Attitudes toward women managers in Turkey and Pakistan.
This paper examines managerial attitudes toward women managers in Turkey and Pakistan by using "Managerial Attitudes toward Women Executives Scale (MATWES)" and draws a cross-cultural comparison between these two countries' respondents. Significant differences were found in several managerial attitudes between these two countries' respondents, and both women and men in Turkey have a negative attitude toward women managers as compared to Pakistani respondents. In contrast to the early findings in the literature, women's attitudes toward women managers in Turkey were more negative than that of men's while Pakistani women have more favorable attitudes than Turkish women toward women managers. The last result of this study indicated that Pakistani men showed more positive attitudes toward women managers than Turkish men.
Keywords: Turkey, Pakistan, Women Managers
In the industrialized world, the lack of women in the top managerial positions has been the subject of much debate. Today, not only in the less developed countries, but in the developed ones, there are some stereotypes about women managers that pose obstacles to their advancement as professionals. Traditionally, men have been seen as better suited than women to hold executive positions. The qualities associated with being a successful manager have been associated with masculinity, such as ambition, objectivity and an authoritative manner. Women have been seen as different from men, universally lacking the necessary personal characteristics and skills to make good managers. The entry of women into senior levels within organizations over the last decade or so has brought this stereotype into question (Wackman 1996). Examples of the stereotype are as follows (Owen and Todor 1993; Ankan 1997):
* Women tend to place family demands above work considerations.
* Women work for supplemental income; as a result, they lack the necessary drive to succeed in business.
* Women are tended to mix their personal and professional beliefs/feelings, and for this reason, they are accepted as emotional not professional.
* Women are unsuitable for top managerial positions because they are too emotional and lack of some qualities necessary for managerial positions such as aggressiveness, risk-taking and decisiveness etc.,
* Women managers have the self-confidence problem.
* Women managers are not motivated through power needs but affiliation motives.
* Women executives are not well-educated and experienced to undertake managerial responsibilities.
Because of these negative beliefs, women make slow progress up the organizational hierarchy. In addition to these stereotypes, there are some other obstacles that prevent women reaching managerial suits such as low participation in male networks that limits their access to decision-making processes about promotion, negative discrimination against women in hiring and promoting policies, and the negative attitudes of employers and subordinates toward women managers.
Attitudes toward women managers have been widely investigated in many countries; the results of some researches will be given below. First, however, it is important to define the concept of "attitude".
Attitude is enduring response dispositions with affective, behavioral and cognitive components. They are evaluations of objects, issues, or persons and based on affective, behavioral and cognitive information (Taylor et. al., 2006). Attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of an object. "Objects" include people, things, events and issues. When people use such words as like, dislike, love, hate, good, and bad, they are usually describing their attitudes. Social psychologists also use specialized terms to describe certain classes of attitudes. For example, an attitude toward self is called self-esteem, negative attitudes toward groups are referred to as prejudice (Franzoi, 2000)
As we have noted above, there are obvious negative attitudes and gender discrimination toward women as manager around the world. Women make up approximately half of the work-force globally, and the number of women graduates from universities increase every tremendously each year. However, the ratio of women managers is still too low especially for top managerial positions. Several researchers have studied attitudes to female managers.
According to an attitude survey conducted in 1965, 54% of the men and 50% of the women thought that women rarely expect or desire positions of authority. Twenty years of later, the same authors sent the same survey to another sample of executives and found that in 1985 only nine per cent of the men and four per cent of the women surveyed think that women do not want top jobs. This survey shows that while male executives' attitudes have changed significantly in 20 years, women still see resistance to their progress in business (Sutton and Moore, 1985).
A scale (MATWES), designed to measure managerial attitudes toward women executives (Dubno, Costa, Cannon, Wanker, & Emin, 1979), was administered to MBA students at three graduate schools of business-two located in metropolitan New York City and one in Williamsburg, Virginia--at three different times over a period of eight years. Research among MBA students' attitudes over the period 1975-1983 showed that male students were more negative than female students toward women as managers and that no significant change in attitudes had occurred during the eight-year period of the research (Dubno, 1985; Papalexandris and Bourantas, 1991).
A study conducted by Everett, Thorne and Danehower (1996) summarizes the results of several studies as follows: Ezell, et al. (1981) found a direct relationship between the experience of being supervised by women and attitudes toward the motivation of women to manage. Thus, they concluded that stereotyped beliefs about women in management may be dispelled over time. In a study of middle and upper level managers, Izraeli and Izraeli (1985) found no evidence of sex role stereotype bias in the performance evaluation decisions of Israeli managers (n=1020). Powell and Butterfield (1994) found significant direct and indirect effects of gender on promotion-related decisions in the federal government, which, contrary to their prediction, were in favor of women (Everett et al., 1996)
Owen and Todor (1993) surveyed both human resource professionals and undergraduate students, and found that for both groups' attitudes toward women as managers were more positive for women than men. They also found that the student sample had significantly more negative attitudes toward women than did the human professionals.
