 adults [100% ossified]). Ovaries ranged from 4 X 1 to 7 x 3 mm (mean = 5.8 X 2.2 mm, n = 8) for females collected during 2 December to 7 February. All but one of the males (a Dec specimen) were collected 44 days earlier than the first female, perhaps to facilitate males establishing winter territories. Thirteen specimens were collected in the early 1980s, seven during 1979, five during 1987, and three during 1978. Mass of male specimens ranged from 21 to 31 g (mean = 25.8, n = 6) during 22 October to 8 November. Fat was recorded for five males between 19 and 22 October as none (n = 1), little or light (n = 3), or moderate (n = 1); an unknown gender individual had abundant fat on 25 October. Data on mass and fat were not provided for females. Twenty-four specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), five at Falsa Paquisha-PV 22 (810 m), three 43 km northeast of Chiriaco (320 m), two each at La Poza (180 m) and Cenepa/ Comainas Basin, and one at Campanquiz (1,148 m).

Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus). Status: Nearctic and Austral migrant. This species is often present in Peru throughout the year, as it is represented by subspecies that are Nearctic (V. o. olivaceus) and Austral (V. o. chivi) migrants (Schulenberg et al. 2007); both subspecies were present in the Pongos Basin. The Nearctic migrant (V. o. olivaceus) was represented by a single unknown gender individual (LSUMZ 99306) collected during February 1980 at Caterpiza (200 m). The Austral migrant (V. o. chivi) was represented by two adult (skulls 100% ossified) males (LSUMZ 89320; MVZ 165378) and one unknown gender younger (skull 80% ossified) individual (LSUMZ 93808). One adult male collected on 13 July had a mass of 11 g with moderate fat; the other adult male collected on 29 August was 15.3 g with light fat and testes measuring 1.5 x 1 mm. The young specimen collected on 4 October had moderate fat. One bird was collected each year from 1977 to 1979. Two stomachs contained insects. The two adults were collected at Huampami (213 m) and the young specimen was obtained at La Poza (180 m).

Yellow-green Vireo (Vireo flavoviridis). Status: Nearctic migrant. Nineteen specimens were collected including at least four males (LSUMZ 93804, 94206; MUSM 5530, 6032), 11 females (MUSM 5524-5525, 5529, 60306032, 10050; LSUMZ 93805, 93809-93810, 99297), and four unknown gender individuals (MUSM 5526-5528, 5531). Testes were 3 X 1 mm for a male collected on 25 January. Ovaries ranged from 1 x 1 to 7 X 3 mm (mean = 4.4 X 1.8 mm, n = 11) for females collected during 26 October to 8 February. Specimens (n = 19) were collected between 24 October and 8 February with four individuals (all unknown gender) collected on 2 February. Thirteen specimens were collected during the early 1980s and six during 1979. Adults (skulls 100% ossified), including a male and two females with little fat were collected on 24 October, 27 October, and 14 November, respectively, and the adult male contained Melastome fruit in his stomach. Sixteen specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m), and two at La Poza (180 m).

Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single female (ovary = 7 X 3 mm, LSUMZ 79030) and male (testes = 2 x 1 mm, LSUMZ 79031) were collected on 16 and 19 July 1974 with mass of 9 and 10 g, respectively, 20 km southwest Chiriaco at elevations of 457 and 518 m, respectively. A third unknown gender specimen with no data (LSUMZ 89215) was collected in 1974 in the Rio Cenepa-Rio Comaina drainage.

Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea). Status: Nearctic migrant. This species was represented by at least three males (two with data = LSUMZ 93322, 99271) and two females (LSUMZ 99269-99270). Males had testes measuring 3 X 1 and 6 X 3 mm on 5 November 1979 and 26 February 1980, respectively. Females were collected on 15 January 1980 and 11 February 1980; the ovary of the latter specimen measured 1 x 1 mm. All specimens were collected at Caterpiza (200 m).

Summer Tanager (Piranga rubra). Status: Nearctic migrant. A single adult (skull 100% ossified) female (ovary = 5 x 2 mm, not enlarged; LSUMZ 93321) was collected on 3 November 1979 with little fat at La Poza (180 m).


The Pongos Basin supports a rich avifauna and a high diversity of other taxa. Its fauna and flora include both threatened species and species with limited geographic distributions, all of which are vulnerable to uncontrolled development (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997). The presence of indigenous Aguaruna inhabiting the region has restricted development by people from outside their community, which translates directly to habitat protection for this region. Logging and other forest uses that may threaten bird conservation appear to occur at relatively low levels (Dauphine et al. 2008). Cracids are some of the best bio-indicators to measure sustainable harvest levels (Brooks 2006), and are often the first species to disappear due to overhunting (Brooks 1999). Six species of cracids present in the region are preferred food (Berlin and Berlin 1983) and their presence suggests the fauna in the region is not overharvested. The native inhabitants generally use their faunal resources in a sustainable fashion (Dauphine et al. 2008). Human-generated habitat disturbance in the region is not significant as roads, trails, and timber removal is minimal.

The governments of Peru and Ecuador established a transboundary protected area in 1998 to promote political stability in the region and to protect its contained biodiversity (Ponce and Ghersi 2003). In addition, the Peruvian government established (1999), and then expanded (2000), the Santiago-Comaina Reserved Zone (IUCN 2007). This region presently includes the Pongos Basin and the Comaina and Cenepa river drainages. Habitat conservation through creation of reserves with appropriate infrastructure is an important step for preservation of minimally impacted areas such as the Pongos Basin. However, population densities of the indigenous people continue to increase, as does their participation in the market economy, both of which will likely lead to a significant increase in the pressure for development of the area. Despite the existence of reserves, commercial logging and mining, as well as clearing for subsistence agriculture are sure to increase with resulting habitat loss and degradation, and increased hunting eventually threatening populations of birds and other organisms.

Parks and other protected areas with appropriate infrastructure and long-term support, as well as sustainable development projects that will provide direct economic benefit to the local people should help ensure the diverse communities of the region continue to thrive. Area conservation would benefit from further research and the assignment of reserve personnel, both of which appear to be currently lacking. Conservation education and outreach is urgently needed, primarily in colonist communities, where many people do not appear to be aware of the existence of protected areas or protected species in the region (ND, pers. obs.). Formal participation by Aguaruna and Huambisa residents in reserve protection and management should help ensure their success as protected areas.
APPENDIX. Avian inventory for the Pongos Basin lowlands and Cordillera
Campanquiz Highlands, Amazonas Department, Peru.

