Assisting toddlers and caregivers during conflict resolutions: interactions that promote socialization.Many individuals are uncomfortable with conflicts that arise between adults. When conflict occurs with toddlers, the issues are even more complex.
Matthew, a 15-month-old, is playing on the floor with a blue car. He appears to be peacefully exploring how he can make noise by spinning the car wheels with his fingers. Twelve-month-old Hamilton looks up from across the room to see where the noise originated. He sees Matthew spin the car wheels and creeps over for a better look. Hamilton watches Matthew momentarily mo·men·tar·i·ly
1. For a moment or an instant.
2. Usage Problem In a moment; very soon.
3. Moment by moment; progressively. and then lunges for the blue car. Before Hamilton can attempt a getaway, Matthew snatches the car back with a swift yank Yank
steamship stoker vainly tries to climb the social ladder, then fails in attempt to avenge himself on society. [Am. Drama: O’Neill The Hairy Ape in Sobel, 339]
See : Failure
(jargon) yank . Startled star·tle
v. star·tled, star·tling, star·tles
1. To cause to make a quick involuntary movement or start.
2. To alarm, frighten, or surprise suddenly. See Synonyms at frighten. , Hamilton expresses his loss with a long, loud wail.
You are the caregiver care·giv·er
1. An individual, such as a physician, nurse, or social worker, who assists in the identification, prevention, or treatment of an illness or disability.
2. who is watching the scene unfold unfold - inline from a distance. Do you:
* Remove the car that is causing the conflict between the two toddlers?
* Sympathetically take sides with the child you perceive to have been victimized?
* Ignore the interaction, as it is one of the numerous aggravations you learn to accept in a toddler's day?
* Move in close proximity to the situation, knowing that it has not finished playing itself out?
Conflict is common among toddlers, and many factors make it hard for caregivers to manage such conflict. McKay (1990) aptly describes the behavior of children this age:
... toddlers hurting each other is fairly normal behavior. It is a way they have [to express] themselves quickly, at a time when language is limited and self-control [is] difficult. Often there is no malice malice, in law, an intentional violation of the law of crimes or torts that injures another person. Malice need not involve a malignant spirit or the definite intent to do harm. behind the act, and it is a way of finding out how things work. (p. 73)
The authors believe that the three most important factors that influence the outcome of toddler conflict are:
* The caregiver's beliefs about conflict and its resolution
* The caregiver's level of anxiety about toddlers and safety during conflict
* The caregiver's choices concerning interventions in toddler disputes.
The stance and position the caregiver assumes is dependent on those personal beliefs and judgments about sharing, conflict, and struggle that have formed over many years. These beliefs are now a part of a value system; hence, how caregivers resolve conflict is based on those values. Certainly, the perception of the adult who watches the toddler in conflict is heavily influenced by personal lessons learned about dealing with conflicts. Ideally, individual beliefs are not supposed to influence care, but how can they not? Logically, then, the caregiver's response to toddlers in conflict is a result of those perceptions and values. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently : values + perceptions = behaviors + actions.
Many individuals are uncomfortable with conflicts that arise between adults. When conflict occurs with toddlers, the issues are even more complex. Usually, the level of adult anxiety during toddler conflict coincides with toddlers' rising emotions. Concerns about maintaining toddler safety in groups may cause the caregiver increased anxiety. Most adults' primary concern during a conflict is the toddlers' safety. Often, the adult wants to stop the conflict before something bad happens. The resultant anxiety can take an emotional toll on the adult. Furthermore, caregivers' assumptions that only negative things emerge during conflict may lead children to believe that their involvement in, as well as their emotional responses to, conflict are unacceptable.
The authors invite caregivers to consider toddler conflict as a natural part of life. In fact, valuable lessons can be learned through such encounters. When toddlers are allowed to go through the process of conflict, in a guided framework with an adult nearby, they can learn how to respond to life's problems. The guided framework that supports toddler's problem-solving during conflict relies on the concept of caregiver as "expert," someone who provides the ways of approaching the situation not already within the child's repertoire (Azmitia, 1988; Radziszewska & Rogoff, 1988). The authors have observed that the potential for increased socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. among toddlers grows when adults put aside their biases and do not overinvest emotionally in the outcome of toddler disputes.
