Atomism versus hylomorphism in the kalam of al-Fakhr al-Din al-Razi: a preliminary survey of the Matalib al-'Aliyyah.Hylomorphism hylomorphism
Metaphysical view according to which every natural body consists of two intrinsic principles, one potential (namely, primary matter) and one actual (namely, substantial form). It was the central doctrine of Aristotle's philosophy of nature. (theory of matter and form) and atomism atomism, philosophic concept of the nature of the universe, holding that the universe is composed of invisible, indestructible material particles. The theory was first advanced in the 5th cent. B.C. by Leucippus and was elaborated by Democritus. (theory of atoms and accidents) have been the two main Islamic physical theories attempting to account for the structure of the world, the former defended by the philosophers (falasifah) and the other by the theologians (mutakallimun). Among the most articulate, erudite er·u·dite
Characterized by erudition; learned. See Synonyms at learned.
[Middle English erudit, from Latin and effective defender of atomism is the formidable, 6th/12th century mutakallim, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
(born 1149, Rayy, Iran—died 1209, near Herat, Khwarezm) Islamic scholar and theologian. He traveled widely before settling in Herat (in modern Afghanistan). . Here, his geometrical arguments for atomism are presented along with an explanation as to why the mutakallimun as a whole, even until today, are so committed to atomism and occasionalism occasionalism, metaphysical doctrine that denies that finite things have any active power and asserts that God is the only cause, whereas physical events and mental states are only occasions for God's action. Muslim theologians in the 8th cent. .
Keywords: Atomism; hylomorphism; physical theories; falisifah; mutakallimun; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi; Ibn Sina Ibn Sina: see Avicenna. ; al-Matalib al-'Aliyyah.
In the long history of Islamic philosophical thought, two contrasting theories of the fundamental structure of the physical world came to be predominant. These were the Aristotelian-Avicennan theory of form and matter (surah surah
Any chapter of the Qur'an. According to Muslim belief, each of the 114 surahs, which vary in length from several lines (known as ayahs) to several pages, encompasses one or more divine revelations of Muhammad. wa maddah = hylomorphism) of the great majority of the falasifah, (1) and the kalam theory of atoms and accidents (jawahir wa a'rad = atomism) of the great majority of the Mu'tazilite and Ash'arite-Maturidite mutakallimun. (2) The falasifah's theory of bodies as constituted of matter and form tends to ascribe as·cribe
tr.v. as·cribed, as·crib·ing, as·cribes
1. To attribute to a specified cause, source, or origin: "Other people ascribe his exclusion from the canon to an unsubtle form of racism" a degree of ontic (language) Ontic - Object-oriented language for an inference system with a Lisp-like appearance, but based on set theory.
["Ontic: A Knowledge Representation System for Mathematics", D.A. McAllester, MIT Press 1989]. and causal autonomy to nature or rather to matter that is viewed as very problematic (from both the physical and theological viewpoints) by the mutakallimun, for whom the world, including matter, is totally dependent on God for every spatio-temporal instant of its existence. Also, the notion, implicit in Adj. 1. implicit in - in the nature of something though not readily apparent; "shortcomings inherent in our approach"; "an underlying meaning"
underlying, inherent hylomorphism, of a more or less autonomous nature operating on the basis of inherent causal principles entails a necessary connection between physical causes and effects, thus putting an external restriction on the freedom of the divine will and power.
In contrast, for the mutakallimun, God is not only the ultimate transcendent inceptor in·cept
tr.v. in·cept·ed, in·cept·ing, in·cepts
To take in; ingest.
[Latin incipere, incept-, to begin, take up; see inception. (mujid, muhdith) and motivator (muharrik) of the world (al-'alam), He is also the proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.
immediate; nearest. , immanent im·ma·nent
1. Existing or remaining within; inherent: believed in a God immanent in humans.
2. Restricted entirely to the mind; subjective. sustainer (mubqi) and administrator (mudabbir) of the world, directly involved through His knowledge, will and power in each and every particular aspects of the structures, processes and ends of nature. As Endress puts it, "The affirmation of atomism had been one of the solutions found by Muslim theologians This is an incomplete list of notable Muslim theologians. Traditional Theologians and Philosophers
Having unlimited or universal power, authority, or force; all-powerful. See Usage Note at infinite.
1. One having unlimited power or authority: the bureaucratic omnipotents. and omniscience Omniscience
shrewd god; knew everything in advance. [Babylonian Myth.: Gilgamesh]
knows all: past, present, and future. of God." (3)
Endress's study of the works of Yahya ibn 'Adi (d. 363/974), for instance, draws a valuable picture of the atomist-antiatomist polemics po·lem·ics
n. (used with a sing. or pl. verb)
1. The art or practice of argumentation or controversy.
2. The practice of theological controversy to refute errors of doctrine. between an accomplished faylasuf and his contemporaries from among the mutakallimin, especially the newly assertive Ash'arites. (4) About a generation later Ibn Sina (d. 1037), in the Shifa, (5) Najat, (6) and 'Uyun al-Hikmah (7) is also drawn to a critical engagement with aspects of Greek and kalam physical theories including atomism. (8) An aspect of this engagement is his wide-ranging debate through correspondence with the great polymath pol·y·math
A person of great or varied learning.
[Greek polumath , al-Biruni (d. ca 1051), who also happens to be sympathetic to kalam atomism and criticises Ibn Sina for rejecting it. (9)
As is so often the case, critical engagement also brings about in its wake positive influences upon the critic from the one being criticised. Traces of these positive influences can be found in Ibn Sina's psychology of knowledge and his theories of causality causality, in philosophy, the relationship between cause and effect. A distinction is often made between a cause that produces something new (e.g., a moth from a caterpillar) and one that produces a change in an existing substance (e.g. and demonstration. (10) A much earlier philosopher, Abu Bakr Abu Bakr (ä`b bäk`ər), 573–634, 1st caliph, friend, father-in-law, and successor of Muhammad. Muhammad Zakariyya al-Razi (d. 925 or 935) is a staunch atomist at·om·ism
1. The ancient theory of Democritus, Epicurus, and Lucretius, according to which simple, minute, indivisible, and indestructible particles are the basic components of the entire universe.
2. , though his atoms are eternal entities totally at odds with the incepted, dimensionless atoms of the mutakallimin whose thought he criticizes. (11) Al-Biruni's contemporary in the Islamic far west, the great Ibn Hazm Ibn Hazm
in full Abu Muhammad 'Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa'id ibn Hazm
(born Nov. 7, 994, Córdoba, Caliphate of Córdoba—died Aug. 15, 1064, Manta Lisham, near Sevilla) Islamic scholar and theologian. (d. 1064), rejects both atomism and hylomorphism, and proffers his own version of creatio ex nihilo ex ni·hi·lo
adv. & adj.
Out of nothing.
[Latin ex nihil . (12) Much earlier, right at the very dawn of Arabo-Islamic philosophy, al-Kindi (d. ca 870), while affirming creatio ex nihilo, had also rejected atomism within the context of his critical engagement with Mu'tazilite kalam. (13) There is little doubt that Fakhr al-Din al-Razi's (1149-1209) involvement in the atomist-hylomorphist/anti-atomist controversy is preceded by and draws upon this long tradition of recurrent debates rooted in the earliest intellectual controversies between the falasifah and the mutakallimin (14)--debates with which he is thoroughly familiar and which he recapitulates with remarkable finesse fi·nesse
1. Refinement and delicacy of performance, execution, or artisanship.
2. Skillful, subtle handling of a situation; tactful, diplomatic maneuvering.
3. and clarity in the Arba'in (15) and Muhassal, (16) and to which he devotes a whole volume of two hundred pages in his kalam magnum opus, al-Matalib al-'Aliyyah. (17)
It is well known that F. al-Razi rejects atomism in his early, philosophical work, al-Mabahith al-Mashriqiyyah, (18) as has been noted by Zarkan (19) and Gardet (20) among others, but what is less known is his strong affirmation of atomism in his later works, al-Matalib, (21) and Sharh 'Uyun al-Hikmah (SUH) (22) and many middle-period works such as the Arba'in (23) and Muhassal. (24) While initially in favor of the matter and form theory, he later on in the course of his intellectual investigations begins to lean more and more towards the Ash'arite kalam point of view, which he argues for most systematically and articulately in the Matalib, a late work of philosophical kalam. This multi-volume work was written towards the end of his life, and he apparently died before completing the last couple of volumes. As noted by Zarkan, F. al-Razi's engagement with atomism exhibited an initial stage of rejection, an intermediary stage of ambivalence and a final stage of complete, if self-critical, acceptance. (25)
It has also to be borne in mind that in the Mabahith, F. al-Razi expresses his skepticism of hylomorphism, even though he does not seem to have had rejected it outright as he does atomism. (26) At this initial stage, he may be comparable to Ibn Hazm who rejects both atomism and hylomorphism and proffers his own physical theory. (27) For these two thinkers, rejecting kalam atomism does not automatically entail accepting peripatetic hylomorphism, for, apparently, physical reality is far too complex to be constrained or exhausted by such a dichotomy. Furthermore, while F. al-Razi's stand with regard to atomism can be seen to have gone through the developmental stages of rejection, ambivalence and acceptance, his attitude toward hylomorphism goes in the opposite direction of initial skepticism, if not rejection, to eventual terminal rejection, as is evident in his later works. This indicates that even during the period of his initial rejection of atomism, his view is already leaning less toward falsafah than to kalam.
Matter and Form
L. Gardet's article on hayula (originally Greek hyle = Arabic maddah = matter) in the new edition of the Encyclopedia of Islam has given a useful, if understandably sketchy, account of the semantic transformations the term has undergone in the various philosophical systems that unfolded in Islamic intellectual history. This is not the place to go into any detail into these complex transformations, since in Ibn Sina's philosophy alone the terms hayula and maddah are already quite conceptually nuanced, sometimes even to the point of inconsistency. For the limited scope of this discussion it suffices to say that Ibn Sina's theory of matter and form (Greek eidos Noun 1. eidos - (anthropology) the distinctive expression of the cognitive or intellectual character of a culture or a social group
attribute - an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity = surah = form), which engages F. al-Razi's attention, generally re-expresses Aristotelian hylomorphism remodeled on Neoplatonic lines. (28) An important aspect of this re-expression or revision is Ibn Sina's postulate postulate: see axiom. of an effective transcendent agent for explaining the conjunction of form and matter (seen as the two, albeit asymmetrical, potentialities), by virtue of which conjunction, individual, particular and differentiated concrete things or bodies come into actual being.
