An exploratory study on perceived quality of working life among sales professionals employed in pharmaceutical, banking, finance and insurance companies in Mumbai.
The inspirational in·spi·ra·tion·al
1. Of or relating to inspiration.
2. Providing or intended to convey inspiration.
3. Resulting from inspiration. part of success is to hold a reputed reputed adj. referring to what is accepted by general public belief, whether or not correct. job. On an average, we spend around twelve hours daily in the work place that is one third of our entire life. Job, occupies one's thoughts, prefixes the schedule of the day, determines the purchasing power Purchasing Power
1. The value of a currency expressed in terms of the amount of goods or services that one unit of money can buy. Purchasing power is important because, all else being equal, inflation decreases the amount of goods or services you'd be able to purchase.
2. of an individual, and contributes to the social identity. Today's literate workforce expects more than just pay from their work. The dynamic work environment demands equal importance to both technology and human needs, where the individual perspectives play a key role in humanization Humanization
Fusing the constant and variable framework region of one or more human immunoglobulins with the binding region of an animal immunoglobulin, done to reduce human reaction against the fusion antibody.
Mentioned in: Alemtuzumab of work atmosphere and democratization de·moc·ra·tize
tr.v. de·moc·ra·tized, de·moc·ra·tiz·ing, de·moc·ra·tiz·es
To make democratic.
de·moc of work relations. Such holistic approach holistic approach A term used in alternative health for a philosophical approach to health care, in which the entire Pt is evaluated and treated. See Alternative medicine, Holistic medicine. reflected in the work place, determines the better relationship management, stress management and management of other human factors in work atmosphere, which can contribute to high employee's perception on "Quality of Working Life" in the organization. Davis (1983) defines QWL QWL Quality of Work Life
QWL Quality of Working Life
QWL Quantum Well Laser as "the quality of the relationship between employees and the total working environment, with human dimensions added to the usual technical and economic considerations". Quality of Working Life cannot be attained unless all needs arising in organizational settings are taken care of (Sinha and Sayeed, 1980). As organizations are struggling to survive and become more efficient, an accrued interest Accrued Interest
The interest that has accumulated on a bond since the last interest payment up to but not including the settlement date.
There are two methods for calculating accrued interest:
1) 360-day year method, used for corporate and municipal bonds. has evolved around the concept of professionals working life. (Dolan et al., 2008). Quality of Work Life (QWL) should be viewed as a two way process, from organizational perspective it should consider, employee as the most important resource as they are trustworthy, responsible and capable of making valuable contribution and they should be treated with dignity and respect (Straw and Heckscher, 1984). Whereas from the employee's perspective, QWL should be conceived as a set of methods, such as autonomous work groups, job enrichment Job enrichment in organizational development, human resources management, and organizational behavior, is the process of giving the employee a wider and higher level scope of responsibilitiy with increased decision making authority. , high-involvement aimed at boosting the satisfaction and productivity of workers (Feuer, 1989).
Emergence of QWL Concept
The expression "Quality of Work Life" evolved in the late 19th century. The first study of its kind done in Hawthorne Western Electric's plant by famous sociologist Elton Mayo George Elton Mayo (December 26, 1880 - September 7, 1949) was a psychologist and sociologist.
He lectured at the University of Queensland from 1919 to 1923 before moving to the University of Pennsylvania, but spent most of his career at Harvard Business School (1926 - 1947), , in 1933, highlighted the importance of environmental factors on plant workers' performance. The results tempered the Taylorian performance of "Scientific management theory" applied until then (Mayo, 1960). This led to the paradigm shift A dramatic change in methodology or practice. It often refers to a major change in thinking and planning, which ultimately changes the way projects are implemented. For example, accessing applications and data from the Web instead of from local servers is a paradigm shift. See paradigm. that, money was not the only motivator, where as other environmental factors also play a significant role in influencing the employee productivity.
Irving Bluestone bluestone, common name for the blue, crystalline heptahydrate of cupric sulfate called chalcanthite, a minor ore of copper. It also refers to a fine-grained, light to dark colored blue-gray sandstone. , employee of General Motors, used the expression "Quality of work life" for the first time in late 1960s (Goode, 1989), to evaluate employee satisfaction. QWL as a discipline began in the U.S. in September 1972 when the phrase was coined at the International conference on "democratization of work" conference held at Columbia University's Arden House New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of . In August 1973, the International Council for the Quality of Working Life was created, to promote research.