English name Family/Scientific name

Tinamous Tinamidae
 Grey Tinamou Tinamus too
 Great Tinamou T. major
 White-throated Tinamou T. guttatus
 Cinereous Tinamou Crypturellus cinereus
 Little Tinamou C. soui
 Variegated Tinamou C. variegatus
 Bartlett's Tinamou C. bartletti
Grebes Podicipedidae
 Least Grebe Tachybaptus dominicus
 Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps
Herons Ardeidae
 Striated Heron Butorides striata
 Rufescent Tiger Heron Tigrisoma lineatum
Ducks/Geese/Swans Anatidae
 Blue-winged Teal Anas discors
 Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus
Kites/Hawks/Eagles Accipitridae
 Grey-headed Kite Leptodon cayanensis
 Swallow-tailed Kite Elanoides forficatus
 Double-toothed Kite Harpagus bidentatus
 Plumbeous Kite Ictinia plumbea
 Bicolored Hawk Accipiter bicolor
 Black-faced Hawk Leucopternis melanops
 White Hawk L. albicollis
 Great Black Hawk Buteogallus urubitinga
 Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris
 Crested Eagle Morphnus guianensis
 Ornate Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus ornatus
 Black Hawk-Eagle S. tyrannus
Caracaras/Falcons Falconidae
 Red-throated Caracara Ibycter americanus
 Laughing Falcon Herpetotheres cachinnans
 Barred Forest Falcon Micrastur ruficollis
 Slaty-backed Forest Falcon M. mirandollei
 Collared Forest Falcon M. semitorquatus
 Buckley's Forest Falcon M. buckleyi
 Bat Falcon Falco rufigularis
 Orange-breasted Falcon F. deiroleucus
Chachalacas/Curassows/Guans Cracidae
 Speckled Chachalaca Ortalis guttata
 Spix's Guan Penelope jacquacu
 Common Piping Guan Pipile pipile
 Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudotii
 Nocturnal Curassow Nothocrax urumutum
 Salvin's Curassow Mitu salvini
New World Quail Odontophoridae
 Starred Wood Quail Odontophorus stellatus
Hoatzin Opisthocomidae
 Hoatzin Opisthocomus hoazin
Limpkin Aramidae
 Limpkin Aramus guarauna
Rails/Crakes/Coots Rallidae
 Chestnut-headed Crake Anurolimnas castaneiceps
 Rufous-sided Crake Laterallus melanophaius
 Grey-breasted Crake L. exilis
 Grey-necked Wood Rail Aramides cajanea
 Red-winged Wood Rail A. calopterus
 Uniform Crake Amaurolimnas concolor
 Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinicus
Finfoots Heliornithidae
 Sungrebe Heliornis fulica
Sunbittern Eurypygidae
 Sunbittern Eurypyga helias
Plovers Charadriidae
 American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica
Sandpipers/Snipes Scolopacidae
 Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius
Pigeons/Doves Columbidae
 Pale-vented Pigeon Patagioenas cayennensis
 Plumbeous Pigeon P. plumbea
 Ruddy Pigeon P. subvinacea
 Blue Ground Dove Claravis pretiosa
 White-tipped Dove Leptotila verreauxi
 Grey-fronted Dove L. rufaxilla
 Sapphire Quail-Dove Geotrygon saphirina
 White-throated Quail-Dove G. frenata
 Ruddy Quail-Dove G. montana
Cockatoos/Parrots Psittacidae
 Chestnut-fronted Macaw Ara severus
 White-eyed Parakeet Aratinga leucophthalma
 Dusky-headed Parakeet A. weddellii
 Painted Parakeet Pyrrhura picta
 Blue-winged Parrotlet Forpus xanthopterygius
 Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera
 Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet Touit huetii
 Spot-winged Parrotlet T. stictopterus
 Orange-cheeked Parrot Pionopsitta barrabandi
 Blue-headed Parrot Pionus menstruus
 Red-billed Parrot P. sordidus
 Yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala
 Orange-winged Amazon A. amazonica
 Mealy Amazon A. farinosa
Cuckoos Cuculidae
 Black-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus erythropthalmus
 Yellow-billed Cuckoo C. americanus
 Dark-billed Cuckoo C. melacoryphus
 Squirrel Cuckoo Piaya cayana
 Black-bellied Cuckoo P. melanogaster
 Greater Ani Crotophaga major
 Smooth-billed Ani C. ani
Owls Strigidae
 Tropical Screech Owl Megascops choliba
 Tawny-bellied Screech Owl M. watsonii
 Mottled Owl Strix virgata
 Black-banded Owl S. huhula
 Crested Owl Lophostrix cristata
 Spectacled Owl Pulsatrix perspicillata
 Ferruginous Pygmy Owl Glaucidium brasilianum
Oilbird Steatornithidae
 Oilbird Steatornis caripensis
Potoos Nyctibiidae
 Great Potoo Nyctibius grandis
 Long-tailed Potoo N. aethereus
 Common Potoo N. griseus
 Rufous Potoo N. bracteatus
Nightjars Caprimulgidae
 Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis
 Blackish Nightjar Caprimulgus nigrescens
Swifts Apodidae
 Grey-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris
Hummingbirds Trochilidae
 White-tipped Sicklebill Eutoxeres aquila
 Buff-tailed Sicklebill E. condamini
 Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsutus
 Pale-tailed Barbthroat Threnetes niger
 Green Hermit Phaethornis guy
 White-bearded Hermit P. hispidus
 Long-tailed Hermit P. superciliosus
 Koepcke's Hermit P. koepckeae
 Straight-billed Hermit P. bourcieri
 Black-throated Hermit P. atrimentalis
 Blue-fronted Lancebill Doryfera johannae
 Grey-breasted Sabrewing Campylopterus largipennis
 White-necked Jacobin Florisuga mellivora
 Fiery Topaz Topaza pyra
 Violet-headed Hummingbird Klais guimeti
 Black-bellied Thorntail Popelairia langsdorffi
 Spangled Coquette Lophornis stictolophus
 Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata
 Golden-tailed Sapphire Chrysuronia oenone
 Glittering-throated Emerald Amazilia fimbriata
 Ecuadorian Piedtail Phlogophilus hemileucurus
 Gould's Jewelfront Heliodoxa aurescens
 Black-throated Brilliant H. schreibersii
 Pink-throated Brilliant H. gularis
 Black-eared Fairy Heliothryx auritus
 Amethyst Woodstar Calliphlox amethystina
Trogons Trogonidae
 Pavonine Quetzal Pharomachrus pavoninus
 Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis
 Black-throated Trogon T. rufus
Kingfishers Alcedinidae
 Ringed Kingfisher Megaceryle torquata
 Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona
 Green Kingfisher C. americana
Motmots Momotidae
 Blue-crowned Motmot Momotus momota
 Rufous Motmot Baryphthengus martii
 Broad-billed Motmot Electron platyrhynchum
Jacamars Galbulidae
 White-eared Jacamar Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis
 Brown Jacamar Brachygalba lugubris
 Yellow-billed Jacamar Galbula albirostris
 Bronzy Jacamar G. leucogastra
 Great Jacamar Jacamerops aureus
Puffbirds Bucconidae
 White-necked Puffbird Notharchus macrorhynchos
 Pied Puffbird N. tectus
 Chestnut-capped Puffbird Bucco macrodactylus
 Collared Puffbird B. capensis
 Striolated Puffbird Nystalus striolatus
 White-crested Puffbird Malacoptila fusca
 Brown Nunlet Nonnula brunnea
 Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons
 White-fronted Nunbird M. morphoeus