Everett et al., (1996) have conducted a study that supports earlier findings that attitudes of men toward women executives are generally negative, while the attitudes of women are generally positive. The sample of this study was drawn from MBA students enrolled at an urban Southern University. The 120 students surveyed were enrolled in an evening MBA program designed to meet the educational needs of employed adults. The results of this study provide an update and extension of Dubno's findings that focused on the continuing negative attitudes toward women executives.
There has been some international research on attitudes in places such as Hong Kong, India, and Mauritius (Cordano et al., 2002): Ng has compared male and female part-time MBA students in Hong Kong. Significant differences between sexes were identified among the students on attitudes toward women executive scales but no significant differences on other demographic variables. Gulhati completed a similar study in India and as it was found in Ng's study, Gulhati's data yielded significant differences by sex, but not by education level or age among working managers in health, education and social welfare organizations. Ramgutty-Wong used single-item attitude measures examining the acceptance of women managers in Mauritius. This study surveyed CEOs of private and public organizations from across the country and only 44 per cent of the respondents agreed with the statement, "I strongly appreciate the idea of women in management." A similar percentage stated they would be uncomfortable with a female boss.
Abdalla (1996), studied attitude toward women in the Arabian Gulf region and compared Qatar and Kuwaiti implications. Sample included professionals, college students and parents of college students. Results indicated that samples consistently reported more favorable attitudes towards women than men. However, Qataris endorsed more traditional attitudes towards women than Kuwaitis. The results suggested that while Arab women are willing to accept more responsibilities in the political, occupational, educational and social spheres, Arab men are not willing to share these responsibilities with them.
Adeyemi-Bello and Tomkiewicz's study (1996) that has been done in the United States indicates that males and females perceive successful managers as possessing characteristics that are generally ascribed more to men than women. In this study, a sample of 70 Nigerians, who were conveniently chosen from the southwestern part of Nigeria in 1993, was used to investigate the impact of gender on attitudes toward women managers. Most of the respondents were potential future business managers (i.e., college students majoring in business). Their study revealed that Nigerian women have more positive attitudes toward women managers than their male counterparts.
Koshal et al., (1998) conducted a study on attitudes toward women managers in Malaysia. Results indicated that female managers perceive resistance from both men and women for their advancement and resistance seemed to be more at the subordinate levels.
The findings of a study about gender differences in attitudes toward women sales managers suggest that resistance exists to female managers in the Chinese sales force. Significant differences were found between responses to items from WAMS by salesmen and saleswomen, indicating a more favorable attitude toward female supervisors by saleswomen than by salesmen (Liu et al., 2001).
Brenner and Beutell (2001) studied the relationship between the birth order of American male and female managers and their attitudes toward women managers. Findings revealed that first born males had the most negative attitudes and first born females have the most positive attitudes.
Cordano et al., (2002) examined attitude toward women managers in Chile and USA and found that no cultural differences in the acceptance of women as managers and only sex showed significant differences in acceptance of women managers.
Appelbaum et al., (2002), studied the relationship between leadership style and gender. Results revealed that, although women's leadership styles are not at all likely to be less effective, they are generally assessed as less effective than that of a men's leadership style.
Sakalli and Beydogan (2002) examined how patriarchy, sexism, and gender influence Turkish college students' attitudes toward managers. Their study showed that male participants exhibited less positive attitude toward women managers than did female participants. In addition, participants who held more favorable attitudes toward patriarchy and who scored high on hostile sexism also held less positive attitudes toward women managers than those who held less favorable attitudes toward patriarchy and who scored low on hostile sexism.
Aycan (2004) examined the factors that influence women's career advancement in Turkey and showed that self-confidence and determination to achieve their career objectives are key success factors for women managers in Turkey. Similarly, support from family and organizations comes next and cultural norms toward gender roles to be found as the most significant barrier for attitudes toward women managers.
The results of the literature review in the field of "attitudes toward women executives" have revealed mixed findings. Some studies (Sutton & Moore; Dubno, 1985; Everett et al., 1996, Adeyemi-Bello & Tomkiewicz, 1996, etc ...) have concluded that the attitudes of men toward women managers are generally negative, while the attitudes of women are generally positive. However, several studies (Ezell, et al. 1981, Adams et al., 1984; Izraeli and Izraeli, 1985; Powell & Butterfield, 1994, Abdalla (1996), Ramgutty-Wong, 2000, etc ...) have suggested that attitudes have become more positive.
As far as Turkey is concerned, some studies (Sakalli and Beydogan 2002; Aycan, 2004) have pointed out that male exhibited less positive attitude toward women managers than did female and cultural norms toward gender roles were found as the most significant barrier for attitudes toward women managers. However the findings of our study were different from the results of these studies mentioned above. The statistical analysis of this study revealed that both women and men in Turkey have negative attitudes toward women manager. Contrary to findings in the literature, women's attitudes toward women managers were more negative than that of men's.
