Analyzing of regression model of environmental health quality of residential in slum areas.Introduction
Any city has a population peak and the target in urban planning urban planning: see city planning.
Programs pursued as a means of improving the urban environment and achieving certain social and economic objectives. is to meet the needs of that population. Development of city population has gotten proportional order in developed countries. But this case is not organized well in the developing world because of irregular emigration emigration: see immigration; migration. (1).
After the Second World War, rapid and uncoordinated un·co·or·di·nat·ed
1. Lacking physical or mental coordination.
2. Lacking planning, method, or organization.
un trend of urbanization has been one of the most important social problems of the developing countries. Such inefficient urbanization process and consequently creation and development of suburban living places as a result of excessive inter emigrations from village to city to form new types of living (e.g. residing in huts, shanty shanty, in music: see chantey. dweller, tins and etc.) which caused various socioeconomic and environmental problems (2). Article 25 - part 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948. Drafted by a committee chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, it was adopted without dissent but with eight abstentions. defines health right as it follows:
Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services social services
welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs
social services npl → servicios mpl sociales , and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood Widowhood
adopted Huck Finn and took care of him. [Am. Lit.: Mark Twain Huckleberry Finn]
. “a lone lorn creetur,” the Pegotty’s house-keeper. [Br. Lit. , old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. this case and review of theoretical texts and surveys in the health care field, emphasis of all researchers is on "organic" hypothesis as a suitable and sufficient approach in evaluation of environment health quality in residential places. A qualified living site is suggestion of welfare feeling of living level and satisfactory of settler's life quality through physical- social facilities (3). So, quality of environment sanitary, result from resultant of quality of components of a determined area. These components include: nature, open space, foundation and artificial environments that each has its specifications and quality (4). There are different approaches to study the qualities of living environment each of which originates from a specific scientific discipline such as: anthropology, architecture, economy, environmental design, geography, psychology, sociology, and environment health engineering (5). According to the studies in the field of urban pathology to identify the weakness of processes of growth and urban development, it is widely agreed that the health condition of living areas is a separate product of this part (6). Hence, finding remedy to utilize effective solutions for decreasing harmful effects of development of such environments has been one of the most important challenges to the urban managers and city programmers worldwide (especially in the developing countries) (7,8). The ability to comprehensively evaluate such settlements can help decision makers to come up with quality improvement plans for the environmental health of slum slum
Densely populated area of substandard housing, usually in a city, characterized by unsanitary conditions and social disorganization. Rapid industrialization in 19th-century Europe was accompanied by rapid population growth and the concentration of working-class people areas (9). But not much is known about the effectiveness of such plans, hence this study tries to tackle this gap looking at the three slum areas of the city of Sari, Iran Sari /Sārī/ (Mazanderani: ساری,Persian: ساری) is the provincial capital of Mazandaran, located in the north of Iran, between the northern slopes of the Alborz Mountains and , and measuring the environmental health quality of those places. Moreover, their environmental health quality has been determined according to the priority of unfair environmental component.
This study was carried out using Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender. (HMR HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations
HMR Human Resources
HMR Home Meal Replacement
HMR Hamrun (postal locality, Malta)
HMR Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont (Montréal, Canada) ) method. This type of analysis is an analytical technique for investigation and analysis of reciprocal connection between one criterion having dependent criteria and two or more antecedents with independent criteria. Also, The Multiple Regression Analysis was applied for measuring the deviation of the independent variable. Two special specifications of Multiple Regression Analysis include estimation of "regression weights" and measuring the "goodness of fit Goodness of fit means how well a statistical model fits a set of observations. Measures of goodness of fit typically summarize the discrepancy between observed values and the values expected under the model in question. Such measures can be used in statistical hypothesis testing, e. model" for analysis of quality. In this survey, the independent variables were given a weightage. So, their proportional share was estimated in independent variable. The assigning if weightage to each independent variable was done according to its effect on the dependent variable. These numerical values are called "regression weights" or coefficients. After standardizing these weights, coefficients and determination of [beta] coefficient and ranks of the dependent variables were compared with each other (10). The experimental model of the measuring of the residential places quality namely," value tree" has hierarchical structure See hierarchical. that criteria, sub- criteria and effective criteria in process of measuring of the quality of the environmental health maintain different levels of the model (11). Also, amount of environment health quality which is proposed at minimum standard level is evaluated in two aspects of the environmental health quality of residential units and the environmental health quality. This model is described in four levels. In identifying the criteria/sub-criteria of the environmental health quality, different methods such as review of the related text/literature, primary identification of the studied area and obtaining the viewpoints of experts were used. Also, for arranging and developing the value tree of the environmental health, the "top to down" experimental approach was used. In this model, Quality of environmental health of residential places is placed at the first level of the tree. The second level is analyzed in two criteria of the environmental health quality of residential area and units. The third level is analyzed in six sub criteria, namely health of buildings and spaces, social cooperation and ties and place dependency, accessibility, physical-social facility, security, environment health variables and criteria of environmental health quality of the residential units analyzed in three sub criteria, maintains cost, outdoor facility and dwelling size and facility analyzed. Finally, the forth level of the model is divided into more sub- criteria of the third level that determined through the direct questionnaire method. Gathering of data at the level of 660 families of the three areas of sari (namely, Nowbonyad alley, Qaffari alley, and Tork mahaleh) was done in census method. For analysis of the data of residential places quality, the one-sample T-test and for comparing of the average score of the quality, the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test In statistics, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test (often called the K-S test) is used to determine whether two underlying one-dimensional probability distributions differ, or whether an underlying probability distribution differs from a hypothesized distribution, in either , and for ranking of criteria and sub-criteria of the quality of the settler's health, the multivariables regression analysis method were used.
