Anaerobic capacity may not be determined by critical power model in elite table tennis players.Abstract
The aim of the present study was to verify the applicability of anaerobic anaerobic /an·aer·o·bic/ (an?ah-ro´bik)
1. lacking molecular oxygen.
2. growing, living, or occurring in the absence of molecular oxygen; pertaining to an anaerobe. work capacity (AWC (Association for Women in Computing, San Francisco, CA, www.awc-hq.org) A membership organization, founded in 1978, dedicated to the advancement of women in computing. It publishes newsletters, hosts seminars and annual conferences and recognizes distinguished women in the field with its ) determined from the critical power model in elite table tennis players
An international hall of fame exists at the
This is not an image, but rather a PDF file. . . Eight male international level table tennis players participated in the study. The tests undertaken were: 1) A critical frequency test used to determinate DETERMINATE. That which is ascertained; what is particularly designated; as, if I sell you my horse Napoleon, the article sold is here determined. This is very different from a contract by which I would have sold you a horse, without a particular designation of any horse. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 947, 950. the anaerobic work capacity; 2) Wingate tests were performed using leg and arm ergometers. AWC corresponded to 99.5 [+ or -] 29.1 table tennis balls. AWC was not related to peak (r = -0.25), mean (r = -0.02), relative peak (r = -0.49) or relative mean power (r = 0.01), nor fatigue index (r = -0.52) (Wingate leg ergometer ergometer /er·gom·e·ter/ (er-gom´e-ter) a dynamometer.
bicycle ergometer an apparatus for measuring the muscular, metabolic, and respiratory effects of exercise. ). Similar correlations for peak (r = -0.34), mean (r = -0.04), relative peak (r = -0.49), relative mean power (r = 0.14) and peak blood lactate Lactate
A salt or ester of lactic acid (CH3CHOHCOOH). In lactates, the acidic hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by a metal or an organic radical. Lactates are optically active, with a chiral center at carbon 2. concentration (r = -0.08) were determined in the Wingate arm ergometer test. Based on these results the AWC determined by a modified critical power test was not a good index for measurement of anaerobic capacity in table tennis players.
Key words: Anaerobic capacity, table tennis, critical frequency, Wingate test, lactate.
Racket sports are characterized by periods of intense effort followed by brief rest periods. The intense efforts use phosphagenic energy sources (ATP ATP: see adenosine triphosphate.
in full adenosine triphosphate
Organic compound, substrate in many enzyme-catalyzed reactions (see catalysis) in the cells of animals, plants, and microorganisms. ;PCr) as the main mechanism to resynthesize energy (ATP) in contrast, during periods of rest, the aerobic aerobic /aer·o·bic/ (ar-o´bik)
1. having molecular oxygen present.
2. growing, living, or occurring in the presence of molecular oxygen.
3. requiring oxygen for respiration.
4. energy supply dominates. The major energy (ATP) supplier during long rallies comes primarily from glycolysis glycolysis (glīkŏl`ĭsĭs), term given to the metabolic pathway utilized by most microorganisms (yeast and bacteria) and by all "higher" animals (including humans) for the degradation of glucose. (Zagatto, 2004).
The laboratory methodology for measuring anaerobic power and capacity is not as well developed as protocols available for measuring aerobic variables. Various approaches researchers have been used including the maximal max·i·mal
1. Of, relating to, or consisting of a maximum.
2. Being the greatest or highest possible. accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) (Hill and Smith, 1993), the Wingate cycle ergometer test (Beneke et al., 2002), the Wingate arm ergometer test (Hawley and Williams, 1991), and tethered Attached to a data or power source by wire or fiber. Contrast with untethered. swimming (Papoti et al., 2003; 2007) to determine the anaerobic capacity. However, a great number of these protocols need expensive equipment and present specific application limitations in field evaluations, especially with respect to racket sports.