According to the results of our study, Pakistani women, consistently with the earlier literature findings, have more favorable attitudes toward women managers than men. Unfortunately, during our literature review, we could not obtain any study that has been conducted in Pakistan which aims to measure attitudes toward women managers. Because of this reason, we believe that this study is first and unique study that analyzes the attitudes toward women managers in Pakistan. In addition to this reality, our study has the characteristic of being the first academic study that aims to compare Turkey and Pakistan in the base of "attitudes toward women managers".
Other findings of our cross-cultural study suggest that the Pakistani female sample has more favorable attitudes toward women managers than the Turkish women sample and Pakistani men have displayed more positive attitudes toward women executives than Turkish men. These results will be interpreted in the "Findings" section of the study.
Women Managers in Turkey and Pakistan
According Hofstede's (1980), some cultures can be grouped together in terms of five cultural dimensions and this grouping persists over time. Turkey and Pakistan are two countries which are grouped together in Hofstede's study. Similarity in cultures seems to affect the gender roles in society and attitudes toward women. There are two differing views about women's status in society in Pakistan: conservative and liberal views. In light of these two views, "some women strictly adhere to traditional roles, observing strict purdha (segregation of the sexes); other women have careers and work side by side with men in a variety of professions" (Khalid and Frieze, 2004). "Prevalent gender role ideologies in Pakistan define women's roles primarily within the arena of the home as mothers and wives, and men's as bread earners" (Asian Development Bank report on Poverty in Pakistan: Issues, Causes, and Institutional Responses, http://www.adb.org/documents/reports/poverty_pak/ p. 13), which is very similar in Turkey. However, in general terms, "traditional gender roles are breaking down in Pakistan. More women are going out to work, even in fields that were previously considered to be male domains. Women are beginning to evolve a new confidence in their work" (Lari, 2000).
Pakistani society is largely multilingual and multicultural; there may be different practices within this culture. However, in last 50 years there has been integration in terms of culture, especially in urban areas which included more modern practices. In Pakistan the extended family structure has begun to dissolve in recent years, something which occurred in Turkey many years earlier. In addition to dissolution of extended families in urban areas, economic pressures also facilitated women's entry into labor force. "Even in the villages, women work side by side with men while successfully running their homes" (Lari, 2000).
According The World Bank Report 2005, the total population of Pakistan was 148.4 millions in 2003 and the female population was 48.3 % of the total. The female labor force was 30 % of the total labor force in 2003. In its 58 years as an independent country Pakistan has improved the lives of many of its people and has achieved steady economic growth. Nevertheless, a third of its population remains entrenched in poverty. Women are at a particular disadvantage, with lower literacy and school enrollment rates (The World Bank Group, 2006). According to the Statistics Department of Pakistan, the percentage distribution of employed persons as legislators, senior officials and managers for the years 2003-2004 was 1.4 % for female and 13.5 % for male.
The Constitution of Pakistan (1973) guarantees that all citizens are equal, irrespective of religion, caste or sex. It also empowers the state to make special provisions for the protection of women and children (Articles 25, 27, 34, 35 and 37). In line with the Constitutional provisions, the Government of Pakistan has taken a number of steps for political, economic and social development of women. One of the major steps was the creation of a full-fledged Ministry of Women Development at the federal level on 2nd September, 2004. The aim was to ensure the formulation of a need based coherent gender agenda to promote gender equality.
However, according to Saeed (2004), the inequality of women's status and rights at all levels of society and discrimination against them remain a matter of serious concern in Pakistan. A majority of women live in a world structured around strict religious, family and tribal customs and they are subjected to discrimination and violence due to cultural and religious norms. In organizations and educational institutions people are still facing difficulty in accepting women as an asset toward development.
According to the data of Turkish Statistical Institute, percentage of employed population in Turkey as administrative and managerial workers for the year 2000 was 2 % for male and 0.4 % for female. Women in Turkey have been working outside the home in paid jobs since the 1950s, but their jobs have been mainly in the areas of education, health and secretarial work, relevant to the gender role stereotype. Women also have had opportunities to work in middle and top managerial positions (Sakalli and Beydogan, 2002)
Kabasakal et al., (1994) found that women's representation in top and middle management falls short of their contribution to the work-force in the banking and insurance sectors in Turkey. Women constituted 43% of the total number of employees in the 64 companies that are included in their study, yet only 3% of the top managers and 26% of the middle managers were women in theses companies. When only lower-level positions are considered, women's contribution increases to 46%.
According to the Turkish General Department of Women's Status and Problems (1996), the percentages of middle to top management positions, respectively, held by women were 80% for a chief position, 15% for a division director position, 3.7% for a department head, 0.12% for a general director position (Sakalli and Beydogan, 2002).