Toddlers in group care, however, rarely are allowed to engage in conflict without adult interference. Instead, caregivers are more concerned with maintaining peace among toddlers (Bayer, Whaley, & May, 1995). In fact, adults not only interrupt the process, but also try to prevent toddlers from reaching resolution. By discouraging these opportunities, well-meaning adults lesson the likelihood that a toddler will develop valuable interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability .
The authors have found that adults are more uncomfortable with watching the process of conflict unfold than the toddler is while going through the conflict. If caregivers could view conflict as an opportunity for the toddlers to develop problem-solving and social skills, would they be less likely to judge harshly those children in conflict? Would they be able to adopt a more positive attitude when toddlers are engaged in a dispute?
What Is Conflict?
Webster's Collegiate col·le·giate
1. Of, relating to, or held to resemble a college.
2. Of, for, or typical of college students.
3. Of or relating to a collegiate church. Dictionary (1990) defines conflict as "a battle or opposition between two viewpoints." Resolution is the act of determining a course of intervention. In a working definition of conflict resolution, the authors include a method of intervening in a struggle that promotes socialization. Caregivers, by offering the necessary assistance, guidance, and support, could begin viewing conflicts as opportunities to teach toddlers problem-solving skills. Advocates of the problem-solving model in early childhood curriculum include Carlsson-Paige and Levin lev·in
[Middle English levene, levin; see leuk- in Indo-European roots.] (1992), Dinwiddie (1994) and Edwards (1992). Piaget (1932/1965) viewed conflict as a critical component of development and, therefore, vital to children's construction of knowledge. "Conflict within an individual and conflict between individuals is essential in the development of the personality and the social and moral feelings that emerge from those situations" (DeVries & Zan, 1996, p. 109).
Who Is Responsible for the Process?
Caregivers of young children need to follow a consistent philosophy when intervening in conflictual situations. The literature has documented that emotional outbursts frequently occur during social situations among toddlers in group care. A study by Bayer, Whaley, and May (1995) tracked a 12-hour segment in which teachers interrupted toddler disputes on an average of once every 5.3 minutes. With this frequency of conflict, caregivers can become jaded jad·ed
1. Worn out; wearied: "My father's words had left me jaded and depressed" William Styron.
2. , and so neglect to provide guidance. As a result, caregivers may lose the sensitivity necessary to observe and respond in support of the toddler's task. Consequently, the problem-solving skills that toddlers will need to become socialized so·cial·ize
v. so·cial·ized, so·cial·iz·ing, so·cial·iz·es
1. To place under government or group ownership or control.
2. To make fit for companionship with others; make sociable. are impeded im·pede
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.
[Latin imped . The toddler learns that conflict, and the attendant emotional responses, are not acceptable. By taking steps to remove conflict, educators compromise toddlers' authentic responses. In addition, they undermine toddlers' beginning attempts at the trial-and-error process and stifle the budding budding, type of grafting in which a plant bud is inserted under the bark of the stock (usually not more than a year old). It is best done when the bark will peel easily and the buds are mature, as in spring, late summer, or early autumn. emotions that influence socialization.
Adults who work with young children often inhibit, or interact prematurely with, the toddler who is trying to learn experimentally (Bayer, Whaley, & May, 1995). How, then, is the novice toddler to become socialized? Of even greater concern are the [TABULAR tab·u·lar
1. Having a plane surface; flat.
2. Organized as a table or list.
3. Calculated by means of a table.
resembling a table. DATA OMITTED] caregivers who insist on using their own solutions to resolve the conflict, rather than allowing toddlers to try their hand at developing their own problem-solving techniques.
These adult reactions imply that children need adult intervention in disputes, and suggest that conflict is not permissible per·mis·si·ble
Permitted; allowable: permissible tax deductions; permissible behavior in school.
per·mis . A study by Killen and Turiel (1991) showed that in 91 percent of all interactions, an adult determined the solution for a conflict without involving the toddler. Consequently, toddlers may assume adult biases regarding conflict resolution. Moreover, adult intervention in toddler disputes may inadvertently lead to scapegoating and/or victimization victimization Social medicine The abuse of the disenfranchised–eg, those underage, elderly, ♀, mentally retarded, illegal aliens, or other, by coercing them into illegal activities–eg, drug trade, pornography, prostitution. .