 Yellow-billed Nunbird M. flavirostris
 Swallow-winged Puffbird Chelidoptera tenebrosa
Toucans/Barbets Ramphastidae
 Gilded Barbet Capito auratus
 Lemon-throated Barbet Eubucco richardsoni
 Red-headed Barbet E. bourcierii
 Chestnut-tipped Toucanet Aulacorhynchus derbianus
 Lettered Aracari Pteroglossus inscriptus
 Ivory-billed Aracari P. azara
 Chestnut-eared Aracari P. castanotis
 Many-banded Aracari P. pluricinctus
 Golden-collared Toucanet Selenidera reinwardtii
 Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus
 Black-mandibled Toucan R. ambiguus
 White-throated Toucan R. tucanus
Woodpeckers Picidae
 Bar-breasted Piculet Picumnus aurifrons
 Lafresnaye's Piculet P. lafresnayi
 Rufous-breasted Piculet P. rufiventris
 Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus
 Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus
 Red-stained Woodpecker V. affinis
 White-throated Woodpecker Piculus leucolaemus
 Spot-breasted Woodpecker Chrysoptilus punctigula
 Scaly-breasted Woodpecker Celeus grammicus
 Chestnut Woodpecker C. elegans
 Rufous-headed Woodpecker C. spectabilis
 Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus
 Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis
 Crimson-crested Woodpecker C. melanoleucus
Ovenbirds Furnariidae
 Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus
 Dark-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albigularis
 Dusky Spinetail S. moesta
 Ruddy Spinetail S. rutilans
 Ash-browed Spinetail Cranioleuca curtata
 Speckled Spinetail C. gutturata
 Slender-billed Xenops Xenops tenuirostris
 Plain Xenops X. minutus
 Eastern Woodhaunter Hyloctistes subulatus
 Chestnut-winged Hookbill Ancistrops strigilatus
 Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner Philydor erythrocercum
 Bamboo Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis
 Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner Automolus ochrolaemus
 Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner A. rufpileatus
 Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner A. infuscatus
 Brown-romped Foliage-gleaner A. melanopezus
 Ruddy Foliage-gleaner A. rubiginosus
 Short-billed Leaftosser Sclerurus rufigularis
 Black-tailed Leaftosser S. caudacutus
Woodcreepers Dendrocolaptidae
 Plain-brown Woodcreeper Dendrocincla fuliginosa
 Long-tailed Woodcreeper Deconychura longicauda
 Spot-throated Woodcreeper D. stictolaema
 Olivaceous Woodcreeper Sittasomus griseicapillus
 Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Glyphorynchus spirurus
 Strong-billed Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes promeropirhyn-
 Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper Dendrocolaptes certhia
 Ocellated Woodcreeper Xiphorhynchus ocellatus
 Striped Woodcreeper X. obsoletos
 Elegant Woodcreeper X. elegans
 Buff-throated Woodcreeper X. guttatus
 Red-billed Scythebill Campyloramphus trochiliros-
Antbirds Thamnophilidae
 Fasciated Antshrike Cymbilaimus lineatus
 Undulated Antshrike Frederickena unduligera
 Great Antshrike Taraba major
 Castelnau's Antshrike Thamnophilus cryptoleucus
 White-shouldered Antshrike T. aethiops
 Plain-winged Antshrike T. schistaceus
 Mouse-colored Antshrike T. murinus
 Spot-winged Antshrike Pygiptila stellaris
 Black Bushbird Neoctantes niger
 Russet Antshrike Thamnistes anabatinus
 Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis
 Dusky-throated Antshrike Thamnomanes ardesiacus
 Cinereous Antshrike T. caesius
 Pygmy Antwren Myrmotherula brachyura
 Moustached Antwren M. ignota
 Stripe-chested Antwren M. longicauda
 Plain-throated Antwren M. hauxwelli
 Stipple-throated Antwren M. haematonota
 Ornate Antwren M. ornate
 Rufous-tailed Antwren M. erythrura
 White-flanked Antwren M. axillaris
 Slaty Antwren M. schisticolor
 Long-winged Antwren M. longipennis
 Grey Antwren M. menetriesii
 Banded Antbird Dichrozona cincta
 Dugand's Antwren Herpsilochmus dugandi
 Grey Antbird Cercomacra cinerascens
 Blackish Antbird C. nigrescens
 Black Antbird C. serva
 White-browed Antbird Myrmoborus leucophrys
 Black-faced Antbird M. myotherinus
 Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis cantator
 Yellow-browed Antbird H. hypoxantha
 Silvered Antbird Sclateria naevia
 Spot-winged Antbird Schistocichla leucostigma
 Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird Myrmeciza castanea
 White-shouldered Antbird M. melanoceps
 Sooty Antbird M. fortis
 White-plumed Antbird Pithys albifrons
 Bicolored Antbird Gymnopithys leucaspis
 Hairy-crested Antbird Rhegmatorhina melanosticta
 Spot-backed Antbird Hylophylax naevius
 Scale-backed Antbird H. poecilonotus
 Reddish-winged Bare-eye Phlegopsis erythroptera
Antthrushes/Antpittas Formicariidae
 Rufous-capped Antthrush Formicarius colma
 Black-faced Antthrush F. analis
 Striated Antthrush Chamaeza nobilis
 Short-tailed Antthrush C. campanisona
 Scaled Antpitta Grallaria guatimalensis
 Ochre-striped Antpitta G. dignissima
 White-lored Antpitta Hylopezus fulviventris
 Thrush-like Antpitta Myrmothera campanisona
Gnateaters Conopophagidae
 Ash-throated Gnateater Conopophaga peruviana
Tapaculos Rhinocryptidae
 Rusty-belted Tapaculo Liosceles thoracicus
Cotingas Cotingidae
 Black-necked Red Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis
 Brazilian Laniisoma Laniisoma elegans
 Masked Tityra Tityra semifasciata
 Black-crowned Tityra T. inquisitor
 Thrush-like Schiffornis Schiffornis turdina
 Cinereous Mourner Laniocera hypopyrra
 Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota
 Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater P. frontalis
 White-browed Purpletuft Iodopleura isabellae
 Chestnut-crowned Becard Pachyramphus castaneus
 White-winged Becard P. polychopterus
 Black-capped Becard P. marginatus
 Pink-throated Becard Platypsaris minor
 Grey-tailed Piha Snowornis subalaris
 Screaming Piha Lipaugus vociferans
 Purple-throated Cotinga Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema
 Plum-throated Cotinga Cotinga maynana
 Spangled Cotinga C. cayana
 Bare-necked Fruitcrow Gymnoderus foetidus
 Purple-throated Fruitcrow Querula purpurata
 Amazonian Umbrellabird Cephalopterus ornatus
 Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruvianus
Manakins Pipridae
 Jet Manakin Chloropipo unicolor
 Green Manakin C. holochlora
 White-bearded Manakin Manacus manacus
 Blue-backed Manakin Chiroxiphia pareola
 Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda
 White-crowned Manakin P. pipra
 Golden-headed Manakin P. erythrocephala
 Blue-crowned Manakin Lepidothrix coronata
 Blue-rumped Manakin L. isidorei
 Western Striped Manakin Machaeropterus striolatus
