Attitudes of nursing home administrators and nurses towards people with disabilities.Research suggests that community attitudes towards people with disabilities are negative and affect quality of life and opportunities (Gething, 1992; Wright, 1983). A negative attitude is defined as one which sets people with disabilities apart as being different from others, with the usual implication that they are deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.
2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.
a state of being in deficit. or inferior INFERIOR. One who in relation to another has less power and is below him; one who is bound to obey another. He who makes the law is the superior; he who is bound to obey it, the inferior. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 8. . This definition is based on the landmark discussion by Erving Goffman Erving Goffman (June 11, 1922 – November 19, 1982), was a sociologist and writer. The 73rd president of American Sociological Association, Goffman's greatest contribution to social theory is his study of symbolic interaction in the form of dramaturgical perspective that (1963) in which he applied concepts of stigma stigma: see pistil.
mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter and minority group status to people with disabilities. Governments and organizations representing people with disabilities have been aware of such attitudes and have implemented strategies to promote awareness of issues, positive attitude change, and enhanced integration of people with disabilities within the community. The International Year of Disabled Persons The year 1981 was proclaimed the International Year of Disabled Persons (IYDP) by the United Nations. It called for a plan of action with an emphasis on equalization of opportunities, rehabilitation and prevention of disabilities. (1981) is an example of an initiative which incorporated these strategies in many countries. Recent legislation in Australia and the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. reflects changes in government policy about discrimination, community integration, and participation of people with disabilities. The Australian Australian
pertaining to or originating in Australia.
Australian bat lyssavirus disease
see Australian bat lyssavirus disease.
Australian cattle dog
a medium-sized, compact working dog used for control of cattle. Disability Services Act (1986) heralds the down-scaling of large specialist services and encourages people with disabilities to use generic services available for all citizens. It also includes strategies for enhancing equality of access to education, employment, and community life. The Americans with Disabilities Act Americans with Disabilities Act, U.S. civil-rights law, enacted 1990, that forbids discrimination of various sorts against persons with physical or mental handicaps. (1990) guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodation, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications Communicating information, including data, text, pictures, voice and video over long distance. See communications. . These pieces of legislation have resulted in changing roles for health care providers and the creation of new job positions. They also have highlighted the need to consider prevalent attitudes among service providers and effects these may have on appropriateness of service provision.
The aim of the present study is to measure and compare attitudes of nursing staff and administrators working within the nursing home setting. It also explores the effects of demographic variables on attitudes within these two groups. Such information is useful in determining the need for interventions to promote positive and realistic attitudes, for assessing whether potential conflict may exist between two categories of staff employed in nursing homes, and for determining whether other characteristics of a service provider influence attitudes towards people with disabilities.
In the disability area, attention has been given to attitudes of nurses, teachers and of health professionals such as physiotherapists, psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. , and rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. personnel (Holmes & Karst Karst (kärst), Ital. Carso, Slovenian Kras, limestone plateau, W Slovenia, N of Istria and extending c.50 mi (80 km) SE from the lower Isonzo (Soča) valley between the Bay of Trieste and the Julian Alps. , 1990). Most discussion has focused on attitudes of professionals who have face-to-face contact and provide direct care for people with disabilities in acute care and rehabilitation settings. Less attention has been given to people working in the nursing home setting, to administrators, or to potential conflicts that may arise from differing attitudes between professional groups.
Research into attitudes towards older clients has included nursing staffs working in nursing home settings. However this research is also characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by neglect of administrators. Findings suggest many parallels with results of disability research: both sets of clients are devalued de·val·ue also de·val·u·ate
v. de·val·ued also de·valu·at·ed, de·val·u·ing also de·val·u·at·ing, de·val·ues also de·val·u·ates
1. To lessen or cancel the value of. , seen as less competent than others and attitudes toward both are often argued to be negative. Such other findings suggest that attitudes may affect quality of life and appropriateness of treatment (Huber, Reno, & McKenney, 1993; Ingham & Fielding, 1985).