Jason, after clutching three plastic bottles filled with colored water, temporarily distributes them to his peers; after a few minutes, he insists on collecting them. Of course, the toddlers who now possess these coveted cov·et
v. cov·et·ed, cov·et·ing, cov·ets
1. To feel blameworthy desire for (that which is another's). See Synonyms at envy.
2. To wish for longingly. See Synonyms at desire. , colorful bottles do not want to return them. Jason begins to cry as he reaches for a bottle, and he turns to his caregiver for help. The caregiver says to Jason, "That was nice of you to share the bottles with your friends; sharing makes your friends happy."
Jason was engaged in a form of play called "distributing," which is not sharing. When a toddler distributes objects, he or she still wants them. The toddler recipients, however, are reluctant to give them up. Toddlers typically will focus on their own needs and wants; egocentrism e·go·cen·tric
1. Holding the view that the ego is the center, object, and norm of all experience.
a. Confined in attitude or interest to one's own needs or affairs.
b. is a natural and necessary stage of development. Consequently, it is unrealistic to expect that toddlers will share.
In the above example, the caregiver expected Jason to assume the adult bias about sharing. This example illustrates an unrealistic approach to conflict resolution for toddlers. "By insisting that the child follow rules and values of others, the adult contributes to the development of an individual with a conformist con·form·ist
A person who uncritically or habitually conforms to the customs, rules, or styles of a group.
Marked by conformity or convention: mind, personality and morality" (DeVries & Zan, 1996, p. 108). Piaget (1932/1965) believed that adults can either promote or constrict con·strict
To make smaller or narrower, especially by binding or squeezing. children's ability to construct their own intelligence. Limiting adult bias during conflict may allow the construction of the child "from the child."
Typically, one out of four methods used by adults includes a judgment (Killen & Turiel, 1991), such as "We share," "That's not nice," or "Use your words." Such verbal messages compromise the child's autonomy by not allowing the toddler to take control and become a part of solving a conflict.
How Caregivers Traditionally React
The ways that caregivers intervene often do not promote resolution between children. For example, the caregiver may react by:
* Trying To Fix the Problem. Fixing the problem prevents toddlers from going through the resolution process. The authors believe that resolution is an integral part of socialization. For example, a well-meaning adult often will confiscate To expropriate private property for public use without compensating the owner under the authority of the Police Power of the government. To seize property.
When property is confiscated it is transferred from private to public use, usually for reasons such as the toy or object that is causing a disturbance between two children. The message that this gives to the children - "Let me remove this ball for now, since both of you want it"denies the children an opportunity to resolve the conflict themselves. This scenario does not support either toddler's competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. and implies that an adult should be the one to work out a solution. This stance contradicts Piaget's (1932/1965) view that conflict is critical for development. By believing in a toddler's budding ability to solve some conflicts, the caregiver accepts, acknowledges, and validates the toddler's feelings. A caregiver who uses a constructivist con·struc·tiv·ism
A movement in modern art originating in Moscow in 1920 and characterized by the use of industrial materials such as glass, sheet metal, and plastic to create nonrepresentational, often geometric objects. approach promotes young children's autonomy in conflict by recognizing that the conflict belongs to the toddler. During situations when safety is not an issue, the constructivist caregiver refrains from taking control of the conflict away from the toddler.
* Trying To Over-regulate the Conflict. Some caregivers actively try to find solutions to a conflict, in the name of toddler safety. Through their words, many caregivers often redirect re·di·rect
tr.v. re·di·rect·ed, re·di·rect·ing, re·di·rects
To change the direction or course of.
A redirect examination.
re a situation prematurely. Johnny, for instance, takes away the red high heels high heels high npl → talons hauts, hauts talons
high heels high npl → hochhackige Schuhe pl that Gabrielle had been using. Gabrielle begins to shout. The caregiver moves Johnny away from the area and tells him, "Why don't you wear these brown loafers “Penny loafer” redirects here. For the collegiate a cappella group, see Penny Loafers.
Loafers or penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes usually with moccasin construction, with broad flat heels. They first appeared in the mid 1930s. instead?" The caregiver is over-regulating the situation by finding the solution for the toddler. What would the outcome have been had the adult merely moved closer to the children and watched their interactions?