The dispute between Ibn Sina and the mutakallimin centers not on the existence of the transcendent effective agent as such, but rather on the manner of the agent's causal efficacy and on the ontological on·to·log·i·cal
1. Of or relating to ontology.
2. Of or relating to essence or the nature of being.
3. and physical status of the twin objects of this efficacy, namely, matter and form. Ibn Sina's conception of hayula (maddah jawhariyyah) as the indestructible in·de·struc·ti·ble
Impossible to destroy: indestructible furniture; indestructible faith.
[Late Latin ind stuff that persists through time and change and as the underlying substratum sub·stra·tum
n. pl. sub·stra·ta or sub·stra·tums
a. An underlying layer.
b. A layer of earth beneath the surface soil; subsoil.
2. A foundation or groundwork.
3. that continues or endures on passing from one substance to another was obviously anathema anathema (ənă`thĭmə) [Gr.,=something set up; dedicated to a divinity as a votive offering], term that came to denote something devoted to a divinity for destruction. In the Bible, the term is herem. to the kalam atomism and occasionalism (29) adopted by F. al-Razi in his later works. In what follows, the debate between Ibn Sina and F. al-Razi on the issue of matter and form is brought into relief through a translational survey of selected Fakhrurazian texts, especially the Matalib.
In volume six of the Matalib which is devoted to the issue of atomism versus hylomorphism, al-Razi begins with a concise two-page introduction to the meaning of hayula which, for its clarity, is worthy of being translated in full here:
We find bodies different in their forms (al-suwar) [but] similar in their matter (al-maddah), such as knife, sword, axe and saw; for all of these are made of iron except that, despite their sharing in this entity [iron], each of them is different in form and shape (al-shakl) from the other. Hence we say that [for] these things, their hayula is iron but their forms are different. Likewise, door, bed, chair and boat commonly partake in being made from wood but are different in their shapes (al-ashkal) and forms. Once you know this we then say hayula is of four ranks (maratib), (30) [namely] hayula of fabrication (al-sina'ah), hayula of nature (al-tabi'ah), universal hayula (al-kull) and prime hayula (al-ula) [prime matter]. As for the first rank, which is the hayula of fabrication, it is every [material] body from which [something] is fabricated and in which [lies] the art of the artisan, such as the wood of the carpenters, the iron of the ironsmiths, the clay and water of the brick makers, the yarn of the weavers and the flour of the bakers. On this analogy therefore every artisan cannot avoid having a [material] body from which and in which he cultivates his art. Thus this [material] body is the hayula for that [particular fabricated] thing. As for the shapes and figures (al-nuqush) which the artisan makes in this [material] body, these are the forms. As for the second rank, it is the hayula of nature, and this is fire, air, water and earth. This is because every thing below the celestial sphere of the moon from amongst the existents--I mean the minerals, plants, and animals--are constituted of [generated from] these four [elements, i.e., fire, air, water, earth] and into which [four elements] they decompose upon corruption. As for universal hayula, it is the unqualified (al-mutlaq) [absolute] body from which is obtained the totality of the bodily world--I mean the celestial spheres (al-aflak), the planets (al-kawakib) [or/and stars], the four elements (al-arkan al-arba'ah) and the three generated things (al-mawalid al-thalathah) [i.e., the three kingdoms of nature: mineral, plant and animal kingdoms]. As for the fourth rank, it is prime hayula [prime matter]. According to some of them [philosophers and theologians], it is the [minimal] parts which are not divisible (al-ajza'u allati la tatajazza'u) [further]; while according to others [it is] the entity which subsists by itself in which corporeality inheres (dhatun qa'imatun bi nafsiha tahillu fihi al jismiyyatu); and from this self-subsistent [entity] and [from] this receptivity [to corporeality] is generated the entity of the body (fa yatawalladu min dhalika al-qa'imi wa dhalika al-qabuli dhatu al-jismi). Once you know this then we say: our aim in this book is to comment on the states (ahwal) of the body inasmuch as it is a body, and to comment on the prime matter from which the body is generated. And Allah knows best. (31)
In the Muhassal, al-Razi briefly outlines and refutes Ibn Sina's hylomorphism thus:
Ibn Sina believes that the body is composed of matter (al-hayula) and form (surah). This means that spatiality (al-tahayyuz = taking up space) is an attribute inhering in a thing, thus spatiality is form and its receptacle is matter. He argues for this [view] on the basis of the denial of the indivisible atom by [saying] that the body per se is one [a single continuous whole] (wahid) and [yet] it is receptive to dissection (infisal) [discontinuity]. The recipient of a thing necessarily (la muhalata) exists together with matter, but continuity (al-ittisal) does not endure together with discontinuity (al-infisal), therefore the recipient of discontinuity is something other than continuity [which constitutes the body]. The response [of al-Razi to this] (jawabuhu) is: why should it not be allowed that the discontinuity be called plurality and the continuity unity? For the body to be discontinuous after having been continuous means that it becomes many after having been one; thus that which occurs and that which vanishes are unity and plurality, and both are two accidents whereas the substrate [of the accidents] is the body [and not matter]. (32)
In the 'Uyun al-Hikmah, as cited and critically commented on by al-Razi in his Sharh'Uyun al-Hikmah, Ibn Sina affirms the existence of hayula or maddah by arguing that a continuous mass of body can undergo (repeated) dissection dissection /dis·sec·tion/ (di-sek´shun)
1. the act of dissecting.
2. a part or whole of an organism prepared by dissecting. , despite its being continuous. But since the contrary states of continuity and dissection (or discontinuity dis·con·ti·nu·i·ty
n. pl. dis·con·ti·nu·i·ties
1. Lack of continuity, logical sequence, or cohesion.
2. A break or gap.
3. Geology A surface at which seismic wave velocities change. ) cannot be both existing in one and the same thing, the continuity of the body must be due not to the body itself (since it can be dissected dis·sect·ed
1. Botany Divided into many deep, narrow segments: dissected leaves.
2. Geology Cut by irregular valleys and hills.
Adj. 1. ) but to something else, and this something else is matter (maddah). So continuity and dissection are not grounded in the body qua body but qua matter in which the body subsists. In short, the continuity of a body which undergoes dissection is due not to the body itself but to a substrate (jawhar) called matter by virtue of which the dissected body retains its intrinsic continuity. This implies that a body is in principle always divisible DIVISIBLE. The susceptibility of being divided.
2. A contract cannot, in general, be divided in such a manner that an action may be brought, or a right accrue, on a part of it. 2 Penna. R. 454. without ever arriving at a terminally indivisible INDIVISIBLE. That which cannot be separated.
2. It is important to ascertain when a consideration or a contract, is or is not indivisible. When a consideration is entire and indivisible, and it is against law, the contract is void in toto. 11 Verm. 592; 2 W. discrete part, or at several unconnected discrete parts each of which can no longer be further dissected or split; for every part, large or small, is in itself a continuous whole due to its continuous underlying matter, and so is not analyzable into its constitutive constitutive /con·sti·tu·tive/ (kon-stich´u-tiv) produced constantly or in fixed amounts, regardless of environmental conditions or demand. , self-subsistent indivisible parts or atoms. Thus Ibn Sina says:
Bodily [or corporeal] continuity (al-ittisal al jismi) exists in matter (maddah) [i.e., not in the actual sensible body itself], and this is so because it [the body] is receptive to dissection [or discontinuity] (al-infisal). The receptivity [to dissection] in it [the body] is either because it [dissection] is [itself] continuity, but continuity cannot be receptive to dissection which is its contrary (didduh). This is because it is impossible that there should be in the contrary a faculty (quwwah) receptive to a contrary, since that which is receptive to a thing [only] receives it when it [the recipient] is existing. It is impossible that something not existing be receptive to something existing, for the contrary becomes non-existent [or vanishes] (yu'damu) when the contrary [of the first contrary] exists [comes into being] (wa al-diddu yu'damu 'inda wujudi al-diddi), and the opposite (muqabil) [too vanishes] when the opposite [of the first opposite] exists. Hence the faculty of receptivity to continuity is in something [also] receptive to dissection, but dissection is other than continuity, (33) therefore [both] bodily continuity and bodily dissection is [found] in matter [i.e., not in the body per se]. (34) And similarly so are [all] the faculties and forms which adhere to this continuity and are together with it. (35)
In clarifying what Ibn Sina means in the above passage, F. al-Razi says:
Know that it is imperative firstly to epitomize the bone of contention. Thus we say that there is without doubt among the existents an existent that occupies space and is extended in [spatial] direction[s] (mumtaddan fi al-jihah). And this thing [the space-occupying extended existent] is either subsistent by itself or is subsistent in a substrate. As for the former, it is what is meant by our saying that the body is not composed of matter and form. And as for the latter, it is the view of the Shaykh [Ibn Sina] and of most of the philosophers before him, for they believe that this thing that is extended in the [spatial] directions and obtained in space is bulkiness (al-hajmiyyah), and that the substrate (mahall) of this bulkiness is hayula, and that the sum of these two is the body (al-jism). This is the epitome of the bone of contention. Know that the argument of the Shaykh in this problem is founded upon denial of the indivisible atom, and upon the [fact] that the continuous body is in itself a single thing just as it is in sensible perception [also] a single thing. Once you recognize this [fact] then let us comment on this argument which he mentions. The clarification of this statement is that we say: It is established that the simple body is in itself a single thing; that is what is meant by it being continuous. But there is no doubt also about the [fact] that it is receptive to dissection, and so a person could say: This dissection is either continuity [itself] or [something] other than it. The former is invalid because the recipient must necessarily endure together with what is received. But continuity does not endure together with dissection therefore it is impossible that the recipient of dissection be continuity [itself]. Therefore it is necessary to recognize the existence of something other than continuity which is receptive to [both] this incidental dissection and that transitory continuity. Hence it is evident that the body is composed of continuity and of something else that receives continuity. (36)
In sum, F. al-Razi understands Ibn Sina to mean that a body requires a substrate receptive to both continuity and discontinuity by virtue of which the body retains its intrinsic continuity through repeated dissections. "(37)
After further critical, intricate discussions of the said Avicennan passage, F. al-Razi brings forth three arguments to show that "it is impossible for the body to be composed of matter and form" of which the third is translated below:
The third argument for the fallacy of the theory of matter is that matter is something that receives continuity and dissection. [However] continuity is tantamount to the state of two bodies occurring in two spaces such that a third space intervenes not between them. Dissection is tantamount to the case of their occurring in two spaces such that a third space intervenes (38) between them. Thus we say: [As for] continuity and dissection, each of them is not conceivable except in the case of something that pertains to space and exists in place and (spatial) direction [or dimension]. And every thing that is like that is a body and a space-occupier; and so, if a body has matter [in which it subsists] then that matter is the very body itself, but this is impossible. Therefore the ascription of matter to body is impossible. (39)
In sum, the composition of the body as a continuous whole and its decomposition decomposition /de·com·po·si·tion/ (de-kom?pah-zish´un) the separation of compound bodies into their constituent principles.