According to Aycan (2004), representation of women in professional jobs and management positions in Turkey can be summarized as follows:
Despite the fact that women are well represented in scientific and professional jobs, they occupy only four per cent of top management positions in Turkey. According to recent data (SIS 2000), Turkish women comprise 32 per cent among managerial personnel, and II per cent among entrepreneurs, directors, and top management positions. Turkish women also represent a substantial proportion among pharmacists (60 %), physicians (19%), dentists (30%), lawyers (34%) and professors (23%). Women's representation, however, drops in top management positions. Tabak (1989) found that in the 500 largest manufacturing companies in Turkey, 15 per cent of managers were women, whereas only 3 per cent of top managers were women. Research on more than half of Turkish banks and insurance companies found that 26 per cent of middle managers were women, whereas only 4 per cent of top managers were women. Several studies conducted in Turkey in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s indicate that the ratio of women senior executives does not exceed 4 per cent in the private sector or 7.6 percent in the public sector. Turkish women's representation in managerial positions and professional jobs, while low, is comparable with that of their counterparts in some economically developed countries e.g. the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany (ILO, 1997). A number of reasons help to explain Turkish women's active participation in professional life. First, Turkish women are able to rely on their family network for childcare. The second positive influence is that Turkish corporate life is relatively young and still developing. It is difficult to find sufficiently qualified candidates to fill managerial positions. Third, organizational culture in Turkey is generally "family-friendly" where women's needs to handle work and family responsibilities are understood and tolerated.
According to Atis (2005), a study which conducted in 100 Turkish companies revealed that 20-25 % of women participants were first-line manager, 10-15 % were middle level manager, % 5-10 were vice president and %1-5 were chief executive officer. This study has pointed out that, women managers in Turkey had been widely employed in finance, media and fashion sectors.
The objectives of the present study are to measure the attitudes toward women executives in Pakistan and Turkey, to make comparisons between attitudes of these two countries' respondents, to examine findings in cultural base and to draw implications for action to be taken by universities.
We choose Pakistan as a comparison country since Pakistan has a close relationship with Turkey that can be traced to the Gaze and Moghul period. People of both countries have interacted closely throughout their histories and influenced each other socially and culturally. Additionally, today there is military cooperation and close economic relations between the two countries. As a result, we expected that the Turkish and Pakistani samples were going to show the same tendencies in terms of their attitudes toward women managers.
We conducted the study in a sector where women are widely visible and acceptable. Since females have gained family support to work as teachers or academicians in the field of education in both countries we could easily reach easily many female executives and employees in the universities. Due to common organizational structure in the universities, our population is homogenous and for this reason the sample size of 200 respondents seems to be sufficient. Participants of this study were 219 academicians (research assistant, lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor and full professor) from Turkey and Pakistan. The characteristics of respondents can be shown in Table I.
We used MATWES to collect data about attitudes toward women managers in Turkish and Pakistani universities. The 38 items were arranged in a 5-point Likert scale in which the description of each point ranged from "highly agree" to "highly disagree." Test-retest reliability the scale was found to be .78(N= 65) with the final 38--item (Dubno et al., 1979). When concurrent validity for the MATWES was sought by administering the scale simultaneously with WAMS (Peters et al., 1974), a scale developed to measure general attitudes toward women as managers. A correlation of 0.73 was obtained between WAMS and MATWES. This suggests the scales are measuring similar and related constructs, thus adding support to MATWES's value as a measure of prejudice toward women executives. (Dubno et a1.,1979; Dubno1985, Everett et al., 1996). The measure of internal consistency (cronbach alpha) for Pakistani sample was 89.99% and for Turkish sample was 78.67%.
In this study, differences between culture and genders were investigated question by question. Since data of the sample was ordinal, we used the non-parametric counter part of ANOVA, which is Kruskal Wallis Test (Bryman and Cramer, 1994:119, Blaikie, 2003:197-198, George, 1996:245-246). Moreover, we used Mann Whitney-U, Wilcoxon W. and Kolmogorov-Simirnov Tests, which are used in two sample comparisons. In order to increase the reliability of the study, Kolmogorov- Simirnov Test produced the most selective results of all. As stated above answers to the questions are ordinal, where as culture is in classified data form. Since variables of culture and gender have only two levels (Turkish-Pakistani, female-male), these variables can be assumed to be ordinal. With this assumption, we became able to use Kendall's tau-c and Gamma relation coefficients which produce more effective results. Kendall's tau-c produced more sensitive results than Gamma. However in order to get more information about direction and magnitude of the relationship, both of the coefficients were investigated together.
Based on the previous discussion, this study tests the following hypotheses:
Hypothesis 1: There is a difference between Turkish women's and men's attitudes toward women managers.
Hypothesis 2: There is a difference between Pakistani women's and men's attitudes toward women managers
Hypothesis 3: There is a difference between Turkish and Pakistani women's attitudes toward women managers.
Hypothesis 4: There is a difference between Turkish and Pakistani men's attitudes toward women managers.
Statistically significant results of the study can be seen in Appendix II. According to this table, the hypotheses were analyzed and discussed as below:
H1 tests whether there is a difference between women's and men's attitudes toward women manager in Turkey. The questions that revealed statistically significant results were questions numbered 13, 15, 17, 24, 18, 7, 22, 34, 8, 3, 2, 36, 30, 10, 37, 21, 29, 28, 26 (See Appendix I). The statistical analysis revealed that both women and men in Turkey have negative attitude toward women managers. Contrary to findings in the literature, women's attitudes toward women managers were more negative than that of men's.