* Trying To Promote Peace As a Solution. Promoting peace prematurely, instead of assisting toddlers in learning negotiation skills and problem-solving approaches, can affect toddlers' socialization. Often, caregivers feel uncomfortable when toddlers are embroiled em·broil
tr.v. em·broiled, em·broil·ing, em·broils
1. To involve in argument, contention, or hostile actions: "Avoid . . . in a conflict, and they will try to resolve the problem and promote peace before it is necessary. Michael, for example, is playing quietly on the floor with Duplos. Kayla runs across the room, crossing Michael's space. He pushes. She cries out and shoves. The caregiver rushes to the scene saying, "No! Now, both of you be nice. Now hug each other." The caregiver's solution, while well-meaning, forces the toddlers to accept an adult's emotional responses and biases. It also robs the two toddlers of their own authentic responses. What would have happened if the adult had merely moved in close to the toddlers to watch their next move? Although we can only guess, it seems safe to assume that the toddlers' responses would have at least been their own, for better or for worse. Asking toddlers to curtail cur·tail
tr.v. cur·tailed, cur·tail·ing, cur·tails
To cut short or reduce. See Synonyms at shorten.
[Middle English curtailen, to restrict their feelings has serious implications for psychosocial development psychosocial development Psychiatry Progressive interaction between a person and her environment through stages beginning in infancy, ending in adulthood, which loosely parallels psychosexual development. See Cognitive development. . In addition, the process of teaching peaceful resolution includes helping and supporting each child's natural emotional responses.
* Trying To Focus on a Part Instead of the Whole. Chelsea scrapes her knee after 2-year-old Kevin pushes her on the playground. The caregiver, upon seeing blood on Chelsea's knee, rushes to her with an ice pack, and says to Kevin, "Since you pushed Chelsea and made her bleed Printing at the very edge of the paper. Many laser printers, including all LaserJets up to the 11x17" 4V, cannot print to the very edge, leaving a border of approximately 1/4". In commercial printing, bleeding is generally more expensive, because wider paper is often used, which is later , you need to put ice on her leg and make it better." Kevin does so with hesitation and confusion. As Chelsea continues to cry, Kevin looks fearful. Because the caregiver imposes her brand of justice, Kevin is forced to comply, albeit with conflicted feelings. Two-year-olds are not ready for lessons on empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. and such lessons are likely to fall on deaf ears. An adult can best demonstrate empathy at this stage by modeling the response, rather than forcing one from the child. Too often, well-meaning adults expect toddlers to respond in adult ways.
Prevention and Intervention
Having worked with toddlers, the authors have been exposed to many of the above scenarios, and have tried a variety of solutions. These solutions often excluded toddlers from being an active and authentic part of the problem-solving approach. We must all remember that dealing with conflict can strengthen social skills.
Behaviors can be categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat into prevention and intervention strategies. Prevention strategies emphasize the adult's relations with the child, the environment, and himself or herself in ways that minimize the potential for conflict. These strategies can help prevent conflicts from flaring flare
v. flared, flar·ing, flares
1. To flame up with a bright, wavering light.
2. To burst into intense, sudden flame.
a. up. Prevention strategies are meant to alleviate problems that might arise in toddlers' social situations. The following are prevention strategies that facilitate healthy conflict resolution:
A. Strategies related to the child and environment
* Put children in small groups, and group them by developmental compatibility
* Provide uninterrupted time on a regular basis
* Allow toddlers the freedom to move and explore
* Develop a safe and appropriate environment
* Offer opportunities to make choices
* Provide possibilities for socialization (toddlers need to experience conflict)
* Train adult caregivers to follow routines consistently
* Prevent "herding" of toddlers
B. Strategies related to adult caregiver
* Develop a keen insight when observing and monitoring interactions
* Cultivate an awareness of potential conflicts during transition times
* Develop the ability to judge the right time to intercede
* Know how to intercede
* Understand individual toddler characteristics
* Be aware of group stress factors (e.g., hungry for lunch = lower tolerance level)
* Define clear values, beliefs, and feelings around conflict and struggle (know thyself The Ancient Greek aphorism "Know yourself" (Greek: γνῶθι σεαυτόν or gnothi seauton) was inscribed in the pronaos (forecourt) of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi - according to the Greek periegetic )
* Maintain a few, clear, concise house rules
* Trust the toddler's competence around conflict resolution
* Self-monitor your emotions
* Refrain from signaling the toddler to accept your biases
These prevention strategies should help adults become more effective during toddler disputes, while allowing caregivers to remain available. Intervention strategies, on the other hand, are more like active behaviors that caregivers employ for conflict resolution. They include caregiver observation and attitudes, as well as diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes. strategies to help toddlers through conflict. The caregivers' observations and attitudes are invaluable tools for influencing outcomes from the child's point of view. Ideally, the adult observes and interprets the conflict objectively. By so doing, the caregiver's behavior reflects a non-judgmental response to the unfolding struggle.