The critical power concept (critP), initially developed by Monod and Scherrer (1965), seems to be an appropriate theoretical model, and is the only method that can evaluate aerobic and anaerobic parameters without high cost, using non-invasive procedures. It is based on the hyperbolic hy·per·bol·ic also hy·per·bol·i·cal
1. Of, relating to, or employing hyperbole.
a. Of, relating to, or having the form of a hyperbola.
b. relationship between different exercise intensities and their respective exhaustion times. This model has an aerobic component called critical power (critP) and an anaerobic component called anaerobic work capacity (AWC) (Bishop et al., 1998). AWC theoretically represents a finite supply of energy and is used only at intensities greater than critical power, such that fatigue would be a consequence of total AWC depletion (Bishop et al., 1998; Monod and Scherrer, 1965). AWC is considered by many authors to be an index of anaerobic capacity (Bulbulian et al., 1996; Green et al., 1994; Hill and Smith, 1993; Papoti et al., 2003). Nebelsick-Gullet et al. (1988) compared AWC determined by the critical power model with the 30 second Wingate test and concluded that AWC provided a valid estimation of anaerobic capacity. Green et al. (1994) adapting the model to a cycle ergometer, corroborated cor·rob·o·rate
tr.v. cor·rob·o·rat·ed, cor·rob·o·rat·ing, cor·rob·o·rates
To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain. See Synonyms at confirm. these findings, confirming that AWC can be used to estimate the anaerobic capacity. The ability to adapt the critical power model in studies using differing ergometers and different sports such as the cycling (Bishop et al., 1998), swimming (Papoti et al., 2003), running (Bosquet bos·quet
A small grove; a thicket.
[French, from Italian boschetto, diminutive of bosco, forest, of Germanic origin. et al., 2006) and table tennis (Zagatto and Gobatto, 2002; Zagatto, 2004), makes this model extremely viable. Despite this, in most adaptations of the critical power model, only the aerobic parameter has been validated. In contrast, the anaerobic component of critP has not been validated (Dekerle et al., 2002; Papoti et al., 2005), thus lessening its general acceptance by sports scientists.
The Wingate test designed for the cycle ergometer (Beneke et al., 2002) has also been adapted for the arm ergometer (Hawley and Williams, 1991), tethered swimming (Papoti et al., 2003) and other protocols, and has been used to assess the capacity of glycolytic and ATP-PCr energy systems in athletes (Vandewalle et al., 1987). Vandewalle et al. (1987) showed that the peak power output obtained in the Wingate test represented the maximal rate of ATP-PCr catabolism catabolism (kətăb`əlĭz'əm), subdivision of metabolism involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell. and that the mean power output represented primarily glycolytic metabolism or the 'anaerobic capacity'. Many authors confirm the utility of the Wingate test as a protocol for evaluating anaerobic capacity (Beneke et al., 2002; Hawley and Williams, 1991); it is ideal for evaluating power in sprint and jump athletes, and power in other sports such as table tennis.
The use of a specific non-invasive, low cost protocol for evaluating anaerobic capacity in table tennis is of great importance as it can reproduce specific motor patterns. However, confirmation of its validity is necessary. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to verify AWC applicability (critP model) in table tennis. Thus, AWC determined by the critical power test (specifically adapted for table tennis), was correlated with variables from both cycle and arm Wingate tests.. Our hypothesis being that AWC (critP) can be used to determine anaerobic capacity in table tennis players.
Eight male international level table tennis players (age: 18 [+ or -] 3 years, body mass: 67.0 [+ or -] 10.7 kg, height: 1.76 [+ or -] 0.10 metres, body fat: 14.7 [+ or -] 7.1%, and body mass index: 21.7 [+ or -] 2.9 kg x [m.sup.-2]) participated in the study. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human participants (human experimentation); animal experimentation; various aspects of Committee of the Bioscience Institute, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP UNESP Universidade Estadual Paulista ), Rio Claro Rio Cla·ro
A city of southeast Brazil northwest of São Paulo. It is a trade and industrial center. Population: 178,000. Campus, Brazil and the athletes signed an informed consent form prior to testing.
Experimental approach to the problem
The critical frequency test (critf) (critical power model adapted for table tennis) was used to determine anaerobic work capacity (AWC) in a table tennis specific test; and Wingate tests were used in both cycle ([W.sub.cycle]) and arm crank ([W.sub.arm crank]) ergometers to determine peak (highest power output in the initial 5-s) and mean power output (W, W x [kg.sub.-1]) (over 30-s).
The tests for the critf protocol were conducted using a table tennis table and mechanical ball thrower; Wingate tests were performed on a Monark 894-E cycle ergometer (Monark, Sweden) ([W.sub.cycle]) and a Cybex UBE Ube (`bā), city (1990 pop. 175,053), Yamaguchi prefecture, SW Honshu, Japan, on the Inland Sea. It has a modern harbor and an important chemical industry. 2462 (Cybex, Owatonna, MN) arm ergometer ([W.sub.arm crank]). Verbal encouragement was used in all tests to maintain a maximum effort (Wingate tests). Twenty-four hours rest was permitted between tests, and testing was conducted over a maximum period of 2 weeks. Prior to each test the ergometer was used as a warm-up exercise for 4 minutes at moderate intensity (35 balls x [min.sub.-1] for critical frequency test, 85 watts for cycle ergometer and 49 watts for arm ergometer). During warm-up (Wingate tests) 2 to 3-s duration flat-out sprints were performed at the beginning of the 4th minute of warm up. Tests were started five minutes after the end of the warm-up period.