1. into separate parts are explicable ex·plic·a·ble
Possible to explain: explicable phenomena; explicable behavior.
ex·plic in terms of the body itself without postulating the existence of a more fundamental, distinct extrabodily entity called matter to serve as a substrate for the alternating bodily forms of composition and decomposition. Even if it be argued that the body is constituted of matter, this matter is none other than the body itself and not something extrabodily.
He again engages hylomorphism critically in the concluding twenty pages of volume six of the Matalib, (40) comprising three sections with very intricate, interesting arguments which are exemplars of conceptual analysis. With regard to the purpose of these concluding sections, he says:
The preferred [view] according to me (al-mukhtar 'indi) is that the claim for the existence of the hyle--on this interpretation [of the hyle by Aristotle, al-Farabi and Ibn Sina]--is invalid (batil). Thus it is incumbent on us to mention, firstly, the arguments of those affirming the hyle, and, secondly, to cast objections (na'tarid) on them, and, thirdly, to construct (nuqim) indubitable arguments (al-dala'il al-yaqiniyyah) for the claim for the impossibility of the hyle. (41)
Atoms and Accidents (42)
To replace the refuted theory of matter and form, F. al-Razi argues for the theory of atoms and accidents. For F. al-Razi the body that occupies space and extends through the spatial dimensions subsists by itself and so there is no need to postulate a separate, extrabodily material substratum The existence of a Material Substratum was posited John Locke.
Locke theorised that when all sensible properties where abstracted away from an object, such as its colour, weight, density or taste, there would still be something left that the properties had adhered , the hyle, in which the body subsists. The continuity of this self-subsistent body consists in the ordering together of discrete, indivisible self-subsisting atoms into an integral whole, while its dissection or discontinuity consists in the disintegration of this single whole into its multiple parts and ultimately into the individual discrete minimal parts, namely atoms, and thus there is also no need to postulate an enduring, extrabodily hyle that receives the alternating, transitory TRANSITORY. That which lasts but a short time, as transitory facts that which may be laid in different places, as a transitory action. bodily forms of continuity and discontinuity. Here, the twin forms of continuity and discontinuity are reconceptualised as accidents that happen directly to the body itself, and so the body, and ultimately the atoms composing the body, are the substratum for the accidents not some more fundamental, underlying extrabodily hyle. Hence in F. al-Razi as in kalam, the hyle is transformed ultimately into self-subsisting discrete minimal parts, while the forms are transformed into incidental and transitory accidents that "happen" (arada) to those self-subsisting minimal parts or to self-subsisting bodies composed of those parts. (43) The most detailed, lengthy and elaborate arguments for atomism are presented in the two hundred-page volume six or sixth book of the Matalib in which he also devotes almost equal space to the counter-arguments of the anti-atomists. He may indeed be a staunch atomist, but he certainly cannot be faulted for failing to give the opposing camp more than their share of a fair hearing! Before going into some of F. al-Razi's arguments for atomism, it shall be useful to recapitulate re·ca·pit·u·late
v. re·ca·pit·u·lat·ed, re·ca·pit·u·lat·ing, re·ca·pit·u·lates
1. To repeat in concise form.
2. his discussions on the various definitions of the body.
Simple Whole and Complex Whole
F. al-Razi rightly says that our definition of the body (or any particular body for that matter insofar in·so·far
To such an extent.
Adv. 1. insofar - to the degree or extent that; "insofar as it can be ascertained, the horse lung is comparable to that of man"; "so far as it is reasonably practical he should practice as it is a body) will depend on whether we consider it to be an integral complex of discrete minimal parts or to be a unitary simple continuous whole without intrinsic parts into which it is terminally analyzable. (44) In the former case, the body is only externally a unity but internally a multiplicity, whereas in the latter case the body is both externally and internally a unity. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently the atomistic at·om·is·tic also at·om·is·ti·cal
1. Of or having to do with atoms or atomism.
2. Consisting of many separate, often disparate elements: an atomistic culture. kalam conception of the body is that it is a complex whole, whereas the hylomorphic falsafah conception is that it is a simple whole.
A corollary corollary: see theorem. of the hylomorphic conception is that while there is no denying the sensible fact of the space-occupying characteristic of the body, this characteristic is, however, not essentially constitutive of the body, but is due to extraneous ex·tra·ne·ous
1. Not constituting a vital element or part.
2. Inessential or unrelated to the topic or matter at hand; irrelevant. See Synonyms at irrelevant.
3. , accidental factors. In other words, spatial dimensions such as the one-dimensional line and the two dimensional surface, as transitory accidents, do not constitute the quiddity quid·di·ty
n. pl. quid·di·ties
1. The real nature of a thing; the essence.
2. A hairsplitting distinction; a quibble. of the body, i.e., the body is not essentially defined by spatial dimensionality; if so, what does define it? Well, the body qua body is essentially unqualified corporeal Possessing a physical nature; having an objective, tangible existence; being capable of perception by touch and sight.
Under Common Law, corporeal hereditaments are physical objects encompassed in land, including the land itself and any tangible object on it, that can be magnitude in the sense of pure mass or density or bulkiness in which it is possible for the dimensions of length, breadth and depth to subsists. In sum, the body as such is a dimensionless corporeal, substantial magnitude which, however, is essentially composed of incorporeal Lacking a physical or material nature but relating to or affecting a body.
Under Common Law, incorporeal property were rights that affected a tangible item, such as a chose in action (a right to enforce a debt). matter and form.
Minimal-Part Atoms (45)
In contrast, a corollary of the atomistic conception is that space-occupation is an essential characteristic of the body by which it is defined, i.e., the body is the space-occupier or the space-occupying thing, and the atom is the smallest, indivisible space-occupier. Thus for the atomist, the body is essentially the space-occupier which occupies the three spatial dimensions of length, breadth and depth; or to put it coarsely, the body is at once "the long, the broad and the deep." (46) But what about the atom which is also a space-occupier, albeit an indivisible one? If it is indivisible then it must be dimensionless, for a one-dimensional entity, i.e., a line, can be divided, and so too can a two-dimensional or a three-dimensional entity, i.e., a surface and a body respectively, and therefore the indivisible atom cannot be a line nor a surface nor a body. It follows then that the atom must be a dimensionless, point-like spatial-entity, for the point is the only spatial entity that is not further analyzable or reducible to a simpler spatial-entity, hence, the atom is defined as the indivisible space-occupying entity. A necessary corollary of this definition of the atom is that the atom is indivisible in act and in thought--it is a physico-conceptual discrete minimal part. (47)
It is clear then that, for the atomists, the body is essentially characterized by spatial divisibility di·vis·i·ble
Capable of being divided, especially with no remainder: 15 is divisible by 3 and 5.
di·vis and the atom by spatial indivisibility in·di·vis·i·ble
1. Incapable of undergoing division.
2. Mathematics Incapable of being divided without a remainder: The number 15 is indivisible by 7. . If this is the case, then a one-dimensional entity, a line, and a two-dimensional entity, a surface, can also by definition be a body, for these two entities are divisible, and therefore a body must at least be a line, and a line must at least be composed of two atomic dimensionless points. Some atomists balk balk
the action of a horse when it refuses to obey a command to which it usually responds. See also jibbing. at this overly austere, physically rarefied rar·e·fied also rar·i·fied
1. Belonging to or reserved for a small select group; esoteric.
2. Elevated in character or style; lofty.
1. definition of the body, and so they suggest that the body must be composed of at least eight atoms, while others say that the body must at least have length, breadth and depth, as noted above. Apparently exasperated with this pointless conceptual hair-splitting, F. al-Razi dismisses the whole bodily definitional controversy with a wave of his hand, as it were, by saying that "this quarrel is linguistic not intellectual!" (48)--a mere quibble QUIBBLE. A slight difficulty raised without necessity or propriety; a cavil.
2. No justly eminent member of the bar will resort to a quibble in his argument. over words--and so, in the Arba'in, he goes for the simplest definition, namely, "the body is that which is composed of two or more atoms," (49) i.e., the body must at least be a line, however minimal. However, later on, in the Matalib, he seems to opt for the definition of the body as the "long, the broad and the deep," (50) i.e., as a three-dimensional entity. Clearly the atomist view of the body is less physical than geometrical or conceptual, and hence more abstract than concrete in contrast to the hylomorphist view, in which matter, as the underlying extrabodily substrate, has substantial, if incorporeal, being.
Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry non-Euclidean geometry, branch of geometry in which the fifth postulate of Euclidean geometry, which allows one and only one line parallel to a given line through a given external point, is replaced by one of two alternative postulates.