H2 tests whether there is a difference between Pakistani women's and men's attitude toward women manager. The questions that revealed statistically significant results were questions numbered 24, 7, 33, 27, 23, 34, 20, 2, 12, 22, 6, 29, 30 and 15 (See Appendix I). According to statistical analysis, it is understood that Pakistani women have more favorable attitude toward women managers.
H3 tests whether there is difference between Pakistani and Turkish women toward women managers. The questions that revealed statistically significant results were questions numbered 38, 20, 1, 13, 4 and 15 (See Appendix I). Statistical analysis has pointed out that Pakistani female sample have more favorable attitude than Turkish counterparts.
H4 tests whether there is difference between Pakistani and Turkish men toward women managers. The questions that revealed statistically significant results were questions numbered 38, 29, 4, 21, 26, 32, and 31 (See Appendix l). The last result of this study indicated that Pakistani men showed more positive attitudes toward women managers than Turkish men.
This study revealed that in Turkey, both males and females have a negative attitude toward women managers and women showed even more negative attitudes than men. This result can be explained by some characteristics and conditions of the academicians in Turkey.
In recent years, increased criteria have been included for the promotion of Turkish academics. They have been obliged to publish, deliver training, and conduct research and they are expected to work harder. The academicians who are trying to meet these rigid expectations without getting any sufficient financial incentives have started to perceive the organizational atmosphere in a negative way and feel stress. It can be said that in Turkey, due to these difficult promotional procedures and tough professional expectations, academicians have started to develop some negative attitudes, as a reflection, toward their organizations and their head of departments whatever their sex may be. In Turkey both female academicians and female department heads were higher in number: as a result, the Turkish academicians have began to reflect their negative perceptions and feelings about their organization, and especially, to their executives. One of the major explanations for positive attitudes of the Pakistani sample, then, is the lack of such new criteria for promotion compared to their Turkish counterparts.
As stated, contrary to findings in the literature, women's attitude toward women managers in Turkey is more negative than that of men's. This may be due to the fact that women as transmitters of culture strongly internalize societal attitudes toward gender roles. Alternatively, females find it more appropriate "to think like men" and suppress their "feminist" attitudes in order to gain acceptance in male dominated organizational cultures (Aycan, 2004). As well it is possible that women academics in Turkey may be jealous of women administrators, in part due to competition for the executive positions.
Turkish women generally tend to prefer to work with a male supervisor rather than a female supervisor. Atis (2005) conducted a research among women, working in 100 different firms located in various cities of Turkey. Respondents were asked the question "If you had a chance to select your supervisor, whom would you prefer: a female or a male one?" The results of this study revealed that 5 % of the respondents answered "I prefer women supervisor", 15 % answered "! am indifferent" and 80 % answered "I prefer male executive". Second question was: "If you had a choice to select your subordinate, whom would you prefer?" Participants of this study were asked a question like "If you were in a position to fire a worker, whom would you prefer?" Most of the respondents have answered this question as "women worker".
The results, which showed the Pakistani women have more favorable attitude toward women managers, are in conformity with the literature findings (Ex. Dubno (1985); Papalexandris and Bourantas 1991; Owen and Todor (1993); Everett et. al., (1996)). Small economies such as Pakistan comprise mostly small and medium sized firms. Such firms are known to be somewhat more "friendly" to the inclusion of women in managerial ranks (Ramgutty-Wong, 2000).
Pakistani men's attitudes, which are more favorable toward women, may be explained by Pakistani culture. To criticize or to object to administrators is not a prevailing tradition in Pakistan, whatever their sex is. Because of this tradition, people in Pakistan tended to show positive attitudes toward their leaders and executives. Pakistan's ex-prime minister Benazir Bhutto stated this reality in a speech she gave to BBC: "It was only when I came to Oxford and to Harvard before that, that suddenly I saw the power of people. I didn't know such a power existed. I saw people criticizing their own president. You couldn't do that in Pakistan--you'd be thrown in prison" (http://news.bbc.co.uk/).
This finding is closely related to the concepts of Hofstede's Dimensions such as "power distance" and individualism/ collectivism. Pakistan's power distance score is slightly over the mean values. This demonstrates that there is a distance between subordinates and supervisors. Hierarchy, an existential inequality, leads subordinates to expect to be told what to do. The ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat. Besides, Pakistan is very low in the individualism score, and thus a collectivist society. In this kind of culture, value standards differ for in-groups and out-groups. People seen as members of in-groups and relations prevail in order to prevent negative feelings, attitudes and prejudices in Pakistan. As a result of this tendency, subordinates are not going to develop negative attitudes toward their managers, whatever their sex is (Ashkanasy et al., 2000).
