Appendix B: participants handouts.Participant Handout B.1: Definitions and Concepts
Gender: Gender is a social construct of the different roles, responsibilities, and benefits of males and females varying from place to place and over time. Hence gender differences are not biologically determined like sex, but are part of the cultures, values and practices of a given society.
Gender Issue: This is a statistical or social indicator of inequality between males and females arising from discrimination and/or marginalization within society.
Gender analysis: Examines the access and control that men and women have over resources. This includes analyzing the sexual division of labor and the control women and men have over the inputs required for their labor and the outputs (benefits) of their labor. It also refers to a systematic way of determining men and women's often differing development needs and preferences and the different impacts of development on women and men. It takes into account how class, race, ethnicity, or other factors interact with gender to produce discriminatory results.
Gender budgeting: Gender budgeting seeks to ensure that public resources are used to meet the different needs and interests of women and men, girls and boys equitably.
Gender dimensions of poverty: These are the differences in the ways that men and women experience poverty.
Gender- (or sex-) disaggregated data: Statistical information that differentiates between men and women; for example, "number of women and men in the labor force" instead of referring generally to the "number of people in the labor force. "This allows one to see where there are gender gaps. One could go further to also consider the kind of jobs men and women occupy in the labour force.
Gender division of labor: Refers to the allocation of different jobs or types of work to men and women, usually by tradition and custom.
Gender equality: An approach addressing the issues facing both men and women in sharing the benefits of development equally, which ensures against a disproportional burden of negative impacts. It permits women and men equal enjoyment of human rights, and socially and economically value their contributions, ensures more equal access to opportunities for realizing their full potential and access to development resources, and to the benefits from development results. The fact that gender categories change over time means that development programming can have an impact on gender inequality, either increasing or decreasing it.
Gender Equity: This is the process of being fair to women and men in all spheres of life. To ensure fairness, measures must be available to compensate for historical and social disadvantages that prevent wo/men from operating on a level playing field. Gender equity strategies are used to eventually attain gender equality. Equity is the means; equality is the result. For example the affirmative action measures like the 30% quotas for women representation in decision making.
Gender gap: The gap between men and women in such terms as to how they benefit from education, employment, and services for example.
Gender indicators: These measure gender-related changes in society over time. They provide "direct evidence of the status of women, relative to some agreed normative standard or explicit reference group"
Gender Integration: means taking into account both the differences and the inequalities between wo/men in program planning, implementation, and evaluation. The roles of women and men and their relative power affect who does what in carrying out an activity, and who benefits. Taking into account the inequalities and designing programs to reduce them should contribute not only to more effective development programs but also to greater social equity/equality.
Gender roles and gender identity. Gender is how an individual or society defines "female' or "male'. Gender roles are socially and culturally defined attitudes, behaviours, expectations, and responsibilities for females and males. Gender identity is the personal, private conviction each of us has about being female or male; it defines the degree to which each person identifies himself or herself as male, female, or some combination of the two.
Macroeconomic advocate: is used here to refer to the officials who campaign for gender mainstreaming into the design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of macroeconomic policies.
Practical gender needs: These relate to women's traditional gender roles and responsibilities and are derived from their concrete life experiences.
PRSP advocate: is used here to refer to the officials who campaign for gender mainstreaming into the design, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of PRSPs.
Sex: means the biological characteristics (anatomical, physiological, and genetic) that make us male or female.
Strategic gender needs: These generally address issues of equity and empowerment of women. The focus is on systematic factors that discriminate against women. This includes measuring the access of women, as a group compared with men, to resources and benefits, including laws and policies.
Women's triple roles and responsibility: In most societies, low-income women have a triple role: reproductive, productive, and community-managing activities. These responsibilities include:
* Reproductive role, Childbearing and childrearing responsibilities and domestic tasks performed by women. These include not only biological reproduction but also the care and maintenance of the work force (male partner and working children) and the future work force (infants and school age children).
* Productive role. Work done by women and men for pay in cash or in kind. It includes market production with an exchange value and subsistence or home-based production with actual use value as well as potential exchange value.
* Community-managing role: Activities undertaken primarily by women at the community level, as an extension of their reproductive role, to ensure the provision and maintenance of scarce resources of collective consumption, such as water, health care, and education.
Output: refers to the deliverables, which are directly attributed to a particular government programme, such as the number of classrooms constructed or the number of trained personnel in government health facilities. Outputs can therefore usually be measured on an annual basis.
Outcome: refers to the results of the deliverables. Outcomes usually cannot be unambiguously linked to a single government programme. For example, if the levels of pupil enrolments increase in Uganda, this may be due to effective educational services, but could also be improved household incomes making it more affordable for parents to send all children to school. Outcomes cannot always be seen immediately and on an annual basis. They are nevertheless important to measure as they reflect the overall objective or reason why government undertakes particular activity.
What is a PRSP?
This handout is designed to guide those involved in poverty reduction strategies paper (PRSPs) formulation and review at the country level in identifying and implementing policies and programs that will benefit both men and women and maximize potential benefits for poor families. Men and women experience poverty differently. As a result of their different constraints, options, incentives, and needs, women and men frequently have different priorities and are affected differently by many kinds of development interventions.
A full understanding of the gender dimensions of poverty can significantly change the definition of priority policy and program interventions supported by the PRS. Evidence is growing that gender-sensitive development strategies contribute significantly to economic growth as well as to equity objectives by ensuring that all groups of the poor share in program benefits. Yet differences between men and women's needs are often not fully recognized in poverty analysis and participatory planning and are frequently not taken into consideration in the selection and design of PRSPs. It is essential, then, to integrate gender analysis into poverty diagnosis and to ensure that participatory consultation and planning processes are specifically designed to give voice to all sectors of society--women and men as well as different age, ethnic, and cultural groups.
The World Development Report 2000/2007: Attacking Poverty, Engendering Development, and the work of authors such as Sen (1993) identify four main dimensions of poverty:
* Opportunities: Lack of access to labor markets and employment opportunities and to productive resources, constraints on mobility, and, particularly in the case of women, time burdens resulting from the need to combine domestic duties, productive activities, and management of community resources.
* Capabilities: Lack of access to public services such as education and health.
* Security: Vulnerability to economic risks and to civil and domestic violence.
* Empowerment: Being without voice and without power at the household, community, and national levels.
A PRS involves the formulation of policies and program interventions to help the poor to overcome each of these dimensions.
Gender inequalities in access to credit and financial services are often exacerbated by women's limited ownership of land. In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, women obtain land rights through marriage, and these rights are secure only as long as the marriage remains intact and where the woman gives birth to a male child. Recent household surveys from Ethiopia, and South Africa show that women have substantially fewer assets than men. As a result, they do not have the collateral necessary to secure loans. It is estimated that in Africa, where more women than men are farmers, women receive less than 10 percent of all credit going to small farmers and 1 percent of the total credit given to the agricultural sector. When female entrepreneurs do obtain credit, average loan sizes tend to be smaller than for males. Compared to men, women generally have limited social and business networks of the type that facilitate access to financial services. Similarly, there is evidence that female enterprises are undercapitalized and that there are high returns from directing credit toward those enterprises.
Differential access to essential public services such as education and health may be determined by gender differences. For example, both by being stereotyped in school curricula or development assistance projects and because of family and community socialization, girls and women from poor households run a higher risk of dropping out of school or being trained for tasks that yield lower returns, such as sewing or basket weaving. Women in Sub Sahara Africa have experienced the lowest average annual growth in total years of schooling between 1969 and 1990 of all regions, raising the average years of schooling of the adult female population over this period by a mere 1.2 years. Although women have different health needs and priorities than those of men, such as reproductive health or HIV/AIDS prevention needs, these services are not as accessible to them. This is seen as an enormous gender differential in Africa's sexual and reproductive burden of disease. Data for Uganda, for example, indicate that AIDS infection is six times greater among young girls aged 15-19 compared with boys of the same age.
Insecurity is an integral part of the experience of poverty. Gender-related security risks include economic and social changes such as death, divorce, or desertion of a spouse that erode the household as a social unit; the consequences of community and domestic violence and conflict; physical and cultural isolation and marginalization; ambiguity in legal status and rights; impact of environmental degradation; and precarious access to water. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) point to female-headed households, especially those with children who are too young to work or care for themselves, as being particularly vulnerable. PPAs also show that women and men respond differently to social, political, and economic dislocations.
When men are no longer able to make an important economic contribution to the household budget, the stage is set for family conflict. Although domestic violence is a leading cause of injury and death to women worldwide, it is often ignored or even condoned by the state and society on the grounds that it is a private affair. Also women in many countries are treated as legal minors where ownership of land and property is concerned.
A sense of not having a voice and power is another key dimension of poverty. Poor persons, especially women, are frequently excluded from social and political processes that affect their lives.
These processes lack transparency, and the decision makers are not accountable to them. With few exceptions, poor women, even more than poor men, do not participate in decision making in matters that directly affect their lives, whether these relate to public institutions or to civil society organizations. This pattern is also repeated in the household. Gender inequity and powerlessness are learned from early childhood in households around the world.
What is a macroeconomic framework?
A macroeconomic framework explores the broad economic aggregates and seeks to improve the performance of the economy as a whole. Macroeconomic policy making has 5 main objectives namely:
1. Full employment of the labour force where none who wishes to work at the existing wage rate is unemployed.
2. Price stability where inflation is avoided or contained within "tolerable" levels.
3. Economic growth
4. Satisfactory balance of payments where export earnings exceed expenditures on imports
5. Balanced regional development
To achieve these objectives, macroeconomic frameworks use a number of instruments namely:
* Fiscal policy that deals with government domestic revenues (taxes) and expenditures. This instrument touches on many lives as taxation resembles a penalty on either individual income or consumption. On the other hand, how government spends public resources is an indicator of "what" and "who" it values.
* Monetary policy that controls the money supply or volume in circulation to contain inflation. In addition it deals with foreign exchange rate controls.
* Debt management that is concerned with the composition of a given volume of debt.
* Prices and income policy where the later promotes greater price stability and balance of payments equilibria. Usually changes in wages are linked to changes in prices or inflation rate.
* Financial policy that explores issues of interest rates as a determinant to accessing credit.
What are new aid modalities?
New Aid modalities are shifts from official development assistance to programmes and projects in poor countries to general budget support of government programmes. The donor support is aligned to poor country development priorities as identified either through the PRSP or national development plans. The implementation is harmonized through the sector wide approach with participation of governments, development partners and the people through civil society organisations. The new aid modalities were intended to result in harmonized procedures for the transmission of aid in order to minimize management costs and ensure that a bigger percentage of the aid reaches the intended beneficiaries, capacity building of in country structures to direct the process of development and management of aid for results--improving the quality of life for the poor and their capabilities.
What is advocacy?
Advocacy: This is the effort to change public perceptions, and influence policy decisions and funding priorities. Advocacy involves making a case in favour of a particular issue, using skillful persuasion and strategic action. Advocates educate about an issue and suggest a specific solution. Advocacy is geared towards change: change in personal behaviour and attitude, change in the political and public debate, institutional change and legal change.
Advocacy is about influencing those who make decisions. Advocacy is not restricted to those policy makers who work for the government. There are policy makers who work in the private sector, and who wield enormous influence over poor communities, it is important to keep in mind that policy makers are human beings, not institutions. Advocacy is used to influence the choices and actions of those who make laws and regulations, and those who distribute resources and make their decisions that affect the wellbeing of many people.
Advocacy is both a science and an art. From a scientific perspective, there is no universal formula for effective advocacy. Nevertheless, experience shows that advocacy campaigns are most effective when it is planned systematically. Advocacy networks frame their issue, set an advocacy goal and measurable objectives, identify sources of support and opposition, research the policy audience, develop compelling messages, and mobilize necessary funds, and at each step of the way, collect data and monitor their plan of action. Each of these steps requires distinct knowledge and skills to ensure effective implementation.
Advocacy is also an art. Successful advocates are able to articulate issues that inspire others and motivate them to take action. They have a keen sense of timing and are able to recognize and act as opportunities present themselves.
Successful advocates are skilled negotiators and consensus builders who look for opportunities to win modest but strategic policy gains while creating still other opportunities for larger victories. Artful advocates incorporate creativity, style, and even humor in their advocacy events in order to draw public and media attention to their cause. The art of advocacy cannot be taught through a training workshop; rather, advocacy training provides tools.
Many people have a preconception that advocacy is about "being confrontational" and "shouting at the government". Advocacy does not have to be confrontational. There is a wide range of advocacy approaches to choose from, e. a public vs. a private approach, engagement vs. confrontation, and working alone or in coalition with others.
There is also a misconception that to take up "advocacy" requires an entire shift of focus to lobbying and campaigning activities, away from other valuable work in which we may be engaged on a daily basis. Advocacy can be effectively combined with other types of service provision and analytical work, and the strategic significance of incorporating advocacy into our daily work and struggles should not be overlooked if we are to bring about meaningful change.
This advocacy kit is designed to help advocates develop the skills to advocate for mainstreaming gender into macroeconomic frameworks and PRSPs. It describes some of the steps in organizing campaigns and provides information on developing, implementing and evaluating a successful gender mainstreaming advocacy strategy.
Navigating Advocacy Spaces and Places
Advocacy can take place within your organization, at the local government, at the national government level, at a regional intergovernmental level, or at international venues/fora. When initiating an advocacy activity,
it is important to make strategic choices about where to direct your energies and to look for strategic entry points. In some cases, it is beneficial to participate in establishing agendas of institutions or decision--makers such as government--sponsored policy consultations, stakeholder meetings with financial institutions, and local council meetings. Effective advocacy in these "invited spaces" requires clear demands for change by skilled advocates. Advocacy activities in "created spaces', that is, in spaces opened up by advocates themselves with different and independent agendas, may require more resources but often offer stronger negotiating positions.
Given resource constraints and the urgency of our goals, we should develop criteria for engagement that help us determine where we will have the greatest impact in promoting gender mainstreaming into macroeconomic frameworks, PRSPs and new aid modalities; and where our efforts can have the desired effects. Important criteria include:
* Our strength in terms of capacity and resource levels to effect changes in policy
* The institutions at which the relevant decisions are made
* The risks associated with engaging in particular spaces
* How we can ensure that our agendas are being promoted at the national, regional and international levels.