The next problem is that the atomistic conception of the body outlined above entails the atomistic, non-Euclidean conception of space, i.e., that space itself is not intrinsically continuous but is composed of indivisible discrete "point-spaces"; this may also be called the "lattice" conception of space." It further entails, in fact, the atomistic conception of time and motion and the consequent rejection of the continuous Euclidean geometry Euclidean geometry
Study of points, lines, angles, surfaces, and solids based on Euclid's axioms. Its importance lies less in its results than in the systematic method Euclid used to develop and present them. of classical antiquity This article is about the ancient classical era, epoch, or (time) period. For the classical period in music (second half of the 18th century), see classical music era.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era or classical period . This fact is noted by Zarkan (52) (and by Dhanani (53) and Pines (54) in the case of pre-Fahkrurazian Muslim atomists). However, we now know from modern physics and mathematics that this does not mean the rejection of geometry as such but only traditional Euclidean geometry, moreover since F. al-Razi also utilizes, where appropriate, Euclidean geometrical arguments for atomism against hylomorphism. The fact usually overlooked here is that the sciences of mathematics and geometry, including Euclidean geometry, are derived, abstracted and idealized i·de·al·ize
v. i·de·al·ized, i·de·al·iz·ing, i·de·al·iz·es
1. To regard as ideal.
2. To make or envision as ideal.
1. , whether directly or indirectly, from the concrete, physical reality of the world, or, as Heinen would have it, "Mathematical calculations presuppose pre·sup·pose
tr.v. pre·sup·posed, pre·sup·pos·ing, pre·sup·pos·es
1. To believe or suppose in advance.
2. To require or involve necessarily as an antecedent condition. See Synonyms at presume. a science which establishes the actual, real existence of their objects." (55)
Therefore, if the physical reality of the world is, at least at a deeper level, atomistic, then continuous Euclidean geometry, based as it were on a hylomorphic conception of the physical world, though not totally false, can only be an approximate description of physical reality the alternative to which has to be a more accurate description based on discrete non-Euclidean geometry, which, in turn, is entailed by and derived from a "deeper," atomistic conception of physical reality. One might be tempted to say that the seeds of systemic non-Euclidean geometrical speculation can be found in the kalam atomistic theory Noun 1. atomistic theory - (chemistry) any theory in which all matter is composed of tiny discrete finite indivisible indestructible particles; "the ancient Greek philosophers Democritus and Epicurus held atomic theories of the universe" of physical reality. But for normal purposes, such as in the case of determining the direction of the qiblah for one who is not in the immediate presence of the Ka'bah, Euclidean geometry will obviously have its uses, so much so that even learning it is, for F. al-Razi, an individual religious obligation on the one who needs to determine the direction of the qiblah from afar. (56) Hence Zarkan needs not be too perplexed per·plexed
1. Filled with confusion or bewilderment; puzzled.
2. Full of complications or difficulty; involved.
[Middle English, from perplex, confused at F. al-Razi's rejection of Euclidean geometry on the one hand, due to its inherent conceptual discord Discord
See also Confusion.
demon of discord. [Occultism: Jobes, 93]
discord, apple of
caused conflict among goddesses; Trojan War ultimate result. [Gk. Myth. with atomism, and his affirmation of the same geometry, on the other, due to its practical utility for determining the qiblah, (57) and even its conceptual utility for supporting certain aspects of atomism.
From the foregoing contrast between the atomistic and hylomorphic conceptions of the body, it can be seen that in both conceptions, the corporeal body is derived from incorporeality in·cor·po·re·al
1. Lacking material form or substance. See Synonyms at immaterial.
2. Law Of or relating to property or an asset that does not have value in material form, as a right or patent. : from incorporeal point-like atoms in the case of the former and from incorporeal prime matter and form in the case of the latter. Thus it may not be too far off the mark to say that while on the one hand the atomistic body is ultimately magnitude-less, insubstantial dimensions to which corporeal magnitudes are mere accidents, the hylomorphic body is, on the other hand, dimensionless, substantial magnitude to which the incorporeal dimensions are but accidents. In atomism, the insubstantial dimensions are essential to the body; in hylomorphism, the substantial magnitude. Can we say then that, in contrast to the hylomorphic body, the atomistic body is less material than immaterial and hence more conceptual than concrete?
At any rate, it does seem that the atomic theory Atomic theory
The study of the structure and properties of atoms based on quantum mechanics and the Schrödinger equation. These tools make it possible, in principle, to predict most properties of atomic systems. of bodies and their motion and change is the simpler theory. The entitative elements of this theory is body, atoms and accidents which are reducible to two, namely atoms and accidents, since atoms are not extrabodily, whereas in the hylomorphic theory, we have body, matter and form, three distinct entitative elements since matter is extrabodily. With this comparative resume in place, we may now survey what E. al-Razi has to offer in terms of detailed, rational arguments for atomism.
Arguments for and against Atomism (58)
In volume six of the Matalib, (59) before going into detailed, critical exposition of the arguments of the opposing hylomorphist camp, E. al-Razi presents and expounds on three main arguments of the atomists, namely, argument from considerations of the nature of motion and time, argument from the principles of geometry, and argument from the finite magnitude of the body, followed by a separate section expounding ex·pound
v. ex·pound·ed, ex·pound·ing, ex·pounds
1. To give a detailed statement of; set forth: expounded the intricacies of the new tax law.
2. on other, supplementary arguments. The first main argument is founded upon certain atomistic conceptions of the nature of time, motion and distance: if time, motion and distance are discrete entities then, ipso facto [Latin, By the fact itself; by the mere fact.]
ipso facto (ip-soh-fact-toe) prep. Latin for "by the fact itself." An expression more popular with comedians imitating lawyers than with lawyers themselves. , the body must be composed of atomic minimal parts. The second main argument is based, ironically, on continuous Euclidean geometry, and so it shows how geometrical continuity can be co-opted and pressed into the service of physical and conceptual discontinuity, i.e., atomic discreteness. The third main argument from finite bodily magnitude basically says that if a body of finite magnitude can be endlessly divided, this would imply that this body, though finite, is composed of an actual infinite number infinite number
a number so large as to be uncountable. Represented by 8, frequently obtained by 'dividing' by zero. of parts, which is impossible. The section on supplementary arguments" is for the most part an extension of the section on geometrical arguments, and contains some interesting references to Ibn Sina, Euclid and Ibn al-Haytham Ibn al-Haytham (ĭb`ən äl-hīth-äm`) or Alhazen (ălhəzĕn`), 965–c.1040, Arab mathematician. .
After presenting the atomist arguments, E. al-Razi proceeds in the next very long section of over eighty pages to present in ten sub-sections the anti-atomist arguments which he engages closely with counter-arguments of his own. (61) The concluding last three, also very argumentative Controversial; subject to argument.
Pleading in which a point relied upon is not set out, but merely implied, is often labeled argumentative. Pleading that contains arguments that should be saved for trial, in addition to allegations establishing a Cause of Action or , sections seem to serve as a resume of the whole of the previous discussions, though they do contain some new argumentative insights of their own. (62)
Geometrical Arguments for the Atomic Minimal Part
In a thirteen-page section entitled 'Arguments derived from geometrical principles showing the existence of the indivisible atom," (63) E. al-Razi presents four main geometrical arguments for the atomic minimal part which show his familiarity with the geometrical principles of Euclid whom he in fact mentions many times by name. (64) The first is the argument of the sphere stationary and rolling on a plane; the second is that of the vertical line moving on another line perpendicular to it; the third is that of the thingness and locality of a point, i.e., that the point is a real thing with a physical locus; and the fourth is that of the indivisibility of the two terminals at which a motion begins and ends. Some of his arguments are more elongated e·lon·gate
tr. & intr.v. e·lon·gat·ed, e·lon·gat·ing, e·lon·gates
To make or grow longer.
adj. or elongated
1. Made longer; extended.
2. Having more length than width; slender. than intricate, though involving, as it must, many auxiliary sub-arguments to reinforce the persuasive thrust of the core arguments and to ward off numerous anticipated counter-arguments. He realizes that arguments founded upon the least number of premises can prove to be the most conclusive. He is also candid in admitting and showing that geometrical arguments based on Euclidean principles are like a double-edged sword that cut both ways, for and against the indivisible atom. Indeed, he even devotes a separate section of eight pages on "arguments derived from geometry to deny the atomic substance." (65) Here, only the first and second main geometrical arguments for atomism are translated and described, while the remaining two paraphrased.
The first main argument states that "when a real sphere touches a level surface, the locus of contact is something not divisible, and this fact entails affirming the existence of the indivisible atom." (66) He then gives four auxiliary arguments as to why the locus of contact must be something indivisible, i.e., a point:
(a) If the locus of contact is divisible then this locus will be pressed against the level surface, and that which is pressed against a level surface is [itself] a level surface, and so entails a level surface obtaining in the sphere, [but] this is impossible. Also, if we suppose the sphere rolls, then when the [first locus of] contact passes away, there obtains a [second] contact with another, also indivisible part. [As for] this second part on which the second contact obtains, if it connects with the first [previous] locus of contact, whether at an angle or not at an angle, then the sphere [in either case] becomes straightly extended, but this is impossible [if it is a real sphere]. (67)
In plain speech, the gist of this auxiliary argument is that if the locus of contact between the sphere and the level surface is divisible, then this locus will in fact not be a point but a level plane or a line. This will entail that that part of the sphere in contact with the level surface is in fact not curved but flattened flat·ten
v. flat·tened, flat·ten·ing, flat·tens
1. To make flat or flatter.
2. To knock down; lay low: The boxer was flattened with one punch. , which renders the sphere not a sphere, but if the sphere is to remain truly a sphere, then the locus of contact must be an indivisible physical point. Now, when the sphere rolls, the second locus of contact must be both horizontally and angularly discontinuous discontinuous /dis·con·tin·u·ous/ (dis?kon-tin´u-us)
1. interrupted; intermittent; marked by breaks.
2. discrete; separate.