The important industrial focus to sustain the organic growth of the venture is by investing in the company's future. Here comes into play, the quality of working life. The effort has gained significant momentum in corporate America, where Fortune magazine ranks companies annually on employee workplace quality as "100 Best Companies to work for in America". Similarly the Best Workplaces in India list produced every year by Great Place to Work Institute India in collaboration with The Economic Times, ranks workplace based on the employee's perceptions rather than looking at employees from a management's perspective. This adds tribute to those organizations that attracts and sustains it's most valuable assets, ie the employees. Employee's overall satisfaction is an important tool, to build an intellectual capital base that can provide a company with a competitive advantage. It is high time that organizations are learning to respect the employee's individuality individuality,
n collective characteristics or traits that distinguish one person or thing from all others. and concern for their personal growth, which in turn increases the employee's loyalty and affective affective /af·fec·tive/ (ah-fek´tiv) pertaining to affect.
1. Concerned with or arousing feelings or emotions; emotional.
2. commitment to work more effectively and efficiently. Creating high quality of work life increases an organization's value. (Ballou and Godwin, 2007)
Emphasis on such non-economic aspects can mitigate "job-insecurity" questions and help in identifying the source of workers problems, contributing to their better productivity. The loss of man-hours to the national income due the above factors is overwhelming. The Global Innovative Index (2008-09) has highlighted the importance of investment in human capital and infrastructural facilities in India for accelerating institutional growth, and business sophistication so·phis·ti·cate
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.
2. to compete with the leading nations. Worrall and Cooper (2006) reported that a low level of well-being at work is estimated to cost about five-ten percent of Gross National Product per annum Per annum
Yearly. , yet Quality of Working Life as a theoretical construct remains relatively less explored within the organizational psychology research literature.
Deficiency of Research Literature
The publication databases between 1973 and 2002 reveals that very few articles have made any kind of theoretical advances required to revamp re·vamp
tr.v. re·vamped, re·vamp·ing, re·vamps
1. To patch up or restore; renovate.
2. To revise or reconstruct (a manuscript, for example).
3. To vamp (a shoe) anew.
n. the constructs of QWL. It is also remarkable to note that the frequency of publications on QWL is stagnating. Under the descriptors "Quality of working life" and "Quality of work life," the number of publications concerning QWL plateau a few years ago. For the period from 1973 to 1979, an average of 12 articles per year were published, compared to 26 between 1980 and 1984, 54 between 1985 and 1989, 42 between 1990 and 1994, and finally forty four per year between 1995 and 2002. (Martel and Dupuis, 2006). This elicits a strong need for more number of publications that would add value to the QWL databases.
Walton (1975) proposed eight major conceptual categories relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc QWL as (1) adequate and fair compensation, (2) safe and healthy working conditions, (3) immediate opportunity to use and develop human capacities, (4) opportunity for continued growth and security, (5) social integration in the work organization, (6) constitutionalism con·sti·tu·tion·al·ism
1. Government in which power is distributed and limited by a system of laws that must be obeyed by the rulers.
a. A constitutional system of government.
b. in the work organization, (7) work and total life space and (8) social relevance of work life. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Hackman and Oldham (1976) psychological growth needs are as relevant to that of Quality of working life. Pelsma et al., (1989) and Hart (1994) determined that in the work climate of an occupation, QWL can be assessed by combining the amount and the degree of stress and the degree of satisfaction experienced by the individual within his/her occupational role. Winter et al. (2000) viewed QWL for academicians as an attitudinal response to the prevailing work environment and posited five work environment domains that include role stress, job characteristics, supervisory, structural and sectoral characteristics to directly and indirectly shape academicians' experiences, attitudes and behavior. According to Carayon et al., (2001) the indicators of QWL are job satisfaction, organizational commitment and perceived stress. Royuela et al., (2007) have compared the institutional definition (European Commission) of QWL with the academic definition. They have analyzed QWL concepts of European Commission with the thirty three domains of QWL of Marcel Marcel
the fast ebbing of time impels him to devote his life to recording it. [Fr. Lit.: Proust Remembrance of Things Past]
See : Time and Dupuis (2006), the four major dimensions of Turcotte (1988) and the fourteen domains of Kohl and Shooler (1982). According to Raduan et al., (2006), literature on QWL is limited and several studies commonly correlates with job satisfaction Sinha and Sayeed, 1980 designed a full-length QWL inventory relevant for the Indian sample. The study done by Lee et al., (2007) further validated the need-based measure of quality of work life (QWL) developed by Sirgy et al., (2001).According to Loscocco and Roschelle (1991) the most common assessment of QWL is the individual attitudes. This is because individual work attitudes are important indicators of QWL. Individuals selectively perceive and make attributions about their jobs in accordance with the expectations they bring to the workplace. The study done by Chan and Wyatt (2007) examined the Quality of Work Life in China in terms of how their work lives satisfy eight basic needs of employees. Therefore it is clear that, job characteristics and organizational settings have important influence on the employee's work attitude. Results of the study conducted by Elisavata (2006) verified the correlative Having a reciprocal relationship in that the existence of one relationship normally implies the existence of the other.
