Automobile inner tube industry in Indonesia.
Inner tube industry is facing a sluggish growth as more cars especially passenger cars choose to use tubeless tires Tubeless tires are pneumatic tires that do not require a separate butyl rubber inner tube.
Traditional designs of pneumatic tires required a separate inner tube which could fail for a number of reasons, such as: incorrect tire fitment, or friction between the tire wall and . As a result unlike tire casing industry, inner tube industry does not gain much from the fast expansion of car market in the country.
However, demand for inner tubes is expected to continue to scale up as growing supply is still needed for commercial cars, which have continued to dominate car market in the country. With poor condition of roads in the country inner tubes are still needed in large quantity for replacement.
Part of inner tubes are produced with natural rubber as the basic material, and some are produced from synthetic rubber synthetic rubber: see rubber. or butyl butyl /bu·tyl/ (bu´t'l) a hydrocarbon radical, C4H9.
A hydrocarbon radical, C4H9.
a hydrocarbon radical, C4H9. tubes. The soaring soaring: see flight; glider.
Sport of flying a glider or sailplane. The craft is towed behind a powered airplane to an altitude of about 2,000 ft (600 m) and then released. prices of crude oil, have pushed up the prices of synthetic rubber, of which the basic material is oil.
The rise in the prices of synthetic rubber has brought about an increase in demand for natural rubber tires. Inner tubes from natural rubber, therefore, are more competitive facing inner tubes from synthetic rubber.
Producers and production capacity
There are 13 manufactures of tires which are members of APBI APBI Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation
APBI Alliance Pet Business International
APBI Advanced Planning Briefings for Industry
APBI Advanced Planning for Business and Industry (The Indonesian Associations of Tire Producers). However there are only 8 companies of these 13 manufacturers recorded to produce automobile tubes.
The field research has revealed that of these 8 manufacturers, 2 companies are no longer active producing rubber tubes.
Therefore, the country has now only 6 companies producing rubber tubes with a total production capacity of 10.2 million units a year.
Of the six Manufacturers, two companies produce only nature ruber tubes i.e. PT Banteng Banteng
see bosbanteng. Pratama and PT United King Land, one company i.e. PT Industri Karet Deli produces both natural rubber tubes and butyl rubber butyl rubber: see rubber. tubes and three companies, i.e. PT Bridgestobne, PT Gajah Tunggal and PT Elang Perdana produce only butyl tubes.
Of the six tube manufacturers, there is only one foreign investment company, PT Bridgestone Tire Indonesia Indonesia (ĭn'dənē`zhə), officially Republic of Indonesia, republic (2005 est. pop. 241,974,000), c.735,000 sq mi (1,903,650 sq km), SE Asia, in the Malay Archipelago. with its factory located in Bekasi This article is about Bekasi city. For Bekasi Regency, see Bekasi Regency.
Bekasi is a growing city in Indonesia, located in the east of Jakarta in the Jabotabek region. As a sub-province (kabupaten) , Bekasi is located in the West Java province. , West Java.
PT Ariga Mira Rubber Works in Tangerang For the regency of the same name, see .
Tangerang is a city in Banten, Indonesia. It is located about 20 km west of Jakarta. It is the second largest urban center in the Jabotabek region after Jakarta. It has an area of 164.54 km² and population of 1,487,000 (2003). has had no activities since 2 years ago. In the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile , PT Mega Safe Tire Industry in Semarang Semarang (səmä`räng), city (1990 pop. 1,249,230), capital of Central Java prov., N Java, Indonesia, on the Java Sea and at the mouth of the Semarang River. An important port, it is one of the major commercial centers of Java. is no longer producing rubber tubes, but importing tubes from Korea Korea (kôrē`ə, kə–), Korean Hanguk or Choson, region and historic country (85,049 sq mi/220,277 sq km), E Asia. . PT Mega also still produces tire totalling 1.4 million units in 2004.
PT Gajah Tunggal and Bridgestone Tire Indonesia are two largest producers of rubber tubes. Both companies have a combined production capacity of 6,000,000 units a year, or about 60% of the total national production capacity. PT Industri Karet Deli in Medan has also quite a large production capacity totalling 1,800,000 units of tubes a year.