3. lacking logical order or coherence. with the first locus of contact, otherwise that particular part of the sphere will again be flat not round, which is of course impossible if the sphere is to remain truly a sphere. Therefore, not only does the sphere contact the level surface at an indivisible atomic physical point, but also, when the sphere rolls on the level surface, all subsequent and successive loci loci
[L.] plural of locus.
loci Plural of locus, see there of contact are discrete indivisible atomic physical points. Here the adjective "physical" is to be emphasized, for F. al-Razi is talking about contact between physical, albeit geometrically idealized, objects. With a little imagination, a universal geometrical law can be inferred from the above argument, namely, all loci of contact between a curvature and a plane are discrete points.
The second auxiliary argument to prove the indivisibility of the locus of contact is as follows:
(b) If the locus of contact is divisible, then it will be possible to draw out from the center of the sphere two lines terminating on the two extremities of the locus of contact, and these two lines together with the [base] line traced at the locus of contact [between its two extremities] become three lines surrounding a single plane, thus forming a triangle whose base is the [base] line at the locus of contact. If we draw out from the center of the circle to the base of this triangle a vertical line, then the two angles formed on both sides of this vertical line will be right-angled, and the [original] triangle, due to this drawn out vertical line, will be halved into two right-angled triangles, and the two lines falling on the two extremities [of the locus of contact] will become hypotenuses of these two right-angled triangles, and the vertical line becomes a hypotenuse of [i.e., side subtended by] the two acute angles falling on the two extremities [of the locus of contact]. It is known that the hypotenuse of [subtended by] the right angle is greater [i.e., longer] than the hypotenuse of [i.e., side subtended by] the acute angle. Thus this vertical line will be shorter than the two lines falling on the two extremities. But these three lines radiate from the center to the circumference [of the sphere] even though they are [of] unequal [lengths], but this is inconsistent. Therefore it is established that the locus of contact of this sphere [with the plane] is something indivisible, and this is what is sought. (68)
This argument is surely less intricate than elongated, and merely a slight, if tortuous tor·tu·ous
Having many turns; winding or twisting.
tortuous adjective Referring to complexly twisted thing. Cf Tortious. , variant of the one preceding it. The straightforward gist of it is that the lines radiating ra·di·ate
v. ra·di·at·ed, ra·di·at·ing, ra·di·ates
1. To send out rays or waves.
2. To issue or emerge in rays or waves: Heat radiated from the stove. from the center to the circumference of the sphere must be radii ra·di·i
A plural of radius.
a plural of radius of equal lengths; but if the locus of contact between the circumference and the plane is divisible, then the locus of contact on the circumference will be flattened having two extremities ex·trem·i·ty
n. pl. ex·trem·i·ties
1. The outermost or farthest point or portion.
2. The greatest or utmost degree: the extremity of despair.
a. such that the radii radiating from the center to the two extremities will be of a length unequal to Adj. 1. unequal to - not meeting requirements; "unequal to the demands put upon him"
inadequate, unequal - lacking the requisite qualities or resources to meet a task; "inadequate training"; "the staff was inadequate"; "she was unequal that of the radius radiating to a point on the circumference half-way (or any fraction of the way, by the way) between the two extremities. In short, a divisible locus of contact between the sphere and the plane entails radii of unequal lengths from the center of the sphere to their respective loci of contact on the plane, but this is impossible if the sphere is to remain a sphere, which, by definition, must have radii of equal lengths.
The following two remaining auxiliary arguments are shorter yet more interesting, the first of which even particularly funny without in any way lacking in logical rigor rigor /rig·or/ (rig´er) [L.] chill; rigidity.
rigor mor´tis the stiffening of a dead body accompanying depletion of adenosine triphosphate in the muscle fibers. .
(c) Euclid has demonstrated in the third treatise (69) that every straight line connecting between two points falling on a circle must itself falls within that circle. Hence, if the locus of contact is divisible then this will necessitate the tracing of a straight line superposed on the surface [i.e., circumference] of the circle; however this will entail that this straight line falls simultaneously both within the circle and outside it, but this is impossible. (70) (d) Euclid has demonstrated" that if one of two circles falls within the other bigger than it, the two will not contact except at a single point. If the locus of contact is divisible, then the contact will obtain on more than one point, but this is impossible. (72)
All that is very well, but just how do we go from establishing the geometrical reality of discrete atomic contact points to the physical reality of discrete atoms as such, and thereby to the atomic composition of bodies? Apparently in response to this implicit question, F. al-Razi says:
By means of these four proofs, it is thereby established that the locus of contact is something indivisible; and we say [further] that if such is the case, then it is imperative to recognize the existence of the indivisible atom. This is so because when we roll the sphere over the plane a full circle, there is no doubt that whenever the locus of contact leaves a point, the locus of contact [again] obtains at another point, and there is nothing intervening between these two [successive contact] points. This is because we are speaking about that [second] point at which contact is realized at the very moment when contact ceases at the first [previous] point, and thus, on this supposition, a line is traced through a composition of these [successive contact] points; and if a line is obtained through a composition of points, then likewise a plane is obtained through a composition of lines, and a body through a composition of planes. Therefore, on this supposition, the locus of contact on a circle is something indivisible, and by the drawing together of similar indivisibles the body is obtained. Such then is what is meant by the indivisible atom. (73)
The second main argument says:
If we suppose a line perpendicular to another line, and we further suppose that this perpendicular line moves on that other line from its beginning until its end, then this moving line will have touched with its extremity the whole length of the line being moved on, for moving on something without touching it is inconceivable. This will then entail that it should be said that the line being moved on is generated from entities touched by the extremity of the moving line, but the extremity of the moving line is a point, and [so] that touched by a point is a point [too]. Therefore the line being moved on must of necessity be composed of points, and this is what is sought. (74)
This means that a line touches another line at an indivisible point, and when the former moves along on the latter, each successive locus of contact is a point, and therefore the latter is composed of indivisible points, i.e., atoms. F. al-Razi then elaborates further on this argument by adducing ad·duce
tr.v. ad·duced, ad·duc·ing, ad·duc·es
To cite as an example or means of proof in an argument.
[Latin add several sub-arguments.
The third main geometrical argument says that the philosophers are agreed that the point is a real thing having an indivisible position or spot (wad'), and this would entail the existence of the atom. Not satisfied with the demonstrative LEGACY, DEMONSTRATIVE. A demonstrative legacy is a bequest of a certain sum of money; intended for the legatee at all events, with a fund particularly referred to for its payment; so that if the estate be not the testator's property at his death, the legacy will not fail: but be payable adequacy of this statement, F. al-Razi proceeds to prove it by giving three sub-arguments; thus he says:
Our saying that the point is a thing having an indivisible position [or situation] (dhu wad'in la juz'a lahu) is a statement (kalam) comprising three provisos (quyud). The first proviso: the point is a thing and the evidence for this is that a line touches another line at a point, hence if this point does not exist, then that which is characterized by touching (al-mawsuf bi al-mulaqah) does not exist at all which is self-evidently false. By this is shown the fallacy of those who say that the point has no existence except in the imagination (wahm); for we say that the touching obtains in concrete [i.e., external] reality (ft al-a'yan), and this touching obtains on the point, hence the point necessarily exists in external reality. The second proviso is ... that the point has position, i.e., it is possible to point to it sensibly (al-isharah al-hissiyyah ilayhi). The third proviso is that the point is not receptive to division. (75)
He then gives three sub-arguments to prove the third proviso A condition, stipulation, or limitation inserted in a document.
A condition or a provision in a deed, lease, mortgage, or contract, the performance or non-performance of which affects the validity of the instrument. It generally begins with the word provided. , the first of which is the previously mentioned circle-in-circle argument; the second is the argument that the point is tantamount tan·ta·mount
Equivalent in effect or value: a request tantamount to a demand.
[From obsolete tantamount, an equivalent, from Anglo-Norman to the extremity extremity /ex·trem·i·ty/ (eks-trem´i-te)
1. the distal or terminal portion of elongated or pointed structures.
1. of a line such that if this extremity itself has length and breadth, it would then be a surface and thus not actually the extreme end of the line; and the third is that this extremity must be indivisible, otherwise it would be divisible into at least two sub-points only one and not both of which can be the extremity, but then what was at first supposed to be the extremity would turn out not wholly to be the extremity, and this is impossible. If that sub-point is again divisible, the same problem recurs with regard to it, but if it is not further divisible then the case for the actual indivisible point is proven. (76)
F. al-Razi's fourth geometrical argument for the indivisible atom is that the position (al-mawdi') at which motion begins or ends must be an indivisible point. If either the initial or the terminal position of a motion is divisible into two sub-points, then this will entail that the motion actually begins or ends at two positions instead of at one position, but this is impossible. (77)
Conceptual Role of the Atom in Islamic Philosophico-Scientific Theology
The foregoing shows F. al-Razi to be affirming that physical, sensible bodies are three-dimensional composition of discrete physico-conceptual dimensionless minimal parts called indivisible atoms. His arguments for the existence of the atomic part presented above are in many cases repeated with slight variations to support his atomistic theory of time, motion and space/place. Further studies will show that he also views change in general (taghayyur) to be atomistic in nature. What follows is a brief personal reflection on the conceptual role of atomism in kalam theological thought, which, by the time of F. al-Razi, has thoroughly integrated philosophical, mathematical and scientific themes into its discursive framework.
Kalam atomism, in keeping with its rigorous, uncompromising self-consistency, demands the "atomization Atomization
The process whereby a bulk liquid is transformed into a multiplicity of small drops. This transformation, often called primary atomization, proceeds through the formation of disturbances on the surface of the bulk liquid, followed by their of everything; bodies, properties [i.e, accidents], actions [and events], space and time have all been given an atomic structure." (78) At the end of his pioneering (within orientalism) study of Islamic atomism, Pines raises the question of the conceptual role of the atom within Islamic culture, (79) considered apart from questions of external origins which have so engrossed en·gross
tr.v. en·grossed, en·gross·ing, en·gross·es
1. To occupy exclusively; absorb: A great novel engrosses the reader. See Synonyms at monopolize.
2. the attention of Wolfson, for instance, in his monumental Philosophy of the Kalam. (80) But, in order to handle the problem of indigenous conceptual role adequately, one has also to consider seriously the very likely possibility of an essentially indigenous Qur'anic inspiration of kalam atomism in respect of which, engagement with non-Islamic atomism and hylomorphism may serve only to provoke its formal, theologcao-scientific articulation and explication ex·pli·cate
tr.v. ex·pli·cat·ed, ex·pli·cat·ing, ex·pli·cates
To make clear the meaning of; explain. See Synonyms at explain.