Mother and child, and duty and claim, are correlative terms. relationship between quality of work life and satisfaction with definite job attributes in regard to job contents and work environment.
The research done by Dolan et al., (2008) focused on examining the effect of supervisor support, intrinsic and extrinsic EVIDENCE, EXTRINSIC. External evidence, or that which is not contained in the body of an agreement, contract, and the like.
2. It is a general rule that extrinsic evidence cannot be admitted to contradict, explain, vary or change the terms of a contract or of a job demands, as well as motivation on overall quality of working life and negative health consequences by using the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ JCQ Joint Council for Qualifications (UK) ) of Karasek and colleagues (1990) and recommend concrete actions to reduce stress, reduce negative health outcomes and enhance the quality of work lives of the people in the sector. These findings were consistent with previous findings as reported by MacDonald et al. (2001), Ameringen et al. (1988), Arsenault et al. (1991) and Dolan et al. (1992).
Churchill et al., (1979) highlighted the importance of job satisfaction as a driver of sales force retention. Tanner The code name for the Xeon version of the Pentium III chip. See Xeon. and Castleberry (1990) found relationship type to be a strong predictor of sales force turnover, particularly amongst high performers. Park and George (2006) suggested that salesperson working relationship quality, mediates the adaptive selling behavior and job satisfaction. Purani and Sahadev (2008) found that industry experience moderated the job satisfaction, disinclination dis·in·cli·na·tion
A lack of inclination; a mild aversion or reluctance.
Noun 1. disinclination - that toward which you are inclined to feel dislike; "his disinclination for modesty is well known" to quit relationship for most of the job satisfaction dimensions among the sales persons in the pharmaceutical company in India
Moreover experience and expression of QWL perceptions is very much a product of the socio-cultural context. There is a need to understand this construct in relation to the specific demographic factors and jobs related factors. The present study aims to develop a tool to measure the QWL index. Though work on QWL has already been initiated by many in Indian settings, they seem to be very exhaustive. Lack of clear cut dimensions and need for sound approach to develop an consolidated scale, measuring major dimensions of quality of working life with minimum number of items, motivated us to explore this area further and contribute to its deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.
2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.
a state of being in deficit. data base.
Our study focused on the Quality of Working life of the sales executives, keeping in mind their highly challenging and insecure in·se·cure
1. Lacking emotional stability; not well-adjusted.
2. Lacking self-confidence; plagued by anxiety.
in job profile and convenience in measuring their job performance. Moreover the Quality of Working life of the sales executives is very dynamic and less addressed. Data was collected from a sample of 100 sales executives belonging to different sectors namely, pharmaceuticals, banking, insurance and finance by non probability convenience sampling in the areas of Andheri, Sakinaka, Hiranandhani, Powai, Thane thane
a. A freeman granted land by the king in return for military service in Anglo-Saxon England.
b. A man ranking above an ordinary freeman and below a nobleman in Anglo-Saxon England.
2. and Nariman Point Nariman Point (नरिमन पॉईंट) is Mumbai's premier business district. It was named after Khursheed Framji Nariman, a Parsi visionary. The area is situated on land reclaimed from the sea. in Mumbai.
The literature review pertaining per·tain
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.
2. to QWL was considered to pool up the QWL constructs for the questionnaire construction Questionnaires are frequently used in quantitative marketing research and social research in general. They are a valuable method of collecting a wide range of information from a large number of respondents. Good questionnaire construction is critical to the success of a survey. . In addition some items were collected from other related tools having variables semantically similar to the defined dimensions of QWL. Taking into considerations, to measure major dimensions of quality of working life of the sales executives with minimum number of items, nine a priori a priori
In epistemology, knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori (or empirical) knowledge, which derives from experience. dimensions were formulated based on available research in the area (in consideration to various literatures reviewed). All these dimensions have been consolidated from the various similar studies in different contexts. The nine dimensions and their operational definitions are presented in table1.