 Wing-barred Piprites Piprites chloris
Flycatchers Tyrannidae
 White-lored Tyrannulet Ornithion inerme
 Forest Elaenia Myiopagis gaimardii
 Grey Elaenia M. caniceps
 White-crested Elaenia Elaenia albiceps
 Streak-necked Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis
 Olive-striped Flycatcher M. olivaceus
 Ochre-bellied Flycatcher M. oleagineus
 Sepia-capped Flycatcher Leptopogon amaurocephalus
 Spectacled Bristle Tyrant Pogonotriccus orbitales
 Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant Myiornis ecaudatus
 Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant Lophotriccus vitiosus
 White-eyed Tody-Tyrant Hemitriccus zosterops
 Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher Poecilotriccus latirostris
 Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher P. calopterum
 Common Tody-Flycatcher Todirostrum cinereum
 Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher T. chrysocrotaphum
 Ringed Antpipit Corythopis torquatus
 Olivaceous Flatbill Rhynchocyclus olivaceus
 Yellow-olive Flycatcher Tolmomyias sulphurescens
 Zimmer's Flatbill T. assimilis
 Grey-crowned Flatbill T. poliocephalus
 Orange-eyed Flatbill T. traylori
 Ochre-lored Flatbill T. flaviventris
 White-throated Spadebill Platyrinchus mystaceus
 Golden-crowned Spadebill P. coronatus
 Amazonian Royal Flycatcher Onycorhynchus coronatus
 Ornate Flycatcher Myiotriccus ornatus
 Bran-colored Flycatcher Myiophobus fasciatus
 Olive-crested Flycatcher M. cryptoxanthus
 Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Terenotriccus erythrurus
 Tawny-breasted Myiobius Myiobius villosus
 Whiskered Myiobius M. barbatus
 Black-tailed Myiobius M. atricaudus
 Dwarf Tyranneutes Tyranneutes stolzmanni
 Cinnamon Neopipo Neopipo cinnamomea
 Fuscous Flycatcher Cnemotriccus fuscatus
 Euler's Flycatcher Lathrotriccus euleri
 Western Wood Pewee Contopus sordidulus
 Eastern Wood Pewee C. virens
 Alder Flycatcher Empidonax alnorum
 Black Phoebe Sayornis nigricans
 Drab Water Tyrant Ochthornis littoralis
 Long-tailed Tyrant Colonia colonus
 Bright-rumped Attila Attila spadiceus
 Greyish Mourner Rhytipterna simplex
 Dusky-capped Flycatcher Myiarchus tuberculifer
 Swainson's Flycatcher M. swainsoni
 Short-crested Flycatcher M. ferox
 Lesser Kiskadee Philohydor lictor
 Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus
 Boat-billed Flycatcher Megarhynchus pitangua
 Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis
 Grey-capped Flycatcher M. granadensis
 Dusky-crested Flycatcher M. luteiventris
 Streaked Flycatcher Myiodynastes maculatus
 Piratic Flycatcher Legatus leucophaius
 Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Griseotyrannus
 Tropical Kingbird Tyrannus melancholicus
Swallows/Martins Hirundinidae
 White-banded Swallow Atticora fasciata
 White-thighed Swallow Neochelidon tibialis
 Southern Rough-winged Swallow Stelgidopteryx ruficollis
Wrens Troglodytidae
 Black-capped Donacobius Donacobius atricapilla
 Thrush-like Wren Campylorhynchus turdinus
 Coraya Wren Thryothorus coraya
 Buff-breasted Wren T. leucotis
 House Wren Troglodytes aedon
 White-breasted Wood Wren Henicorhina leucosticta
 Grey-breasted Wood Wren H. leucophrys
 Southern Nightingale Wren Microcerculus marginatus
 Musician Wren Cyphorhinus arada
Thrushes Turdidae
 Andean Solitaire Myadestes ralloides
 Grey-cheeked Thrush Catharus minimus
 Swainson's Thrush C. ustulatus
 Pale-eyed Thrush Platycichla leucops
 Black-billed Thrush Turdus ignobilis
 White-necked Thrush T. albicollis
Gnatcatchers Polioptilidae
 Tawny-faced Gnatwren Microbates cinereiventris
 Long-billed Gnatwren Ramphocaenus melanurus
Crows/Jays Corvidae
 Inca Jay Cyanocorax yncas
 Violaceous Jay C. violaceus
Vireos/Greenlets Vireonidae
 Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus
 Yellow-green Vireo V. flavoviridis
 Dusky-capped Greenlet Hylophilus hypoxanthus
 Tawny-crowned Greenlet H. ochraceiceps
 Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo Vireolanius leucotis
New World Warblers Parulidae
 Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis
 Buff-rumped Warbler Phaeothlypis fulvicauda
Tanagers and Allies Thraupidae
 Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera
 Magpie Tanager Cissopis leverianus
 Yellow-throated Bush Tanager Chlorospingus flavigularis
 Yellow-backed Tanager Hemithraupis fiavicollis
 Fulvous Shrike-Tanager Lanio fulvus
 Flame-crested Tanager Tachyphonus cristatus
 Fulvous-crested Tanager T. surinamus
 White-shouldered Tanager T. luctuosus
 Red-crowned Ant Tanager Habia rubica
 Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea
 Summer Tanager P. rubra
 Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis
 Silver-beaked Tanager R. carbo
 Blue-grey Tanager Thraupis episcopus
 Palm Tanager T. palmarum
 Orange-throated Tanager Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron
 Turquoise Tanager Tangara mexicana
 Paradise Tanager T. chilensis
 Green-and-gold Tanager T. schrankii
 Golden Tanager T. arthus
 Yellow-bellied Tanager T. xanthogastra
 Spotted Tanager T. punctata
 Bay-headed Tanager T. gyrola
 Masked Tanager T. nigrocincta
 Opal-rumped Tanager T. velia
 Opal-crowned Tanager T. callophrys
 Black-faced Dacnis Dacnis lineata
 Yellow-bellied Dacnis D. flaviventer
 Blue Dacnis D. cayana
 Green Honeycreeper Chlorophanes spiza
 Short-billed Honeycreeper Cyanerpes nitidus
 Purple Honeycreeper C. caeruleus
 Black-and-white Seedeater Sporophila luctuosa
 Yellow-bellied Seedeater S. nigricollis
 Chestnut-bellied Seedeater S. castaneiventris
 Lesser Seed Finch Oryzoborus angolensis
Buntings/New World Sparrows Emberizidae
and Allies
 Red-capped Cardinal Paroaria gularis
 Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris
 Yellow-browed Sparrow Myospiza aurifrons
Grosbeaks/Saltators and Allies Cardinalidae
 Greyish Saltator Saltator coerulescens
 Buff-throated Saltator S. maximus
 Slate-colored Grosbeak S. grossus
 Blue-black Grosbeak Cyanocompsa cyanoides
New World Blackbirds Icteridae
 Giant Cowbird Molothrus oryzivorus
 Moriche Oriole Icterus chrysocephalus
 Venezuelan Troupial I. icterus
 Yellow-rumped Cacique Cacicus cela
 Ecuadorian Cacique C. sclateri
 Solitary Cacique C. solitarius
 Casqued Oropendola Clypicterus oseryi
 Crested Oropendola Psarocolius decumanus
 Russet-backed Oropendola P. angustifrons
 Para Oropendola P. bifasciatus
Finches Fringillidae
 Thick-billed Euphonia Euphonia laniirostris
 Bronze-green Euphonia E. mesochrysa
 White-lored Euphoria E. chrysopasta
 White-vented Euphonia E. minuta
 Orange-bellied Euphonia E. xanthogaster