[Latin explic in metaphysical, geometrical and physical terms.
The assumption, implicit in many who concern themselves with questions of origins, of a linear historical influence and a concomittant largely unfiltered Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style.
Remove this template after wikifying. This article has been tagged since reception, can be quite unwarranted, especially in the light of the fact that dynamic cultures, like dynamic individuals, creatively reconceptualize received ideas so as to integrate them within a more or less prior framework of what they deem as meaningful or intelligible. Once reconceptualized and then integrated into the new, receiving intellecto-cultural context, those "appropriated" ideas acquire a fresh life and identity, as it were, with new conceptual possibilities to be discovered, explored and articulated that were quite undreamed of, even impossible, within their previous cultural contexts. To quote R. M. Frank,
... the kalam formed itself from the beginning in the spontaneous exploitation of the inherent richness and flexibility of its native idiom (81).... In order to understand the kalam, on the contrary [i.e., in contrast to falsafah], one needs only the native language and tradition of Arab Islam (82)....This is not to say that the kalam contains no parallels with and no clear dependences upon the pagan and Christian traditions that preceded it, but rather that these dependences are chiefly to be sought on a deeper level. Most of the basic issues, though in a real sense (and for us unavoidably) "Greek," are nevertheless framed and conceived in an Islamic mode and must be so read. (83)
Hence, one may realize that historical continuity, even if easily proven, often goes hand in hand with conceptual discontinuity, and especially so, when the search for continuity mostly reflects the research interests of modern Arabists rather than the authentic intellectual concerns of the classical Muslim thinkers of the long bygone by·gone
Gone by; past: bygone days.
One, especially a grievance, that is past: Let bygones be bygones. past. What can be said here regarding the Qur'anic inspiration for the conceptual role of kalam atomism in Islamic metaphysics Malaysian Islamic philosopher Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas maintains that modern science sees things as mere things, and that it has reduced the study of the phenomenal world to an end in itself. and physics will mainly be on the general, speculative level, since a separate inquiry is needed in order to do justice to the question.
Since God is the only active force operating in the world--as emphasized categorically in many Qur'anic verses--then the only necessary causal connection obtaining in the world is that which obtains "vertically" between the world--including between each and every "worldly" entity, properties, events and processes--and this force, conceived as a separate, higher ontic order. This entails that there can be no objectively real continuity, i.e., ontic and causal intra- or inter-dependence (84) between worldly entities and events in any linear, horizontal manner; all dependence is, without exception, vertical, i.e., the direct, immediate dependence of each and every "worldly" thing--including every part thereof, from the tiniest part to the greatest whole--on God for each and every instant of their existence, occurrence and persistence.
The Qur'an emphasizes again and again this direct divine action in the world in verses such as: His command, when He intended a thing, is only that He says unto it: Be! and it is (85); There is not a thing but hymns His praise (86); "Each day He is upon some task (87); and As We began the first creation, We repeat it. (88) Al-Attas has pointed out to the effect that it is in the light of these and similar Qur'anic verses bearing on the true nature of causality that the original philosophical contribution and significance of kalam atomism or occasionalism has to be appreciated: namely as essentially an attempt to demonstrate rationally the absolute poverty of any ontic autonomy on the part of nature and all natural processes, and hence the impossibility of a real or efficacious ef·fi·ca·cious
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect. See Synonyms at effective.
[From Latin effic linear or multilinear horizontal naturalistic nat·u·ral·is·tic
1. Imitating or producing the effect or appearance of nature.
2. Of or in accordance with the doctrines of naturalism. causality. (89) Al-Attas even finds conceptual affinity between kalam atomism and the Sufi wahdat al-wujud (unity of being); for him, the Ash'arite conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of the total ontic and causal dependence of nature on the Creator in terms of the cosmological cos·mol·o·gy
n. pl. cos·mol·o·gies
1. The study of the physical universe considered as a totality of phenomena in time and space.
a. atomistic/occasionalistic theory of the "perpetual recurrence of creation" (tajdid al-khalq) already implies wahdat al-wujud. (90)
If the connection between things in the world is not linear, then it has to be systemic, but systemic connection, by its very nature, does not obtain in any gradual, evolutionary causal manner, but instantaneously, i.e., all at once or not at all, hence the reconceptualization of natural causation causation
Relation that holds between two temporally simultaneous or successive events when the first event (the cause) brings about the other (the effect). According to David Hume, when we say of two types of object or event that “X causes Y” (e.g. as divinely instituted regularity, as transcendent intelligent design imposed on nature. (91) A regularity, a pattern or a rhythm, is something unitary which obtains all at once and never gradually. Divinely instituted regularity means that the regularity is something transcendent and not something generated by phenomena and inherent in them; rather the regularity is localized and instantiated in and through phenomena from "above," as it were. In other words, the regularity, though manifest in phenomena, transcends the collective capacity of phenomena to cause, generate or produce it. That this regularity is not in itself something necessary, but freely instituted, is borne out by the fact that though the phenomena express the regularity they underdetermine it (i.e., the same underlying regularity may just as well be expressed by a different set of sensible phenomena). Conversely, the same or similar phenomena could well have been expressive of a different regularity, i.e., organized similarly to express dissimilar ends or functions. This means that any particular phenomenal localization Customizing software and documentation for a particular country. It includes the translation of menus and messages into the native spoken language as well as changes in the user interface to accommodate different alphabets and culture. See internationalization and l10n. and instantiation (programming) instantiation - Producing a more defined version of some object by replacing variables with values (or other variables).
1. In object-oriented programming, producing a particular object from its class template. of a natural "law" (i.e., regularity) is not strictly deducible de·duce
tr.v. de·duced, de·duc·ing, de·duc·es
1. To reach (a conclusion) by reasoning.
2. To infer from a general principle; reason deductively: from that law. (92) In other words, a phenomenon may conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well" a natural law without in any way being entailed by it.
The implications of such a metaphysical cosmology Metaphysics and the Single Intelligible Object
Cosmology was a subject of metaphysics before the Copernican Revolution. Especially since Einstein's theories, cosmology has been primarily concerned with physics (see Physical Cosmology) But the Great Ideas of the Western World are that causes and effects are created together and correlated within an order or integral system in which the causes are but conditions for the effects. This order or integral system is perceived through scientific inquiry as natural patterns and regularities, as 'laws of nature', which in reality only reflect God's "manner of creation" or His sunnah (sunnatuLldh), His tadbir (governance) and taqdir (apportioning ap·por·tion
tr.v. ap·por·tioned, ap·por·tion·ing, ap·por·tions
To divide and assign according to a plan; allot: "The tendency persists to apportion blame as suits the circumstances" ), since He does nothing in vain (ma khalaqta hadha batila (93)) but everything in truth (wa ma khalaqa Allahu dhalika illa bi'l-haqq (94)). This order has a certain stability, uniformity, and persistence because God does not change the manner of His creation: "la tabdila li khalgiLlah/There is no altering (the laws of) Allah's creation." (95) In short, God creates both causes and effects and connects them together within a dynamic, "unified network of events and relations," (96) hence rendering physical, sensible nature "symbolic" or ayati, as an aid to scientific/ pragmatic knowledge and understanding of its underlying abstract, intelligible patterns, and thereby to intellecto-spiritual appreciation of divine wisdom and providence, ultimately.
Theologians, philosophers and scientists perceive and describe an aspect of this integral, systemic regularity in terms of a certain linear spatio-temporal order of priority and posteriority POSTERIORITY, rights. Being or, coming after. It is a word of comparison, the correlative of which is priority; as, when a man holds lands from two landlords, he holds from his ancient landlord by priority and from the other by posteriority. 2 Inst. 392.
2. seen to be governing things and events in nature, some of which they posit as antecedent ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio. 'causes' ('substrate', 'substratum') for others, the consequent 'effects', whereas in reality, causal efficacy lies with God alone. (97) As summed up by Guiderdoni, "the regularities observed in the world are not due to causal connection, but to a constant conjunction between the phenomena, which is a custom established by God." (98) Kalam atomism/occasionalism may well have been the only empirically viable physical theory compatible with this metaphysics metaphysics (mĕtəfĭz`ĭks), branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of existence. It perpetuates the Metaphysics of Aristotle, a collection of treatises placed after the Physics [Gr. of efficient causality--the metaphysics of the "unitary direct cause of each and every created [i.e., "worldly"] existent ex·is·tent
1. Having life or being; existing. See Synonyms at real1.
2. Occurring or present at the moment; current.
One that exists.
Adj. 1. ." (99)
Kalam atomism or theory of physical discreteness is more about the fundamental or essential structure of physical (i.e. created) reality. This theory claims that if the world was created, then it must be made up of discrete, atomic parts. Hence Kalam atomism or physics is substantially motivated by the Qur'anic metaphysics of creation, and only formally inspired by certain aspects of Greek or even Indian atomism. And when the mutakallimun talk about parts, they mean all that partake of the physical world, bodies, qualities, space, time, change, motion. So even the abstract, non-sensible aspects of the physical world are understood in atomistic terms.
For kalam atomism to be self-consistent, even the indivisible, "self-subsisting" atomic substance has to be ultimately also "accidents" relative to God, so the distinction atom-accident is not absolute with respect to entities/events in creation, meaning A may be an atom/body/substance relative to B but an accident/event/happening relative to C, but, relative to God, all three are accidents undergoing a perpetual process of coming into and passing out of being.
This means that the atom-accident distinction is only "i'tibari" (i.e., cognitive, epistemological e·pis·te·mol·o·gy
The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its presuppositions and foundations, and its extent and validity.