PT Gajah Tunggal (GT) is the largest producer of tubes with its production capacity of 3,600,000 units a year. This company only makes butyl tubes. The company is also the largest producer of tires in the country in term of capacity, with its annual tire production capacity of 11.1 million units of car tire and 9.2 million units of motorcycle motorcycle, motor vehicle whose design is based on the bicycle. The German inventor Gottlieb Daimler is generally credited with building the first practical motorcycle in 1885. The motorcycle did not become dependable and popular, however, until after 1900. tire. PT Gajah Tunggal, originally named NV Perusahaan Pabrik Karet "Hok HOK House of Krazees (band)
HOK Hellmuth, Obata + Kassabaum, Inc.
HOK House of Keys
HOK Hærens Operative Komando (DK) Thay Thay may refer to:
For the sultanate, see .
For the city and harbor, see .
Banten is a province of Indonesia, located at the western end of Java Island. Banten has an area of 9,160.7 km² and population of 9,083,114 (2005). , in 1978, while its motorcycle tires in 1972.
Gajah Tunggal produces various types of tires including tires of motorcycles, passenger cars, light trucks, large trucks, buses and heavy duty trucks. It also produces various sizes of car tubes. The company is dominating the local market of tire and tubes. It is also quite successful in penetrating penetrating
breaching the tissues of the body. the export market and currently almost 50% of their income came from export.
Gajah Tunggal (GT) has integrated its operation with business units to produce raw materials for tires i.e. nylon nylon, synthetic thermoplastic material characterized by strength, elasticity, resistance to abrasion and chemicals, low moisture absorbency, and capacity to be permanently set by heat. After 10 years of research E. I. tire cord, synthetic rubber or Styrene sty·rene
A colorless oily liquid from which polystyrenes, plastics, and synthetic rubber are produced. Also called vinylbenzene. Butadiene butadiene (byt'ədī`ēn), colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon. There are two structural isomers of butadiene; they differ in the location of the two carbon-carbon double bonds in the Rubber (SBR SBR - Spectral Band Replication ) and bead bead
Small object, usually pierced for stringing. It may be made of virtually any material—wood, shell, bone, seed, nut, metal, stone, glass, or plastic—and is worn or affixed to another object for decorative or, in some cultures, magical purposes. wires. These units are operated by its subsidiaries respectively PT Andayani Megah (nylon tire cord), Langgeng Baja Baja (bŏ`yŏ), city (1991 est. pop. 38,867), S Hungary, on the Danube River. It is a river port and a road and rail hub, where agricultural products of the surrounding region are traded and processed. Pratama (bead wire) and PT Sentra Sintetika Jaya Jaya (born Maria Luisa Ramsey on March 21, 1970, in Manila, Philippines) is a Filipino pop singer with African American ancestry. Biography
She is known in the Philippines as the Queen of Soul. (SBR).
The second largest producer of tires and tubes is PT Bridgestone Tire Indonesia, which has a factory in Bekasi, with an annual capacity to produce 8.57 million units of car tires and 2.4 million units of butyl tubes. The company currently employs some 3,350 workers. PT Industri Karet Deli in Medan, North Sumatra North Sumatra (Indonesian: Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia. Its capital is Medan. Geography and population
The province of North Sumatra stretches across the island of Sumatra between the Indian Ocean and the Strait Malacca. is also a major producer of automobile tubes. It has the capacity to produce 1.8 million units automobile tubes, consist of 540,000 unit of natural rubber tubes per year and 1,260,000 unit of butyl tubes per year.
Although its factory located in Sumatra Sumatra (smä`trə), island (1990 pop. 36,471,731), c.183,000 sq mi (473,970 sq km), Indonesia, in the Indian Ocean along the equator, S and W of the Malay Peninsula (from which it , their distribution networks cover almost all major cities of Indonesia. It has also exported their products to several countries including USA, European anda Asian countries. The company is the only tire and tube manufacturer, located outside Java island and it currently employs some 3,300 workers.