For years the role that a woman played as a citizen, a member of the family or a homemaker in Pakistan has been highly undermined and today it has turned into a tradition to degrade a woman's abilities. However, over the years this scenario has begun to change, and the awareness of women's abilities, rights and status pervades popular consciousness in almost all parts of Pakistan. Youthful women are more aware of their identities, their capabilities and are definitely more ambitious. It is widely known that in Pakistan, elder women have significant influence on the society and family. It can be said that, because of the tradition "to show respect women", the Pakistani sample could have displayed more positive attitudes toward women managers.
Another explanation about positive attitudes toward women managers of Pakistani sample could be the effect of age and educational level. People below 30 years-old constituted nearly half of the sample drawn in Pakistan. Young people in Pakistan generally show less prejudiced behavior. Moreover, many have been educated in Western universities with modern and contemporary ideas; thus we may expect that such a well educated and open-minded group of people will be somehow affected to develop more positive attitudes not only toward women executives but also to female employees.
As with other research, this study admittedly has certain limitations. The first limitation is that the results of this study cannot be generalized for other sectors or industries. Identifying attitudes toward women managers in other fields in order to draw comparisons among such sectors can be the subject of another study.
We have intended to measure only attitudes but not real behavior toward women managers in this study. The second limitation then is analyzing the question of "whether these attitudes affect behavior or not?" This question must be investigated in real life conditions and not only in the universities but also in different societal sectors.
The attitudes toward women managers differ among companies, cultures and sectors on the basis of some demographic characteristics, especially the gender of subordinates. This study was intended to measure and compare attitudes of some academicians toward women managers in Turkey and Pakistan.
Our findings show that, there are still negative attitudes toward women managers around the world to some degree. Moreover, there exist cultural and situational factors that contribute both to negative and positive beliefs and emotions. Traditions, interpersonal conflicts and societal misunderstandings are central, not extraneous factors. Organizations that fail to recognize the causes of prejudiced attitudes toward women in working life will suffer in the long-term and limit their intellectual capacity.
Appendix I: Items Selected for Measures
1. Men might accept women executives as time progresses.
2. Sex should not play any role in hiring women to executive positions.
3. Women executives don't understand what their subordinates are doing
4. Women executives are over-cautious.
6. Men wish women executives would leave and not bother them constantly by looking over their shoulder.
7. Females have the capabilities for responsible managerial positions.
8. Females utilize their bedside skills to obtain responsible managerial positions, not their true capabilities.
10. A woman can't be trusted to give proper credit for the work done by her subordinates.
12. The thoughts of a female executive, acting in a decision-making capacity, would parallel those of a male.
13. Women should not hold positions of authority.
15. Women executives do not understand what is going on.
17. Women become top executives by using sexual favors.
18. Men do the work and Women executives get the credit.
20. There is more injustice in the way women take advantage of the work done by their male subordinates than there is in the alleged discrimination against women.
21. Male subordinates feel inferior when their superiors are females and those feeling may lead to poor performance by male subordinates.
22. Women become top executives by using their bodies.
23. Women executives cause different feelings in male subordinates than male executives do.
24. Women should be at home making soup, not in corporations taking credit for the work done by men who work for them.
26. Male subordinates think that women executives are rather competent in spite of their sex.
27. Women executives are always on the "backs" of their male subordinates.
28. Women make good executives.
29. A man is better suited for handling executive responsibility than a woman is
30. It's about time we had some women executives in organization.
31. Men think women executives are high and mighty in doing a man's work.
32. Men like to impress women executives
33. There are no problems with a male working for a female executive if both are dedicated, competent, and learned workers.
34. Women should keep their ideas in the home where they belong and leave the important decisions to the men.
36. A female executive merits the same trust and respect as a male executive
37. Women executives get involved in the petty detail of the job instead of important executive functions of planning and organizing.