 Lowlands Highlands
English name Status (a) (m asl) (m asl)

 Grey Tinamou
 Great Tinamou 400 1,148
 White-throated Tinamou 656-810 1,148
 Cinereous Tinamou 591
 Little Tinamou 213-400
 Variegated Tinamou
 Bartlett's Tinamou 656
 Least Grebe 320
 Pied-billed Grebe D 656
 Striated Heron 591
 Rufescent Tiger Heron 656
 Blue-winged Teal N 591
 Masked Duck 656
 Grey-headed Kite 210
 Swallow-tailed Kite A? 400
 Double-toothed Kite 400
 Plumbeous Kite A? 656
 Bicolored Hawk 213-591
 Black-faced Hawk D 200-656
 White Hawk
 Great Black Hawk 656
 Roadside Hawk 210-320
 Crested Eagle
 Ornate Hawk-Eagle 200
 Black Hawk-Eagle 200-300
 Red-throated Caracara
 Laughing Falcon 200-656
 Barred Forest Falcon 200
 Slaty-backed Forest Falcon
 Collared Forest Falcon 200
 Buckley's Forest Falcon 210-213
 Bat Falcon 300
 Orange-breasted Falcon 400
 Speckled Chachalaca 200-656
 Spix's Guan 210-591
 Common Piping Guan
 Sickle-winged Guan 793
 Nocturnal Curassow 200-793 350
 Salvin's Curassow 793
New World Quail
 Starred Wood Quail 200-210
 Hoatzin 210-656
 Limpkin 200
 Chestnut-headed Crake 200-656
 Rufous-sided Crake 591
 Grey-breasted Crake 210
 Grey-necked Wood Rail 591
 Red-winged Wood Rail 210
 Uniform Crake 400
 Purple Gallinule N? 200-656
 Sungrebe 210-656
 Sunbittern 400
 American Golden Plover N 591
 Spotted Sandpiper N 213-810
 Pale-vented Pigeon 591
 Plumbeous Pigeon 210
 Ruddy Pigeon 213-656
 Blue Ground Dove 400-591
 White-tipped Dove 200-400
 Grey-fronted Dove 213-656
 Sapphire Quail-Dove 1,148
 White-throated Quail-Dove
 Ruddy Quail-Dove 400-810
 Chestnut-fronted Macaw 210-656
 White-eyed Parakeet 213-656
 Dusky-headed Parakeet
 Painted Parakeet 210-810
 Blue-winged Parrotlet 656
 Cobalt-winged Parakeet 320-656
 Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet 210-213
 Spot-winged Parrotlet VU 400
 Orange-cheeked Parrot 656
 Blue-headed Parrot 591-810
 Red-billed Parrot 210
 Yellow-crowned Amazon 656
 Orange-winged Amazon
 Mealy Amazon 656
 Black-billed Cuckoo N
 Yellow-billed Cuckoo N
 Dark-billed Cuckoo A
 Squirrel Cuckoo 210-656
 Black-bellied Cuckoo 213
 Greater Ani 656
 Smooth-billed Ani 305-656
 Tropical Screech Owl 210-213
 Tawny-bellied Screech Owl 210-591
 Mottled Owl 200
 Black-banded Owl 210-591
 Crested Owl 656
 Spectacled Owl 210-656
 Ferruginous Pygmy Owl 210-591
 Oilbird 732
 Great Potoo 210
 Long-tailed Potoo 210-656
 Common Potoo 213
 Rufous Potoo D 213
 Pauraque 210-656
 Blackish Nightjar 210-320
 Grey-rumped Swift 457
 White-tipped Sicklebill 300-810
 Buff-tailed Sicklebill 200-810
 Rufous-breasted Hermit 100-656
 Pale-tailed Barbthroat 200-810
 Green Hermit 793-850
 White-bearded Hermit 210-656
 Long-tailed Hermit 200-810
 Koepcke's Hermit 300-518
 Straight-billed Hermit 213-793
 Black-throated Hermit
 Blue-fronted Lancebill 210-320
 Grey-breasted Sabrewing 200-810
 White-necked Jacobin 210
 Fiery Topaz
 Violet-headed Hummingbird 400
 Black-bellied Thorntail 210
 Spangled Coquette 400
 Fork-tailed Woodnymph 200-850
 Golden-tailed Sapphire 210-400
 Glittering-throated Emerald 210-656
 Ecuadorian Piedtail 793
 Gould's Jewelfront 200-793
 Black-throated Brilliant 793-823
 Pink-throated Brilliant 793
 Black-eared Fairy 213-400
 Amethyst Woodstar 213-400
 Pavonine Quetzal 305-656
 Amazonian White-tailed Trogon 200-656
 Black-throated Trogon 200
 Ringed Kingfisher 656-810
 Amazon Kingfisher 367
 Green Kingfisher 320-810
 Blue-crowned Motmot 591
 Rufous Motmot 200-656
 Broad-billed Motmot 200-591
 White-eared Jacamar
 Brown Jacamar 305
 Yellow-billed Jacamar 200-810
 Bronzy Jacamar 210-656
 Great Jacamar 210-400
 White-necked Puffbird 591-656
 Pied Puffbird
 Chestnut-capped Puffbird 200-656
 Collared Puffbird 213
 Striolated Puffbird 213
 White-crested Puffbird 200-656
 Brown Nunlet 210
 Black-fronted Nunbird 200-656
 White-fronted Nunbird 200-793
 Yellow-billed Nunbird 200-210
 Swallow-winged Puffbird
 Gilded Barbet 200-656
 Lemon-throated Barbet 200-793
 Red-headed Barbet 793
 Chestnut-tipped Toucanet 793
 Lettered Aracari 210-656
 Ivory-billed Aracari 200-762
 Chestnut-eared Aracari 216
 Many-banded Aracari 185-656
 Golden-collared Toucanet 210-656
 Channel-billed Toucan 210-656
 Black-mandibled Toucan
 White-throated Toucan 210-656 1,148
 Bar-breasted Piculet 810
 Lafresnaye's Piculet 457-793
 Rufous-breasted Piculet 367 1,148
 Yellow-tufted Woodpecker 245-656
 Little Woodpecker 200-656
 Red-stained Woodpecker 210-656
 White-throated Woodpecker
 Spot-breasted Woodpecker 210
 Scaly-breasted Woodpecker 210-656
 Chestnut Woodpecker 210-656 1,148
 Rufous-headed Woodpecker 210-367
 Lineated Woodpecker 450-810
 Red-necked Woodpecker 200-656
 Crimson-crested Woodpecker 200-656
 Pale-legged Hornero 200-656
 Dark-breasted Spinetail 210-591
 Dusky Spinetail 213-810
 Ruddy Spinetail 229
 Ash-browed Spinetail 810
 Speckled Spinetail 400-591
 Slender-billed Xenops 213
 Plain Xenops 200-810
 Eastern Woodhaunter 200-793
 Chestnut-winged Hookbill 200-656
 Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner 200-793
 Bamboo Foliage-gleaner 213-656
 Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner 213-300
 Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner 200-656
 Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner 200-656
 Brown-romped Foliage-gleaner 591-810
 Ruddy Foliage-gleaner 210-793
 Short-billed Leaftosser 656
 Black-tailed Leaftosser 213-793
 Plain-brown Woodcreeper 320-810
 Long-tailed Woodcreeper 400
 Spot-throated Woodcreeper 400
 Olivaceous Woodcreeper 656
 Wedge-billed Woodcreeper 200-810
 Strong-billed Woodcreeper 793

 Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper 200-656
 Ocellated Woodcreeper 200-810
 Striped Woodcreeper 591
 Elegant Woodcreeper 213-591
 Buff-throated Woodcreeper 200-591
 Red-billed Scythebill 200-793

 Fasciated Antshrike 200-656
 Undulated Antshrike 213-793
 Great Antshrike 200-656
 Castelnau's Antshrike 591
 White-shouldered Antshrike 793
 Plain-winged Antshrike 200-810
 Mouse-colored Antshrike 200-656
 Spot-winged Antshrike 591-656
 Black Bushbird 200-656
 Russet Antshrike 1,148
 Plain Antvireo 793
 Dusky-throated Antshrike 200-810
 Cinereous Antshrike 200-656
 Pygmy Antwren 200-810
 Moustached Antwren 200-656
 Stripe-chested Antwren 537
 Plain-throated Antwren 200-656
 Stipple-throated Antwren 793
 Ornate Antwren 591-810
 Rufous-tailed Antwren 200-656
 White-flanked Antwren 210-810
 Slaty Antwren 200-656
 Long-winged Antwren 320-793
 Grey Antwren 200-810
 Banded Antbird 793
 Dugand's Antwren 591
 Grey Antbird 200-656
 Blackish Antbird 656
 Black Antbird 320-656
 White-browed Antbird 210-656
 Black-faced Antbird 200-810
 Warbling Antbird 200-656
 Yellow-browed Antbird 200-656
 Silvered Antbird 656
 Spot-winged Antbird 200-793
 Northern Chestnut-tailed Antbird 810
 White-shouldered Antbird 200-656
 Sooty Antbird 210
 White-plumed Antbird 210-810
 Bicolored Antbird 200-656
 Hairy-crested Antbird 793
 Spot-backed Antbird 200-793
 Scale-backed Antbird 200-793 1,148
 Reddish-winged Bare-eye 656
 Rufous-capped Antthrush
 Black-faced Antthrush 300-656
 Striated Antthrush 591
 Short-tailed Antthrush 793
 Scaled Antpitta 400
 Ochre-striped Antpitta 200
 White-lored Antpitta D 213
 Thrush-like Antpitta 210-400
 Ash-throated Gnateater 320-656
 Rusty-belted Tapaculo 200-656 1,148
 Black-necked Red Cotinga 210-656 1,148
 Brazilian Laniisoma 656
 Masked Tityra 210-591
 Black-crowned Tityra 213-367
 Thrush-like Schiffornis 200-793
 Cinereous Mourner
 Fiery-throated Fruiteater 210-213 1,148
 Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater 793
 White-browed Purpletuft
 Chestnut-crowned Becard 300
 White-winged Becard 200-656
 Black-capped Becard
 Pink-throated Becard 656
 Grey-tailed Piha 793-810
 Screaming Piha 210-656
 Purple-throated Cotinga 656
 Plum-throated Cotinga 210
 Spangled Cotinga
 Bare-necked Fruitcrow 210-656
 Purple-throated Fruitcrow 200-656
 Amazonian Umbrellabird 1,148
 Andean Cock-of-the-rock 210-400
 Jet Manakin 793
 Green Manakin 210-850
 White-bearded Manakin 200-656
 Blue-backed Manakin 200-656
 Wire-tailed Manakin 200-656 1,148
 White-crowned Manakin 400-793
 Golden-headed Manakin 200-810
 Blue-crowned Manakin 200-810
 Blue-rumped Manakin 630-793
 Western Striped Manakin 210-518
 Wing-barred Piprites 210-656
 White-lored Tyrannulet 656
 Forest Elaenia 400-500
 Grey Elaenia A? 500
 White-crested Elaenia A
 Streak-necked Flycatcher 810
 Olive-striped Flycatcher 210-810
 Ochre-bellied Flycatcher 210-810
 Sepia-capped Flycatcher 591-656
 Spectacled Bristle Tyrant 793-810
 Short-tailed Pygmy Tyrant 400
 Double-banded Pygmy Tyrant 200-656
 White-eyed Tody-Tyrant 213-810
 Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher 200-656
 Golden-winged Tody-Flycatcher 213-367
 Common Tody-Flycatcher
 Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher
 Ringed Antpipit 320-793
 Olivaceous Flatbill 200-810
 Yellow-olive Flycatcher
 Zimmer's Flatbill 210-656
 Grey-crowned Flatbill 400
 Orange-eyed Flatbill 200-656
 Ochre-lored Flatbill 200-656
 White-throated Spadebill 793
 Golden-crowned Spadebill 400-810
 Amazonian Royal Flycatcher 200-656
 Ornate Flycatcher 793-810
 Bran-colored Flycatcher 210
 Olive-crested Flycatcher
 Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher 210-810
 Tawny-breasted Myiobius 793-800
 Whiskered Myiobius 200-656
 Black-tailed Myiobius 591-656
 Dwarf Tyranneutes 200-656
 Cinnamon Neopipo 793
 Fuscous Flycatcher 210
 Euler's Flycatcher 210
 Western Wood Pewee N 320
 Eastern Wood Pewee N 180-810
 Alder Flycatcher N 200-656
 Black Phoebe 320-810
 Drab Water Tyrant 245
 Long-tailed Tyrant 367-656
 Bright-rumped Attila 300-400
 Greyish Mourner 200-656
 Dusky-capped Flycatcher
 Swainson's Flycatcher A
 Short-crested Flycatcher 200-656
 Lesser Kiskadee 325
 Great Kiskadee 200-656
 Boat-billed Flycatcher 200-656
 Social Flycatcher 305-518
 Grey-capped Flycatcher 210-810
 Dusky-crested Flycatcher 656
 Streaked Flycatcher A 210-400
 Piratic Flycatcher 518-656
 Crowned Slaty Flycatcher A 213

 Tropical Kingbird A? 213-518
 White-banded Swallow 200-656
 White-thighed Swallow 320-518
 Southern Rough-winged Swallow A? 200-810
 Black-capped Donacobius 367-656
 Thrush-like Wren 656
 Coraya Wren 200-656
 Buff-breasted Wren 213
 House Wren 810
 White-breasted Wood Wren 210-793
 Grey-breasted Wood Wren
 Southern Nightingale Wren 200-656
 Musician Wren 210-367
 Andean Solitaire 793
 Grey-cheeked Thrush N 320-656
 Swainson's Thrush N 200-810 1,148
 Pale-eyed Thrush 400
 Black-billed Thrush 200-656
 White-necked Thrush 400-810
 Tawny-faced Gnatwren 793
 Long-billed Gnatwren 200-656
 Inca Jay
 Violaceous Jay 200-656 1,148
 Red-eyed Vireo N/A 210-656
 Yellow-green Vireo N 200-656
 Dusky-capped Greenlet 300
 Tawny-crowned Greenlet 210-793
 Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo
New World Warblers
 Canada Warbler N 457-518
 Buff-rumped Warbler 213-810
Tanagers and Allies
 Black-and-white Tanager 213-400
 Magpie Tanager 200-656
 Yellow-throated Bush Tanager 793-810
 Yellow-backed Tanager 200-591
 Fulvous Shrike-Tanager 400-810 1,148
 Flame-crested Tanager 200-656
 Fulvous-crested Tanager 200-656
 White-shouldered Tanager 200-300
 Red-crowned Ant Tanager 213-656
 Scarlet Tanager N 656
 Summer Tanager N 591
 Masked Crimson Tanager 210-656 1,148
 Silver-beaked Tanager 200-810
 Blue-grey Tanager 210-810
 Palm Tanager 210-810
 Orange-throated Tanager VU 210
 Turquoise Tanager 210-656
 Paradise Tanager 200-656
 Green-and-gold Tanager 185-810 1,148
 Golden Tanager
 Yellow-bellied Tanager 210-793
 Spotted Tanager 793
 Bay-headed Tanager 400-793 1,148
 Masked Tanager 210-793
 Opal-rumped Tanager 210-400
 Opal-crowned Tanager 210-213
 Black-faced Dacnis 200-656
 Yellow-bellied Dacnis 350-656
 Blue Dacnis 400-500
 Green Honeycreeper 200-656
 Short-billed Honeycreeper 656
 Purple Honeycreeper 200-656
 Black-and-white Seedeater 320-810
 Yellow-bellied Seedeater 518-810
 Chestnut-bellied Seedeater 367
 Lesser Seed Finch 200-656
Buntings/New World Sparrows
and Allies
 Red-capped Cardinal 656
 Orange-billed Sparrow 210-810
 Yellow-browed Sparrow 367-810
Grosbeaks/Saltators and Allies
 Greyish Saltator 200-656
 Buff-throated Saltator 200-656
 Slate-colored Grosbeak 200-793
 Blue-black Grosbeak 200-820
New World Blackbirds
 Giant Cowbird 245-656
 Moriche Oriole 210-810
 Venezuelan Troupial 656
 Yellow-rumped Cacique 210-656
 Ecuadorian Cacique 210-213
 Solitary Cacique 200-656
 Casqued Oropendola
 Crested Oropendola 210-320
 Russet-backed Oropendola 591-810 1,148
 Para Oropendola 213-400
 Thick-billed Euphonia 210
 Bronze-green Euphonia 793
 White-lored Euphoria 213
 White-vented Euphonia 200
 Orange-bellied Euphonia 210-810

(a) D = Distributional record, VU = Vulnerable, N = Nearctic migrant,
A = Austral migrant, N? = probable Nearctic mgrant, and A? = probable
Austral migrant.