PT Elang Perdana Tire Industry is a relatively new producer of car tire and tubes using Dutch technology. The company has been quite successful to penetrate the domestic and export market and presently one of key players in the tire and tube industry in Indonesia. The company operates two production units respectively in Bogor Bogor (bō`gôr), formerly Buitenzorg (boi`tənzôrkh) [Du.,=free from care], city (1990 pop. 271,341), W Java, Indonesia. , West Java and Semarang, Central Java Central Java (Indonesian: Provinsi Jawa Tengah) is a province of Indonesia. The administrative capital is Semarang. It is one of the six provinces of the island of Java. Central Java is both a political entity and a cultural concept. with a total production capacity of 1.5 million units car tires and 900 thousands car tubes. It produces only butyl tubes.
PT United King land with its factory in Tangerang produces various types of car and motorcycle tubes. The production capacity of its car tubes is 3,000 units per day or around 900,000 units a year, while its motorcycle tubes around 10,000 units a day. PT United King Land makes only natural rubber tubes.
With the installed capacity of, PT Banteng Pratama has the smallest production capacity of car tubes among the existing 6 manufacturers. It production capacity is only 600,000 unit natural rubber tube for automobile.
Located in Citeureup- Bogor,West Java, the factory formerly produced bicycle bicycle, light, two-wheeled vehicle driven by pedals. The name velocipede is often given to early forms of the bicycle and to its predecessor, the dandy horse, a two-wheeled vehicle moved by the thrust of the rider's feet upon the ground. tire under production license agreement from Good Year with a daily production of 22,000 units. However in mid 1990's the production license agreement with Goodyear has been terminated. The company presently uses Mizzle brand for their tires and tubes.
The strong growth of the country's automotive industry The automotive industry is the industry involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing, and sale of motor vehicles. In 2006, more than 69 million motor vehicles, including cars and commercial vehicles were produced worldwide. has boosted the the production of tires and tubes. However their production growth is lower than the growth of car productions as they have to compete with imported tubes, particularly those imported from China which are sold at cheap prices.
Tire and tubes producers grouped in the Association of Tire Companies Manufacturer Country Est. Brands and Subsidiaries
Aeolus Tyre China
Alliance Tire Company Ltd. Israel 1950 Amtel-Povolzhye, Kirov; Amtel-Chernozemye, Voronezh
Apollo Tyres Ltd. (APBI) are confronted with tough competition from illegal products and at the same time they have to deal with growing production costs due to increase price of natural rubber.
As shown by the following table, production of tubes rose from some 7.2 million units in 2000 to about 9.1 million units in 2004, or average increase of 5.8% a year. The growth in 2004, is the highest in the last five years, due to substantial growth of 31% of car production from 322 thousands units in 2003 to 422 thousands units in 2004. It should be noted however, that only a part of the new cars use tubes (about 35 %) as a large part of them use tubeless tires. New cars using tubes are mostly multipurpose family van, trucks, busses and offroad vehicles.
The following table also shows that production of automobile tubes is dominated by those used for light and medium size trucks and passanger cars particularly for multipurpose family van, like Toyota Kijang, Isuzu Panther The Isuzu Panther is a multi-purpose vehicle manufactured in Indonesia for the Asian market by Isuzu Motors. The model is suited to carrying large loads of passengers or cargo. , Suzuki Carry The Suzuki Carry, officially known as the L60V, is a microvan and pickup truck produced by the Japanese automaker Suzuki. In Japan, the Carry is a kei car but in export markets, the Carry had a longer hood for safety purposes and a larger 1. etc. In the meantime, light and medium trucks using tubes are mainly Isuzu
Isuzu Motors Ltd. ( , Mitsubishi Mitsubishi: see zaibatsu. trucks, Toyota Dyna and Hino Hino (hē`nō), city (1990 pop. 165,928), Tokyo Metropolis, E central Honshu, Japan, on the Asa River. A residential suburb of Tokyo and part of the Keihin Industrial Region, Hino produces automobiles and electrical machinery. .
In 2004, production of tubes for light and medium size trucks totalled 4.6 million units while for passenger cars totalled 2.9 million units. It should be noted however, that not all Toyota Kijang using tubes. Those using tubes are mainly Kijang used for public city transportation, and for replacement.