Description and adaptation of the mechanical ball thrower, used in the critical frequency test
The NEWGY-PONG 2000 (Newgy, Canada) mechanical ball thrower has adjustments between 0 to 10 for speed control, lateral ball oscillation Oscillation
Any effect that varies in a back-and-forth or reciprocating manner. Examples of oscillation include the variations of pressure in a sound wave and the fluctuations in a mathematical function whose value repeatedly alternates above and below some , and launch frequency. Lateral ball oscillation was adjusted (Setting 3) so that balls were shot systematically to different areas of the table tennis table (between the two extremities ex·trem·i·ty
n. pl. ex·trem·i·ties
1. The outermost or farthest point or portion.
2. The greatest or utmost degree: the extremity of despair.
a. ) so that the ball contacted the table between 50 and 60-cm from the net (Figure 1). Ball speed was maintained constant corresponding to Setting 5. Only ball frequency was changed for each effort; hence the term 'critical frequency test'.
To minimize interference from learning before a specific test, participants were submitted to two familiarization fa·mil·iar·ize
tr.v. fa·mil·iar·ized, fa·mil·iar·iz·ing, fa·mil·iar·iz·es
1. To make known, recognized, or familiar.
2. To make acquainted with. sessions (performed on consecutive days) with the same ball speed and lateral oscillation as the test, and with varying ball shot frequency. Each familiarization session lasted 10 minutes.
Critical frequency test to determine anaerobic work capacity in table tennis
Athletes were submitted to 3 or 4 repetitions until exhaustion (separated by a minimum break of 2 hours and no more than 2 repetitions per day) with the mechanical ball thrower simulating forehand forehand
the head, neck, shoulders, withers and forelimbs of the horse. attacks at shot frequencies (intensities) of approximately 48, 56, 65, and 72 balls x [min.sup.-1]. The balls were released at a constant frequency throughout a repetition, and each repetition frequency was randomly defined.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Lateral ball oscillation and ball speed were constant throughout the test, corresponding to setting 3 and 5 respectively on the NEWGY-PONG 2000 mechanical ball thrower. Test termination occurred when 4 consecutive errors occurred in the attacks or the participant voluntarily stopped due to exhaustion. At this moment, exhaustion time (Tlim) was recorded. After each repetition, blood samples (25[micro]L) were collected from the ear lobe lobe (lob)
1. a more or less well-defined portion of an organ or gland.
2. one of the main divisions of a tooth crown. at 1, 3, and 5 minute intervals to determine blood lactate concentration.
The relationship between ball frequency (f) and the inverse (mathematics) inverse - Given a function, f : D -> C, a function g : C -> D is called a left inverse for f if for all d in D, g (f d) = d and a right inverse if, for all c in C, f (g c) = c and an inverse if both conditions hold. of the Tlim (1/Tlim) was obtained by linear regression Linear regression
A statistical technique for fitting a straight line to a set of data points. techniques. Using this regression model, the linear and angular angular /an·gu·lar/ (ang´gu-lar) sharply bent; having corners or angles. coefficients corresponded to critf and AWC, respectively (Figure 2).
The Wingate cycle ergometer test ([W.sub.cycle])
The Wingate Cycle Ergometer Test ([W.sub.cycle]) consisted of exercise performed at maximal power for 30 seconds with an external resistance corresponding to 75g x [kg.sub.-1] body mass. The cycle ergometer (Monark 894-E, Sweden) protocol began without any external resistance, which was added immediately after the test was initiated. Exercise time was recorded only after the external resistance was applied. After 30 seconds of all-out effort, blood samples were collected at 1, 3, 5 and 7 minutes for analysis of blood lactate concentration. Pedal revolution rate was determined by Monark Anaerobic Test Software. Values were obtained at 5 second intervals, these were: peak (in the initial 5-s period), mean (30-s), relative peak, relative mean power outputs, and a calculated fatigue index.