Thus evidence suggests that attitudes of nurses as health care providers are important. It is argued here that it is not sufficient to consider attitudes of these professionals alone. Also important are attitudes of other staff within an organization, including administrators.
With regards to the effects of demographic variables, previous research extending over 30 years indicates that for all variables, except amount of prior contact, evidence is inconsistent and without any clear themes emerging. Following extensive literature reviews, Yuker and Block (1986) and Shaver, Curtis, Jesuthanadas and Strong (1989) concluded that there was little consistent evidence about the effects of gender, age, occupation and education. For example, Yuker and Block (1986) concluded that of 129 studies of gender differences using the Attitudes Towards Disabled Persons Scale, 44% indicated that women scored significantly higher than men, 5% showed men to be higher and 51% revealed no statistically significant differences. In contrast, evidence for the effects of prior contact with people with disabilities has been consistent and strong, suggesting that people with higher levels of contact display more positive attitudes (e.g., Amsel & Fichten, 1988; Leonard & Crawford, 1989).
The study reported in this paper investigated attitudes of two occupational groups working within the nursing home setting: administrators and nursing staff. It also explored the effects of gender, education, age and level of prior contact with people with disabilities using a new instrument, the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP).
The hypotheses were:
1. Occupation (administrator versus staff nurse) has a significant effect on scores on the IDP Scale.
2. Gender has a significant effect on responses on the IDP Scale.
3. Level of education has a significant effect on responses on the IDP Scale.
4. Age has a significant effect on responses on the IDP Scale.
5. Frequency of prior contact with people with people with disabilities has a significant effect on responding on the IDP Scale.
Because of the inconsistent nature of existing evidence, no hypotheses were specified for interactions between demographic variables, however, study of interactions was included in the statistical analysis.
The sample was drawn from nursing homes in the greater Los Angeles area The Greater Los Angeles Area, or the Southland, is the agglomeration of urbanized area around the city of Los Angeles, California, United States. There are two "official" definitions—the Los Angeles metropolitan area consisting only of the Los Angeles and Orange . A list was obtained through the Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. Mayor's Office for Disabled. The sample was divided into two occupational categories: 1) Administrators included managers, supervisors or business administrators; 2) Staff nurses include registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses licensed vocational nurse
n. Abbr. LVN
A licensed practical nurse who is permitted by license to practice in California or Texas. and certified See certification. nurses aides providing direct patient care. The important difference between an administrator and a staff nurse is that major responsibilities for nurses in this study center around patient care. The administration category included people whose roles involved financial control, budgeting, staffing and facilities management The management of a user's computer installation by an outside organization. All operations including systems, programming and the datacenter can be performed by the facilities management organization on the user's premises. . The total sample included 151 people; of these 76 were staff nurses and 75 administrators. The staff nurses sample contained 66 females and 10 males, with ages ranging from 19-69. The administrators sample contained 41 females and 34 males, with ages ranging from 19-79 years.
The IDP Scale was devised to measure different aspects of attitudes than established instruments such as the Attitudes Towards Disabled Persons Scale (Yuker, Block, & Younng, 1970). Leonard and Crawford (1989) argue that attitudes operate on two levels, each having different implications for behavior. Most established instruments measure attitudes on the societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. level which is concerned with how people with disabilities should be treated by society, their rights and whether they are different from others on non disability-related characteristics. In contrast, attitudes on a personal level refer to one's own reactions when meeting someone with disability. These two levels have different implications for behavior, as expressed in the statement: "People with disabilities have a right to live in the community (societal level), but not next door to me" (personal level). The IDP Scale was devised to tap the personal level of attitudes which have received little attention from scale constructors in the past. It measures discomfort Discomfort may refer to pain, an unpleasant sensation, or to suffering, an unpleasant feeling or emotion. reported in social interaction, or at the prospect of interaction with someone with disability. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Evans Ev·ans , Herbert McLean 1882-1971.
American anatomist who isolated four pituitary hormones and discovered vitamin E (1922). (1976), such discomfort is a key factor underlying negative reactions towards people with disabilities while Simpson Simp·son , Sir James Young 1811-1870.