Advocacy as a process
Advocacy is a deliberate process, involving intentional actions. Therefore, before implementing advocacy strategies it must be clear who you are trying to influence and what policy you wish to change. A successful gender mainstreaming advocacy campaign is based on the following components that will be elaborated upon in later sessions:
Without strategy, people easily get disappointed because it is hard to measure progress if there is no formulated goal and plan to achieve that goal. Without participation of stakeholders an advocacy campaign can easily be isolated and ignored. Without mobilization and resulting public debate, the public and policy makers might put aside the advocacy agenda as being irrelevant.
Participant Handout B.2: Mainstreaming Gender into a PRSP
This handout describes the nine steps (figure 10.1) required to ensure that gender issues are fully integrated into the processes of poverty diagnostics, selection of priority interventions and monitoring and evaluation. This section describes steps 1-6 as details for M&E are in handout 13.8.
(a) Integrating Gender Analysis into Poverty Diagnosis
Step 1: Ensuring that gender is addressed across the four dimensions of poverty: opportunities, capabilities, security, and empowerment.
Step 2: For each of these dimensions, documenting the experiences of poverty.
Step 3: Undertaking gender analysis of the data gathered and integrating findings into the country's poverty diagnosis.
Step 1: Addressing different dimensions of gender and poverty
The gender and poverty diagnosis should be structured around the four dimensions of poverty (opportunities,. capabilities, security, and empowerment).This analysis will often require the use of different data collection methods to produce key indicators on the four dimensions of poverty. The indicators and data collection methods are described in table 1.
* Opportunities indicators reveal gender differences in access to the productive resources and opportunities needed to escape from poverty and to promote economic growth.
* Capabilities indicators can identify current gender gaps and monitor changes in the basic welfare indicators for women and men over time.
[FIGURE 10.1 OMITTED]
Some opportunities and capabilities indicators, such as employment and health and nutrition status, can change fairly rapidly and, therefore, can be used to measure the short-term impact of interventions such as improved access to schools/education or health facilities. Others, such as life expectancy, change much more slowly and are used to assess longer-term structural changes.
* Security indicators identify vulnerability to economic shocks, natural disasters, and violence.
* Empowerment indicators measure gender differences in participation and in access to decision making in the political process at the national and local levels and in control over resources within the community and the household.
Step 2: Documenting the gendered experiences of poverty
Special data collection issues for gender analysis
When gender issues are not addressed in, for example, poverty diagnostics, this is likely to be due as much to lack of awareness of the importance of gender as to the limitations of the data collection methods per se. Although, as indicated above, excellent studies of intrahousehold resource allocation have been based on household surveys, these surveys frequently have difficulties in analyzing how resources such as food, money, and productive resources are allocated and controlled within the household.
There are also many studies where the information is available to conduct gender analysis, but this was not done because gender was not considered an important issue by the researchers. A common example is the many cases in which sex-disaggregated data is available on, for example, school enrollment, labor force participation, and successful applications for loans.
There are other cases where gender-relevant questions are included in the survey, but the information is not collected from the right person or in the right way. In some cases, information about the needs, attitudes, time use, or consumption patterns of all household members is obtained from a single interview, usually with the so-called (usually male) household head. Finally, there are cases where the household survey is not appropriate for collecting gender-relevant information. Examples include information on sensitive questions such as domestic violence or where the purpose is to observe household or group behavior when people may be unaware of, or unwilling to discuss, interpersonal behavior or leadership styles.
Some of the key gender issues to be addressed in data collection and analysis at the poverty diagnostic stage include:
* Ensuring that household surveys collect information on the general social and economic conditions of the household combined with information on the constraints, opportunities, incentives, and needs of individual household members. This will often require administering special modules directly to sub samples of household members.
* Ensuring that both women and men are interviewed in a situation in which they are able to speak freely. This will often require interviewing women without male household members present, which can be quite difficult to arrange in many cultures.
* Ensuring that interview teams include both men and women and also interviewers who are fluent in the local language (men are often more fluent than women in the national language).
* Combining quantitative and qualitative methods at the individual and household level with data collection and analysis at the group and community levels.
Step 3: Undertaking gender analysis of the data gathered
After collecting quantitative and qualitative data, the next step is to identify the practices that cause the observed gender differentials. For each of the gender dimensions of poverty (opportunities, capabilities, security, and empowerment) there are a number of barriers that differentially affect men and women. Gender analysis needs to consider the imbalances in the gender division of labor--including rigidities in labor allocation--as well as the diversity of households and intra-household relationships, the gender-based differentials in productive resources, and the implications of the invisibility of women's work in the system of national accounts (SNA). The analysis will inform policy choices and interventions and the M&E of outcomes and impacts.
Analyzing consequences and impacts of gender differences
An analysis of the impacts of gender differentials for poverty reduction should consider issues such as the following:
* Time use
Country studies point to significant differences in how men, women, and children allocate time. Women's multiple responsibilities subject them to increasing time constraints, and time poverty is a major factor in determining what choices are made at the household level. For example, in Uganda, women work longer hours than men, between 12 and 8 hours per day, with a mean of 15 hours, compared with an average male working day of approximately eight to 10 hours. Reducing women's time burden in the ways suggested in this handout is a critical first step to promoting women's economic opportunities and participation in community activities.
Women in Kenya work 50 percent more hours than men on agricultural tasks. They work half as many hours again as men when agricultural and nonagricultural tasks are combined: 12.9. hours compared with 8.2 hours. In Tanzania, men have an average of 4.5 hours per day of leisure time, compared to an average of two hours per day for women. In economic activities, women's labor input is 52 percent versus 42 percent for men. Women are involved in almost all activities on the farm as well as housework (in which men hardly participate). Women were found to make significant labor contributions, even in traditional male activities such as cash crop farming and house construction.
* Interdependence of household and market economies
Poor households face critical tradeoffs in allocation of scarce labor resources among economic production, bearing and rearing children, managing household and community responsibilities, and attending school. These tradeoffs are further complicated by social rules that define the gender division of labor. Multiple demands on women's time severely constrain their ability to respond to economic incentives and to participate in the market economy.
* Importance of considering gender roles
The economic roles of men and women need to be analyzed explicitly and integrated into PRS policies and key interventions to ensure appropriate, gender-inclusive targeting. In agriculture, for example, this would bring a different dimension to which agricultural technologies are developed, which crops and tasks are prioritized, which extension messages are developed and delivered, which research priorities are pursued, and, most important, how all of these activities will really reach both women and men.
(b) Using a Gender-Informed Poverty Analysis in Defining Priority Public Actions in the PRS
This section suggests how to integrate gender analysis in the policy and priority interventions stage of the PRSP.
Step 4 Defining the policy implications of gender analysis in the country.
Step 5 Identifying priorities for the PRS.
Step 6 Integrating gender-responsive priorities into the policy responses and priority actions in the PRS.
Step 4: Defining the policy implications of gender analysis
When results have been obtained from the gendered poverty diagnosis, the next task is to define the policy implications of this analysis for the poverty strategy to make more informed, gender-aware policy responses and action priorities that address the gender-differentiated experience of poverty. A gender-aware analysis of poverty contributes to a fuller understanding of the causes of poverty and indicates, in turn, different policy responses and investment priorities to reduce poverty. Analysis of the gender dimensions of poverty has four principal policy implications of relevance for the PRS. These are:
* Both men and women play important roles in economic activity (especially in Africa), but they are not equally distributed across the productive sectors, nor are they equally remunerated for their labor. This means that different sectoral growth and investment patterns make different demands on men and women's labor and have different implications for the division of labor and the distribution of income.
* The market and the household economies coexist and are interdependent, as revealed in time allocation data showing the "double workday" of women. This means that short-term intersectoral and intergenerational tradeoffs (and positive externalities) may be very significant for asset and labor-constrained individuals and households, that is, for the poor.
* Persistent gender inequality in access to and control of a wide range of human, economic, and social assets has direct and indirect costs for economic growth and development and diminishes the effectiveness of poverty reduction efforts.
* The poor in general, and poor women in particular, have little or no voice in decision-making, and their different needs and constraints do not inform public policy choices and priorities. Therefore, proactive measures are needed to ensure inclusive participation in the PRS and in the formulation of inclusive policies and programs. In this respect, gender needs to be a criterion of inclusion in PRS participatory processes and a criterion of choice in prioritizing the PRS policy responses and interventions.
One of the key policy implications of gender-informed poverty analysis is that there are critical interrelationships and linkages among different sectors of activity, especially between the paid and unpaid economies. Choices and tradeoffs are at the core of these interrelationships, as revealed in time use analysis. This is why it is so important for the poverty analysis underlying the PRS to include gender-based time budget analysis. Time constraints are in many instances severe; they affect women more than men, given the unequal division of labor; and they are especially acute for the poorest. Addressing these constraints can therefore be seen as one of the highest priorities for a PRS. Building on these interconnections can have positive multiplier effects by reducing the time burden of domestic work and raising labor productivity throughout the economy. To reduce domestic work, it is necessary to give the highest priority in the PRS to measures that save time (or improve the productivity of time use), such as improvements in accessibility and transport of wood and water, inter mediate means of transport, labor-saving technologies across the full range of household tasks (domestic and productive, which is especially critical for women) and promoting greater gender balance in undertaking domestic work.
Step 5: Identifying gender-responsive priorities for the PRS
The next step builds on the policy implications of the gender analysis to prioritize policy responses and priority actions as the basis for developing PRS interventions. Some areas that particularly warrant consideration from a gender perspective are described below.
Analysis of PRSPs to date suggests there are 10 priority sectors most frequently included in the country PRSs. The priority sectors include:
* Agriculture, land rights, and rural development;
* Environment and natural resource management;
* Health and violence;
* Water supply and sanitation;
* Labormarkets, employment, and microeconomic-enterprise development;
* Safety nets and food security; and
* Urban development.
Table 2 offers suggestions for using the findings of the poverty diagnostics to identify gender-sensitive policy, program, and project options for the PRS. The actions included in the PRS should reflect the priorities of poor men and women. What is relevant and appropriate will vary by country and by regions within countries. Priorities should be based on country circumstances.
Engendering the budget
The key role of the national budget in ensuring that public expenditure priorities are consistent with development policies and that the overall budget framework is pro-poor cannot be underscored. It is necessary to go one step further and to engender the national budget to ensure that (a) both women and men are involved in the budget development process,(b) resources are allocated for priority investments that respond to the needs of both women and men, and (c) budget tracking processes certify that the impact of public spending benefits both men and women.
* To increase girls' enrollment in primary and secondary schools in rural areas, it is of course necessary to nave appropriate buildings and equipment. But it may also be necessary to provide special accommodation or travel allowances so that women teachers are available to teach in the schools.
* Increasing women's use of rural health facilities may require hiring and training paramedical staff who speak the local language.
* Ensuring positive gender impacts of land reform may require major investments in legal literacy programs so that both women and men are aware of their new land rights and how to obtain them.
The success of a recent South African initiative of gender analysis of budgets has raised interest in this area. So far, the initiative has stressed reprioritizing rather than increasing the overall government spending.
Step 6: Incorporating gender priorities into key poverty reduction measures
The final step involves integrating the gender-responsive priorities identified into the policy responses and priority actions retained in the PRS itself. This will also include integrating appropriate indicators and benchmarks (see Handout 8) to reflect differences in focus in the action agenda.
Participant Handout B.3: Case Studies from Africa
(A) Achievements of gender mainstreaming into the EGYPT-PRSP
There are budgetary allocations to sectors that will address gender concerns (table 2.5).Total investments allocated in the national plan concerning women empowerment reaches 963 million L.E.; Lower Egypt absorbs 38% of these investments followed by Upper Egypt (31%), frontier governorates (22%) then metropolitan governorates (9%). Health projects absorb 35 % of the investments followed by Education (34%), poverty eradication and economic empowerment (13%), environment (11%) and social care (7%).
Additional funds have been for enhancing human development that will positively affect gender (Annex Table E6). Programmes for women empowerment have been integrated in the current development plan.
Women Empowerment component in the sixth socio-economic development plan 2007/2008--2011/2012)
The socio economic plan has adopted series of policies aiming at empowering women and achieving gender equality. These policies are:
* Enhancing the role of NGOs in eradicating all forms of discrimination and violence against women.
* Introducing incentives aiming at narrowing the gender gap in primary enrolment, increasing the rate of primary education completion, removing all forms of gender discrimination in the school curricula as well as reorienting the training programs for teachers and principals.
* Broadening women opportunities in the formal private sector through enduring the cost of the legal privileges endowed to mother workers in the formal private sector in addition to guaranteeing the social insurance for female workers in the informal sector.
* Generating 600 thousand jobs for women over the next ten years, in the context of the civil society organizations activities especially in the area of pre school education, health, and social work.
* Constructing nurseries for the children of poor working mothers, enhancing their chance in getting credit as well as equal promotion opportunities in sectors such as social services and nursing.
* Facilitating legal procedures for women in issues such as divorce and custody in addition to protecting their legal rights in inheritance and property.
* Enhancing the political participation and representation of women through public awareness programs, and providing support to women candidates programs in elections.
* Providing health care services for women and fighting the negative traditions against women getting medical treatment.
* Empowering women regarding family planning and reproductive issues through public awareness programs as well as enhancing women access to family planning methods easily and for free.
In addition, the socio-economic development plan embraced series of policies targeting women in SMEs.
* Enhancing the role of the Social Fund For Development: Enhancing women access to credit offered by the fund through mainstreaming gender in the different fund programs as well as increasing the role of the gender unit in the fund.
* Enhancing the role of the Ministry of Social Solidarity: through activating the role of the productive families program in generating income and fighting poverty. The productive families program offers various services; training services, providing inputs such as the raw materials and equipments, loans, marketing services through the permanent, temporary and seasonal displays, as well as technical services.
* Enhancing the role of the NGOs in providing loans to women; NGOs are considered an important tool in promoting SMEs as they are closer to the targeted groups.
(B) Achievements of gender Mainstreaming into the Rwanda--EDPRS
Specific, gender priority actions identified in the checklist as essential for sectors and districts in the EDPRS included:
1. Women are enabled to exercise their reproductive health rights:
* Average number of children per women is reduced from 6 to 5 by 2012 and to 3 by 2020;
* The contraceptive prevalence rate is significantly increased;
* There is a significant drop in the number of maternal deaths;
* The age at which women have their first baby is raised;
* Female participation in the labor markets (formal & informal) is significantly increased.