[Greek epist or "mentally posited" (100)), for that is how our minds find the phenomenal world intelligible to the understanding. At a deeper, ontological level, though, all are accidents, so atomism can ultimately be reduced to occasionalism, or the metaphysics of direct, unmediated Adj. 1. unmediated - having no intervening persons, agents, conditions; "in direct sunlight"; "in direct contact with the voters"; "direct exposure to the disease"; "a direct link"; "the direct cause of the accident"; "direct vote"
direct divine action. Therefore, kalam atomism can be seen as a monumental intellecto-scientific ijtihad of the mutakallimun to develop and refine a theory about the world that can account for its physical aspects in a way that is conceptually compatible with that metaphysics without compromising divine power or involvement in any way.
Seen as a way to demonstrate and explore through rational and scientific argument the inherent harmony between revealed metaphysics and the physics that is intuitively experienced through our shared, sensible interaction with the world, kalam atomism even has direct relevance for modern physicists as they find themselves increasingly grappling, with limited success, with questions that overlap the hazy haz·y
adj. haz·i·er, haz·i·est
1. Marked by the presence of haze; misty: hazy sunshine.
2. disciplinary boundary between science and metaphysics. (101)
(1.) A notable exception is Abu Bakr Muhammad Zakariyya al-Razi, who advocated atomism and was thus criticized by Ibn Sina along with the mutakallimun; see Shlomo Pines Shlomo Pines (August 5, 1908 – January 9, 1990) was a scholar of Jewish and Islamic philosophy, best known for his English translation of Maimonides' Guide to the Perplexed. , Studies in Islamic Atomism, trans. Michael Schwarz and ed. Tzvi Langermann (Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1997), 41ff.
(2.) Notable exceptions include the Mu'tazilite, al-Nazzam; see Pines, 11ff, Alnoor Dhanani, Physical Theory of Kalam (Leiden: Brill Brill or Bril, Flemish painters, brothers.
Mattys Brill (mä`tīs), 1550–83, went to Rome early in his career and executed frescoes for Gregory XIII in the Vatican. , 1994), 172ff. Like the Ash'arites, the Maturidites, like al-Nasafi, were also atomists; see Mustafa Ceric, Roots of Synthetic Theology (Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (kwä`lə lm`pr), city (1990 est. pop. : ISTAC ISTAC Information Systems Technical Advisory Committee
ISTAC International Institute of Islamic Thought And Civilization , 1995), 116ff, cf. Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas Syed Muhammad al Naquib bin Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhsin al Attas (born September 5, 1931) is a prominent contemporary Muslim philosopher and thinker from Malaysia. He is one of the few contemporary scholars who is thoroughly rooted in the traditional Islamic sciences and who is , The Oldest Known Malay Manuscript: A 16th Century Malay Translation of the 'Aga'id of al-Nasafi (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3.0 km²) campus in southwest Kuala Lumpur, the capital city. Press, 1988), 67.
(3.) Gerhard Endress, "Yahya ibn 'Adi's Critique of Atomism" in Zeitschrift fur Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften (ZGAIW), 1 (1984), 155-179, on 157.
(4.) Idem, The Works of Yahya ibn 'Adi (Wiesbaden, 1977).
(5.) Al-Shifa', Al-Tabi'iyyat 1:al-Sama' al-Tabi'i, ed. S ed.
2. editor . Zayed and I. Madkour (Qum, 1405 H), Third Treatise, Chapters 3-5.
(6.) Al-Najat, ed. Muhammad Taqi Danish-pazhuh (Tehran: Mu'assasah Intisharat, 1364H), 198-203.
(7.) Ed. Abd al-Rahman Abd al-Rahman. For Muslim rulers thus named, use Abd ar-Rahman. al-Badawi (Beirut: Dar al-Qalam, 1980), 24-26.
(8.) Michael E. Marmura, "Avicenna and the Kalam" in ZGAIW, 6 (1990). Jean Jolivet had even suggested in his "Aux origines de l'ontologie d'Ibn Sina," in Jolivet and R. Rashed, eds., Etudes sur Avicenne (Paris, 1984), 19-28, that kalam and not Greek thought was the intellectual context of the Avicennan distinction between essence and existence--a view to which Robert Wisnovsky gave his "qualified support" in his "Notes on Avicenna's concept of thingness" in Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (ASP), vol. 10 (2000), 181-221. An interesting, somewhat technical exposition of Ibn Sina's argument against atomism is F. A. Shamsi, "Ibn Sina's Argument against Atomicity at·o·mic·i·ty
1. The state of being composed of atoms.
a. The number of atoms in a molecule.
b. Valence. of Space/Time" in Islamic Studies
(9.) Seyyed Hossein Nasr
Seyyed Hossein Nasr (Persian: سيد حسين نصر), (1933-), a University Professor of and Mehdi Mohaghegh Mehdi Mohaghegh (1930- Mashad,Iran) is an Iranian scholar specializing in persian literature, Islamic studies and philosophy.
He has a Ph.D. in both Ilahiyyat (theology) and Persian language and literature; he joined The Faculty of Literature and Humanities at Tehran , eds., Al-As'ilah wa'l-Ajwibah (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1995), 3-4 (English introduction), 17-19 (edited text).
(10.) Michael E. Marmura, "Avicenna and the Kalam" in ZGAIW, 6 (1990), 177.
(11.) Pines, 41ff, cf. Dhanani, 90ff and Harry Wolfson, Philosophy of the Kalam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. , 1976), 472ff.
(12.) See "Ibn Hazm" in Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd edition. [hereafter In the future.
The term hereafter is always used to indicate a future time—to the exclusion of both the past and present—in legal documents, statutes, and other similar papers. [EI.sup.2]]
(13.) Peter Adamson Peter Adamson (16 February 1930 - 17 January 2002) was a British actor born in Liverpool. He is best known for playing 'rough diamond' Len Fairclough in Coronation Street from 1961 to 1983.
He died from stomach cancer in Lincoln County Hospital in 2002. , "Al-Kindi and the Mu'tazila" in ASP, 13 (2003), 45-77; Alfred L. Ivry, Al-Kindi's Metaphysics (Albany: SUNY SUNY - State University of New York , 1974), 22ff.
(14.) See Adi Setia, "The Theologico-Scientific Research Program of the Mutakallimun: Intellectual-Historical Context and Contemporary Concerns with Special Reference to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi" in Islam & Science, vol. 3, no. 2 (2005), 127-151; cf. Ayman Shihadeh, "From al-Ghazali to al-Razi: 6th/12th Century Developments in Muslim Philosophical Theology Philosophical theology is the disciplined employment of philosophical methods in developing or analyzing theological concepts. It therefore includes natural theology as well as philosophical treatments of orthodox and heterodox theology. " in ASP, vol. 15 (2005), 141-179. See also Dimitri Gutas, "The Heritage of Avicenna: The Golden Age of Arabic Philosophy Arabic philosophy
or Islamic philosophy
Doctrines of the Arabic philosophers of the 9th–12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism in Europe. , ca 1000-1350" in Avicenna and His Heritage: Acts of the International Colloquium col·lo·qui·um
n. pl. col·lo·qui·ums or col·lo·qui·a
1. An informal meeting for the exchange of views.
2. An academic seminar on a broad field of study, usually led by a different lecturer at each meeting. , Leuven-Louvain-La-Neuve, September 8-September 11, 1999, ed., Jules Janssens and Daniel De Smet De Smet is the name of communities in the US :
(15.) F. al-Razi, Kitab al-Arba'in fi Usul al-Din Usul al-dín is an Arabic Islamic term which literally translates to the way of life in submission to Allah. It is found in the Shahadah.
It is also the Arabic name of what can be translated as the Shi'a Principles of the Religion. (Hyderabad, 1934), 253ff.
(16.) F. al-Razi, Muhassal Afkar al-Mutaqaddimin wa al-Muta'akhkhirin min al-'ulama' wa al-hukama' wa al-mutakallimin (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Lubnani, 1992), 89ff, (Cairo: Maktabah al-Kulliyyat al-Azhariyyah, n.d.), 118ff.
(17.) Volume 6: 5-219. For more details on the intricate technicalities of pre-Fakhrurazian atomism, the reader is invited to access Alnoor Dhanani's most useful work, The Physical Theory of Kalam.
(18.) F. al-Razi, al-Mabahith al-Mashriqiyah (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1990), 2: 19ff, (Qum: Maktabah Bidar, 1966), 2:11ff.
(19.) Muhammad Salih Zarkan, Fakhr al-Din al-Razi wa Ara'uhu al-Kalamiyyah wa al-Falsafiyyah (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1963), 465ff.
(20.) L. Gardet, article "Djuz"' in [EI.sup.2].
(21.) F. al-Razi, al-Matalib al-Aliyyah, Ahmad Hijazi al-Saqqa, ed., 9 vols. in 5 (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, 1987), 6: 29ff.
(22.) SUH, 2: 101-118 for his critical commentary on Ibn Sina's arguments against atomism.
(23.) Arba'in, 253ff.
(24.) Muhassal (Cairo), 115ff, Muhassal (Beirut), 87ff.
(25.) Zarkan, 465ff.
(26.) Mabahith (Qum), 2: 11ff, for criticisms of atomism, and 2: 47ff for doubts about hylomorphism = Mabahith (Beirut), 2:19ff and 2: 51ff respectively.
(27.) Dhanani, 169-170; see also article "Ibn Hazm" by R. Arnaldez in [EI.sup.2].
(28.) For a study of Ibn Sina's physical theory, see Muhammad 'Atif al-'Iraqi, al-Falsafat al-Tabi'iyyah 'inda Ibn Sina (Cairo: Dar al-Ma'arif, 1971).
(29.) Here I think it is useful to view atomism as applicable to entities and occasionalism to events and processes, but, in the final analysis, atomism is reducible to occasionalism, though here is not the occasion to elaborate.
(30.) Variant reading, anwa' = kinds (p. 5n3).
(31.) Matalib, 6: 5-6.
(32.) Muhassal (Cairo), 118-119; Muhassal (Beirut), 89.
(33.) Here the printed text has: wa al-ittisal ghayr wa al-infisal, which does not make sense since the context requires wa al-ittisal ghayr al-infisal, and so I translated it accordingly. I use the terms "discontinuity" and "dissection" interchangeably here as translation of infisal for clarity of presentation.