British obstetrician and a founder of gynecology. He is also known for introducing the use of chloroform as an anesthetic. (1980) argues that discomfort reflects uncertainty or anxiety experience by people who are unsure of how to behave appropriately or of what to expect from the person with a disability. The IDP scale consists of twenty items relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc reactions when meeting someone with a disability. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. use a six-point scale ranging from "agree very much" to "disagree very much" to indicate to what extent each statement fits their reaction. Examples of items in the scale are: "I feel ignorant about disabled people"; "I feel uncomfortable and find it hard to relax"; and "I dread the thought that I could eventually end up like them."
Final development and standardization standardization
In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting of the Scale took place between 1988 and 1990 and was based on a sample of over 6000 cases. It followed procedures outlined by Antonak and Livneh (1988) for evaluating existing instruments and developing new measures of attitudes toward people with disabilities. A detailed account of the development and standardization of the IDP Scale may be found in Gething and Wheeler (1992). However, brief details are provided here: test-retest reliability test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument was assessed on eight occasions with coefficients ranging between +.51 for a one year period to +.82 over a two week period. Item homogeneity Homogeneity
The degree to which items are similar. was assessed on 15 occasions with Cronbach's Coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. Alpha varying between +.74 and +.86. Results for both these forms of reliability compare favorably fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. with those reported for existing measures (Antonak & Livneh, 1988). Factor analysis was conducted for twelve data collections and indicate that items fall consistently into four major categories, the largest of which has been given the title of "Discomfort in Social Interaction".
Respondents were contacted at their place of work and invited to complete the questionnaire and accompanying items about demographic characteristics. Participation lasted between 5 and 10 minutes. Responding was voluntary and confidential. Respondents were provided with envelopes in which to place completed forms.
The staff nurses consisted f 10 (13.2%) men and 66 (86.8%) women whereas the administration groupp showed a more even balance of 34 (45.4%) men and 41 (54.6%) women. Both groups were relatively well educated with the majority of respondents in both groups haaving attained at·tain
v. at·tained, at·tain·ing, at·tains
1. To gain as an objective; achieve: attain a diploma by hard work.
2. post high school and university qualifications. Of the staff nurses, 4 (5.2%) were high school graduates, 25 (32.9%) had obtained post high school diplomas A high school diploma is a diploma awarded for the completion of high school. In the United States and Canada, it is considered the minimum education required for government jobs and higher education. An equivalent is the GED. , and 47 (61.8%) had obtained university degrees. With regards to the administrators, 4 (5.3%) were high school graduates, 15 (18.7%) had post high school diplomas, and 57 (76.0%), had earned or gained college degrees.
Ages foor the staff nurses ranged between 18 and 69 with the modal Mode-oriented. A modal operation switches from one mode to another. Contrast with non-modal.
1. modal - (Of an interface) Having modes. Modeless interfaces are generally considered to be superior because the user does not have to remember which mode he is in.
2. age range being 30-39 years. The sample of administrators was slightly older with the range being 24-79 years and the modal category being 40-49 years. Both groups had high levels of contact with peoople with disabilities with over 90% of respondents citing contact at least once a week, however administrators had higher levels of daily contact; 97.3% reported daily contact as compared with 72.5% nurses.
Analysis of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality (ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) was used to test hypothesized effects of the independent variables of occupation (administrator versus staff nurse), gender, education (High School Diploma or post High School Diploma, University Degree), age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79).
Of the four independent variables tested, only occupation (Hypothesis 1) produced a significant main effect. Subsequent application of an independent t test indicated that administrators had significantly more positive attitudes (t = +3.98m df = 20, p = .000). However, support was not provided for Hypotheses 2, 3, and 4 which predicted that gender, level of education and age would affect responding. Rigorous testing of Hypothesis 5 was not possible because of the relative homogeneity of the sample on the variable of contact. None of the interaction effects between demographic variables reached significance at the .05 level of probability.