2. The achievement of the Vision 2020 objective of gender equality in Rwanda is made possible by careful development of policy and law that progressively protects women and provides a platform for them to achieve equality with men:
* Literacy and legal literacy campaigns are available to women;
* Gender-based Violence law is passed and fully implemented;
* Public Servants and MPs are able to use and analyse data in order to improve policy;
* A gender equity roadmap is developed and put in place between the years of 2012 to 2020.
3. The range of employment, business and financial services is expanded and differential levels of male and female participation are addressed.
* Formal social insurance coverage is expanded from 4% to 10% of the population with equal participation by women and men;
* Social Safety net provision is expanded to 10% of the most vulnerable population and made equally accessible to men and women;
* The gap between the share of micro finance available to men and women should be reduced by 75% by 2012 or made equal if possible;
* The speed of revisions to law and policy is increased to achieve protection for women's ownership of land and other assets as rapidly as possible;
* The number of women's start-up businesses is increased by 50% by 2012.
4. Girls gain much better educational achievements and adult women's literacy rate is improved:
* Higher proportions of boys and girls enter and complete secondary and tertiary education--with equality between boys and girls at all levels;
* Adults are offered functional literacy to raise both women and men's literacy and bring them to the same levels.
5. Women's role in agriculture enhanced by policy changes and practical support emphasizing productivity rises in food crop production and access to markets.
* Women are offered access to water efficient technology, agricultural inputs and improved knowledge & information;
* Rural roads are improved and made more accessible;
* Domestic burdens and illnesses are alleviated through increased provision of pure drinking water and fuel efficient cooking technology.
Beyond the writing of the EDPRS lies the challenge of implementing and monitoring progress. The EDPRS included gender responsive monitoring indicators in table 4.2 below
There was continued advocacy for mainstreaming gender into all the sectoral plans of the EDPRS. This therefore required constant review of all EDPRS draft documents produced by the gender subgroup to ensure that gender issues do not evaporate.
Participant Handout B.4: Mainstreaming Gender into Macroeconomic Framework
The macro economic framework is premised on the need for a strong economic growth that requires support conditions. Many frameworks use the following instruments for the macroeconomic stability.
* Fiscal policy
* Monetary policy
* Debt management
* Prices and income policy
* Financial policy
These should be the subject of a gender analysis and mainstreaming ultimately. This handout briefly reviews each instrument and proposes how to mainstream gender.
Economic Growth Rate
The key objective is economic growth and this should be subjected to a gender analysis.
1. Review the sectoral composition of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and related growth rates.
2. Review the labour force participation rates (where are wo/men working?) It has been established that women are mainly in agriculture, within the crops sub-sector and the informal sectors.
3. Examine GDP growth rates for sector(s) of concern, for example agriculture.
* GDP growth rate (existing many countries)
* Agricultural sector growth rate
* Agricultural crops sub-sector growth rate
* Gender Intensity of Production
This entails reviewing both, the domestic revenue mobilization as well as government spending. There is need to mainstream gender into taxation plans as well as national budgets. This would involve the following steps:
1. Review the composition of taxes. What types of taxes are being levied and who do they affect? For example, a tax on sanitary pads is directed at women and girls and may be an unfair tax since these usually have limited incomes.
2. Review the levels of taxation. How much is being levied under each tax category? Taxes should be progressive. For example the rich should pay more taxes than the poor. In most countries it has been established that the majority of the poor are women who should therefore be paying lower taxes.
3. Review the composition of government expenditures. What are the public expenditure priorities and who benefits from them? A benefit incidence would be appropriate for this analysis. However for the analytical work for the taxes and budget analysis, gender disaggregated data should be available to allow for that detailed work.
4. Review the level of funding of women programmes. A key area could be the facilitation of the National Machinery as this is critical for effective gender mainstreaming efforts in any country.
Under the fiscal policy, gender mainstreaming would entail advocating for fair taxes for women as well as increased budgetary spending on women's programmes.
* Proportion of the national budget spent on women programmes
1. Under this policy review the money supply (inflation) and exchange rate. The first step would be to review what constitutes the national accounts. Are the care economy activities that are undertaken mainly by the women included?
* Money Supply that is constrained to keep inflation under control. Although this is a noble idea, money supply is unduly restrained because the real output of the economy is underestimated as the statistics used understate women's contribution. The unpaid care economy in which women do most of the work is omitted from the national accounts
Integrating the care economy into the national accounts is gender mainstreaming This would enhance the real output and possibly the money supply. More money in circulation would expand public spending. However, the increased funding should benefit more women. National budgets will only be gender responsive if more funds are spent on removing constraints of access to services, suffered by the marginalized
* Share of care economy in GDP
* Competitive foreign exchange Macroeconomic frameworks have to transcend balance of payments concerns and review the structure of exports and imports.
1. Review the structure of exports. What are the main exports and who is benefiting? For example in many countries, the women are mainly engaged in agricultural food crop production. Does the export structure indicate any growth prospects of enterprises where women are engaged?
However this analysis must comprehend issues of food security that are the responsibility of the same women.
2. Review the structure of imports. What imports compete with domestic production? This is critical as "dumping" (especially of agricultural products) is common and it destroys livelihoods.
Gender mainstreaming would entail advocating for exports of women's products as well as reduced imports of competing products.
* Composition of primary exports
* Imports competing with primary products
Prices and income policy
The main issues are employment.
* Need to review issues of labour productivity and returns (wages). Are there wage differentials between wo/men? Why the differences in pay is it a question of skills or sheer discrimination?
* In terms of women's rights, examine conditions of work; child care services at the work place; and flexibility of working hours.
The focus is on private savings and investments
1. Review access to private credit by sectors as an issue. This is because wo/men are concentrated in different sectors. In this case the issue would be access to agricultural financing. Within the sectors other issues to be examined would include:
* Need to examine interest rates for the various source of credit. Many women are accessing credit from either micro-finance institutions or informal sources. All with higher interest rates.
* Sectoral composition of private Fending
Case Study of a gender analysis of the Macroeconomic Framework in Uganda
The macro economic framework is premised on the need for a strong export-led growth that is driven by the private sector. This requires a number of supportive economic conditions namely:
* A low and stable rate of inflation
* A competitive exchange rate for exporters
* Low and stable interest rates for the private sector
* Steady growth in domestic savings
* Steady growth in private sector investment
These are the issues that government has been obsessed with, and they will be the focus of the gender analysis.
Control of Inflation
Government has set an annual inflation target of 5 percent. To achieve this, money supply is the variable controlled based on the equation below:
M x V = P x Y where:
M = money supply; V = velocity of money (the rate at which money circulates) P = prices; and Y = the real output of the economy
Given that neither the real output of the economy (Y) nor the rate at which money circulates (V) can change rapidly in the short term, a rapid increase in money supply (M), which outstrips the real rate of growth of the economy, will lead to an increase in prices (P), generating inflation.
This equation causes overdue restraint on the money supply in a bid to keep prices in check to avoid inflation. This is because the real output of the economy is underestimated as the statistics used understate women's contribution to the economy.
There is unpaid care economy in which women do most of the work of maintaining the labour force and keeping the social fabric in good order, maintaining social cohesion, civic responsibility and good neighbourliness that is omitted from the national accounts.
Women's work is excluded on the basis that most of it is considered not to be market oriented and thus cannot be captured in national accounts. Women's work may be divided into three categories:
--Subsistence production of goods for home use, which in principle could be marketed such as food, clothing, pottery, housing etc. This to an extent, is reflected in the national accounts.
--Unpaid care work that includes household chores such as looking after a household; cooking; cleaning; and providing personal care for family members, friends and neighbours. This work is excluded from the national accounts as work lying outside the production boundary. However, the care economy is vital for keeping the social fabric in good repair and for maintaining and reproducing the labour force- and is therefore part and parcel of the production systems.
--Voluntary community work includes unpaid activities in all kinds of civic associations, both secular and church based. This networking is critical for social capital accumulation, one of the assets that are critical for livelihoods. The undue limitation in money supply has constrained government expenditures to below optimum levels for effective service delivery for example.
Competitive Exchange Rate
The competitive exchange rate is deemed desirable for fostering an export led growth. This is noble for healthy balance of payments. However from a gender perspective the question is whether the interventions benefit both men and women and if not what should be done.
For the population engaged in production of tradable (products that may be exported) a competitive exchange rate would be desirable. Uganda is basically a primary goods exporter dealing in crops, livestock, minerals, a few manufactured goods and electric current. There has been growth in the export sector mainly due to the expansion of the non-traditional exports including both high value products of fish and horticulture; as well as low value crops (1) of maize, beans, and bananas.
The transformation of some food crops into tradable products as noted above should be of benefit to women. As was noted in the section above, it is women that are mainly engaged in food crop production.
However, in the same section we noted a consistent decline in the production of these crops over the years bringing to the fore the question as to whether competitive exchange rates have really benefited the women. Some of these issues shall be explored when reviewing the impact of the macroeconomic framework on distribution and production.
Low and stable interest rates for the Private sector
Although government does not fix the interest rates, it has affected them through its interventions of containing the fiscal deficit. In a bid to manage the deficit, the Central Bank issues Government securities at an interest rate that is conducive to commercial banks to procure the same. In addition this rate should not lead to the crowding out of the private sector. Irrespective of all the hurdles, private sector credit has grown steadily over the past decade. The issue of concern is which sectors have access to this private sector credit.
The chart below shows that more than half of Commercial Bank lending is to Trade & Other Services. The next biggest sector is manufacturing, followed by Agriculture.
Most of Commercial Banks' agricultural lending is for crop finance, rather than production. There are a number of reasons why Commercial Banks do not lend to producers. Firstly, the risks involved in agricultural production are high, as a crop may fail due to weather conditions or disease. Secondly, smallholder farmers tend to have insufficient collateral to set against their loan apart from their land, for which they may not hold a title. Thirdly, the cost to Commercial Banks of loan supervision for a large number of small loans is far greater than the cost of supervision for one or two large loans with a substantive collateral. Fourthly, few farmers have pre-agreed production output contracts and therefore guaranteed markets.
As noted majority of women are engaged in agriculture with limited diversification. Even within the agricultural sector, their roles are limited to sowing, weeding, harvesting and have limited participation in marketing. The provision of crop finance, therefore again excludes the women.
Participants Handout B.5: Mainstreaming Gender into the New Aid Modalities
Gender equality and women's empowerment are critical for development effectiveness. The systematic integration of gender equality and women's empowerment in the partnership commitments of the Paris Declaration by both donors and multilateral agencies is crucial. The integration of a gender equality perspective is critical to the successful implementation of the aid effectiveness agenda. The aid effectiveness agenda is not simply a technocratic process. Focusing on efficiency changes to aid mechanisms and structural reforms will have limited impact on development effectiveness without a gender perspective or taking women's interests and needs into account.
Government reforms and the joint assistance strategies of donors need to ensure that gender equality and women's empowerment are an integral part of national development strategies, planning and spending frameworks, including poverty reduction strategies, Medium Term Expenditure Frameworks (MTEF) and Public Expenditure Reviews (PERs).
The changing approaches to aid provide an important opportunity to implement gender responsive budgeting and planning. The situation therefore demands that gender concerns be mainstreamed in all budgeting and planning processes and therefore the capacities to do so need to be continuously reinforced. Accordingly, gender analysis needs to be used at all levels of planning and implementation as a key tool for accountability. The full and sustained commitment of multiple stakeholders, including parliament and local councils, as well as civil society, including women's organizations, is vitally important.
As donors and governments tend to have the matic priorities for development cooperation, gender mainstreaming could easily be overlooked in strategic sectors such as economics, labour, trade, transport and urban planning. There is need for all development partners to work together to identify ways in which women in partner countries can be strategically positioned in national and local debates so that their perspectives on how to target increased aid flows to women and how resources are spent, are heard and acted upon. Institutional mechanisms that promote and protect spaces for women's voices in policymaking therefore need to be supported and gender initiatives prioritized. At the same time gender analysts who are strategically placed within donor agencies have a critical role to play with regards to the integration of gender equality in policy level dialogues, resource allocation and monitoring. They should use their access to information and their expertise to influence international and national decision-making on aid modalities and programming to benefit women.
Often, national women's machineries in developing countries were faced with a combination of institutional weaknesses, evaporation of commitments, economic hardship and gender-based discrimination that inhibited them from making an impact in development planning and aid allocation. Challenges included limited funding for capacity building in gender equality; limited support to national women's machineries; limited availability of gender sensitive development data; and national women machineries' lack of mandates for shaping national development strategies.
The move to new aid modalities requires building countries' capacity to lead, own and influence/leverage the policy agendas and resource allocation decision making spheres in a gender responsive manner. This entails equipping and strengthening national women's machineries with capacities to participate substantively in gender responsive public financial management and budget initiatives, including expenditure tracking, gender responsive poverty reduction strategies and sector wide approaches, strategies and processes. International development banks and specialized United Nations agencies can offer assistance in this area to national women's machineries as well as to line ministries.
A. Ownership (Partner countries exercise effective leadership over their development policies and strategies and co-ordinate development actions)
The integration of gender dimensions (i.e. mainstreaming) is particularly difficult where budget support is the preferred aid delivery instrument. Both donor and partner systems that are generally not well-equipped to track and monitor the resources which are focused on gender equality need to be adjusted in order to serve this function adequately.
There is often a need to address cultural and religious beliefs that undermine progress towards gender equality, yet national actors could be sufficiently strengthened and supported to tackle them appropriately.
The increased use of programmatic approaches, coupled with the move away from discrete projects, can inadvertently cut out projects which have been designed to empower women and increase the participation of poor women and men in decision making. There is evidence that the new approaches have resulted in a decrease of the funding available to civil society and women's organizations. This shift needs to be compensated by other approaches that guarantee women's participation.
B. Alignment (Donors base their overall support on partner countries" national development strategies, institutions and procedures)
Insufficient resources are focused on achieving gender equality objectives in medium term frameworks and national budgets. Relatively little use has been made of gender responsive public financial management and budget initiatives including expenditure tracking and appraisal of the differential impacts of public expenditure. If alignment is to truly reflect development for women, who comprise half of the population, national development strategies, institutions and procedures must incorporate measurable gender equality objectives.