According to the quantity results of the questionnaire and one- sample T- test , average of the quality of environmental health of dwellings got 1<1.92<5 that there was a significant relation among four levels of the model with quality variable (p < 0.03) (Figure 1).
To compare the mean score of the three places, the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test was used. Data distribution in mentioned groups was normal (P<0.04). It was observed that the quality in Tork mahaleh was lower than the other two slum places. Therefore, quality in second level (1<1.92<5) and third level (1<2.25<5) evaluated weak (Table1).
For ranking of criteria and sub criteria's of the components of environmental health quality of residential areas, the Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis method was used. In this method, to determine the quality of effective variables (criteria and component of quality) that influence the residential health criteria, "[beta] "quality" at the second level was [beta]= 0.3 and [beta]= 0.247, respectively. Also, among sub criteria's of environmental health quality, in mentioned places, the sub-criteria of "accessibility" with [beta] = 0.186 and among sub criteria's of environment quality of residential area, "size and outdoor facilities of residential unit" with [beta]= 0.265 had minimal importance (Table 2).
As the study result indicated, the environmental health quality of residential places in the three studied region is about weak range (1<2.03<5). Also in the second level, the environmental heath quality of residential units is lower (1<1.9<5) than the health quality of the residential area's environment (1<1.94<5). As for the subcriteria belonging to the two criteria of residential unit and residential area's health quality, the highest quality levels are observed for access to the facilities (1<2.72<5) and physical- social facilities (1<2.54<5); whereas the lowest quality levels are observed for the size and indoor facilities of residential units (1<1.03<5) and security and safety (1<1.71<5). Also the ranking of components happening in different levels implies the higher significance of residential unit's environment health quality criterion (P=0.360) in comparison with environmental health quality of residential area ([beta]=0.247). As for the sub criteria related to these two criteria, Size and outdoor facilities of residential unit with [beta]= 0.262 and Size and indoor facilities of residential unit with [beta]=0.224 are the highest ones; whereas the security and safety ([beta]=0.154) and social ties and place dependency with [beta]= 0.158 are the least significant ones.
So the size and indoor facilities of residential units and maintenance cost including: repairs, reconstruction, water, electricity & gas on environmental health quality residential units & also security & safety and social cooperation & place dependency on environmental health quality residential area are the most important components requiring serious intervention. The weak level of quality in all criteria & sub- criteria is significant and remarkable, therefore, the major actions to improve and promote the quality is necessary. As a result, planning to improve environmental conditions in a stable and holistic manner to increase health, security, hope, faith, and human generosity in the informal dwellings and to prevent the informal extension of such residential areas in future is of utmost importance; not to mention the importance of preparation for constructing suitable urban residences as well as providing conditions to benefit from urban advantages in line with an enriched urban culture to accommodate such dwellings along with their multilateral participation in making decisions & local actions.
Acknowledgment acknowledgment, in law, formal declaration or admission by a person who executed an instrument (e.g., a will or a deed) that the instrument is his. The acknowledgment is made before a court, a notary public, or any other authorized person. : This study was supported by Vice-Chancellor for research; Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Mazandarn University of Medical Sciences (MazUMS) is a medical university in Sari, Mazandarn Province, Iran.
This university includes 5 faculties and some research centers. and the authors are deeply indebted to slum dwellers in this city that helped us.
Conflict of Interest: None to declare
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Ghasem Abedi  *, Farideh Rostami , Behzad Nikpor 
 Health Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Health, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
 Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
 Health Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
* Corresponding Author
Table 1: Environmental heath quality of residential unit as criteria and sub-criteria Quality of environmental health First level Second level 1<mean<5 Quality of environmental 1.9 environmental heath quality of health residential unit environment 1.94 health quality of the residential area Quality of environmental health First level Third level (1<mean<5) Quality of Size and indoor 1.03 environmental facilities of health residential unit Maintain cost 2.64 Size and outdoor 2.36 facilities of residential unit Accessibility 2.72 Physical--Social 2.54 facilities Socialties and 1.78 interaction Security 1.71 Environment 1.94 variable Health of 1.81 buildings Table 2: [beta] Coefficient of the importance of criteria and sub-criteria of environmental health quality of slums areas 0.212 Beta([beta]) First level Second level coefficients Quality of environmental 0.3 environmental heath quality health of residential unit environment 0.2 health quality of the residential area Beta([beta]) First level Third level coefficients Quality of Size and indoor 0.224 environmental facilities of health residential unit Maintenance cost 0.212 Size and outdoor 0.262 facilities of residential unit Accessibility 0.184 Physical--Social 0.173 facilities Social 0.158 interaction and ties security 0.154 Environment 0.165 variable Health of 0.162 buildings and spaces