Effects of Demographic Variables on IDP Scores Using ANOVA Demographic Degree of variable freedom F Gender 1 1.203 Age 2 0.413 Education 1 0.190 Occupation 1 4.136(*) Interaction effects Gender x Age 2 0.495 Gender x Education 1 0.011 Gender x Occupation 1 0.031 Age x Education 2 0.570 Age x Occupation 2 0.002 Education x Occupation 1 0.010 * p .05, two tailed
Table 2 contains a comparison of measures of central tendency for occupation groups. Staff nurses obtained a higher mean score on the IDP Scale (M = 64.21) than the administrators (M = 57.25), indicating that nurses providing direct patient care expressed more discomfort about interacting with people with disabilities. (A higher score indicates more discomfort in social interaction.) Since the level of contact was similar in both groups, it was concluded that even though both groups had high levels of contact, they responded differently on the IDP Scale.
In sum, occupation within the nursing home environment emerged as having a significant influence on attitudes towards people with disabilities. Administrators were found to have more positive attitudes than nurses. Other demographic variables were not found to have an effect.
Table 2 Comparison of Measures of Central Tendency of IDP scores for Nursing and Administrative Professionals Measure Nurses Administrators Mean 71.25 66.41 Median 71.00 66.50 Mode 65.00 66.00 Standard Deviation 8.62 9.10 Range 49.00 51.00 Sample size 76 75
Even though both sets of professionals reported high levels of contact, the nature of their contact is likely to be very different and to present different kinds of experiences with people with disabilities as the nature of these interactions are likely to be different. Contact for the$staff nurse is likely to be more intensive, ongoing, personal and concerned with private bodily functions Bodily Functions
See also body, human.
the process or act of swallowing.
the shedding of the superficial epithelium, as of skin, the mucous membranes, etc. . It can be stressful for the nurse who is frequently reminded of limitations associated with disability, and it may be demanding in that it involves hard physical work and assistance with personal tasks such as toileting. In sum, contact for staff nurses enables them to get to know their clients as individuals, but heightens awareness of realities associated with disability. As mentioned above, many authors have argued that negative attitudes are reflected in health professional practice. Confirmation provided by the present findings suggests that urgent attention must be given to the impact of such attitudes on service delivery, particularly in terms of their impact on staff expectations and achievement of positive rehabilitation outcomes. In contrast, contact for an administrator often is brief and social, perhaps involving only an exchange of greetings. This difference in type between the "social" contact of administrators and "working" contact of staff nurses may be a crucial factor underlying attitude formation. Contrary to the approach taken by most previous authors, it does not appear to be sufficient to investigate amount of contact as an influence on professional attitudes. Rather type as well as quantity must be considered. Furthermore, additional research is required to determine the effect of type of nursing work on attitude formation, that is do nurses working in different settings vary in their attitudes toward people with disabilities. Evidence from the aging field suggests that working with older clients in the nursing home is viewed as one of the least preferred options for staff nurses (Downe-Wamboldt & Melansn, 1990), with an expectation that work will be unpleasant, tiresome and depressing (Armstrong-Esther, Sandilands, & Miller, 1989). Exploration of such issues is now required for staff nurses working with disabled clients.
Researchers in the aging field have gone further in specifying the aspects of occupational contact which may promote positive and negative attitudes. Their findings should be applied to the disability area to guide future studies of the effects of type of professional contact on attitudes. The following variables have been discussed: number of years of working in nursing homes, characteristics of older people with whom professionals have had contact both at work and outside work, type of work contact (whether intensive or brief) and the characteristics of the setting in which contact occurs (Ingham & Fielding, 1985). These variables should be incorporated into further research of attitudes of staff nurses and administrators which incorporates measures of type as well as amount of contact. This research will determine whether such attitudes are situation-specific (that is, whether they apply to clients with a disability within the nursing home environment or to people with disabilities in general. It should also broach broach (broch) a fine barbed instrument for dressing a tooth canal or extracting the pulp.
A dental instrument for removing the pulp of a tooth or exploring its canal. the difficult issue of exploring the ways in which attitudes are expressed in behavior, in particular health professionals practice.