We thank T. S. Schulenberg for helping firm up species lists, providing localities for specimens from this region, and critically editing the manuscript. We are also grateful to Lars Pomara for preparing the map. Steve Cardiff helped insure that we accounted for all the relevant specimens in the LSUMZ collections. Steve Cardiff also, along with Pete Capainolo (AMNH), and Carla Cicero and Juan Parra (MVZ), provided data from selected specimens. We thank Mildred Larson, Martha Jakway (deceased), and Jeanne Grover of the Instituto Linguistico de Verano for help in accurate location of some Aguaruna villages, as well as for their willingness to introduce JPO and colleagues to the Pongos Basin area in 1964. Finally, we are grateful to the following individuals and their respective institutions for providing material and/or providing access to collections and field logs: Steve Cardiff and Van Remsen at LSUMZ, Paul Sweet and Chris Blake at AMNH, Tom Schulenberg at FMNH, and Carla Cicero at MVZ. C. E. Braun, Terry Chesser, A1 Gardner, and an anonymous reviewer commented on the manuscript and provided helpful suggestions.

Received 25 October 2007. Accepted 7 June 2008.


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(1) Houston Museum of Natural Science, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, 1 Hermann Circle Drive, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

(2) Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science, 119 Foster Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

(3) USGS, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, National Museum of Natural History, 10th and Constitution, NW, Washington, D.C., 20560, USA.

(4) Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

(5) Museo de Historia Natural, Casilla 14-0434, Lima 14, Peru.

(6) Corresponding author; e-mail:
TABLE 1. Unusual elevation ranges of avian species based on specimens
from the Pongos Basin and Cordillera Campanquiz, Peru.

English name Scientific name records (m)

Great Tinamou Tinamus major 1,000 max (a)
White-throated Tinamou T. guttatus 1,100 max (c)
Sickle-winged Guan Chamaepetes goudoth 900 min (a)
Sapphire Quail-Dove Geotrygon saphirina 1,100 max (a)
White-throated Quail-Dove G. frenata 900 min (a)
Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictopterus 600 min (a)
Koepcke's Hermit Phaethornis koepckeae 450 min (c)
Blue-fronted Lancebill Doryfera johannae 400 min (a)
Spangled Coquette Lophornis stictolophus 500 min (a)
Red-headed Barbet Eubucco bourcierii 900 min (a)
White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus 1,100 max (c)
Chestnut Woodpecker Celeus elegans 800 max (a)
Bamboo Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops dorsalis 350 min (a)
Slaty Antwren Myrmotherula schisticolor 800 min (c)
Black-necked Red Cotinga Phoenicircus nigricollis 900 max (a)
Brazilian Laniisoma Laniisoma elegans 700 min (a)
Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota 300 min (b)
Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater P. frontalis 900 min (c)
Andean Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola peruvianus 500 min (c)
Jet Manakin Chloropipo unicolor 900 min (c)
Green Manakin C. holochlora 400 min (c)
Wire-tailed Manakin Pipra filicauda 800 max (a)
Streak-necked Flycatcher Mionectes striaticollis 500 min (c)
Cinnamon Neopipo Neopipo cinnamomea 700 max (c)
Western Wood Pewee Contopus sordidulus 600 min (c)
Pale-eyed Thrush Platycichla leucops 850 min (a)
Masked Crimson Tanager Ramphocelus nigrogularis 1,100 max (c)
Orange-throated Tanager Wetmorethraupis 400 min (a)

English name New record(s) Change (m)

Great Tinamou Campanquiz +148
White-throated Tinamou Campanquiz +298
Sickle-winged Guan Rio Kagka headwaters -100
Sapphire Quail-Dove Campanquiz +48
White-throated Quail-Dove Shimpunts, Shaim -500-600
Spot-winged Parrotlet Pomara -200
Koepcke's Hermit Nazareth, 43 km NE Chiriaco -130-150
Blue-fronted Lancebill Huampami, 43 km NE Chiriaco -80-187
Spangled Coquette Pomara -100
Red-headed Barbet Rio Kagka headwaters -100
White-throated Toucan Campanquiz +48
Chestnut Woodpecker Campanquiz +348
Bamboo Foliage-gleaner Caterpiza, Huampami -137-150
Slaty Antwren Caterpiza, Shaim -400-600
Black-necked Red Cotinga Campanquiz +248
Brazilian Laniisoma Caterpiza -500
Fiery-throated Fruiteater Huampami, Pagat -50-87
Scarlet-breasted Fruiteater Rio Kagka headwaters -100
Andean Cock-of-the-rock Huampami, Kusu, Quebrada -100-287
 Achunts, Nazereth,
 Bashuin, Pomara
Jet Manakin Rio Kagka headwaters -50
Green Manakin Villa Gonzalo, Huampami, -100-200
 Quebrada Achunts
Wire-tailed Manakin Campanquiz +348
Streak-necked Flycatcher Kusu -250
Cinnamon Neopipo Rio Kagka headwaters +100
Western Wood Pewee La Poza, Caterpiza, 86 km -280-420
 NE Chiriaco
Pale-eyed Thrush Pomara -450
Masked Crimson Tanager Campanquiz -48
Orange-throated Tanager Huampami, 3.2 km w of -50-190
 Urakusa, Chavez Valdivia,
 Chiangkus, Pagat,
 Quebrada Achunts, Suwa,
 Tutinum, Chipi, Kusu on
 the Rio Maranon,
 Nazareth, Chicais

(a) Stotz et al. (1996).

(b) Hilty and Brown (1986).

(c) Schulenberg et al. (2007).
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Author:Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J
Publication:The Wilson Journal of Ornithology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3PERU
Date:Mar 1, 2009
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