The government institutions responsible for gender equality are usually marginalized and lacking in the skills and resources to effectively influence national policy, planning and budgets. Increased resources, skills and capacity development are essential to reverse this situation.
C. Harmonization (Donors" actions are more harmonized, transparent and collectively effective)
Cross cutting issues such as gender equality can become sidelined or neglected in the evolving Joint Assistance Strategy processes. Donors and multilaterals also focus on the major sectors at the expense of cross-cutting elements. To avoid being inadvertently "silenced" or become less visible within a harmonized approach, it is important that donors with a strong commitment to gender equality articulate the need to systematically incorporate a gender perspective in all sectors and in all jointly undertaken processes.
Donor and multilateral agency work on gender equality and women's empowerment has often been fragmented and compartmentalized thus reducing its impact. There is need to address this with agreed upon gender performance indicators.
Partners and donors should not be tempted to "mainstream everywhere". Rather, it is important to concentrate efforts in strategic areas, especially those that have the potential to deliver long-term benefits for women such as support for economic empowerment, and for advancement through increased participation in political decision making, education and legislative reform. Depending on national contexts, other key sectors identified included health, justice, science and technology, and agriculture. Increased use should be made of global agreements as a basis for setting national priorities and for monitoring progress towards gender equality and women's empowerment. As most donors and partner countries have gender equality policies and/or have made international commitments to gender equality, there are opportunities for donors to align with the gender equality policies, systems and commitments of partner governments. Donors and partners can increase political and policy dialogue on achievement of the MDGs and on CEDAW reporting and implementation.
Donors and multilateral agencies need to use their combined strengths and forge partnerships to foster gender equality as a clearly defined joint goal and shared task. There needs to be greater pooling of resources, increased use of programmatic approaches, joint analytical work, a clear division of roles and responsibilities, and agreements on strategic priorities and approaches by donors and multilateral agencies.
There is a need to work together to ensure that gender equality is integrated into evolving programming mechanisms such as Joint Assistance Strategies and into the assessments of harmonized delivery mechanisms. In certain contexts, it may be desirable for donors to develop a common framework, and innovative financing modalities such as trust funds, to support various forms and functions of national women's machineries, including civil society organizations that promote gender equality and maintain an independent voice for women's rights.
Depending on the national context, donors need to work together to agree on which of them has the comparative advantage and the commitment to lead gender specific and women's empowerment initiatives. At the same time there needs to be a coherent approach to integrating gender equality dimensions into other key elements of joint assistance strategies. Examples of how to successfully integrate gender equality dimensions into donors' harmonization efforts should be documented and shared.
D. Managing for results (Managing resources and improving decision-making for results)
Sufficient attention needs to be paid to the achievement of gender equality objectives in existing performance assessment frameworks, coupled with the development of skills and technical expertise to assess gender equality results. Use should be made of existing country-relevant gender equality indicators and processes to monitor results and progress towards gender equality. The gender equality and women's empowerment constituencies that lack the analytical and assessment capacity to demand and measure results need to be reinforced.
The collection and application of sex-disaggregated data continues to be a challenge. Considerable investment is required to ensure that all the data that is needed is available.
A strong results-based culture is necessary to ensure that national governments include precise (actionable and measurable) results frameworks on gender equality in national development strategies with specific budgetary allocations such that expenditures and results can be tracked. Existing country relevant gender equality indicators and processes can be incorporated into performance assessment frameworks to monitor results and progress towards gender equality. These included MDG targets and indicators, CEDAW reporting and reporting on the Beijing Platform for Action.
E. Mutual Accountability (Donors and partners are accountable for development results)
New approaches are needed to measure progress and to hold donors and partners accountable for gender commitments, especially given that the mainstreaming of gender equality objectives makes it more difficult to track resources and allocations.
Gender equality and women's empowerment needs to be put high on the policy and political agenda of partner countries' politicians, parliaments and government agencies. Areas that need to be strengthened include weak local capacity, leadership, voice and participation in the formulation and assessment of progress in implementing national development strategies.
The continued absence of strong national accountability mechanisms in partner countries through parliaments, audit offices, and a free media and all the other means that are used in donor countries to hold governments accountable to taxpayers and the community are a serious hindrance to development and these need to be created or strengthened. There is need to develop mutually agreed measures to track expenditure on and the impacts of gender equality initiatives and mainstreaming in all key sectors of development.
Mutual accountability would need to be measured at different levels including giving a voice to citizens, particularly women; establishing gender responsive development planning frameworks and budgetary instruments; and using existing or new data on gender inequality. Working together development partners may develop mutually agreed measures to track expenditure on and the impacts of gender equality initiatives and gender mainstreaming in key sectors; and undertake joint assessment reviews.
Develop national accountability mechanisms and tools which include accountability to Parliaments, stronger audit offices, greater community participation, free media and attention to gender equality. Collection of sex-disaggregated data and supporting national statistics offices and line ministries' information systems is crucial for mainstreaming a gender perspective in national development plans and for measuring progress in achieving gender equality.
There is scope for strengthening the capacity of national parliamentary systems as one of the key accountability mechanisms at the national level for monitoring how public expenditure specifically addresses gender inequalities and women's status. International development banks and specialized United Nations agencies should offer targeted assistance to build the requisite capacities in national women's machineries as well as in other ministries and offices such as ministries of labour and finance, national statistical offices, unions and employers Organizations
Participant's Handout B.6: Situational Analysis of Gender Inequality
Advocating for gender mainstreaming presupposes that there is a problem of gender inequality. The gender problems can only be identified through a situational analysis. It is imperative to have solid, up-to-date factual information to drive the advocacy initiative. This is the foundation of any well-informed and critical analysis. It allows valid and thorough assessment of existing policies and decision-making processes, as well revealing the context within which these have come about. Research and analysis inform the advocacy strategies which we should choose as our way forward.
A situational analysis of gender inequality examines the status of women in light of opportunities, capabilities, security and empowerment as key aspects of poverty. In this handout, the example used is that of the agricultural sector--the main livelihood for most people especially the women.
Gender Roles in the Farming System
Women and men have distinct roles within the farming system. Gender differences in rural farming households vary widely across cultures, but certain features are common. Women tend to concentrate their agricultural activities around the homestead, primarily because of their domestic and reproductive roles; they play a critical role in food production, post-harvest activities, livestock care, and increasingly in cash cropping. Certain tasks, activities, or enterprises are regarded as "male" or "female." In some settings, a rigid division of labor exists between men and women: household members have separate incomes and expenditures and reciprocal or skewed rights and obligations. In others, the division of labor and specialization of tasks is less rigid and not as skewed. In general, however, women tend to have a wider range of activities and enterprises than men.
On the one hand, they have productive activities in agriculture and livestock management; on the other, they have chief responsibility for reproductive activities, that is, the bearing and rearing of children and maintenance of the household. Although the gender based division of labor in the farming system varies widely, it still affects responses to agricultural innovation everywhere.
Women's agricultural activities are changing with mounting pressure on land, environmental degradation, increased rural poverty, and male out-migration. Female-headed households, in particular, may suffer from labor constraints, especially for the typically male task of land preparation. In addition, household data often underestimate the proportion of de facto female-headed households. The identification of female headed households depends to a large extent on how surveys are designed and administered.
This underestimation can have two effects:
* Women may not be considered farmers.
* Female-headed households may not have access to resources and services.
It is important to ensure that assistance is given to both men and women, including those women who are heads of farming households.
Constraints common to men and women farmers can be addressed by generally improving the agricultural environment and the responsiveness of agricultural services to all farmers. But often, merely gender-neutral policies are not adequate; a more proactive strategy is required to ensure that projects take into account existing gender imbalances, promote equitable access to resources and benefits, and motivate both men and women to participate in project activities. Moreover, gender roles change over time. These changes must be reflected in the design and implementation of agricultural projects. Sector work and project preparation become crucial in this regard.
Gender Issues by Sub sector
This section presents recommended strategies for incorporating gender concerns in the major sub sectors in agriculture. Each section also contains a chart outlining the key gender related information needs for each sub sector and boxes illustrating good practices from project experience.
A. Agrarian Reform, Land Tenure, and Registration
In most countries, ownership of farmland is vested primarily in men. Women often have usufruct rather than ownership rights to land. Usufruct rights often entail less secure tenure and less ease in disposing of those rights by sale, lending, bequest, or mortgage. Where women own land, female headed households tend to have smaller farms on average than male-headed households. Women who are not household heads are even less likely to have title to land than those who are.
In some countries, women are not able to inherit land; in others, although they have the legal right, custom dictates that they do not inherit or should pass inherited land on to their husbands or a male relative. In many African countries, when a man dies, rights to the house, land, tools, and equipment customarily revert to his ancestral family.
Land ownership and legal title to land for women producers can sometimes be helpful in overcoming production constraints; however, experience suggests that agrarian reform, land tenure and registration, as well as settlement schemes have often permanently consolidated male ownership rights to land at the expense of women's usufruct and ownership rights under traditional and customary law. Usufruct rights entail less secure tenure and less ease in disposing of those rights by sale, lending, bequest, or mortgage.
Whether land is allocated by traditional or government authority, ownership rights usually go to men. Many agrarian reform programs have failed to recognize the land ownership rights of:
* Married women
* Women household heads
* Women producers with partial or temporary land rights
For men as well as women, lack of title usually implies lower productivity levels and yields because of:
* Weak incentives for land maintenance and improvement activities, such as irrigation
* Little interest in investing in permanent crops
* Lack of collateral for credit for improved inputs and fertilize
B. Agricultural Education and Training
In most countries, fewer women than men are agricultural technicians in agricultural ministry or development agency staff, particularly at higher levels.
This absence of women technicians can have negative implications for women's agricultural production, especially in countries where contact between male agricultural staff and rural women is restricted. Experience shows that in such cases women's access to information and extension activities and to credit is significantly reduced. Agriculture staff have reduced opportunities to understand women's production systems and learn from women farmers.
Increasing the number of women with technical training in agriculture is, therefore, essential. At the same time, however, it is important to train men as well as women agriculture staff in gender issues; gender analysis needs to become an integral part of the curriculum in agricultural training institutions, both in the core courses and in refresher training for previously trained staff.
2. Approaches to Gender Analysis in Education and Training
Consider strategies, such as the following to address gender issues in agriculture education and training components.
a. Increase Women's Enrollment in Agricultural Courses.
b. Increase Training in Gender Issues for Everyone.
c. Increase Training for Women in Projects.
D. Agricultural Training and Illiteracy
C. Agricultural Extension
Women farmers have less contact with extension services than men. In most countries, extension services are predominantly staffed by men. Until recently, their services were often directed to men farmers or heads of households. Female headed households, therefore, frequently had less access to extension services than households headed by men. Women members of male-headed households often had even less access to these services. Extension services erroneously assumed that messages delivered to men farmers would trickle "across" to women. This excluded a significant proportion of farmers the women from access to extension information, services, and sometimes also inputs and credit. The messages themselves frequently ignored the unique workload, responsibilities, and constraints of women farmers. Finding the means to reach this large, frequently overlooked group is necessary to improve extension coverage and to learn from local farming practice, as well as from the point of view of equity.
In many countries, agricultural extension services are being reoriented toward more demand-driven and sustainable services, with greater cost sharing between extension agents and farmers, greater control by local units, increasing private sector provision of services, and growing NGO and farmer group involvement. To be successful, these participatory and community-based approaches will require greater involvement of women, who constitute a significant proportion of active farmers in many parts of the world.
2. Approaches to Gender Analysis in Agricultural Extension
a. Introduce Gender Awareness in the Ministry of Agriculture
b. Increase Contact with Women Farmers
1) Targeting Rural Women as Extension Clients
2) Targeting the Extension Service
* Set targets for both men's and women's participation in extension activities:
Break national targets down to regional or smaller targets to take account of local variations and opportunities
3) Targeting Male Extension Agents
* Train men extension agents in culturally acceptable methods of delivering extension to women
* Engage a woman agent to start extension activities with a group to overcome initial resistance and hand it over to a male agent when the group is established and running.
4) Targeting Women Agents
* Recruit more women agents, and provide them with transport and other necessary
c. Improve the Quality of Extension
* Conduct gender analysis of the farming system and use findings in conducting training sessions
D. Agricultural Research
Agricultural research is moving toward more demand-driven activities and greater decentralization, private sector involvement, and participation by farmers, extension agents, and NGOs.
Gender issues enter into many aspects of agricultural research, such as:
* Setting the research agenda
* Selecting varieties for testing
* Promoting adoption of findings
* Evaluating results
* Improving research staff quality
* Enhancing research staff diversity
They also enter into the employment equity concerns of the research institutions themselves.
2. Approaches to Gender Analysis in Agricultural Research
a. Setting the Research Agenda
Since men and women often grow different crops, use different methods of cultivation, and make different use of the produce, they also have different areas of concern in improving yield or increasing resistance to disease. Men and women farmers, therefore, often have different research interests and needs that can be captured only if gender issues are incorporated in setting the research agenda.
b. Developing the Research Methodology
1) Selecting Varieties for Testing
Attention to gender can enhance difficult stages of research that is, selecting varieties for testing, promoting adoption of findings, evaluating results, and improving staff quality. Women often use different parts of the crop for subsidiary purposes: they often gain additional and crucial, personal income from livestock fed on straw or stubble, or from fish farming on irrigated land. Because they are usually responsible for weeding, harvesting, and processing the produce, their important considerations in choosing varieties will not be limited to yield or disease resistance but may also relate to peaks in labor requirements during the production cycle
2) Promoting Adoption of Findings
Gender analysis is also relevant to promoting research findings. In a participatory research approach, the involvement of women farmers in choosing the research agenda, selecting varieties for testing, and actively participating in field tests will be carried forward into promotion of research findings. Such an approach ensures that the messages relevant to men and women farmers will be known and ready for dissemination.
3) Evaluating Results
Gender analysis is relevant to evaluation, as well as to setting the research agenda, since men and women:
* Often use different methods of cultivation
* Do not have the same labor constraints
* Make different use of the products
To assess adoption of new research findings, in the long term, for women's crops as well as men's crops for which women have labored or whose by-products they use, it is, therefore, important to ascertain the intrahousehold behavior and attitudes of both men and women, and also of female-headed households.
c. Improving Research Staff Quality/Diversity
The need for competent researchers dictates a strategy of broadening the pool of candidates for recruitment. Part of this effective strategy is to include women researchers in the pool. This practice has the added benefit of providing role models and demonstrating career options for women in agricultural colleges and universities and may improve the recruitment of women students.
As researchers, men and women often have different styles and approaches to problem solving. Moreover, women researchers are often more aware and have a better understanding of the constraints and needs of women farmers. Drawing on both men's and women's knowledge base can modify day-to-day research strategies and add significantly to the quality of research results.
E. CREDIT AND FINANCIAL SERVICES
Women have more limited access to formal rural and agricultural financial services than men. Many factors limit women's access to credit and savings instruments. These include:
* Legal restrictions on credit for women, for example, giving women the status of legal minors, or requiring the husband's signature on loan applications
* Lack of information about credit availability
* Lack of security for loans in the form of land or fixed assets acceptable to lender. Women may lack title to jointly owned land or place savings in jewelry
* Credit tied to crops or activities in which women do not participate, for example cereal production rather than small-scale livestock
* Credit provided through extension services that do not target or otherwise reach women
* Women's greater transaction costs, including distance to lender, complex procedures and constraints on mobility
* Lack of complementary financial and business services; for example, women may also need savings, or require micro enterprise consultancy services
* Limited credit for nonagricultural rural activities
* Lack of small-scale savings services suited to women
Consequently, women often rely on informal sources of credit and savings, including rotating savings and credit associations (ROSCAs) or tontines, money lenders and relatives. These sources can have various disadvantages, such as untimely access, small loan amounts, very high interest charges, and sometimes non-financial obligations. As a result, women's income and productivity are constrained.
There is evidence that women use credit as effectively as men, when it is available. Their repayment rates are generally much higher. To increase women's agricultural production and income, overcoming the constraints to their access to credit and credit financed inputs is, therefore, essential.
Prioritizing the Gender Issues
The situational analysis may generate many gender issues. However it is advisable to prioritize one or two issues for policy action in each sector. The process of prioritization entails three steps:
1. Prioritizing the gender issues
2. For selected issue(s), prioritizing the causes
3. For prioritized cause(s), prioritizing the solutions.
It is the solutions that ultimately are integrated into policy actions.
Step 1: Prioritizing the gender issues
Criteria for prioritization may include the following:
* The effect of issue on achievement of sector objectives (consequences). In other words what contribution does addressing the gender issue makes to achievement of sector objectives, or what are the costs of not addressing the issue?
* The importance of the issue in terms of persons affected. How common is the issue as a national problem?
* Political implications of not addressing the gender issue (e.g effect on achievement of political manifesto)
* Existence of Sector interventions to address the issue. It is advisable to take on issues where no action is currently being taken.
Step 2: Prioritizing Causes
Criteria for prioritizing the causes of gender inequality may include:
The effect of the cause on the gender issues (importance). Relative importance of the cause (basing on information from research/surveys). This looks at the overall impact on the achievement of the sector objectives
* Institutional mandate.. It is advisable to pick out those that can be addressed through public interventions
* Interventions with immediate result
* Severity of causes (comparison of causes). It explores the prevalence of the cause and takes the most common problem.
Linkages between causes of the issue and the issues of sequencing (what should come first?). This entails reviewing the crosscutting nature of the problem and the implications
Step 2: Prioritizing Solutions
Criteria for prioritizing the solutions to the causes of gender inequality may include:
* The effect of the solution on achievement of sector objectives (consequences)
* The importance of the solution in terms of persons to benefit
* Political implications of the solution in terms of being in agreement with manifestos
* Non-existence of Sector interventions and therefore greed need for intervention
* Time frame within which the solution can be effected
* Solution is within public sector's mandate.
(B) Technical feasibility
* Ease in terms of cost of implementation of interventions to address the cause
* Availability of resources (tackle what is feasible given the funds
Outlining an advocacy strategy involves selecting an advocacy issue, identifying the target audiences, setting an advocacy goal, identifying allies and opponents, selecting roles, identifying key messages, and defining advocacy activities.
Selecting an Advocacy issue
Once the needs assessment data are collected, advocates must identify and rank needs. Each need should be assessed by creating a set of criteria. Criteria for ranking may include the following questions:
Key Criteria for selecting on advocacy issue
* Relative severity of the gender inequality or problem, and the implications for the PRSP
* Frequency of the problem
* Potential impact on large number of people Likelihood of success
* Potential to advocate effectively
Using these types of criteria, advocates can select one or two most pressing gender inequality issues as their focus.
Set Advocacy Goal and Objective
Like any other program or project, advocacy initiatives require clear and specific goals and objectives. An advocacy goal is the long-term result (three- five years) that the network is seeking. Participants should envision how the policy environment will be changed as a result their advocacy efforts. Will all people benefit from the PRSP programmes? Will the government draft, approve, and implement national equal opportunities policy using transparent, participatory approach? These examples represent a long-term vision for policy change. Goals are written as already achieved.
Examples of advocacy goals
1. The Ministry of Lands ensures security of land tenure for women by enacting and implementing a Land Act
2. The Ministry of Water and Environment reduces women's time poverty through provision of safe water close to homesteads.
An advocacy objective is a short-term target (one two years) that contributes toward achievement of the long term goal. A sound objective is specific,
measurable, realistic, and time bound (SMART). Often, advocacy campaigns work on two or more objectives simultaneously in their efforts to achieve single a goal. It is important that an advocacy objective identify the specific policy body with the authority to fulfill the objective as well as the policy decision or action that is desired.
Goals and objectives for advocacy strategy should clearly state what will change, who will make that change, and by how much, and by when. When goals and objectives are vague and ambiguous, it is difficult to clearly understand what your advocacy initiative is trying to achieve and hard to maintain focus. This also makes it hard to evaluate your efforts.
An example: Uganda's Plan for Modernization of Agriculture (PMA)
Goal of the strategy
The goal was to transform subsistence agriculture into commercial agriculture. The goal was supported with four specific objectives:
1. increase incomes and improve quality of life of poor subsistence farmers through increased productivity and increased share of marketed production
2. improve household food security through market
3. provide gainful employment through secondary benefits of PMA implementation such as agro-processing factories and services
4. promote sustainable use and management of natural resources
The strategy's priority areas
The PMA has seven priority areas:
1. Agricultural advisory services
2. Research and technology
3. Agro-processing and marketing
4. Rural finance
5. Natural resource use and management
6. Physical infrastructure
7. Agricultural education
The information about the PMA should be the basis of advocacy where one questions activities in light of these objectives and priorities. This should be especially the case when using data showing that the majority of subsistence farmers are actually women.
Selecting Target Audiences
It is absolutely crucial to identify the key decision makers that can improve existing policies, create new one and ensure that policies are implemented. The target audience is the person (s) who can help bring about the policy change you hope to achieve. There are actually two kinds of target audiences: primary and secondary audiences.
Primary audiences are those individuals with the direct authority to make policy changes (ie the government ministers, members of parliament, etc). Informing or persuading the primary audience about a policy issue is the centerpiece of any advocacy strategy. Secondary audiences are those people who can influence the decisions of your primary audiences. Secondary audiences are important because they can provide a way to each the primary audience that may not be available to you directly. Secondary audiences may include interest groups, business leaders, local organizations, or in some cases, specific groups among the general public. Secondary audiences may even include policy makers; for example, one members of parliament, might be willing to advocate a policy position to another. Usually, there are many potential secondary audiences.
Identifying allies and opponents
Having allies is critical for an advocacy initiative. You can increase your impact by collaborating with other individuals or organizations that are interested in the same policy issue. Joint efforts, skills, and resources of several organizations and individuals are more likely to minimize risk, draw attention to key policy issues, and result in successful policy change. An alliance or coalition with other organizations or individuals that pursue the same policy change is normally built upon specific policy issues and goals. Once a policy change has been achieved, a coalition may cease to exist, or may continue to address other joint policy concerns.
Part of defining an advocacy strategy is finding out who may oppose your policy goal. This is just as important as identifying allies. You can be more effective if you understand your opponents' reasoning and why they might feel threatened by your proposed policy change. For example, an initiative that seeks changes in policies related to land ownership might encounter the opposition of landlords. An advocacy strategy may include messages and activities targeted at your opponents. In that case, opponents can become a secondary audience for your advocacy initiative. It is important to assess, whether there is anything you can do to persuade your opponents to change their opinions, or at least neutralize their influence on the policy change you want to pursue.
Selecting an Advocacy Role
There are many different ways to advocate. You can take a very visible, public approach, or you can work behind scenes. For example, you can choose to lead an advocacy initiative and directly inform policy makers on gender mainstreaming needs into macroeconomics and PRSPs, and the gender gaps; or you can choose to support a coalition of local organizations and individuals that advocate for policy changes. You can consider documenting problems for policy makers, or play the role of a capacity builder in advocacy. The role that you select in advocacy will depend on a mix of factors, including resources. Relationships, your experience with the issue, the risk you are prepared to assume, and most importantly, an assessment of how best to exert influence.
Your advocacy role for a specific issue will also depend on target audiences and the relationships you have with these audiences, as well as on the political norms of the country in which you work. Citizens may have access to policy makers with a relatively open political system or they may be barred from politics. A good needs assessment will include information on the distribution of political power and the relationships between key actors in the policy making or implementation process. This information will help you determine, for example, whether advocacy should involve public interest groups. As you think through these issues, consider whether people are aware of their rights and whether there is a need to build more awareness before encouraging groups to articulate and assert their rights.
With each of the above roles, you can adopt a wide variety of approaches, such as confronting, or trying to collaborate with policy makers, or something in between. You a Iso need to decide whether to use "public' approaches like using the media or "private ones such as face-to-face meetings. It is also important to keep in mind that the role you choose will affect the mix of skills needed for your advocacy initiative. When playing an expert informant role, it makes sense to rely heavily on technical staff, with support from communications experts in packaging information for policy makers. When engaging in give and take with diplomats and government officials, negotiating skills become more important. You can acquire these skills through a mix of staff training, technical support, outside recruitment, strategic partnerships, and participation in coalitions.
Identifying Key Messages
An advocacy message is what you want your target audiences to hear. It specifies what policy change you would like them to support. A message tells your target audiences what he or she is being asked to do, why it is worth doing, and the positive impact of such action. Usually, you will only have a limited amount of time to get your message across, so it is best to be sure about what you want to say beforehand. Improvising messages may not only waste time, but also may fail to convince your target audience. Be certain to include the characteristics shown below;
Characteristics of Effective Messages
* Appropriate language to the audience
* Content consistent with format
* Credible messenger
* Tone and language consistent with message (i serious, humorous)
Elements of an Advocacy Message
Review each of the following elements of a message using the following notes:
Essential elements of an Advocacy message
* What you want to achieve
* Why you want to achieve it
* Why others should want to achieve it as well
* How you propose to achieve it
* What specific action do you want the audience to take
Content/Ideas: The content refers to the central idea of the message. What is the main point you want to communicate to you audience? What singe idea do you hope the audience will take away after receiving the message?
Language: Language consists of the words you choose for communicating your message. Is the language appropriate for the target audience? Is the word choice clear, or could various audiences interpret it differently?
Messenger/Source: Source refers to the person or people delivering the message. Is the messenger credible to your target audience? Is it possible to include beneficiaries as spokespersons or messengers? For example, you might invite some women to join you for some high level meeting with a policy maker; you might ask a business woman in the informal sector to talk about access to credit as examples. Advocacy networks can send a powerful and more meaningful message to policymakers by letting the message come from a member of the affected population.
Identifying Channels of Communication
The format and medium is the communication channel you choose for delivering the message. What is the most compelling format to reach your target audience? Different channels are more effective for certain audiences.
Examples of Message Medium
* Face-to face meetings
* Poster, flyers in public places
* Executive briefing packets
* Public rallies
* Public debates
* Fact sheets
* Press release
* Policy forum
* Press conference
* Contests to design posters, slogans
The criteria used when choosing an appropriate medium include the following:
Audience: Some formats are more effective and more appropriate for specific audiences. For example, high level policymakers have little time and many constituents. The message needs to give them the facts and move them to action quickly; also always leaving information for them to read later. Effective media for policymakers include briefing packets, fact sheets, face to face meetings, and policy forums.
Cost: Using mass media such as radio or television can be extremely costly. The advocacy network should seek out only free or reduced cost opportunities if the mass media is the medium of choice.
Risk: When you go public with an advocacy issue, especially a controversial one, risk is always involved. Certain advocacy tactics entail more risk than others. Public debates and live forums highlighting both sides of an issue can turn into "heated' events. Nevertheless, risk can be minimized through careful planning, selection of speakers, rehearsals, involvement of the police and so on.
Visibility: The advocacy network may choose one medium over another if it can make use of a contact or connection to raise the visibility of an event. Perhaps a celebrity or high-ranking public official is willing to pay a site visit to a project or make the opening speech at a meeting. Such an event may provide an excellent opportunity to recruit other decision makers and promote a particular advocacy objective.
Time/ place: When and where will the message be delivered? Are there other political events that you can link up with to draw more attention to the issue? Some advocacy groups connect their advocacy activities with events such as international Women's day. Is there an electoral campaign underway that might make policymakers more receptive than normal to your message?
Defining Advocacy Activities
Advocacy activities are the steps you will take to convey your message to your target audiences. In advocacy, people often refer to certain categories of activities as tactics. Specific advocacy tactics you can consider, such as negotiating in meetings, using the media, working through coalitions, or arranging site visits to make your point to policymakers or others. Advocacy tactics are often chosen based on their level of risk, their cost, and their chances of success in the existing political environment. More information is required here, how is the activity decided on?
Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring is the process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of an advocacy campaign and using the information in network management and decision making. A monitoring plan is a basic and vital management tool that provides advocates and other stakeholders with information that is essential to designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating advocacy activities. To fulfill the monitoring function, the monitoring plan must include systems for collecting data and information on key activities as well as systems for summarizing, analyzing, and using the information to make decisions and take action. Monitoring information can help:
* Demonstrate innovative and effective strategies
* Generate financial and political support for advocacy activities, and
* Market tire advocacy campaign
Evaluation involves a systematic, objective analysis of the network's performance, efficiency, and impact relation to its objectives. It ultimate purpose is to:
* Draw lessons from experience in order to improve the quality of an advocacy campaign
* Improve the design of future campaigns, and
* Demonstrate the network's merits to supporters, policy makers, donors, members, etc
Evaluation is an assessment at a critical period of the advocacy campaign or process for looking at its impact or achievements.
Participant Handout: B.8: Networking and Mobilization Strategies
Networking is a critical facet of mobilization. It means connecting people with the same objective or doing the same kind of work to share information relevant to their work and to support each other. Most people belong to formal or informal groups or networks organized around family life, jobs, religious activities, or recreational interests. People routinely use their personal and professional networks for a variety of reasons, such as looking for a job, raising funds for a school or community centre, campaigning for a politician, or pressing leaders to expand the services available at the local clinic.
Networks are invaluable in policy advocacy because they create structures for organizations and individuals to share ownership of common goals. In the area of PRSPs and new aid modalities, a network membership will include officials from government ministries and departments; development partners, civil society organizations, academia, and the general public.
To be successful advocates, network need to be well organized and operate efficiently. The members have to bring together the resources, time, energy and talents of many different people and organizations and then skillfully take advantage of opportunities to influence the policy process on behalf of their goals and objectives. When they succeed, networks help create a supportive and self-sustaining environment for gender mainstreaming.
Element for Forming and Maintaining Networks Formation Stage
* Establish a clear purpose or mission
* Involve individuals and organizations that share the mission
* Build a commitment to participatory process and collaboration.
Growth stage Organization
* Define clear, specialized roles
* Establish a loose or fluid organizational structure. Vertical, hierarchical structures do not build strong networks
* Compile a skills inventory, including the skills/ expertise of individual members and institutional resources such as fax, internet, meeting space, vehicles, photocopiers, telephones, administrative staff and functions of different team members and so on.
* Prepare to fill expertise gaps by recruiting new members
* Establish a communication system as a telephone tree or list-serve
* Create a member database including name, address, organization mission, type and focus of organization, etc.
* Share leadership functions by rotating the coordinating committee
* Set realistic goals and objectives
* Divide into subgroups/task forces to take on specific tasks according to expertise
* Spread responsibilities across all members to reduce workload and avoid burnout
* Foster trust and collaboration among members
* Keep members motivated by acknowledging their contributions.
* Meetings have to be regular so that the momentum is not lost
* Set specific agenda and circulate it ahead of time. Follow the agenda and keep meetings brief and finish meetings on time. Rotate meeting facilitation role.
* Keep attendance list and record minutes of the meeting for dissemination.
* Use member's facilitation skills to help the network build consensus and resolve conflict.
* Discuss difficult issues openly during meetings.
* Maintain a network notebook to document network activities, decisions, etc.
Mobilization means "encouraging people to come together to support something in an active way "or" to use things/people you have available to achieve something". Mobilizing is usually done through campaigns targeting:
* Affected group
* Influential Groups--opinion leaders, the public, and the media.
* Other interested groups
Examples of messages targeted to specific audiences
* A youth-serving agency advocating for changes in school policy may in relation to the PRSP focus its public education efforts on benefits of these services to development partners because their opinions may influence Ministry of education officials.
* An agency advocating for improvement in the government's support for HIV/AIDS prevention may educate local business about AIDS' negative effect on employees and profits and encourage the business to speak out about a prevention program.
As each audience is identified, there is need to gather information and create messages that will be likely to persuade that group of people. The type of audience will also determine both the message and the strategies used to reach them. For example, an effort to reach out to development partners might involve planning a policy forum. To reach business people, advocates may want to create and distribute a short, factual pamphlet.
Other Ways of Mobilization
* Ask other organizations that are planning events for permission to hand out materials about the campaign and to meet with the public.
* Conduct polls or surveys to gauge community support
* Write articles about the advocacy effort for newsletters
* Organizing plays and role acting
* Using popular culture and music.
* Educational pieces should be short an easy to read
* They should explain the need for gender mainstreaming as well as describe the program's components and its intended effects.
* Educational materials are a good opportunity to provide answers to questions, address concerns, and correct misinformation about gender equality.
Working with the Media
Media coverage is important in an advocacy campaign because it carries information to a much larger audience. While gender inequality is a story that is interesting to the media, it can be conveyed in a negative way.
Success media plans usually follow a four-step process:
Define the role of the media in the advocacy campaign
* Getting public education out through the media enhances outreach efforts and supports advocacy goals and objectives. Build contacts with the media long before they may be needed. Reporters with newspapers, radio and TV provide interviews that can help make the public aware of gender inequality issues and can build support for changes in local and national policies. Consider exactly what kind of media attention will support the advocacy goals as well as how to generate the desired media attention.
* The right message, at the wrong time, can hurt and advocacy campaign. For example, a strong message about women's ownership of land may hurt the effort if its release coincides with a death of a re-known female during a divorce settlement.
* Some advocacy campaigns choose not to work with the media at all. For example, if newspapers, TV, or radio are not widely accessible, outreach to the press may not be worthwhile or cost effective.
* When working with the media think about the audience that will be reached. Newspapers are a popular and inexpensive method of educating the public but purchasing space in a newspaper can be quite expensive. An alternative is to work with a reporter on a story, or ask a newspaper to cover an event. This can provide the organization with free publicity. However, remember that newspapers reach only some people; members of the community who are not literate in the paper's language or who read another paper, or even no paper, may not see the story.
* Defining the audience determines which form of media will be most effective and appropriate.
Choose the message carefully
* The media generates public attention: use this attention to educate the public. Make sure the information is interesting and persuasive. The community is usually interested in poverty. However, be careful that the media does not report stories in ways that make gender inequality seem to be at variance with the poverty concerns.
* To build public support, first consider the characteristics, interests, and opinions of the intended audience; then present the issue in a way that is most likely to generate support and action from the audience. For example, a campaign that is trying to convince government about importance of women's ownership of land, would also like to influence the men to support it.
* Finally, selecting a message should not be confused with misleading the public or creating false expectations about what a program offers. There is no easier way to lose credibility than to be untruthful. Always tell the truth in public education efforts.
Determine what activities to hold and what materials will be needed.
* Decide when, where, and how to work with the media to achieve the maximum effect.
* Determine who in the organization or network is responsible for each component of this effort. An organization or network must determine what materials and staff time are necessary for its media activities. The advocacy campaign should designate one or more spokespeople to work consistently with the press. The spokespeople should build contacts with members of the press long before the campaign begins to request press coverage. Designate a spokesperson to provide reporters with a consistent contact for interviews, information and media follow-up.
Select reporters to provide with short, concise, and factual information on gender inequality issues. Create personal connections by inviting reporters to attend a short, informal event on gender equality and members of the advocacy campaign. Reporters who work on short deadlines value contacts which quickly and promptly give them information for whatever story they are working on. Building a reputation as a reliable expert ensures that when the spokesperson calls the reporter later to suggest a story, he or she will be likely to listen.
* Working in an advocacy network makes it easier to provide materials for the media because each member organization will have publications or other materials that can be sent to reporters.
* Advocates should always have some basic information or fact sheets on gender issues always available to give to reporters in small press packets.
The spokesperson should be articulate and well versed on gender inequality issues. He or she should be able to speak clearly and directly on the issues without using unfamiliar terms. All members of an advocacy campaign should know who the spokesperson is and should immediately refer questions from the press to that person.
Responding to requests for information:
Reporters will not continue to work with people who fail to supply them with needed information in a timely manner. Responding quickly increases the chances of being quoted in the final story. However, some members of the media will not be supportive and may represent sharply diverging beliefs. Advocates should be aware of the bias and/or affiliation of reporters and the media. Focus efforts on reporters and media who are supportive.
Evaluate the press campaign
* Keeping track of how the media covers gender issues provides information to improve media outreach. Setting realistic expectations helps to understand and evaluate press experience. An advocacy campaign cannot control what the media reports. It can only provide reporters with information and a key message that it hopes will appear in the final story.
* Success is measured in how well the campaign influenced the final product. A new story should present the campaign's side of the story fairly, but it may present other viewpoints as well.
* The story should incorporate at least one of the major points raised in the interview and should quote spokespeople accurately. Most importantly, a news story should not only educate the community about the issues but also heighten public support for the solutions.
* Copies of press coverage that mention advocacy efforts, records of materials created for the press, and information on contacts with members of the press, will provide a sense of how well the campaign is working with the media.
Participant Handout B.9: Integrating Gender into the PRS Monitoring and Evaluation
This handout describes three basic steps for integrating gender into the PRS outcome monitoring and impact evaluation systems
Step 1: Integrating a gender dimension into the outcome monitoring system.
Step 2: Integrating a gender dimension into the PRS evaluation strategy and using gender monitoring and impact evaluation results.
Step 3: Building institutional capacity for gender-responsive monitoring and evaluation. Integrating a gender dimension into monitoring and evaluating the PRS contributes to a better understanding of poverty, enables better and more effective targeting of the poor and vulnerable, and maximizes stakeholder participation.
Three design issues for integrating a gender dimension into the PRS M&E systems are:
1. Ensuring that all of the information required for gender analysis is collected. This often requires simply collecting sex-disaggregated data (for example, on education, employment, income, time-use, and consumption), rather than relying on household-level aggregate data. However, in some cases, different information must be collected on one or both sexes.
2. Using gender responsive data collection methods for gathering information that is difficult to obtain through conventional survey instruments. These methods may be required especially for sensitive topics such as domestic violence; where the male household head expects to provide information on all household members; or where women or girls are not able to speak freely.
3. Addressing the issue of available capacity for generating and collecting sex disaggregated or gender relevant data at the level of the national statistical offices and the sectoral agencies, because they may have very limited experience in gender-specific issues relating to data collection and analysis.
Step 1: Integrating a gender dimension into the PRS outcome monitoring system
Monitoring in the PRSP context involves tracking the progress in achieving goals; for example, reductions in infant and maternal deaths, improvements in literacy rates and nutritional status of children, and reduction in the incidence of extreme poverty. Monitoring is carried out continuously, tracking changes in results over time and across groups, in areas such as inclusion and participation; access to and control of assets, resources, and services; and training and education outcomes for both men and women.
The first steps in designing a gender outcome monitoring system are to agree on gender goals and targets and to identify and select the appropriate gender-relevant indicators. The system for monitoring the outcomes for gender is part of a feedback mechanism that provides information to improve program interventions and make them more effective. As such, it should strive to achieve the following:
* Ensure that the gender effectiveness and quality of performance is monitored at each phase of the interventions.
* Provide rapid feedback to the poverty reduction team and the sectoral leaders when problems arise.
* Communicate the gender results of the M&E to project managers and policy makers so that actions can be taken in a timely way to correct problems or leverage what is going well.
Select sex-disaggregated and gender-specific indicators to reflect the poverty reduction action agenda and its outcomes for women and men
A practical and viable approach to monitoring for gender is to select a few critical goals and objectives from the PRS that have strong gender implications based on the gender analysis and priority selection. Assessing the PRS requires that performance be monitored and evaluated at the macroeconomic, sectoral, and project levels to ensure that it reflects the poverty reduction agenda. Consequently, indicators are needed to monitor progress and outcomes at each of these three levels.
In some instances, the same indicators could be used at different levels.
By definition, gender indicators measure the situation of both women and men. Successful gender monitoring requires attention to the following issues in selecting and using indicators:
* Are the gender M&E indicators been identified based on the gender policy objectives?
* Do the gender indicators reflect the poverty reduction action agenda?
* Have gender indicators been developed in a participatory way?
* Is an appropriate mix of quantitative and qualitative indicators being used?
* Are the indicators chosen relevant? Are they disaggregated by sex? (though not always necessary) Are they available?
Data requirements and availability: collect data that reflect the outcomes and impacts of the critical goals on women and men
Data collection methods are determined by the kinds of information and data needed to monitor change and progress. Optimum results are obtained when traditional approaches are complemented by participatory approaches to M&E. Data from several sources should be used to monitor the outcomes and evaluate the impacts of policy interventions. Collecting appropriate data that reflect gender outcomes and impacts involves careful consideration to setting up gender-responsive tools and methods. There are no "gender data collection methods" per so; rather, it is the manner in which they are applied that makes them responsive to gender. All methods of data collection--whether quantitative or qualitative, participatory or not--can be gender responsive if their application:
* takes into account the gender context, that is, the reality of the relations between women and men and their differences in social, economic, and political terms in a particular country or situation;
* disaggregates all data collected for individuals, including, for example, infant mortality rates, land property registration, and bus passengers, noting whether they are male or female; and
* ensures to reach both women and men, separately where necessary, to get their views and assess their priorities and needs.
Constraints on women's participation in public life in many cultures make it difficult to obtain certain kinds of information on women. Consequently, standard data collection and analysis methods sometimes must be complemented by qualitative methods such as PRA and focus groups. Gender responsive data collection tools and methods need to consider the following questions:
* Have gender relevant data been collected? How or what methods were used? From what sources?
* What is the timeframe within which outcomes are expected? (For example, which outcomes can be observed after one year, three years, and so forth?) Similarly, what is the time frame over which changes can be observed for the identified gender indicators?
* Have partnerships to collect and analyze data been established with such entities as local women's organizations, research institutions, and universities?
In many cases, sex-disaggregated data have been collected in surveys and other socioeconomic studies but have not been analyzed. The existence and quality of sex-disaggregated data should be assessed before commissioning special surveys.
In addition to simple sex disaggregation of data, it is also useful to compare the poverty characteristics of different kinds of households, such as female-headed households and polygamous households. Additional questions can be built into future surveys, or some questions can be administered to women as well as to men. In some cases, this simply involves ensuring that the data is broken down by sex and possibly age.
Box 1: Examples of gender responsive indicators from Uganda (a) Health * Proportion of the health budget allocated to reproductive health * Proportion of the health budget allocated to child health programmes * Proportion of the health budget allocated to drugs * Proportion of the training budget allocated for midwives and comprehensive nurses * Proportion of women using public health services benefiting from reproductive health services * Proportion of deliveries in public health facilities * Proportion of children fully immunized * Proportion of women to men patients satisfied with health services (4) * Proportion of reproductive age female population served by midwives and comprehensive nurses * Proportion of women to men out-patients (4) * Maternal mortality rate * Infant mortality rate * Contraceptive prevalence rate
Step 2: Integrating a gender dimension into the design of the PRS evaluation strategy
Evaluation in the PRS context refers mainly to impact evaluation. An impact evaluation assesses the changes in individuals' well being that can be attributed to a particular program or policy. Designing an evaluation strategy involves deciding what policies and programs should be evaluated, defining the expected outcomes and their timeframe, selecting an evaluation design, and obtaining the data needed.
A gender impact evaluation strategy is an important complement to the gender outcome monitoring system. This strategy evaluates by gender the outcomes and impacts of select policies and programs to determine the extent to which improvements in gender outcomes are due to specific public actions. The information obtained through such an evaluation can be valuable in determining whether to expand, modify, or eliminate a policy intervention.
In contrast to monitoring, a strategy for impact evaluation is necessarily selective and assesses outcomes and impacts of strategic relevance to the PRS at key points in time for causal attribution. The impact evaluation strategy involves deciding what to evaluate, choosing an evaluation design and methodology, determining the data requirements and obtaining the data, and analyzing the data and reporting the findings.
Deciding what to evaluate
In deciding what outcomes to evaluate, the gender impact evaluation strategy is guided by these central questions:
* How do we assess the gender impacts or benefits of the PRS policies and interventions?
* How can we be certain these impacts are the result of the program and not other independent changes that might be taking place?
Measuring the impacts of policies and programs
A successful gender impact evaluation will assess the contribution of policy interventions to the success of the PRS gender priorities and goals. This requires analyzing and assessing the data for their gender outcomes and impacts and distributing and using the findings to improve the PRS.
The assessment should be conducted at two levels:
* Separate assessment of each policy and program intervention. This will evaluate the extent to which both women and men were involved in selecting, designing, and implementing each policy and program. The assessment will also evaluate how well the intended objectives were achieved, whether the intervention is sustainable, and whether this was a pilot project and whether it could be replicated on a larger scale.
* Overall assessment of the extent to which the combined PRS interventions contributed to the gender objectives. Include a table listing all of the objectives and rating the level and effectiveness of the PRS contribution to each of these. An analysis could then be presented to explain differences n the degree of contribution to each objective, along with recommendations on policies or programs that might be considered for future stages of the PRS to address other objectives.
Based on these two levels of analysis, an assessment report and recommendations could be prepared for PRS management. This could summarize the overall contribution of the PRS to achieving the national gender development objectives and could include recommendations on the most effective ways to address national gender objectives in the next phases of the PRSP review processes.
Determining data requirements and obtaining data
Using data from several sources to monitor the outcomes and evaluate the impacts of policy interventions is recommended. Triangulation in data sources makes it possible to complement, extend, and validate results from one method with those from another. Focus groups with women and men can be used to explain survey results about the constraints to their access to credit, for example, or their lack of use of mass transport. This is particularly useful in areas where women and men's activities are not usually recorded, such as unpaid household work or subsistence farming.
Analyzing the collected data and obtaining results
Important questions to consider when analyzing the results include:
* How will the gender impact of the PRS interventions be assessed--by whom and at what intervals in time?
* Were the sex disaggregated and other gender-relevant data analyzed? How? By whom? At what intervals of time?
* What do the data reflect?
* Have there been policy or program and project impacts on women and men?
* Are there plans for follow-up on gender-relevant surveys and studies?
Using gender outcome monitoring and impact evaluation results
Gender outcome monitoring and impact evaluation results can be disseminated and used to assess overall progress on gender in poverty reduction efforts and decide on future courses of action. Important questions to consider when distributing the findings include:
* Have the results and findings been disseminated? How? and When?
* Have the gender findings been used to continue or modify existing policy interventions, or to identify new gender responsive policy options?
* Will gender-responsive follow-up surveys and studies be conducted?
Step 3: Building institutional capacity for gender-responsive monitoring and evaluation
Building the gender analysis capacity of relevant agencies
Building the gender analysis capacity of relevant agencies will often be a key determinant of success in achieving gender goals and in monitoring and evaluating progress. It may be advisable to conduct an institutional assessment of agencies responsible for project planning and implementation to determine their capacity for gender analysis and gender M&E. This assessment could include questions such as
* Do the planning and implementing agencies have access to gender specialists, either on their staff or as consultants, to conduct gender M&E?
* Have staff members received gender sensitivity or gender analysis training? Training to conduct gender M&E?
* Is there an incentive structure that would encourage or permit staff to address gender, including conducting gender M&E?
* Have funds been approved for gender related capacity building, including capacity for gender M&E? If so, have these funds been assigned?
* Have guidelines for gender-related activities, including gender M&E, been developed and implemented?
* What other activities have been incorporated for building country capacity for quantitative and qualitative gender evaluation to ensure the efficiency of poverty reduction measures?
* What proportion of the professional staff are women?
* Have targets for recruiting female professionals been implemented?
Promoting gender-balanced participation in monitoring and evaluation
Promoting participation of both women and men in gender M&E is critical because it helps build consensus on what the country gender goals are and on what outcomes to monitor and what impacts to evaluate, and it enhances the sustainability of outcome monitoring and impact evaluation systems. Participatory M&E make it possible to identify problems early in the project implementation cycle, and give communities and implementing agencies the flexibility to respond to changing scenarios that may affect program work, such as sudden floods, severe droughts, or dramatic changes in earnings from crops.
When selecting indicators, tools, and methods to reflect gender outcomes and impacts, consider the following:
* Select a few critical goals, outcomes, and indicators from the PRS for monitoring and evaluating gender outcomes and impacts.
* Ensure that data is collected that reflects the outcomes and impact for critical gender-related goals.
* Ensure that the design and analysis of M&E systems are based on a clearly articulated, gender inclusive PRS model.
* In selecting a particular combination of goals and indicators to assess, consider how the information is to be used and by whom and assess these needs in light of budgetary and time constraints.
* Data collection methods are determined by the kinds of information and data needed to monitor change and progress. Optimum results are obtained when traditional and participatory approaches to M&E are complementary.
* Collecting new data on gender is not always necessary. Assess the availability of gender responsive data before considering the need to collect new data.
* Gender M&E is frequently done by disaggregating the data already being collected and using other available sources of information.
Box 2: Gender Checklist for Monitoring and Evaluation * Have the needs and opportunities for increasing women's and men's productivity and production, access to and control of resources, and access to and control of benefits been identified? What are they? * Have the gender dimensions of policy interventions been identified for their potential impact? Do the policy interventions address women and men's needs? * Were different groups and organizations representing women and men's interests consulted through the process of goal setting? * Do the PRS performance indicators reflect gender concerns? If not, how might they do so? Were or will both women and men be involved in the participatory monitoring of these indicators? * Are measures being taken to build the gender analysis capacity of planning and implementing agencies?
Participants Handout B.10: Preparation of a PRSP Workshop
Planning the training
The trainers should first meet with programme officers at the institution requesting or sponsoring the training. Together, the trainers and programme officers should clarify the purpose of the training and confirm the time committed for the training. During this visit, the trainers and programme officers should:
* Identify the specific areas in macroeconomic frameworks and PRSPs to be emphasized in the advocacy training;
* Agree on steps for follow up to training, with timing and responsibility assigned to the trainers and to the programme officers;
* Identify participants to attend the training. The trainer should have a thorough understanding of the participants' backgrounds, including previous training attended, and training needs.
Preparation for the Trainers
(A) Before the Training
a) Training sessions and accommodation should be on the same site. The venue should have plenty of room for people to gather and move around especially during group work and informal discussions. Since the facilities will contribute considerably to the comfort and interaction of participants and consequent success of the workshop it pays to shop around for the best value/suitability ratio.
b) Visit the hotel to inspect and evaluate the facilities and services that it can provide. The following are essential:
* The lecture room should allow for a horseshoe or semi circular--shaped seating arrangement. This layout encourages good interaction between trainers and participants and creates a logical central space for role play. Ideally the room should be square shaped to avoid any rooms that are narrow rectangles.
* The following equipment list is provided as a guide. 1 overhead projector, 1 screen, public address system, 1 microphone, 1 slide projector, a large board for display of posters, 2 clip boards/flip charts for group presentations, a long table(s) for display of publications and for training materials, like VIPP cards, markers, masking tape etc
* A good sized room for a secretariat should be available for the duration of the workshop where equipment and supplies can also be kept. The secretariat should comprise at least one person, with computer, secretarial skills, available full-time to assist participants and trainers.
* Comfortable recreation areas where participants can relax together, communicate and share a drink. The contacts made and information shared during recreation time are an important part of the workshop.
2. Preparation of materials for participants
a) After notification of acceptance, prepare and send the workshop programme to the participants.
b) Print and prepare the session and trainer modules in good time. Divide the session notes into separate sets for each day, and place them in good quality, hard binders. Check each file for quality ensuring that all the modules are correctly labeled and that nothing is missing.
c) There should be clear divisions of the session's materials for participants so that they can easily find their way around the materials, coloured dividers can be used. Each module should be labeled. Have extra copies of the session modules for trainers.
d) Each trainer should get a copy of the trainer's module for his or her session, including overheads and any background material.
e) Session guides are given to participants at the start of the workshop.
f) In consultation with the programme officers, prepare a certificate of attendance to be signed by the local organizers, with logos of the institutions.
g) Provide details of the stationery and other supplies to be procured by the programme officer.
3. Preparation by Facilitator(s)
1. Define the objectives of the session with leaders or representatives of the organisation(s) that will participate in it. This is especially important when the organization has requested that the session take place. A facilitator should be clear about how this particular workshop fits within the organization's Overall structure and programmatic activities. S/he should try to ensure that it is consistent with the organization's stated mission and objectives.
2. Gauge the participants' true level of commitment to and involvement in the group's training in gender mainstreaming into macroeconomics and PRSPs.
3. Bear in mind the characteristics of the people who are going to participate; their ages, gender, knowledge and experience related to the issue, level of formal schooling and responsibilities within the sector institutions.
4. Ensure the logical sequencing of the content to be presented and select training techniques that will fulfill the specific learning objectives of the event.
5. Be familiar with all the materials that will be used during the session, ensuring their appropriateness for the particular group and issue under discussion. All the equipment such as microphone, projectors, and computers should be tested in advance and on site the day before training is to commence. Experience has shown that there may be last minute technical problems with equipment.
6. Maintain good communication and coordination within the team of facilitators, agreeing in advance on each person's role and responsibilities.
(B) During the Training
1. Administrative preparations
* The secretariat must be prepared, equipped and fully functional at least one day before the workshop.
* The room layout to accommodate the expected participants should be checked as well.
* Workshop evaluations must be done at the end of each session.
* Always prepare materials needed a day before the session and review the events for the next day with the secretariat
* Circulate an address list of participants/ trainers and ask for any corrections to be made directly on the list. Provide an amended copy of the list to all participants /trainers before their departure. Note that the list of participants should state whether they are male or female to monitor and report on gender balance.
2. Delivering the Training
1. Make good use of the physical space available.
2. Allow participants the opportunity to express their hopes and fears for the session so that they feel as though their opinions are taken into account from the beginning. Go over the fears and discuss with participants how they could be averted so that their fears are allayed.
3. Maintain fluid communication among members of the facilitation team, and model a participatory and democratic work style characterized by mutual respect.
4. Use a variety of presentation techniques such as cards, flipchart, transparencies, the blackboard and power point presentation to convey information and help participants follow a sequence of topics.
5. At the end of each step in the methodology, summarize it and highlight the main points of the discussion in order to clearly mark the end of one step and the beginning of another.
6. Make visual contact with all of the people in the group of participants. Do not direct your attention at only one person. When participants speak, they should speak to the entire group and not just to the facilitator. Avoid power spots where few participants are active while others look on.
7. Be creative and use appropriate new techniques to communicate with the participants. Know when to switch to a different technique (for example, after a long plenary, a serious discussion, a sad or emotional moment, or a break or meal). Varying the techniques helps keep participants energized and alert. Do not, however, go overboard and allow the techniques to distract from the content being presented or to curtail debate among the group participants on contentious issues.
8. Recognize and deal with the conflicts and disagreements that arise during the session. It is counterproductive to continue to present content when it is obvious that conflict is brewing or that feelings are not being expressed.
9. Address comments or statements made by any participant that are sexist, homophobic, or otherwise offensive, by questioning underlying behaviors or attitudes instead of attacking the person. The facilitator should make every effort to create a safe and congenial environment in which all participants feel respected.
10. Maintain a high level of motivation within the group throughout the session. It is important to create a positive and friendly environment by using techniques that allow the participants to get acquainted with one another.
Key mechanisms for gender mainstreaming into new aid modalities
1. Design and agree on gender performance indicators to assess the results, and use for mutual accountability
2. Include gender donor conditionalties under the poverty reduction support credit (3) (PRSC) and the poverty reduction growth facility (PRGF) as prior actions for funding
3. Create basket funding under donors for gender specific programs as a harmonization intervention
4. Support strengthening of national gender machineries as well as women's organization to actively participate in the "owned" national planning and budgeting processes
(1) These crops now double as cash and food crops
(3) The PRSC is the funding mechanism for the World Bank for PRSPs, while the PRGF is for the International Monetary Fund
(4) This indicator is broad and may be disaggregated into appropriate smaller units. For example satifaction with availabilty of drugs, health staff performance, use of medical equipment, laboratory services etc.
(5) This is an indicator of use of health services. Women are more prone to ill health because of the gender roles and responsibilities that they have, coupled with very heavy work load. In normal circumstances women should use the OPD facilities more than the men, for both themselves and those under their care.
Table 1: Indicators of the dimensions of poverty and their measurement Opportunities * Time budgets and * Household surveys, time poverty focus groups and direct observation * Employment and labour force * Household and labour participation market surveys, household surveys, * Capital and assets records of credit, and finance Institutions Capabilities * Demographic * Household and health indicators surveys, clinic (infant mortality, records, life expectancy and anthropometric so forth studies, national and sectoral * Education statistical records * Health and nutrition * Household surveys, clinic records * Qualitative participants indicators of observations, focus capabilities groups (culture, freedom and autonomy) * Focus groups, participant observation, national quality of life surveys, Security Economic vulnerability * Household surveys, * Exposure to violence focus groups, * Social capital Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), techniques such as timelines and periods of stress, diaries * Focus groups, participant observations, case studies * Household surveys, interhousehold transfer studies Empowerment * Political * Voting records, key empowerment informants, participants * Control over observation household resources * Household surveys, case studies, participant observation, key informants focus groups Table 2: Using Poverty Diagnostics to Identify Gender--Responsive Policy, Program and Project Options for the Poverty Reduction Strategy Principal sectoral Key gender dimensions from components poverty analysis Opportunities: improving the productive assets of the poor * Productive * Lack of collateral sectors, * Property ownership expecially * Access to paid labor agriculture and * Control over product (income) rural * Diffect transport tasks of men and women development (especially around domestic tasks) and * Financial services access to means of transport * Labor (paid and * Domestic tasks and time constraints unpaid (tradeoffs and externalities) employment; wage * Gender imbalance in resource allocation descrimination) decisionmaking * Infrastrucure * Low priority given to water and sanitation (water and investments and to time-saving sanitation), investments more generally transport (IMT), domestic energy, communications) Capabilities: strengthening the human capital assets of the poor * Education * Bias in access to social services * Training and skill * Different health needs and priorities development * Gender stereotyping in curriculum and in * Health socialization * Nutrition * Opportunity cost, including domestic tasks and time constraints (tradeoffs and externalities) * Sociocultural constraints (attitudes and beliefs) Security: economic, social and natural capital assets of the poor * Conflict * Household relations (decision-making), * Law (including structure and composition of households) property rights * Domestic tasks and time constraints * Isolation * "Pooling" and "separate spheres" * Environment: * Gender effects of conflict insecurity * Physical and cultural isolation and resulting from marginalization environmental * Impact of environment degradation and factors precarious access to water (deforestation, rainfall, water, See also the discussion of economic soil fertility) opportunity (above). See also the disussion of economic opportunity (above) Empowerment: inclusion in decision making at household, community and national levels * National * Ambiguity in legal status and right policy-making * Barriers to participation * Community development Principal sectoral Key policy responses and priority actions components Opportunities: improving the productive assets of the poor * Productive * Proactively enhance access of poor women sectors, and men to productive assets such as expecially land, financial services, inputs, agriculture and information and other economic services rural * In agricuture, prioritize the food development ("nontraded") sector with focus on food * Financial services security at the household level (greater * Labor (paid and balance with export promotion/ unpaid diversification efforts) employment; wage * Refocus agricultural research and descrimination) extension, as well as other services to * Infrastrucure meet the different and specific needs of (water and male and female farmers sanitation), * Facilitate the access of poor women and transport (IMT), men to production and other technology domestic energy, * Gender-inclusive legal and regulatory communications) reform with a focus on enhancing women's land security and property rights * Prioritize and sustain concurrent investment in the household economy through targeted investments to reduce the time burden of domestic work, minimize tradeoffs and build on externalities with the market economy: --Water supply and sanitation --Labor-saving technology --Domestic energy --IMT Capabilities: strengthening the human capital assets of the poor * Education * Prioritize and sustain investment in basic * Training and skill educational services focused on development increasing enrollment and retention of * Health girls. * Nutrition * Prioritize and sustain investment in basic health services, with focus on accessessible and appropriate reproductive health care. * Intergrate gender-reponsive HIV/AIDS prevention and community-level coping measures. * Prioritize and sustain concurrent investment in the household economy through targeted investments to reduce the time burden of domestic work, minimize tradeoffs and build on externalities wit the market economy: --Water supply and sanitation --Labor-saving technology --Domestic energy --IMT Security: economic, social and natural capital assets of the poor * Conflict * Gender wareness raising and capacity * Law (including building of policymakers and property rights implementers * Isolation * Gender-inclusive reform of laws and * Environment: regulatory frameworks, especially as insecurity concerns access to and control of resulting from financial services and property environmental * Gender inclusion in land allocation, factors ownership and use (deforestation, * Prioritize and sustain concurrent rainfall, water, investment in the household economy as soil fertility) indicated above. See also the See also the discussions of economic disussion of opportunity (above). economic opportunity (above) Empowerment: inclusion in decision making at household, community and national levels * National * Political leadership and commitment to policy-making gender equality * Community * Implement "gender budget intiatives" along development the lines of the South Africa and Tanzania models. * Capacity building: focus on literacy and skills developmment of community-based organizations. Table 2.5: Total investments allocated in the national plan for women empowerment SECTOR TOTAL INVESTMENTS ALLOCATED IN THE NATIONAL PLAN (L.E. MILLION) Health 322.1 Education 313.1 Poverty eradication & economic empowerment 120.6 Environment 102 Social care 63.7 Tourism 6 Information Technology 5.8 Culture & Awareness 2.6 Source: Socio-economic development plan (2007/2008-2011/2012) The following are among the major projects adopted in the national plan: Education * Establishing training centres for female teachers. * Building Secondary, industrial and agricultural schools as well as one class schools. * Modernizing industrial schools. Health * Establishing moving clinics for reproductive health care as well as for addiction treatment * Establishing departments for treating non working women in the health insurance hospitals. * Establishing of Women Health centres. * Providing the necessary equipments to discover diseases such as breast and cervical cancer. Social care * Women clubs and aged care houses * Building nurseries and care houses for the mentally handicapped * Building comprehensive markets to serve the female headed households. Human Developments * Training centres in different & employment specializations for women * Training centres for developing rural women * Training women to start small business * Providing small loans to poor women to start small business * Broadening and enlarging the productive families unit Environment * Providing necessary equipments to get rid of the dangerous garbage * Building factories to recycle solid and agricultural garbage * Building manufacturing units using the environmental resources Source: Socio-economic development plan (2007/2008-2011/2012) Table 4.2: Gender responsive indicators in the EDPRS Growth and poverty --Poverty incidence among people reduction living in female-headed households (%) --Employment in agriculture (% reporting as main occupation) Improve Reduction in annual wood environmental consumption (million cubic metres) management Improve health --Infant mortality (deaths per 1,000 status and reduce live births) slow down --Maternal mortality (deaths per population growth 100,000 live births) --Women aged 15-45 using modern contraceptive techniques (%) --Incidence of HIV among 15-24 year olds (%) --Total Fertility Rate (children per woman) Increase access to Access to safe drinking water (% of safe drinking water population) and sanitation Source: EDPRS Final Draft: MINECOFIN, September 2007. Table 1: Information Needed for Gender in Agrarian Reform, Land Tenure Information needs Sources Actions/Implications What are the Studies and surveys Raise the issue with differences M&E componets government. between men and Administrative Conduct a study to women heads of records of reforms document households in or settlement situation. their: schemes Include steps to National Statistical increase equity in * Actual ownership Office. projects. of land? Focus groups. * Ownership rights? Discussions with * Access to land for women's groups and usufruct? NGOs * Allocation of land? * Security of tenure? * Inheritance laws or customs? In the agarian Determine if reform, land Administrative discrepancies can tenure and records studies be rectified. registration and surveys Dialogue with scheme, what is National statistical government to percent of total office amend relevant plots (holdings) Discussions with legistlation allocated to: staff Publicize women's Discussions with legal rights. * To men? focus groups Modify NGOs to * To women? assist women in claiming their Does this reflect legal rights. the percentage of Modify selection men and women in criteria for next the farming phase and/or community? future schemes. * As laborers befor reform? * Using plots before reorganization? * Applying for plots? Explain why not Did the selection criteria discriminate against women? If so, how were the criteria biased? Table 2: Information Needed for Agricultural Education and Training Projects Actions or Information Possible Sources Implications Gender differences World Development Adapt the type of in educational Report (World Bank communication levels Series) tables, Used in project Literacy of rural Population and activities and adults Human Resources Collaborate with Primary school Division education Sector enrollment division on adult Secondary school literacy enrollment Enrollment in Training department Consider actions to agricultural of the ministry of increase female education by Agriculture; enrollment or gender Percentage training vonsider of adult institutions at in-service enrollment in: all level agricultural training of rural * Certificate level agents from other * Diploma level ministries or * Graduate level disciplines. Coverage of gender Review curricula of Take actions to issues in training training improve he Are gender issues institutions. coverage of gender covered in: Discuss with staff issues in and trainers extensions and * Pre-and in-service Attend training training training? session departments. * Routine training sessions? * Vocational training? * Civil service regulations? * Are extension agents in gender sensitive communication methods. Are extension agents trained in how to involve men and women farmers in the diagnostic process? Table 3: Information Needed for Agricultural Extension Actions or information Possible Sources Implications Gender roles in farming systems: current roles and trends (See sections A on gender roles in Chapter 1) Gender differences M&E data, studies, If there are gender in participation in or surveys; annual differences, for extension Assess reports of extension example, is women's gender differences offices at various participation is low in participation in levels. compared to men's or extension activities compared to their by estimating one or farming activities, more of the ask the next set of following: questions to ascertain why and * Women as identify actions to percentage of increase women's participants in participation. extension activities (percent) * Percentage of all farmers in contact with extension services * Women farmers (percentage); men farmers (percentage) * Women household heads (percentage); men household heads (percentage) If possible break If no data exist, If no data are these participation try to get an available, establish percentages down by indication from mechanisms to gender for: discussions with collect extension staff. gender-disaggregated * Different M&E data or mount extension informal survey. subjects (crops, livestock and other activities) * Different extension methods (individual meetings, group meetings, visit to farmers, agricultural fairs, research planning and so on) Gender differences Discuss with focus Identify recruitment in staffing groups and extension and training needs staff, review the and alternative Are there list of in-service solutions (such as restrictions on courses and use of other rural men agents meeting curricula from agents or with women farmers training department para-extension on one-to-one and agricultural agents.) basis? How does college this affect group meetings? Have men agents been trained in appropriate methods of approaching the community and interacting with women in this setting? Have they been trained in suitable extension/ communication methodologies? Evaluating the Judge based on Select componets or quality of extension participation data actions that will Do any of the from M&E; review help solve the following affect messages and media problems identified. outcomes differently output; discuss with by gender? focus groups and extension staff. * Criteria used to select contact farmers * Criteria for membership of groups or coopertaives receiving extensions * Media used in extensions * Location and timing of activities * Type of extension activities (one-day, residential Open meetings with individual farmers and so on) * Content/subject covered * Relevance of the messages * Other criteria Does the work Discuss with men and Using the expressed/ program of men and women extension identified needs of women agents differ: staff, review work rural men and women programs. for extension, * In the subjects decide on the best covered? combination of men * By the sex of and women their farmers agricultural agents, clients? other rural agents * Methods of and para-extension extension? agents. * Working conditions? * Resources available? Do women agents work more on nutrition and home economics than on agriculture? Table 4: Information Needed for Agricultural Research Projects Actions or Information Possible Sources Implications Setting the Agenda What are the roles Studies and surveys, If not known, of men and women in discussions, focus collect information crop and livestock groups and extension or conduct a study. production or other staff. Review activities that are research agenda and If research agenda the object of the prioritization neglects home- project? process. consumed or used products or food Does the research security or if it is program include the biased toward "male" following to the commodities or extent they are activities, review important in the prioritization economy? criteria and consider adjusting * Commodities the agenda. produced mainly by women * Women's post-harvest and value adding activities * Women's main constraints and problems * Income-generating activities * "Invisible" home-consumed produce Do research teams Judge after If research teams do (particularly those discussing with not understand for adaptive focus groups and gender roles in the research) understand research and farming systems, the farming systems extension staff. consider conducting of men and women workshops on gender farmers? roles in agriculture. Are men and women Review feedback individually mechanism. Start/increase responsible for participatory buying tools, seeds, discussion with men fertilizers and so and women farmers. on for the activities they Establish feedback control? mechanisms for needs of men and women farmers. Selection of Topics Are men and women Discuss with focus If men and women farmers consulted groups, Review farmers tend to have about their specific research reports and different resource needs and ideas? publications. bases, economic and Discuss with technical analysis Do women participate research and tension must be based on in on-farm trials, staff. these differences. field days on Feed information research and back to other dissemination support services so activities to the they can target extent that they their services carry out the appropriately. activity themselves? Do researchers take into account the economic and technical feasibility of the proposed solutions (eg input costs, in-put supply, credit availability and labour/time availability? Evaluation Do evaluation Review evaluation criteria for new process products reflect not only field but also post harvest characteristics such as perishability, ease of transformation, nutritional value and taste? Are both men's and women's views sought inevaluating the proposed technologies (e.g. varieties, agroforestly, techniques and livetock feeding?) Staff Quality and Diversity Does the rearch Administrative data If low, determine staff include both reasons and open men and women? dialogue with borrower to determine need for women staff and set targets for recruitment. Table 5: Information Needed for Credit and Financial Services Projects Actions or Information Possible Sources Implications Access to Credit Preferably from Based on the records of financial information What are the present institutions or obtained, determine gender differences studies and surveys. target group and in access to credit I data not loan characteristics in the formal available, from an (size, duration and sector: impression of the use) determine situation for measures to * From various discussions with alleviate sources? focus groups and gender-specific * In the size of the ministry staff. barriers to access. loan? * In the duration of As above Determine savings the loan? needs as above. * In repayment Discussion groups, rates? extension staff and Build on what is in financial place informal As far as possible, institutions. sector to increase identify reasons for access to credit and differences. What Discussion with to resuce deposit services are focus groups, constraints to available to men and extension staff, women's women: NGOs or other participation in agencies supplying formal credit * In different credit in the schemes. institutions? project area and * By size of financial Identify deposits? institutions. modifications or new * By durations of eligibility criteria deposit? Discussions with that would allow * By interest rates? focus groups and greater or more extentions staff, equal access to Traditional and project M&E units credit without informal financial decreasing repayment structures What Discussion with rates: informal systems of focus groups, credit and savings extension staff, Widen access by: can be tapped to NGOs or other bring women into agencies supplying * Nontraditional financial sector? credit in the collateral project area and * Small loans Do savings and financial * Allowing credit groups or institutions. nonmembers mechanism exist * Allowing different (e.g. credit unit in house-hold ministry as Members intermediary to formal financial Decide if the credit institutions) that should be available can be used as the for a wider range of basis of a credit activities. program? Ensure that men and Eligibility Criteria women are both elegible for credit Do the elegibility under the project. (commodity, collateral, size of Examine gender loan, social differences in factors, membership access, eligibility of cooperatives and and number of loans. so on) result in men and women having Identify actions to unequal access to make access more credit? equal. Tied Credit If credit component is or will be tied to specific project activities: * What activities is it tied to? * Do both men and women carry out these activities? * Do credit programs for agricultural and non-agricultural activities exist in the areas? * Is this activity the main credit need of women? Untied Credit If credit componet is not (or will not be) to specific project activities: * Which agricultural or rural activities are most limited by the lack of men's or women's access to credit