Such information could have important implications for enhancing effectiveness of care and quality of life for people with disabilities living in long-term care long-term care (LTC),
n the provision of medical, social, and personal care services on a recurring or continuing basis to persons with chronic physical or mental disorders. institutions such as nursing homes: it will provide directions for staff training and will also provide a basis for suggesting strategies for modifying aspects of the work environment which promote negative attitudes in nursing homes: it will provide directions for staff training and also will provide a basis for modifying aspects of the work environment which promote negative attitudes. One such strategy is disability awareness training which brings nursing staff into contact with people with disabilities who are independent, living in the community and able to demonstrate capabilities as well as limitations. This need was first recognized by Sadlick and Penta (1975) who noted that the student nurses working with severely disabled clients tended to develop more negative attitudes and argued, in a similar vein with the conclusions reached here, that this reflected the nature of their clinical experiences. Wright (1983) and Yuker (1988) argue that positive attitude change is promoted by contact with a person with a disability who is perceived as competent and socially of a similar status to others. This contact must occur in an environment in which the person can demonstrate capabilities and individuality individuality,
n collective characteristics or traits that distinguish one person or thing from all others. (generally not a feature of the nursing home context). Similar conclusions were reached by Biordi and Oermann (1993) who explored the effects of contact in a rehabilitation setting on attitudes of nursing students.
Such features are incorporated into the Disability Awareness Package which has been designed for training service providers about disability (Gething, Poynter & Reynolds, 1992). The aims of this package are to promote positive attitude change and accurate beliefs about life with a disability. Personal contact with a range of people with disabilities forms the central core of workshops based on this package and is supported by provision of accurate information (a resource manual), use of trigger tapes to stimulate discussion, simulations and small group exercises. A detailed description and evaluation of this package are reported in Gething (1994).
Another strategy to address negative attitude formation involves workplace modifications such as rotation of staff between different nursing areas so that they experience contact with a range of patients and clients, not just those with severe disabilities. Furthermore, nursing homes and other health establishments should seriously consider hiring people with disabilities as staff. Such a move would provide positive role models for both nursing staff and clients and would also promote the spirit of the Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) and other legislation designed to grant equal opportunities for people with disabilities. Such steps are vital if effectiveness of service provision is to be maximized for people with disabilities. Consideration should be given to promoting positive attitude change among all service delivery personnel likely to have people with disabilities as clients, including people working in generic as well as specialist organizations.
Development of the IDP Scale was conducted with funds provided by the Research and Development Committee of the Australian Department of Health, Housing and Community Services. Additional members of the Community Disability and Ageing Program who worked on the project were Felicity Reynolds and Darren Watzinger. Appreciation is expressed to Betty Wilson Elizabeth Rebecca "Betty" Wilson (born 21 November 1921, Melbourne, Australia) is considered as one of the greatest woman cricket players of all-time. She represented Australia in women's Test cricket between 1947-48 and 1957-58. , Director, Mayor's Office for Disabled, Los Angeles, California for obtaining the Californian sample and for her support of the project and to Mary Kim, Psychology Department, California State University, Los Angeles California State University, Los Angeles (also known as Cal State L.A., CSULA, or "'CSLA"') is a public university, part of the California State University system. for her assistance with the final drafting. The IDP Scale is available from the Community Disability and Ageing Program, University of Sydney The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. It is a member of Australia's "Group of Eight" Australian universities that are highly ranked in terms of their research performance. .
Amsel, R. & Fichten, C.S. (1988). Effects of contact on thoughts about interaction with students who have a physical disability. Journal of Rehabilitation, 54 (1), 61-65.
Antonak, R.F. & Livneh, H. (1988). The measurement of attitudes toward people with disabilities: Methods, psychometrics psychometrics
Science of psychological measurement. Psychometricians design and administer psychological tests (see psychological testing), both to generate empirical data on mental processes and to refine their understanding of measurement techniques and the and scales. Springfield, Illinois Springfield is the capital of the U.S. state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County. As reported in the 2000 U.S. Census, the city was home to 111,454 people. The land on which Springfield is today was first settled in the late 1810s, around the time Illinois became a : Charles C. Thomas.
Armstrong-Esther, C.A., Sandilands, M.L. & Miller, D. (1989). Attitudes and behaviors of nurses toward the elderly in an acute care setting. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 14 (1), 34-41.
Australian Government (1986). The Disability Services Act. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Biordi, B. & Oermann, M.H. (1993). The effect of prior experience in a rehabilitation setting on students: Attitude toward the disabled. Rehabilitation Nursing, 18, 95-98
Downe-Wamboldt, B.L. & Melanson, P.M. (1990). Attitudes of Baccalaureate students nurses toward aging and the aged. Educational Gerontology gerontology: see geriatrics. , 16, 49-59
Evans, J.H. (1976). Changing attitudes toward disabled persons. Rehabilitation Counseling rehabilitation counseling,
n counseling started in the United States in 1920 to assist individuals disabled by industrial accidents; originally included physical, psychologic, and occupational training; expanded over the next 70 years and laid the Bulletin, 19, 572-579
Gething, L. (1994). The disability awareness package for training rehabilitation and service delivery professionals. Rehabilitation Literature (in press)
Gething, L. (1992). Judgements by health professionals of personality characteristics of people with visible disabilities. Social Science and Medicine, 34 (7), 809-815.
Gething, L., Poynter, T. & Reynolds, F. (1992). The Disability Awareness Package, Sydney: The University of Sydney.
Gething, L. & Wheeler, B.W. (1992). The Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale: A new Australian New Australian
Austral an Australian name for a recent immigrant, esp. one from Europe instrument to measure attitudes towards people with disabilities. Australian Journal of Psychology, 44 (2), 75-82.
Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on a spoiled identity. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr. .
Holmes, G.E. & Karst, R.H. (1990). The institutionalization Institutionalization
The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world. of disability myths: Impact on vocational rehabilitation Noun 1. vocational rehabilitation - providing training in a specific trade with the aim of gaining employment
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society services. Journal of Rehabilitation, 56 (1), 20-27.
Huber, M., Reno, B., & McKenney, J. (1993). Long-term care personnel assess their attitudes and knowledge of the older adult. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 17, 1114-1121.
Ingham, R. & Fielding, P. (1985). A review of the nursing literature on attitudes towards old people. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 22, 171-181.
Leonard, R. & Crawford, J. (1989). Two approaches to seeing people with disabilities. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 24 (2), 112-125.
Sadlick, M. & Penta, F.B. (1975). Changing nurses attitudes towards quadriplegics. Rehabilitation Literature, 36, 274-278.
Shaver, J.P., Curtis, C.K., Jesunathadas, J., & Strong, C.J. (1989). The modification of attitudes toward persons with disabilities: Is there a best way? International Journal of Special Education, 4 (1), 33-57.
Simpson, R.L. (1980). Modifying the attitudes of regular class students towards the handicapped. Focus on Exceptional Children, Nov, 1-11.
US Department of Justice, (1990). The Americans with Disabilities Act (Public Law 101-336). Washington: Civil Rights Division.
Wright, B.A. (1983). Physical disability: A social-psychological approach. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Harper.
Yuker, H.E. (1988). The effects of contact on attitudes toward disabled persons: Some empirical generalizations. In H.E. Yuker (Ed.) Attitudes towards people with disabilities (pp. 262-274). New York: Springer springer
a North American term commonly used to describe heifers close to term with their first calf. .
Yuker, H.E. & Block, J.R. (1986). Research with the Attitudes Towards Disabled Persons Scale (ATDP ATDP Attention Dial Pulse
ATDP Academic Talent Development Program
ATDP Australian Tourism Development Programme (Australian government)
ATDP Army Technology Development Plan
ATDP Advanced Technology Demonstration Program ) 1960-1985. New York: Hofstra University Hofstra University (hŏf`strə, hôf`–), at Hempstead, N.Y.; coeducational. Founded as a division of New York Univ. in 1935, it became independent in 1940, and its name was changed to Hofstra College. .
Yuker, H.E., Block, J.R. & Younng, J.H. (1970). The measurement of attitudes towards disabled persons. New York: Ina Mend Institute.