The Wingate arm crank test ([W.sub.arm crank])
The Wingate arm crank test (Warm crank) was performed using an isokinetic isokinetic /iso·ki·net·ic/ (-ki-net´ik) maintaining constant torque or tension as muscles shorten or lengthen; see isokinetic exercise, under exercise. arm ergometer (Cybex UBE 2462, Owatonna, MN) and consisted of 30 seconds maximal effort at a constant 120 rpm rotation speed. Values were determined every 5 seconds with peak (in the initial 5-s period), mean (30-s), relative peak, relative mean power outputs, and a calculated fatigue index. Samples were collected at 1, 3, 5, and 7 minutes intervals after the test for the analysis of blood lactate concentration.
Blood lactate analyses
Blood samples (25.0 [micro]L) were collected from a participant's ear lobe and transferred to a 1.5 mL Eppendorf tube containing 50[micro]L NaF (1.0% sodium fluoride sodium fluoride
A colorless crystalline salt used in fluoridation of water, in treatment of tooth decay, and as an insecticide and a disinfectant. ). The homogenate homogenate /ho·mog·e·nate/ (ho-moj´in-at) material obtained by homogenization.
material obtained by homogenization. was injected in·ject·ed
1. Of or relating to a substance introduced into the body.
2. Of or relating to a blood vessel that is visibly distended with blood.
1. introduced by injection.
2. congested. (25.0 [micro]L) into an electrochemical electrochemical /elec·tro·chem·i·cal/ (-kem´i-k'l) pertaining to interaction or interconversion of chemical and electrical energies.
adj. lactate analyzer (Yellow Springs Instruments model 1500 Sport, Ohio, USA). The electrochemical lactate analyzer was calibrated cal·i·brate
tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument): after every 5 blood samples with standard 5.0 [mmol.L.sub.-1] lactate solution. Blood lactate concentrations were expressed in millimoles per litre LITRE. A French measure of capacity. It is of the size of a decimetre, or one-tenth part of a cubic metre. It is equal to 61.028 cubic inches. Vide Measure. ([mmol.L.sub.-1]).
Analysis of variance (One way ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there ) was used to compare blood lactate concentrations and estimate lactate production-removal rates in the critical frequency test, followed by a post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: Newman-Keuls test. Sample normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov & Lilliefors test In statistics, the Lilliefors test, named after Hubert Lilliefors, professor of statistics at George Washington University, is an adaptation of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. . The Pearson product moment correlation test was used to establish of the relationship between AWC and variables from the Wingate tests (cycle ergometer and arm crank), and statistical powers (1 - [beta]) were also calculated. Results were analyzed using STATISTICA 6.0 for Windows (Statsoft, Inc. 2001). In all cases a significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results were expressed as means together with standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. .
Table tennis anaerobic work capacity was 99.5 [+ or -] 29.1 balls with an angular coefficient error of 32.6 [+ or -] 18.8% and a coefficient of determination Coefficient of determination
A measure of the goodness of fit of the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in a regression analysis; for instance, the percentage of variation in the return of an asset explained by the market portfolio return. Also known as R-square. ([R.sup.2]) of 0.88 [+ or -] 0.11. Table 1 shows the exercise time to exhaustion (Tlim), peak blood lactate concentration, and estimated lactate production rate at different preset preset Cardiac pacing A parameter of a pacemaker that is programmed permanently when manufactured frequencies in the critf test. Tlim at 48 balls x [min.sup.-1] was significantly greater than other frequencies [F(1,6)=11.21; p = 0.001], and the estimated blood lactate production rate at 48 balls x [min.sup.-1] was less than at 72 balls x [min.sup.-1] [F(1,6)= 4.08; p = 0.02].
Peak, mean, relative peak, relative mean power output, and fatigue index in the [W.sub.cycle] and [W.sub.arm crank] tests are shown in Table 2.
AWC correlated negatively with peak blood lactate concentration in the [W.sub.cycle] test (Table 3) yet was positively correlated with the fatigue index in [W.sub.arm crank] test (Table 4). All other Wingate test variables in both ergometer tests did not show significant correlations with AWC (Tables 3 and 4).
The main findings of this study were the poor correlation values obtained between anaerobic work capacity (AWC) (critP) adapted for table tennis and the arm and leg Wingate tests.
Measurement of anaerobic parameters in athletes is extremely important, especially in sports where there is greater participation from glycolytic and phosphagenic energy sources during periods of intense effort, as in the case of table tennis (Zagatto, 2004) and other sports where athletes are required to possess a high anaerobic capacity. However, specific protocols for determining glycolytic and phosphagenic energy sources are difficult to apply in table tennis.
Anaerobic work capacity determined by critP has advantages over other evaluation procedures as it is noninvasive non·in·va·sive
1. Not penetrating the body, as by incision. Used especially of a diagnostic procedure.
2. Not invading healthy tissue. , easy to apply, and low in cost, and in addition specific motor patterns can be adapted to different sports. Although the present study determined blood lactate concentration after the critical frequency test, it is not absolutely necessary as the only variable required is time of effort at each level of exercise intensity. Because of this, the critical power model adapted to table tennis (critf test) was used to determine AWC in international table tennis players.
AWC values and the coefficients of determination ([R.sup.2]) obtained in the present study (99.5 [+ or -] 29.1 balls and 0.9 [+ or -] 0.1, respectively) were higher than those found by Zagatto and Gobatto (2002) (50.9 [+ or -] 6.9 balls and 0.8 [+ or -] 0.1, respectively). The higher AWC values and the closer fitting coefficients of determination are probably due to the athletes participating in the present study having higher performance levels than those in the previous studies. The Tlims values obtained in this study were between 3 and 9 minutes, falling within the limits proposed by Poole (1986) and Bishop et al. (1998), who reported Tlims greater than 10 minutes and below 1 minute which could be an over (Poole, 1986) and an under-estimate (Bishop et al., 1998) of the AWC respectively. Thus our Tlim results were within this suggested range. In relation to 'post-effort' estimated blood lactate production-removal rate, our results did not suggest differences among ball shot frequencies. However, the estimated lactate production-removal rate increased proportionally with a rise in exercise intensity with a significant difference between the higher and lower frequency (72 versus 48 balls x [min.sup.-1]).
AWC has been shown to be sensitive to training (Jenkins and Quigley, 1993), however, its validity remains controversial. Some researchers believe that AWC is a parameter of glycolytic and phosphagenic energy sources (i.e. the anaerobic capacity), correlating it with measaures from the Wingate test (Bulbulian et al., 1996; Nebelsick-Gullett et al., 1988), ATP yield (Green at al., 1994), and maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (Hill and Smith, 1993). In contrast, other authors do not support AWC as an indicator of the anaerobic capacity (Dekerle et al., 2002; Papoti et al., 2003; 2005). Bulbulian et al. (1996) found no relationship between AWC and relative power (W x [kg.sup.-1]) obtained in a Wingate test, but found a significant, albeit a low correlation (r = 0.41) with absolute power. Dekerle et al. (2002) did not find a significant correlation between AWC and 25-m test measures in swimming, and suggested that the AWC does not provide a reliable estimation of the anaerobic capacity.
Table tennis is characterized by force and power movements in the legs combined with fast arm movements. Zagatto (2004) reported that the ATP-PCr energy production system is the one most used during periods of intense effort during a game of table tennis (approximately 3-s), with glycolysis only contributing at higher levels in a few specific instances, mainly during low duration rallies (Kunstlinger et al., 1998; Zagatto 2004); both sets of authors also reported low concentrations of blood lactate during a match ([congruent con·gru·ent
1. Corresponding; congruous.
a. Coinciding exactly when superimposed: congruent triangles.
b. to] 1.6 mmol x [L.sup.-1]). These latter observations corroborate To support or enhance the believability of a fact or assertion by the presentation of additional information that confirms the truthfulness of the item.
The testimony of a witness is corroborated if subsequent evidence, such as a coroner's report or the testimony of other the idea that table tennis has its energy base in the ATP-PCr system during periods of intense effort. Because the sport has this anaerobic characteristic, relationships between AWC from the specific table tennis test and anaerobic measures from the Wingate cycle and arm ergometer tests were expected. However, examination of the literature revealed that, only Zagatto et al. (2004) used the Wingate test in both cycle and arm ergometer mode to measure anaerobic power and capacity in table tennis players. The latter investigation used an isokinetic arm ergometer, and the low values for peak and mean power output in the Wingate arm ergometer seem to be characteristic of table tennis players per se and not due to e.g. variations in ergometry measures.
AWC did not correlate with peak, relative peak, mean, or relative mean power output values in either cycle or arm ergometry. Strong negative correlations Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation were found between AWC and fatigue index in the arm ergometer (r = -0.79), and peak blood lactate concentration in the cycle ergometer test (r = -0.73; Tables 3 and 4 respectively). Although the literature indicates that the Wingate test measures can be used as an index of anaerobic capacity (Beneke et al., 2002; Hawley and Williams, 1991; Vandewalle et al., 1987), and peak blood lactate concentration in the same test can be used to estimate the contribution to exercise metabolism from glycolysis. The negative correlation between AWC and fatigue index in the arm ergometer does not indicate that AWC is a good index of anaerobic capacity. Our hypothesis was that AWC from the critP could be used to determine anaerobic capacity in table tennis, but this was not substantiated.