(34.) SUH, 3: 19; cf. UH, 48, where the last four lines read differently but maintain the same general sense: "Hence the faculty of receptivity to dissection is due to something receptive to [both] dissection and continuity. Therefore bodily continuity is [found] in matter."
(35.) This last sentence of the pasage, wa ka dhalika ma yatba'u hadha al-ittisala wa yakunu ma'ahu min al-quwa wa al-suwar, is found in the corresponding passage in the UH, and though missing in this particular passage in SUH, it is commented on by al-Razi at the end of his commentary of the passage; thus this sentence must have been inadvertently omitted by the scribe scribe (skrīb), Jewish scholar and teacher (called in Hebrew, Soferim) of law as based upon the Old Testament and accumulated traditions. The work of the scribes laid the basis for the Oral Law, as distinct from the Written Law of the Torah. or by the editor.
(36.) SUH, 3: 19-20.
(37.) CE al-Shahrastani in Pines, 154ff.
(38.) The context requires yatakhallalu instead of la yatakhallalu.
(39.) See SUH 3: 27. GE SUH 2: 101-118, for more discussions on F. al-Razi's critique of Ibn Sina's rejection of atomism.
(40.) Matalib, 6: 197-216.
(41.) Matalib, 6: 200.
(42.) Cf. the masterful analysis by Richard M. Frank, "Bodies and Atoms: The Ash'arite Analysis" in Islamic Theology and Philosophy: Studies in Honor of George E Hourani (Albany: State University of New York Press The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), founded in 1966, is a university press that is part of State University of New York system. External link
(43.) Cf. al-Iji's Mawaqif in A. I. Sabra Abdelhamid I. Sabra is a retired professor of the history of science specializing in the history of science in the Islamic World and the history of optics.
Sabra received his undergraduate degree at the University of Alexandria, then studied philosophy of science with Karl , "Science and Philosophy in Medieval Islamic Theology: the Evidence of the fourteenth Century" in ZGAIW, 9 (1994), 1-42, 32-33.
(44.) Matalib, 6: 9ff.
(45.) Matalib, 6: 9-13; cf. Dhanani, 90ff.
(46.) Cf. Richard Sorabji, Matter, Space and Motion: Theories in Antiquity and Their Sequel (London: Duckworth, 1988), 23-30, for interesting parallels and contrasts with Philoponus on the nature of space and the body.
(47.) Matalib, 6: 19; cE Dhanani, 121ff.
(48.) Arba'in, 4.
(50.) Matalib, 6: 13.
(51.) Cf. Dhanani, 62ff.
(52.) Zarkan, 433ff.
(53.) Dhanani, 101ff, 133ff.
(54.) Pines, 110n4.
(55.) Anthony Heinen, "Mutakallimun and Mathematicians Mathematicians by letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also
(56.) Mafatih, also cited in Zarkan, 434.
(57.) Zarkan, 434.
(58.) Cf. Zarkan, 429ff, Dhanani, 9, 148-166, 185-87; Wolfson, 466ff, Pines, 1ff.
(59.) Matalib, 6: 29-82.
(60.) Matalib, 6: 75-82.
(61.) Matalib, 6: 83-165.
(62.) Matalib, 6: 197-216.
(63.) Matalib, 6: 47ff.
(64.) On the Arabo-Islamic reception of the Elements, seethe seethe
intr.v. seethed, seeth·ing, seethes
1. To churn and foam as if boiling.
a. To be in a state of turmoil or ferment: extensive bibliography on "The Medieval Arabic Euclid" in John Murdoch, sv "Euclid" in Dictionary of Scientific Biography The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a reference work consisting of biographies of scientists from antiquity to modern times, excluding scientists who were alive when the Dictionary was first published. , 414-459 on 453-455.
(65.) Matalib, 6: 131-138.
(66.) Matalib, 6: 47.
(67.) Matalib, 6: 47.
(68.) Matahb, 6: 47-48.
(69.) This would correspond to Book Three of the Elements where the properties of chords and circles are treated; see Thomas Heath, A History of Greek This article is an overview of the history of Greek. Origins
There are several theories about the origins of the Greek language. Mathematics (Bristol: Thommes Press, 1993), 380-383.
(70.) Matalib, 6: 48.
(71.) Also in Book Three of the Elements.
(72.) Matalib, 6: 48-49.
(73.) Matalib, 6: 48-49.
(74.) Matalib, 6: 52.
(75.) Matalib, 6: 54-55.
(76.) Matalib, 6: 55-56.
(77.) Matalib, 6: 58-59.
(78.) Pines, 91; cf. the masterful analytic elaboration of Richard M. Frank, "Bodies and Atoms: The Ash'arite Analysis" in Islamic Theology and Philosophy: Studies in Honor of George R Hourani (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984), 39-53, in which he shows that the mutakallimin were aware of and concerned with the "logical coherence of their reasoning" p. 53.
(79.) Pines, 140-141.
(80.) Wolfson, 466ff.
(81.) Richard M. Frank, Beings and Their Attributes: The Teaching of the Basrian School of the Mu'tazila in the Classical Period (Albany: SUNY Press, 1978), 4.
(82.) Ibid, 5.
(83.) Ibid, 5.
(84.) Intra-dependence refers to internal cohesion among parts constituting an integral whole; inter-dependence refers to mutual dependence between different integral wholes.
(85.) Ya Sin: 82.
(86.) Al-Isra': 44.
(87.) Al-Rahman: 29.
(88.) Al-Anbiya': 104.
(89.) Syed Muhammad Naquib al-Attas, The Mysticism mysticism (mĭs`tĭsĭzəm) [Gr.,=the practice of those who are initiated into the mysteries], the practice of putting oneself into, and remaining in, direct relation with God, the Absolute, or any unifying principle of life. of Hamzah Hamzah is an Arabic name that is used throughout the Muslim world.
["PASSIM: A Discrete-Event Simulation Package for Pascal", D.H Uyeno et al, Simulation 35(6):183-190 (Dec 1980)]. ; all cited in Adi Setia, "Al-Attas' Philosophy of Science: An Extended Outline" in Islam &Science, vol. 1, no. 2 (2003), 165-214 on 184.
(90.) Adi Setia, "Al-Attas' Philosophy of Science," 177.
(91.) Adi Setia, "Taskhir, Fine-Tuning, Intelligent Design and the Scientific Appreciation of Nature" in Islam & Science, vol. 2, no. 1 (2004).
(92.) See the interesting discussion in Taneli Kukkonen, "Plenitude plen·i·tude
1. An ample amount or quantity; an abundance: a region blessed with a plenitude of natural resources.
2. The condition of being full, ample, or complete. , Possibility, and the Limits of Reason: A Medieval Arabic Debate on the Metaphysics of Nature" in Journal of the History of Ideas The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. The history of ideas is a sister-discipline to, or a particular approach within, intellectual history. , vol. 61 no. 4 (2000), 539-560.
(93.) (You have not created this in vain), al Imran Surat 'āli-Imrān (Arabic: آل عمران ) ("The Family of Amram") is the 3rd chapter of the Qur'an with two hundred verses. : 191.
(94.) (Allah creates not all that save in truth), Yunus: 5.
(95.) al-Rum: 30. See also al-Ahzab: 62; al-Fatir: 43; al-Fath: 23, for verses of like import.
(96.) Stanislav Grof Stanislav Grof (born 1931 in Prague, Czechoslovakia) is one of the founders of the field of transpersonal psychology and a pioneering researcher into the use of altered states of consciousness for purposes of healing, growth, and insight. , "East and West: Ancient Wisdom and Modern Science" in idem, ed., Ancient Wisdom and Modern Science (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1984), 3-23 on 10.
(97.) Paraphrase of Yamine Bouguenaya Mermer, "Cause and Effect in the Risale-i Nur" in proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Bediuzzaman Said Nursi: The Reconstruction of Islamic Thought in the Twentieth Century and Bediuzzaman Said Nursi, trans. Sukran Vahide, vol. I (Istanbul: Sozler Nesriyet, 1997), 40-52 on 45.
(98.) Bruno Guiderdoni, "How Did the Universe Begin? Cosmology cosmology, area of science that aims at a comprehensive theory of the structure and evolution of the entire physical universe. Modern Cosmological Theories
and Metaphysics for the XXIst Century," pp. 1-9 on 6, conference papers, Conference Manual, International Conference on Religion and Science in the Post-Colonial World, organized by the Center for Religious and Cross-Cultural Studies Cross-cultural comparisons take several forms. One is comparison of case studies, another is controlled comparison among variants of a common derivation, and a third is comparison within a sample of cases. , Gadja Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia and the Templeton Foundation, USA, January 2-5, 2003.
(99.) Michael Marmura, "Ghazali's Chapter on Divine Power in the Iqtisad" in ASP, 4 (1994), 279-315, on 279.
(100.) S. M. N. al-Attas, Prolegomena to the Metaphysics of Islam: An Exposition of the Fundamental Elements of the Worldview world·view
n. In both senses also called Weltanschauung.
1. The overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world.
2. A collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or a group. of Islam (Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 2002), p. 321, and also in this context, p. 331 ff. for al-Attas' interpretation of the "Six Days of Creation".
(101.) M. B. Altaie, "Daqiq al-Kalam: The Islamic Approach to Natural Philosophy," based on a talk given at the Institute of Arab and Islamic Studies, University of Exeter, U.K., January 26, 2005, accessible online at http://www.cosmokalam. com/kalam/articles/natural_philos.pdf idem, "The Scientific Value of Dakik al-Kalam" in Islamic Thought and Scientific Creativity, vol. 5, no. 2 (1994), accessible online at http.//www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/dakik.pdf.
Adi Setia is Assistant Professor (History and Philosophy of Science The history and philosophy of science (HPS) is an academic discipline that encompasses the philosophy of science and the history of science. Although many scholars in the field are trained primarily as either historians or as philosophers, there are degree-granting departments of ), Faculty of Science, International Islamic University International Islamic University may refer to: