Appendix 2: sample terms of reference for the needs assessment and action plan studies.This sample terms of reference Terms of reference allude to a mutual agreement under which a command, element, or unit exercises authority or undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another command, element, or unit. Also called TORs. (TOR (The Onion Router) The largest implementation of onion routing, which is a method for transmitting data anonymously over the Internet. Run by volunteers, there are approximately a thousand Tor proxy servers on the Internet that provide the routing paths. ) was used to conduct the needs assessment and action plan studies. For future studies, the TOR should be tailored to the unique needs of the country and to the unique demands of local context. The general principles could remain the same.
The objective of the study is to
* assess supply and demand constraints and capacity influencing the production and diffusion of appropriate technologies in Rwanda;
* develop an action plan for boosting the capacity of actors involved in technology development and distribution, and build targeted incentives for those actors; and
* increase the adoption of appropriate technologies by households, farms, businesses, youth, and women--for income generation and poverty reduction.
The needs assessment and action plan study will focus on:
* energy technologies;
* sanitation and waste management technologies;
* low-cost housing technologies;
* water supply, rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rain from roofs or from a surface catchment for future use. The water is generally stored in rainwater tanks or directed into mechanisms which recharge groundwater. , and storage technologies;
* agriculture technologies and food-processing tools; and
* entrepreneurial tools and technologies
2. SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
1. A team of one international and two national consultants will conduct a 30-day study in Rwanda.
2. The study should use the body of knowledge existing on appropriate technologies in Rwanda.
3. The study should harmonize and liaise with related initiatives and projects.
4. The study should evaluate the performance and mutual interaction of actors involved in the development and transfer of technology:
** Demand-side actors
* Technology users (households, firms, farms, youth, women, schools, and so forth)
** Intermediary actors
* Education and training institutions (technical and vocational education and training [TVET TVET Technical and Vocational Education and Training ], universities, engineering colleges, and so forth)
* Technology suppliers and distributors (small and medium-size enterprises, nongovernmental organizations Transnational organizations of private citizens that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. Nongovernmental organizations may be professional associations, foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in , and so forth)
* Microlending mi·cro·lend·ing
See microcredit. institutions offering credits to technology buyers
** Supply-side actors
* Public institutions for technology development and transfer (the Centre for Innovation and Technology Transfer [CITT CITT Canadian International Trade Tribunal
CITT Citizens’ Independent Transportation Trust
CITT Canadian Institute for Theatre Technology (Canadian equivalent of USITT)
CITT Canadian Institute of Traffic and Transportation ], the Institute for Scientific Research and Technology [IRST IRST Istituto per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica (Centre for Scientific and Technological Research, Istituto Trentino di Cultura, Trento, Italia)
IRST infrared search and track (US DoD) ], and so forth)
* Private firms importing/producing and selling technology
3. EXPECTED TASKS
Task 1: Conduct a baseline study of existing capacity and constraints.
The baseline assessment should help answer the following questions about the development and diffusion of appropriate technologies:
* What is the demand and need for appropriate technologies in the country?
* How do demand-side factors (purchasing power Purchasing Power
1. The value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy. Purchasing power is important because, all else being equal, inflation decreases the amount of goods or services you'd be able to purchase.
2. , access to information, perceived benefits of technology, and so forth) and supply-side factors (capacity in technology agencies and so forth) influence technology adoption?
* How effective is the interaction between technology actors?
* What are the strengths and weaknesses of public and private technology/research agencies?
* What incentives exist for developing and diffusing appropriate technologies?
* How well are the training and education institutions meeting the needs of technology actors?
Task 2: Develop a vision and an achievable set of short- and long-term goals and objectives.
Using the baseline assessment results, what feasible goals and objectives can the country aim for in the next one to five years?
Task 3: Prepare a detailed action plan.
The action plan should list detailed and practical action steps for
* boosting the capacity of technology actors,
* improving interaction between technology actors,
* removing constraints in technology adoption,
* building targeted incentives for technology development and diffusion, and
* using education and training for capacity building at all stages of technology flow.
It should provide a timeline and costs associated with the action items.
4. REQUIRED OUTPUT
The final output is a detailed report fulfilling the expected outcomes (baseline study and needs assessment, strategic program, action plan). The intermediate outputs include the following:
* a proposed methodology and milestones for the study;
* a draft report, with consolidated results of fieldwork and tentative action proposals;
* the presentation of draft report at a stakeholders' meeting in Rwanda; and
* a final report incorporating comments.
5. EXPECTED QUALIFICATIONS
The candidate should have demonstrated success in designing and implementing technology diffusion strategies in developing countries, especially in Africa. An advanced degree in engineering, technology management, rural development, public policy, or a related field is desired; relevant experience is mandatory. Experience in handling multilateral, multicultural projects is an advantage. Knowledge of English and French is desired.