38. Women executives marry their way into their positions.
Apendix II: Statistically significant results Mann- Kruskal Asymp. Questions Whitney Wilcoxon Wallis Sig. U W [chi square] (2-tailed) H1 Q13 1179,50 4105,50 41,79 0,00 Q15 1237,00 4163,00 37,08 0,00 Q17 1279,50 4205,50 33,81 0,00 Q24 1442,50 4368,50 32,61 0,00 Q18 1275,00 4201,00 33,63 0,00 Q07 1472,50 4398,50 24,92 0,00 Q22 1427,50 4353,50 26,92 0,00 Q34 1531,00 4457,00 25,62 0,00 Q08 1490,50 4416,50 25,39 0,00 Q03 1715,00 4641,00 15,17 0,00 Q02 1706,50 4556,50 15,36 0,00 Q36 1677,50 4603,50 17,98 0,00 Q30 1659,50 4585,50 17,32 0,00 Q10 1787,50 4713,50 13,14 0,00 Q37 1910,00 4836,00 9,30 0,00 Q21 2108,50 4523,50 4,18 0,04 Q29 1899,00 4825,00 9,42 0,00 Q28 1823,50 4749,50 11,69 0,00 Q26 1794,50 4644,50 9,68 0,00 H2 Q24 268,50 544,50 16,67 0,00 Q07 236,50 512,50 19,79 0,00 Q33 287,50 563,50 15,50 0,00 Q27 246,00 522,00 18,04 0,00 Q23 259,00 535,00 16,56 0,00 Q34 279,00 555,00 15,83 0,00 Q20 316,00 1642,00 11,58 0,00 Q02 342,50 618,50 10,58 0,00 Q12 285,00 561,00 13,76 0,00 Q22 349,00 625,00 10,00 0,00 Q06 338,50 614,50 9,42 0,00 Q29 349,00 625,00 8,78 0,00 Q30 310,00 586,00 12,80 0,00 Q15 289,00 565,00 17,58 0,00 H3 Q38 192,50 468,50 35,25 0,00 Q20 314,50 3015,50 22,09 0,00 QOl 322,50 598,50 26,15 0,00 Q13 472,00 3398,00 18,40 0,00 Q04 412,00 3262,00 15,97 0,00 Q15 611,50 3537,50 6,77 0,01 H4 Q38 869,50 2195,50 24,74 0,00 Q29 944,00 3359,00 21,07 0,00 Q04 1202,50 3617,50 9,68 0,00 Q21 1147,50 3562,50 12,90 0,00 Q26 1118,50 2444,50 11,42 0,00 Q32 1190,50 2516,50 10,42 0,00 Q31 1258,50 2584,50 8,00 0,00 Kolmogorov- Asymp. Questions Smirnov Z Sig. (2-tailed) H1 Q13 3,41 0,00 Q15 3,22 0,00 Q17 2,78 0,00 Q24 2,77 0,00 Q18 2,67 0,00 Q07 2,56 0,00 Q22 2,50 0,00 Q34 2,48 0,00 Q08 2,32 0,00 Q03 2,19 0,00 Q02 2,17 0,00 Q36 2,09 0,00 Q30 1,81 0,00 Q10 1,79 0,00 Q37 1,64 0,01 Q21 1,55 0,02 Q29 1,53 0,02 Q28 1,46 0,03 Q26 1,38 0,05 H2 Q24 2,18 0,00 Q07 2,07 0,00 Q33 1,93 0,00 Q27 1,87 0,00 Q23 1,82 0,00 Q34 1,82 0,00 Q20 1,69 0,01 Q02 1,62 0,01 Q12 1,61 0,01 Q22 1,45 0,03 Q06 1,45 0,03 Q29 1,43 0,03 Q30 1,42 0,04 Q15 1,40 0,04 H3 Q38 2,80 0,00 Q20 2,40 0,00 QOl 2,09 0,00 Q13 2,08 0,00 Q04 1,76 0,00 Q15 1,40 0,04 H4 Q38 2,48 0,00 Q29 2,29 0,00 Q04 1,70 0,01 Q21 1,56 0,02 Q26 1,49 0,02 Q32 1,49 0,02 Q31 1,39 0,04 Pearson Asymp. Asymp. Questions [chi Sig. Likelihood Sig. square] (2-tailed) Ratio (2-tailed) H1 Q13 51,44 0,00 56,11 0,00 Q15 41,72 0,00 44,21 0,00 Q17 35,81 0,00 38,93 0,00 Q24 39,00 0,00 43,04 0,00 Q18 34,84 0,00 38,03 0,00 Q07 26,89 0,00 27,98 0,00 Q22 28,79 0,00 32,10 0,00 Q34 28,10 0,00 29,65 0,00 Q08 26,94 0,00 29,09 0,00 Q03 21,45 0,00 22,28 0,00 Q02 27,33 0,00 29,03 0,00 Q36 19,22 0,00 20,41 0,00 Q30 20,42 0,00 21,77 0,00 Q10 14,57 0,00 15,05 0,00 Q37 14,61 0,01 15,09 0,00 Q21 14,68 0,01 15,48 0,00 Q29 14,80 0,01 15,77 0,00 Q28 14,31 0,01 15,27 0,00 Q26 10,82 0,03 11,18 0,02 H2 Q24 21,51 0,00 23,69 0,00 Q07 20,79 0,00 23,58 0,00 Q33 15,91 0,00 17,18 0,00 Q27 19,96 0,00 26,91 0,00 Q23 16,94 0,00 18,16 0,00 Q34 16,30 0,00 18,49 0,00 Q20 15,15 0,00 18,31 0,00 Q02 10,73 0,00 11,44 0,00 Q12 13,97 0,01 15,49 0,00 Q22 15,52 0,00 17,64 0,00 Q06 12,76 0,01 15,30 0,00 Q29 9,57 0,05 10,51 0,03 Q30 15,00 0,00 15,50 0,00 Q15 19,30 0,00 22,00 0,00 H3 Q38 38,95 0,00 46,67 0,00 Q20 30,27 0,00 32,58 0,00 Q01 31,82 0,00 32,20 0,00 Q13 29,87 0,00 27,38 0,00 Q04 17,38 0,00 18,70 0,00 Q15 12,59 0,01 12,66 0,01 H4 Q38 29,14 0,00 3,384 0,00 Q29 24,74 0,00 25,50 0,00 Q04 14,56 0,01 15,77 0,00 Q21 13,96 0,00 16,85 0,00 Q26 12,84 0,01 14,04 0,01 Q32 11,04 0,03 11,97 0,02 Q31 12,47 0,01 14,71 0,01 Asymp. Questions Kendall's Sig. tau-c Gamma (2-tailed) H1 Q13 -0,55 -0,78 0,00 Q15 -0,53 -0,75 0,00 Q17 -0,51 -0,73 0,00 Q24 -0,45 -0,79 0,00 Q18 -0,51 -0,73 0,00 Q07 -0,44 -0,64 0,00 Q22 -0,45 -0,68 0,00 Q34 -0,41 -0,71 0,00 Q08 -0,43 -0,68 0,00 Q03 -0,35 -0,50 0,00 Q02 -0,33 -0,54 0,00 Q36 -0,36 -0,60 0,00 Q30 -0,37 -0,56 0,00 Q10 -0,32 -0,49 0,00 Q37 -0,27 -0,40 0,00 Q21 -0,18 0,26 0,04 Q29 -0,28 -0,40 0,00 Q28 -0,30 -0,45 0,00 Q26 -0,28 -0,41 0,00 H2 Q24 -0,46 -0,76 0,00 Q07 -0,51 -0,85 0,00 Q33 -0,44 -0,79 0,00 Q27 -0,50 -0,80 0,00 Q23 -0,48 -0,73 0,00 Q34 -0,45 -0,79 0,00 Q20 0,40 0,68 0,00 Q02 -0,36 -0,71 0,00 Q12 -0,44 -0,68 0,00 Q22 -0,35 -0,64 0,00 Q06 -0,36 -0,59 0,00 Q29 -0,35 -0,58 0,00 Q30 -0,40 -0,71 0,00 Q15 -0,43 -0,91 0,00 H3 Q38 0,56 0,91 0,00 Q20 -0,46 -0,77 0,00 Q01 0,45 0,92 0,00 Q13 -0,33 -0,72 0,00 Q04 -0,38 -0,73 0,00 Q15 -0,21 -0,52 0,01 H4 Q38 0,49 0,67 0,00 Q29 -0,45 -0,62 0,00 Q04 -0,31 -0,43 0,00 Q21 -0,34 -0,54 0,00 Q26 0,34 0,48 0,00 Q32 0,32 0,47 0,00 Q31 0,28 0,41 0,00 * : The asymp sig values of Kendall's tau-c and Gamma relationship coefficients are approximately equal, they are shown just in one column.
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By Dr. Semra Guney (1), Raheel Gohar (2), Sevcan Kilic Akinci (3), Mehmet Mutlu Akinci (4)
(1) Associate Professor Hacettepe University, Department of Business Administration, 06800, Beytepe-Ankara-TURKEY. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
(2) PhD Student NUST Institute of Management Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. E-MAIL: email@example.com
(3) PhD Student Ataturk University, Department of Public Administration, Erzurum-Turkey. E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org
(4) PhD Student Hacettepe University, Department of Statistics, Ankara, Turkey E-MAIL: email@example.com
Table I: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents TURKEY PAKISTAN Frequency Percent Frequency Percent y t y t GENDER Female 76 52.4 23 31.1 Male 69 47.6 51 68.9 AGE 20-29 35 24.1 35 47.3 30-39 60 41.4 24 32.4 40-49 31 21.4 15 20.3 50 and above 19 13.1 0 0.0 ACADEMIC STATUS Professor 15 10.3 4 5.4 Associate Professor 13 9.0 10 13.5 Assistant Professor 24 16.6 7 9.5 Lecturer 20 13.8 13 17.6 Research Assistant 73 50.3 40 54.1 MARITAL STATUS Single 54 37.2 32 43.2 Married 84 57.9 42 56.8 Divorced 7 4.8 0 0.0 CHAIRPERSON Female 73 50.3 13 17.6 Male 72 49.7 61 82.4 URBAN/RURAL Urban 136 93.8 53 71.6 Rural 9 6.2 21 28.4 TOTAL 145 66.2 74 33.8 TOTAL Frequency Percent y t GENDER Female 99 45.2 Male 120 54.8 AGE 20-29 70 32.0 30-39 84 38.4 40-49 46 21.0 50 and above 19 8.7 ACADEMIC STATUS Professor 19 8.7 Associate Professor 23 10.5 Assistant Professor 31 14.2 Lecturer 33 15.1 Research Assistant 113 51.6 MARITAL STATUS Single 86 39.3 Married 126 57.5 Divorced 7 3.2 CHAIRPERSON Female 86 39.3 Male 133 60.7 URBAN/RURAL Urban 189 86.3 Rural 30 13.7 TOTAL 219 100.0