The following table shows that production of automobile tubes for passenger cars has risen steadily from only 2.5 million units in 2000, to Rp 2.8 million in 2002 and about 3.2 million units in 2004.
In terms of weight ( tons), the production has increased from 13.27 thousand tons in 2000 to 16.65 thousand tons in 2004. Light/ medium trucks and trucks dominating the production in terms of tons as indicated by the following table.
The following table shows the comparison of production of tubes in term of units to weight (tons).
The utilization of production capacity of tube manufacturers is quite high ranging from 84-95% in 2004. Gajah Tunggal for instance, produce 3,251 thousand units car tubes or about 94% of its production capacity. Banteng Pratama operates at 88% of its tube capacity, while Bridgestone 84%. The following table presents the production of car tube manufacturers.
All producers of car tubes use a mixture of natural rubber and synthetic rubbers as the raw materials for automobile tires and tubes. The ratio of consumption of natural rubber and synthetic rubber is 61.2% to 38.8% respectively.
Consumption of natural rubber for tire and tubes industry in the country totaled 153,058 tons in 2004 and consumption of synthetic rubber (SBR) was 96,769 tons.
In 2004, the largest consumer of natural rubber was PT Gajah Tunggal which used 55,341 tons of that material that year or 36% of the total consumption in the country. The second largest consumer was PT Bridgestone using 32,547 tons or 21 % of the total consumption of natural rubber by members of APBI.
The total consumption of SBR by APBI members was 96,769 tons in 2004. The largest consumer was PT Gajah Tunggal accounting for 34% or 32,922 tons of the total consumption, followed by Bridgestone Indonesia, accounting for 27.4% or 26,465 tons of the total consumption.
In addtion from PT Sentra Sintetika Jaya (SBR), the supply of SBR also comes from imports. PT Bridgestone, for instance, gets the supply of SBR from Japan, India India, officially Republic of India, republic (2005 est pop. 1,080,264,000), 1,261,810 sq mi (3,268,090 sq km), S Asia. The second most populous country in the world, it is also sometimes called Bharat, its ancient name. India's land frontier (c. , Cina and Thailand Thailand (tī`lănd, –lənd), Thai Prathet Thai [land of the free], officially Kingdom of Thailand, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 65,444,000), 198,455 sq mi (514,000 sq km), Southeast Asia. . Although it has subsidiary producing SBR, Gajah Tunggal also import synthetic rubber from Japan, Taiwan Taiwan (tī`wän`), Portuguese Formosa, officially Republic of China, island nation (2005 est. pop. 22,894,000), 13,885 sq mi (35,961 sq km), in the Pacific Ocean, separated from the mainland of S China by the 100-mi-wide (161-km) Taiwan , South Korea, Rusia and Canada. PT Industri Karet Deli gets the supply of SBR particularly from PT Sentra Sintetika Jaya.
Import of Automobile rubber tubes (butyl and natural rubber)
Import of car, OTR OTR Over The Road (truckers)
OTR Old Time Radio
OTR On The Road
OTR Off the Record
OTR Over The Rainbow
OTR Office of Tax and Revenue
OTR Over-The-Rhine and industrial tubes is not so large compared with the local production. In 2004, import totalled 4.8 thousand tons, much smaller than the production which is about 16.6 thousand tons in 2004.
The import statistics classified tubes import into five classification including one category of bicycle tube import. This study however, only covers import of automobile, OTR and industry vehicles.
In terms of weight, the largest type imported are tubes for trucks and busses (49 %) and other vehicle (50%). In this latest category include tubes for heavy and industrial equipment.
In term of units, import of car tubes rose from 1,083 thousand units in 2000 to some 1,584 thousand units in 2004. In the first semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s of 2005, the import is estimated at about 840 thousand units.
China was the largest supplier of tubes imports form that country totaled US$ 1.7 million in 2004, followed by South Korea (US$ 897 thousands).
Some of the tubes imported from China are sold at prices as cheap as 30% lower than the price of local products giving rise to suspicion that they have been imported illegally.