Some researchers have reported that AWC represents a finite supply of anaerobic energy composed of PCr, [O.sub.2] binding to myoglobin myoglobin (mī'əglō`bĭn), protein molecule isolated from the cells of vertebrate skeletal muscle that is both a structural and functional relative of hemoglobin, the oxygen-transport protein of the blood of higher animals. , and intra-muscular glycogen glycogen (glī`kəjən), starchlike polysaccharide (see carbohydrate) that is found in the liver and muscles of humans and the higher animals and in the cells of the lower animals. stores (Bishop et al., 1998; Monod and Scherrer, 1965). Bishop et al. (1998) reported that total depletion of these energy supplies (called AWC), was responsible for exhaustion during exercise (Bishop et al., 1998; Monod and Scherrer, 1965). However, Araujo et al. (2005) using the critical power model to evaluate AWC in swimming rats reported reductions of approximately 41 [+ or -] 15% in soleus muscle Noun 1. soleus muscle - a broad flat muscle in the calf of the leg under the gastrocnemius muscle
skeletal muscle, striated muscle - a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; a muscle that is glycogen content at exhaustion. These results demonstrate that exhaustion did not coincide with total muscle depletion of any 'anaerobic reserve'. Thus Araujo et al. (2005) concluded that AWC does not represent an anaerobic reserve or supply, but a physiological state Noun 1. physiological state - the condition or state of the body or bodily functions
physical condition, physiological condition
wakefulness - a periodic state during which you are conscious and aware of the world; "consciousness during wakefulness in a sane or conditioning status with respect to anaerobic exercise anaerobic exercise,
n physical activity, which instigates a metabolism that does not depend on oxygen. Examples include isotonics, in which the muscles contract against an object of resistance with movement (e.g. . Therefore, AWC as an index of anaerobic capacity in table tennis, determined by a sport-specific protocol, requires better delineation.
Anaerobic work capacity (AWC) measures obtained using a sport-specific protocol from an adapted critical power model was not a good index to evaluate anaerobic capacity in table tennis.
* Anaerobic work capacity (AWC) was not good index of anaerobic capacity in table tennis.
* AWC determined using the table tennis ergometer showed low correlations with the Wingate test measures for cycle and arm ergometry.
* A sport-specific protocol is required for measuring anaerobic capacity in table tennis.
This study was supported by "Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico" (CNPq--Procs. 130841/2003-0 and 301601/2006-2) and "Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo" (FAPESP--Procs. 5778/1995 and 01/08295-2/2003). We thank the Devon Taylor for the revision of English Language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. .
Received: 18 July 2007 / Accepted: 15 November 2007 / Published (online): 01 March 2008
Araujo, G., Zagatto, A., Manchado, F., Gobatto, C. and Papoti, M. (2005) Determination of the state for the anaerobic work in wistar rats during swimming exercise. In: Book of abstracts. 4th International Congress of Physical Education and Human Movement, May 25-28, Rio Claro-Brazil. S12.
Beneke, R., Pollmann, C., Bleif, I., Leithauser, R. and Hutler, M. (2002) How anaerobic is the Wingate anaerobic test for humans. European Journal European Journal is a weekly Deutsche Welle (DW) news program produced in English. It is broadcast from Brussels, Belgium and primarily covers political and economic developments across the European Union and the rest of Europe, as well as issues of particular concern to of Applied Physiology 87, 388-392.
Bishop, D., Jenkins, D. and Howard, A. (1998) The critical power function is dependent on the duration of the predictive exercise tests chosen. International Journal of Sports Medicine sports medicine, branch of medicine concerned with physical fitness and with the treatment and prevention of injuries and other disorders related to sports. Knee, leg, back, and shoulder injuries; stiffness and pain in joints; tendinitis; "tennis elbow"; and 19, 125129.
Bosquet, L., Duchene, A., Lecot, F., Dupont, G. and Leger, L. (2006) Vmax estimate from three-parameter critical velocity models: validity and impact on 800 m running performance prediction In computer science, performance prediction means to estimate the execution time or other performance factors (such as cache misses) of a program on a given computer. It is being widely used for computer architects to evaluate new computer designs, for compiler writers to explore . European Journal of Applied Physiology 97, 34-42.
Bulbulian, R., Jeong, J. and Murphy, M. (1996) Comparison of anaerobic components of the Wingate and critical power tests in males and females. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28, 1336-1341.
Dekerle, J., Sidney, M., Hespel, J. and Pelayo, P. (2002) Validity and reliability of critical speed, critical stroke rate, and anaerobic capacity in relation to front crawl swimming performances. International Journal of Sports Medicine 23, 93-98.
Green, S., Dawson, B., Goodman, C. and Carey, F. (1994) Y-intercept of the maximal work duration and anaerobic capacity in cyclists This is an incomplete list. Please add to this list if you are aware of an omission. This is a list of cyclists by decade. Cyclists by decade
Cyclists before the 1880s
Hawley, J. and Williams, M. (1991) Relationship between upper body anaerobic power and freestyle swimming This article is about freestyle competition. For the swimming style commonly associated with this competition, see Front crawl.
Freestyle is one of the official swimming competitions according to the rules of FINA. performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine 12, 1-5.
Hill, D. and Smith, J. (1993) A comparison of methods of estimating anaerobic work capacity. Ergonomics ergonomics, the engineering science concerned with the physical and psychological relationship between machines and the people who use them. The ergonomicist takes an empirical approach to the study of human-machine interactions. 36, 1495-1500.
Jenkins, D. and Quigley, B. (1993) The influence of high-intensity exercise on the Wlim -Tlim relationship. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 275-282.
Kunstlinger, U., Preub, A. and Schiefler, B. (1998) The energy metabolism Energy metabolism
Energy metabolism, or bioenergetics, is the study of energy changes that accompany biochemical reactions. Energy sustains the work of biosynthesis of cellular and extracellular components, the transport of ions and organic chemicals against in competitive table tennis. International Journal of Sports Medicine 9, 395.
Monod, H. and Scherrer, J. (1965) The work capacity of a synergic synergic /syn·er·gic/ (sin-er´jik) acting together or in harmony.
Synergistic. muscular group. Ergonomics 8, 329-338.
Nebelsick-Gullett, L., Housh, T., Johnson, G. and Bauge, S. (1988) A comparison between methods of measuring anaerobic work capacity. Ergonomics 31, 1413-1419.
Papoti, M., Martins, L, Cunha, S., Zagatto, A. and Gobatto, C. (2007) Effects of taper on swimming force and swimmer performance after an experimental ten-week training program. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 21, 538-542.
Papoti, M., Zagatto, A., Freitas Junior, P., Cunha, S., Martins, L. and Gobatto, C. (2005) Use of the y-intercept in the evaluation of the anaerobic fitness and performance prediction of trained swimmers. Brazilian Journal of Sports Medicine 11, 131-135.
Papoti, M., Martins, L., Cunha, S., Zagatto, A. and Gobatto, C. (2003) Standardization standardization
In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting of a specific protocol to determine the anaerobic conditioning in swimmers during a 30sec effort using load cells. Portuguese Journal of Sports Science Sports science is a discipline that studies the application of scientific principles and techniques with the aim of improving sporting performance. Human movement is a related scientific discipline that studies human movement in all contexts including that of sport. 3, 36-42.
Poole, D. (1986) Letter to the editor-in-chief. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18, 703-705.
Vandewalle, H., Peres, G. and Monod, H. (1987) Standard anaerobic exercise tests. Sports Medicine 4, 268-289.
Zagatto, A. (2004) Determination and validation of the critical frequency and the anaerobic work capacity in the table tennis in specific protocol using robot. Master's Thesis, Sao Paulo State University, Rio Claro, Brazil. 1-108. (In Portuguese: English abstract).
Zagatto, A., Papoti, M. and Gobatto, C. (2004) Comparison between the use of saliva saliva
Thick, colourless fluid constantly present in the mouth, composed of water, mucus, proteins, mineral salts, and amylase, an enzyme that breaks down starches. One to two litres are produced daily by the salivary glands. and blood for the minimum lactate determination in arm ergometer and cycle ergometer in table tennis players. Brazilian Journal of Sports Medicine 10, 481-486.