Caregivers' diffusion strategies are more active responses that allow toddlers to respond to their conflict and its resolution. These strategies require more of a caregiver than merely moving closer to the escalating social situation.
A. Caregiver observation and attitude
* Adopt a stance to assess and analyze, rather than control
* Use a consistent philosophy and process when interacting in conflict resolution
* Remain neutral and avoid judging or taking sides
* Allow natural consequences to occur between toddlers; monitor the "struggle" in a safe environment
* Stay attentive at·ten·tive
1. Giving care or attention; watchful: attentive to detail.
2. Marked by or offering devoted and assiduous attention to the pleasure or comfort of others. and focused during the conflict
B. Diffusion Strategies
* Remain at the children's eye level
* Watch and wait before interceding
* Use "I" messages and proper singular pronouns
* Move closer to the conflict
* Use language that tells the toddler what you see happening
* Prevent opposing agendas between adult and toddlers from happening simultaneously
* Prevent injury by interceding quickly with both toddler parties when necessary
* Provide just enough help to allow toddlers to solve their own dilemmas
* Be available to comfort each child (squat down, remain at children's eye level have your arms open)
* Stay at the spot until the toddler disengages from the scene
* Verbalize what you see happening
* Model gentleness to the aggressor AGGRESSOR, crim. law. He who begins, a quarrel or dispute, either by threatening or striking another. No man may strike another because he has threatened, or in consequence of the use of any words.
* Offer self, instead of objects, for comfort (e.g., your lap) if a child appears to want comfort
* Continue to verbalize what you see going on by using active, reflective listening
By implementing these intervention strategies, toddlers can safely construct their own problem-solving strategies. The following scenario depicts how these strategies were put to use. John, a 2 1/2-year-old, has been quietly playing on the floor with several wood blocks. As the caregiver passes, John states, "Look at my choo-choo train!" The adult responds, "Yes, I see." John looks down and becomes fully engrossed en·gross
tr.v. en·grossed, en·gross·ing, en·gross·es
1. To occupy exclusively; absorb: A great novel engrosses the reader. See Synonyms at monopolize.
2. in his creation as the caregiver moves on.
From across the room, 2-year-old Cameron watches John building with the blocks. He moves over to John and plops down on the floor across from him. John begins to tell Cameron about his long choo-choo train as he adds more blocks to it. As John is talking, Cameron takes both his hands and messes up all the blocks. John angrily says, "Stop, Cameron!" The caregiver, observing the interaction, moves closer to the children.
John picks up the blocks and starts to build a tall structure. Cameron watches and waits. John stacks several blocks and then turns to pick up another block. Cameron sits forward and pushes the blocks, which tumble and scatter scat·ter
1. To cause to separate and go in different directions.
2. To separate and go in different directions; disperse.
3. To deflect radiation or particles.
n. all over the floor. John angrily lunges toward Cameron. The caregiver moves in next to the children. John leaps towards Cameron, misses, and bumps his nose. John wails, "I bumped my nose." The caregiver looks into John's eyes and replies, "I know; I saw. Does your nose hurt?" "Yes!," says John, "Cameron knocked my blocks over." The caregiver responds, "I saw Cameron do that. If you don't want Cameron to knock down the blocks, you need to ask him not to." John does John Doe
formerly, any plaintiff; now just anybody. [Am. Pop. Usage: Brewer Dictionary, 329]
See : Everyman so. He rebuilds the blocks, and just as Cameron is about to knock them down, John beats him to the punch and knocks some of the blocks down before Cameron does. Cameron finishes the job, scattering scattering
In physics, the change in direction of motion of a particle because of a collision with another particle. The collision can occur between two charged particles; it need not involve direct physical contact. blocks all over the floor. The two boys giggle with glee. They begin chatting together about how they made the blocks fall. The caregiver, who is there with the boys, does nothing to physically intervene. She only needed to remain nearby and make a suggestion. The ending was a happy one, and both boys seemed pleased.