APBI said the local content of Chinese products of tire is more or less the same the local content of Indonesian products. Information from Indonesian tire producers in China said production cost of tires in China is higher than in Indonesia. APBI, therefore, suspects irregularities in the process of import such as under invoicing in·voice
1. A detailed list of goods shipped or services rendered, with an account of all costs; an itemized bill.
2. The goods or services itemized in an invoice.
tr.v. and under valuing.
Domestic industry has been able to penetrate the export market both for tires and tubes. The major tube manufacturers have exported some of their tubes particularly to Middle East countries, African countries, other Asian countries and also some European countries. Major companies like Gajah Tunggal, Bridgestone dan Industri Karet Deli has marketing office in various countries which are their export target market. Gajah Tunggal, for instance, has exported their products (tires and tubes) to some 70 countries. All producers exported only butyl tubes.
In terms of units export has increased from some 1.1 million units in 2000 to about 1.28 million units in 2005 (June).
The market size or consumption of automobile tubes is estimated from local production plus import minus exports with stock assumed to stand at the same level at the start and end of a year. A factory normally holds stocks for 1-2 month sales.
Estimated demand by different market segment
Like tires, the market of tubes is devided into two market segments i.e. OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer) The rebranding of equipment and selling it. The term initially referred to the company that made the products (the "original" manufacturer), but eventually became widely used to refer to the organization that buys the products and market and replacement market. Both segments have their own characteristics and requirement.
Demand by OEM market is strongly influenced by development of automotive industry, particularly cars which are using tubes. The following table indicates that the car indusry is dominated by passenger cars of MPV (MusicPhotoVideo) A playlist standard for music, image and video collections introduced in 2002 by the Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA). An "MPV Writer" is software that creates the playlist, and an "MPV Reader" is software that can discover and read it. and SUV types, accounting for 34% of the total production in 2004. Small/ medium trucks ranked the second with 24% share. Car production has increased strongly in the last five years from only about 279 thousands in 2001 to about 450 thousands in 2005.
Based on the above production, demand for tubes can be calculated by using the following assumptions:
* Only 25% of passanger cars using tubes
* One passanger car use 4 tubes
* One medium truck use 6 tubes
* One truck use 10 tubes
* One heavy/off road tgruc use 10 tubes
Using the above assumption, demand for automobile tubes is estimated as follows:
Demand for replacement market is the total domestic market size influenced by the total populations of cars. Statistics of BPS (Bits Per Second) The measurement of the speed of data transfer in a communications system.
1. BPS - Basic Programming Support
2. bps - bits per second and the State Police indicates that the population of passenger cars was around 3.89 million units in 2004, while truck 2.0 million units and bus 798 thousand units.
Total demand for rubber tube increased in the last five years. The replacement market dominated by more than 80% of the total market.
The domestic demand for tubes is projected to increase from 9.1 million units in 2006 to 11.1 million units in 2010, as presented by the following table.
* Average growth in five years is 4.2% a year. The local market is projected to grow 5% a year over the next five years.
* The existing production capacity is 10.2 million pcs with 89% utilization rate.
* In 2010, the domestic market is projected to consume 11.1 million pcs tubes, of which the country need additional capacity to produce 1.2 million tubes a year. The average utilization rate in 2010 is estimated at 80%.
* At present, local tubes have been exported at a volume of about 2.3 million pcs in 2004. To meet the increasing export volume, additional capacity is estimated to be larger than 1.2 ;million pcs a year.
Conclusion and recommendations
* The growth of tube consumption is relatively stable. The market growth is expected to be around 4-5% a year over the next five years.
* Despite relatively low growth, the future of tube industry is quite prospective as indicated by high utilization rate of 89% of the industry production capacity. Therefore there is opportunity to increase the existing capacity by around 1.2 million units to meet the increasing domestic demand over the next five yeas. The capacity expansion will be larger if we considered the increasing demand in the export market.
* Car transportation is presently the main mode of land transportation in Indonesia. This situation is expected to remain over the next five years, therefore, demand for tubes and tires is expected to keep increasing.
* The use of car tubes are increasing particularly for commercial cars, because many passanger cars are now tubeless. However, in replacement market, there are also passanger cars using tubes.