Zagatto, A. and Gobatto, C. (2002) Determination of an aerobic evaluation model on table tennis in a specific protocol using a robot. Table Tennis Player 15,10-11. (In Portuguese: English abstract)
Alessandro M. Zagatto (1,2) ([mail]), Marcelo Papoti (2) and Claudio A. Gobatto (2)
(1) Laboratory of Research in Exercise Physiology exercise physiology
The study of the body's metabolic response to short-term and long-term physical activity. (LAPEFE), Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul Mato Grosso do Sul (pron. IPA: ['ma.tu 'gɾo.su du suw] ) is one of the states of Brazil. Neighbouring states are (from north clockwise) Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, São Paulo and Paraná. (UFMS UFMS Unified Financial Management System ), Campo Grande-MS, Brazil. (2) Laboratory of Applied Physiology to Sport, UNESP, Rio Claro, Brazil.
([mail]) Alessandro Moura Zagatto
Laboratory of Research in Exercise Physiology (LAPEFE), Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande-MS, Brazil.
Alessandro Moura ZAGATTO
Assistant Professor of the Exercise Physiology at the Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Mato
Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande-MS, Brazil.
MSc., PhD Student
Exercise Physiology, monitoring training status and performance in team sports
Department of Physical Education, University Integrated of Bauru (FIB fib
An insignificant or childish lie.
intr.v. fibbed, fib·bing, fibs
To tell a fib. See Synonyms at lie2. ), Bauru-SP, Brazil and Laboratory of Applied
Physiology to Sport, UNESP, Brazil.
Exercise Physiology, monitoring training status and performance in team sports
Claudio Alexandre GOBATTO
Department of Physical Education, Laboratory of Physiology Applied to Sport (LAFAE), IB, Sao Paulo State University
(UNESP), Rio Claro, Brazil.
Exercise Physiology, monitoring training status and performance in team sports
Table 1. Exercise time to exhaustion (Tlim), peak blood lactate concentration (Lac) and estimated lactate production-removal rate (Lac rate) obtained in the critf test. Data are means (SD). f 48 56 (balls x [min.sup.-1]) (balls x [min.sup.-1]) Tlim (s) 578.6 (204.0) 342.7 (109.7) * Lac (mmol x [L.sup.-1]) 6.2 (2.2) 7.0 (2.3) Lac rate (mmol/L.s) .[10.sup.2] 1.4 (0.9) 2.3 (1.4) f 65 72 (balls x [min.sup.-1]) (balls x [min.sup.-1]) Tlim (s) 259.6 (38.9) * 188.8 (60.5) * Lac (mmol x [L.sup.-1]) 8.9 (1.8) 7.0 (2.7) Lac rate (mmol/L.s) .[10.sup.2] 3.4 (3.4) 4.5 (2.7) * * p < 0.05 compared with 48 balls x [min.sup.-1] Table 2. Values for peak (Ppeak), mean (Pmean), relative peak (Ppeak/kg), relative mean power output (Pmean/kg), fatigue index (FI), and peak blood lactate concentration ([Lac.sub.Peak]) obtained in the [W.sub.cycle] and [W.sub.arm crank] tests. Data are means (SD). [W.sub.cycle] [W.sub.arm crank] [P.sub.peak] (W) 772.2 (94.1) 374.5 (55.9) [P.sub.mean] (W) 602.7 (72.3) 272.7 (36.7) [P.sub.peak]/kg (W x [kg.sup.-1]) 11.6 (0.8) 5.7 (0.7) [P.sub.mean]/kg (W x [kg.sup.-1]) 9.1 (0.8) 4.1 (0.5) FI (%) 42.7 (5.9) 48.8 (5.0) [Lac.sub.Peak] (mmol x [L.sup.-1]) 9.6 (0.9) 7.8 (1.0) Table 3. Pearson product moment correlation (PM) and statistical power (1-[beta]) values between anaerobic work capacity (AWC) and the variables obtained in the Wingate cycle ergometer test. [P.sub.peak] [P.sub.mean] [P.sub.peak]/kg PM PM PM -.25 -.02 -.49 AWC (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) 91.77% 97.26% 77.94% [P.sub.mean]/kg FI [Lac.sub.Peak] PM PM PM .01 -.52 -.73 * AWC (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) 97.56% 94.85% 54.38% * p < 0.05 for AWC and [Lac.sub.Peak] Table 4. Pearson product moment correlation (PM) and statistical power (1-[beta]) values between anaerobic work capacity (AWC) and the variables obtained in the Wingate arm crank test. [P.sub.peak] [P.sub.mean] [P.sub.peak]/kg PM PM PM -.34 -.04 -.49 AWC (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) 87.90% 96.99% 78.23% [P.sub.mean]/kg FI [Lac.sub.Peak] PM PM PM -.14 -.79 * -.08 AWC (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) (1-[beta]) 95.05% 66.64% 96.25% * p < 0.05 for AWC and FI.