This scenario is a prime example of understanding toddlers and conflict, and of how important it is that toddlers solve their own disputes in a safe environment. The caregiver should remain available to monitor, and should intervene just enough so that the toddlers can solve the problem in their own way.
This type of behavior requires a caregiver who is a skillful skill·ful
1. Possessing or exercising skill; expert. See Synonyms at proficient.
2. Characterized by, exhibiting, or requiring skill. observer and who believes that toddlers are capable of problem-solving. It requires an understanding of both the process of conflict and of appropriate adult responses to toddlers' behavior during conflict. The caregiver in this scenario was able to respond to the situation without being either anxious or judgmental judg·men·tal
1. Of, relating to, or dependent on judgment: a judgmental error.
2. Inclined to make judgments, especially moral or personal ones: .
Figure 1 depicts caregiver strategies on a progressive continuum from least to most intrusive. The chart shows how the progress of conflict relates to the toddler's behavior during the stages of conflict. The strategies correspond to both the toddler behavior and the degree of conflict with which toddlers are involved. These strategies are helpful in determining the caregiver behavior in relation to the degree of conflict. It is amazing a·maze
v. a·mazed, a·maz·ing, a·maz·es
1. To affect with great wonder; astonish. See Synonyms at surprise.
2. Obsolete To bewilder; perplex.
v.intr. how moving near an escalating conflict between toddlers can dissipate dis·si·pate
v. dis·si·pat·ed, dis·si·pat·ing, dis·si·pates
1. To drive away; disperse.
2. the majority of situations.
Several implications for practice relate to the conflicts that arise with toddlers in group care situations. Some conclusions drawn from this article are:
* The ways that adults respond to children in conflict affects the toddler's authentic response.
* This model of intervention requires the adult to observe more before interacting (M. Gerber, February 14, 1979).
* It may be better for adults to wait to see if toddlers can resolve their own conflicts before stepping into the process.
* Recognize that your desire to solve the conflict may stem from your own discomfort.
* Know thyself. Identify your feelings and beliefs regarding conflict. Adult intervention relies on the stage of conflict and the toddlers' behavior during the conflict.
Toddlers will engage in conflict. It is an integral part of how they learn social skills. Adults' ways of relating and responding during toddler conflict will affect the immediate outcome of toddler problem-solving. When and how much adults should intervene, and the kinds of strategy they select, will affect the authenticity and competence of the toddlers who are in the adult's care. These choices have long-range and dramatic implications; it is time for caregivers to reflect and re-evaluate alternative ways of accepting the toddlers' involvement in their struggle for socialization.
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Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. : When are two heads better than one? Child Development, 59, 87-96.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Teachers College Press.
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as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]
See : Bravery , MN: Redleaf Press.
Piaget, J. (1965). The moral judgment of the child. London: Free Press. (Original work published 1932)
Radziszewska, B., & Rogoff, B. (1988). Influence of adult and peer collaboration on the development of children's planning skills. Developmental Psychology developmental psychology
Branch of psychology concerned with changes in cognitive, motivational, psychophysiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span. , 24, 840-848.
Webster's ninth new collegiate dictionary. (1990). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster Inc.
Denise A. Da Ros is Associate Professor, Teacher Education, Youngstown State University Youngstown State University, at Youngstown, Ohio; coeducational; est. 1908 as a department of the Youngstown Association School sponsored by the Young Men's Christian Association. , Youngstown, Ohio
Youngstown is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Mahoning County. The municipality is situated on the Mahoning River, approximately 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Cleveland and . Beverly A. Kovach is R.I.E. Fellow, Montessori of Mt. Pleasant, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures
Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15. .