* The main market for passanger cars are replacement market segment. Because in Indonesia cars with more than 10 years old are found many on the street. Many old passanger cars which are previously use tubeless, also replace their tires with tubes.
* The competition is getting stronger as the market demand is expected to increase only by 4-5% a year over the next five years. Strong competition will come primarily from cheap tubes from China. Major players like Bridgestone and Gajah Tunggal will be likely kept their strong position in the market because of their high quality products and wide distribution networks. They will be able to compete with China although their price higher.
* Because of strong competition, the profit margin of tube companies will be lower, because they have to compete in price with cheap products like those from imported from China.
* In low end market segment, the competition lies in price. Therefore companies which can reduce production cost and offer lower price of will win in the market.
* In medium and high end market, the competition exist in the ability of companies to reach cost effective. If the quality of tubes make them long lasting, the customers will choose these products even the price is higher. This applies to Bridgestone which position their products in high end market. In the meantime, Gajah Tunggal positions their products in medium end market. Their price is lower than Bridgestone. Gajah Tunggal controls 36% of the market, Bridgestone 25% and the rest for low-end market. Karet Deli is the major player in the low end market.
* For the new comers planing to enter the market, they should first decide which market segment they wish to enter. The competition is strong in each segment. Access to wide distribution networks, low production cost are two key success factors of new comers.
Table--1 Producers of tube by location and brand in Indonesia, 2005 No Company Located Brand 1. PT Banteng Bogor, Mizzle Pratama West Java 2. PT Bridgestone Bridgestone Tire Indonesia 3. PT Elang Perdana Bogor, Predestein Tyre Industry West Java 4. PT Gajah Tunggal Tangerang, Gajah Banten Tunggal 5. PT Industri Karet Medan, Swallow Deli North Sumatra 6. PT United King Tangerang, Kingland Land Banten 7. PT Ariga Mira Tangerang, Aaron Rubber Works Banten 8. PT Mega Safe Tyre Semarang, Mega Industry Central Java No Company Status Remarks 1. PT Banteng PMDN Production Pratama 2. PT Bridgestone PMA Production Tire Indonesia 3. PT Elang Perdana PMDN Production Tyre Industry 4. PT Gajah Tunggal PMDN Production 5. PT Industri Karet PMDN Production Deli 6. PT United King PMDN Production Land 7. PT Ariga Mira PMDN Not active Rubber Works 8. PT Mega Safe Tyre PMDN No longer Industry producers tubes but import Source: Data Consult/ICN Table--2 Automobile rubber tube producers and their Production Capacities, 2005 Production capacity (000 pcs/year) Natural No. Company rubber Butyl Total 1 PT Banteng Pratama 600 -- 600 2 PT Bridgestone -- 2,400 2,400 Tire Indonesia 3 PT Elang Perdana -- 900 900 Tyre Industry 4 PT Gajah Tunggal (GT) -- 3,600 3,600 5 PT Industri Karet Deli 540 1,260 1,800 6 PT United King Land 900 -- 900 Total 2,040 8,160 10,200 (%) 20.0 80.0 100.0 Source: Field research Table--3 Production of tubes (butyl and natural rubber), 2000-2004 (000' pcs) Small/ Medium Year Passenger car truck Truck Off road Total Natural Rubber Tubes 2004 1,339 220 1,559 2003 1,215 205 1,419 2002 1,166 173 1,339 2001 1,130 165 1,295 2000 1,064 158 1,221 Butyl Tubes 2004 1,619 4,406 1,440 55 7,520 2003 1,536 4,098 1,339 51 7,024 2002 1,439 3,825 1,259 48 6,598 2001 1,344 3,660 1,196 45 6,245 2000 1,312 3,513 1,148 44 6,017 Total 2004 2,958 4,626 1,440 55 9,079 2003 2,751 4,303 1,339 51 8,443 2002 2,605 3,998 1,259 48 7,937 2001 2,474 3,825 1,196 45 7,540 2000 2,376 3,671 1,148 44 7,238 Source: Ministry of Industry and field research Table--4 Production of tubes (butil and natural rubber), 2000-2004 (Tons) Small/ Passenger Medium Year car truck Truck Off road Total Natural Rubber Tubes 2004 1,473 374 -- -- 1,847 2003 1,337 349 -- -- 1,685 2002 1,283 294 -- -- 1,577 2001 1,243 281 -- -- 1,524 2000 1,170 269 -- -- 1,439 Butyl Tubes 2004 1,781 7,490 5,328 336 14,935 2003 1,690 6,967 4,954 311 13,922 2002 1,583 6,503 4,658 293 13,037 2001 1,478 6,222 4,425 275 12,400 2000 1,443 5,972 4,248 268 11,931 Total 2004 3,254 7,864 5,328 336 16,782 2003 3,026 7,315 4,954 311 15,607 2002 2,866 6,797 4,658 293 14,613 2001 2,721 6,503 4,425 275 13,924 2000 2,614 6,241 4,248 268 13,370 Source: Ministry of Industry and field research Table--5 Comparison of tube production units and weight, 2004 (%) Type of tubes Composition in Composition Weight (tons) in Units Passenger Car 2 35 Small/medium truck 45 48.5 Truck/Bus 32 15.9 Off Road 2 0.6 100 100 Source: Data Consult/ICN Table--6 Car tube production by manufacturers & by type in Indonesia, 2004 (000 pcs) Small/Med Trucks/ Companies Passenger Car Truck Busses N.R Butyl N.R Butyl N.R Butyl PT Banteng Pratama 423 -- 105 -- -- -- PT Bridgestone Tire Indonesia -- 435 -- 1,373 -- 445 PT Elang Perdana -- 106 -- 486 -- 106 PT Gajah Tunggal -- 859 -- 1,706 -- 644 PT Industri Karet Deli 331 219 15 841 -- 245 PT United King Land 585 -- 100 -- -- -- Total 1,339 1,619 220 4,406 -- 1,440 Total (NR + Butyl) 2,958 4,626 1,440 (000 pcs) Companies Off Road Total N.R Butyl N.R Butyl Total PT Banteng Pratama -- -- 528 -- 528 PT Bridgestone Tire Indonesia -- 13 -- 2,266 2,266 PT Elang Perdana -- -- -- 698 698 PT Gajah Tunggal -- 42 -- 3,251 3,251 PT Industri Karet Deli -- -- 346 1,305 1,651 PT United King Land -- -- 685 -- 685 Total -- 55 1,559 7,520 9,079 Total (NR + Butyl) 55 9,079 Source: Field Research Table--7 Estimate of consumption of natural rubber and butyl rubber for Automobile tubes producers, 2004 (Tons) Tube producers Natural rubber Butyl Rubber PT Banteng Pratama 643.8 0 PT Bridgestone Tire Ind. 0 4,538.4 PT Elang Perdana 0 1,335 PT Gajah Tunggal 0 6,484.1 PT Industri Karet Deli 389.6 2,577.1 PT United King Land 813.5 0 Total 1,846.9 14,935 Source: APBI/Data Consult Tabel--8 Impor of tubes by type, 2000-2005 Type of Units 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 *) tube Car tube Tons 1,761 1,635 1,286 1,764 2,371 1,263 US$000 1,092 1,245 1,584 1,831 1,887 1,182 Off Road Tons 755 498 188 177 36 48 US$000 1,086 255 362 348 119 162 Air Plane Tons 1 14 1 0 0 1 US$000 22 5 8 0 0 7 Other Tons 480 837 1,102 755 2,396 1,221 US$000 1,717 437 1,326 790 1,468 932 Total Tons 2,997 2,984 2,577 2,696 4,803 2,533 US$000 3,917 1,942 3,280 2,969 3,474 2,283 Source: BPS (processed) Tabel--9 Impor of tubes by type, 2000-2006 (000 units) Tubes used for 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 * Passenger Car 308 286 225 309 415 221 Small/medium 427 397 312 428 575 306 truck Truck 145 135 106 146 196 104 Off Road/Other 203 221 212 153 399 208 Total 1,083 1,039 855 1,035 1,584 840 Source: BPS (processed) Table--10 Export of tube by volume and value (Ton/US$'000) Type of tube 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 * Car tube 1,848 1,974 2,790 2,534 4,551 2,448 2,832 2,769 4,069 3,998 12,232 6,432 Tube for Off Road 11 40 105 17 22 11 22 81 929 204 113 43 Air Plane 48 81 80 55 6 38 39 79 72 53 51 32 Other 1,074 927 889 629 202 274 1,873 1,539 2,125 1,228 368 395 Total 2,981 3,022 3,865 3,235 4,781 2,771 4,766 4,468 7,194 5,483 12,764 6,902 * estimated figures Jan-June 2005 Source: BPS (processed) Table--11 Export development of tubes, 2000-2005 (000 pcs) Detail 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 * Passenger Car 323 345 394 443 797 428 Small/medium 448 479 546 614 1,104 594 truck Truck 152 163 186 209 375 202 Off Road/Other 186 172 176 115 38 53 Total 1,110 1,159 1,301 1,382 2,313 1,277 Notes: All export tubes are butyl tubes Source: Data Consult Table--12 Estimated market size of automobile, OTR and Industrial tubes (000 psc) Type of tube 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 * Tube for 2,518 2,580 2,609 2,821 2,796 1,469 Passenger Car Small/medium 3,492 3,577 3,618 3,911 3,878 2,037 truck Truck 1,141 1,168 1,179 1,275 1,260 662 Off Road/Other 60 95 83 89 416 184 Total 7,212 7,420 7,490 8,096 8,350 4,352 Growth -- 2.9% 0.9% 8.1% 3.1% -- Notes: *) estimated figures Jan-Jun 2005 Source: Field Research/ Data Consult Table--13 Car production by types and categories, 2001-2005 *) Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 *) Passenger Car/ 197,502 221,588 242,535 250,133 197,919 MPV/SUV Small/Medium Truck 40,458 46,375 55,051 92,629 65,488 Truck/ Bus 6,592 5,847 1,528 6,771 4,489 Heavy Truck/ 467 430 1,030 3,061 2,756 Off Road Sedan cars 32,237 24,006 20,497 37,328 12,687 Other 1,931 1,011 403 1,231 1,700 Total 279,187 299,257 322,044 393,153 275,039 Note: *) January--September 2005 Passenger Car/MPV/ SUV-Gross Vehicle Weight 5 Tons Small/Medium Truck-Gross Vehicle Weight 5-10 Tons Truck/Bus-Gross Vehicle Weight 10-24 Tons Heavy Truck/Off Road-Gross Vehicle Weight > 24 Tons Source: Gaikindo/Data Consult Table--14 Demand for car tubes of OEM market, 2001-2005 (000 pcs) Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 *) Passenger Car/ MPV/ 184 196 211 206 160 SUV Small/Medium Truck 254 284 333 563 403 Truck/ Bus 66 58 15 68 45 Heavy Truck/ Off Road 5 4 10 31 28 Total 509 544 569 867 636 Source: Data Consult Table--15 Demand for tubes for replacement (000 pcs) Detail 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 * Passenger Car 2,396 2,318 2,610 2,590 1,309 Small/medium truck 3,323 3,203 3,579 3,315 1,634 Truck 1,102 1,076 1,260 1,192 617 Off Road/Other 90 79 78 385 156 Total 6,911 6,676 7,527 7,482 3,716 Source: Data Consult/ICN Table--16 Total demand for tubes, 2001-2005 *) (000 pcs) Detail 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 * Passenger Car 2,580 2,515 2,821 2,796 1,469 Small/medium 3,577 3,487 3,911 3,878 2,037 truck Truck 1,168 1,134 1,275 1,260 662 Off Road/Other 95 83 89 416 184 Total 7,420 7,220 8,096 8,350 4,352 Source: Data Consult/ICN Table--17 Domestic demand for tubes is projected 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Passenger Car 3,085 3,239 3,401 3,571 3,750 Small/medium truck 4,278 4,492 4,716 4,952 5,200 Truck 1,390 1,459 1,532 1,609 1,689 Off Road/Other 386 406 426 447 470 Total 9,139 9,596 10,076 10,579 11,108 Source: Data Consult