With the probable dimensions being decided upon, an item pool of sixty nine items was constructed, constituting the nine QWL dimensions. The constructs were written in simple English Simple English usually refers to a simplified form of English such as:
tr.v. re·stat·ed, re·stat·ing, re·states
To state again or in a new form. See Synonyms at repeat.
re·state the items for clarity, it was immediately carried out. Nine items were omitted because of low concurrence CONCURRENCE, French law. The equality of rights, or privilege which several persons-have over the same thing; as, for example, the right which two judgment creditors, Whose judgments were rendered at the same time, have to be paid out of the proceeds of real estate bound by them. Dict. de Jur. h.t. . The final version having sixty items was taken for the first trial, out of which fourteen items were negative and were reverse scored during data interpretation.
The data was subjected to factor analysis by using SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. Ver 12.0. As the factor structure of the questionnaire was not clearly hypothesized, and it was the main aim of the study to explore the structure, an exploratory factor analysis using principle axis analysis with Varimax rotation was carried out to identify few coherent factors. Reliability analysis was done by split-half and Cronchbach's alpha to establish internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. of the scale. The discriminating dis·crim·i·nat·ing
a. Able to recognize or draw fine distinctions; perceptive.
b. Showing careful judgment or fine taste: power of the scale was tested by Canonical Discriminant Function Analysis Discriminant function analysis involves the predicting of a categorical dependent variable by one or more continuous or binary independent variables. It is statistically the opposite of MANOVA.
Results and Discussion
The following tables provide the general description of sample of the initial trial, reliability and factor analysis.
It was observed that eighty percent of the sample was male, showing a comparatively high male dominance Male dominance, or maledom, generally refers to heterosexual BDSM activities where the dominant partner is male, and the submissive partner is female. However, the term is sometimes used to refer to homosexual BDSM activities, where both partners are male and one is dominant. in sales Sector. The banking executives had more years of experience when compared to other sales executives in insurance, Pharmaceuticals and finance.
Mean score of the sample on the questionnaire showed a value of 207.74 with a standard deviation of 33.72. The men in this group obtained a mean score of 209.84 and females were lower in their scores. The difference between males and females on the total score of the test was not statistically significant, stating that there is no significant difference in the perceived QWL among the men and women.
The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy with value of 0.710 was in the acceptable range. Barlett's Test of Sphericity (5050.17, df. 1770, Sig.0.00) showed that non-zero correlations existed at the significance level of 0.000. This provided an adequate basis for proceeding with the factor analysis.
The screen test indicated five factors to be appropriate, with an eigen values greater than 2 ranging from 10.85 to 2.30, which shows the importance of each factor and their relative explanatory ex·plan·a·to·ry
Serving or intended to explain: an explanatory paragraph.
ex·plan power. Five factors accounted for 50.63 percent of the total variance. To interpret the factors and construct the final version, only those variables having a loading at least 0.50 on a single factor were considered. Factor loadings of 0.50 or greater are "Practically significant" (Hair et al., 1999, P-111-114). The communality of variables- 4, 14, 19, 53 were below the recommended threshold, but loaded significantly on one factor when compared to others and represented an important element of the construct, so it was retained for the analysis. Therefore 41 variables out of the total 60 variables in the questionnaire were found to have significant loadings after factor analysis.
The identified first factor had thirteen items with significant loading, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.50. The total variance of this factor alone was 18.09 and the eigen value was 10.86 indicating a strong common factor variance and the purity of factor. The items on this factor described a generally positive perception on satisfaction and continuance The adjournment or postponement of an action pending in a court to a later date of the same or another session of the court, granted by a court in response to a motion made by a party to a lawsuit. in the job, characterized by career satisfaction, freedom for decision making, authority and responsibility, compensation, work-life balance. Based on these positive loading this factor is named as "Employee Satisfaction and Continuance" (ESC See escape character and escape key. See also ESC/P.
ESC - escape ).
The next factor with an eigen value of 5.93, emerged as significant factor with 8 items. All of them had a strong positive loading ranging from 0.70 to 0.43. The items described job clarity, appraisal, relationship with others, opportunities for development, guidance and consultancy and other intrinsic motivators. Therefore this factor is named as "Perceived Job Motivators" (PJM PJM Pacific Journal of Mathematics
PJM Project Manager
PJM Puerto Jimenez, Costa Rica (Airport code)
PJM Pennsylvania New Jersey Maryland Interconnection LLC (Mid-Atlantic region power pool) ).
The third factor had six items, all having significant positive loadings ranging from 0.67 to 0.44. This factor contributed a variance of 9.52 percent to the total variance with an eigen value of 5.71. This factor is named as "Job Awareness and Commitment" (JAC JAC Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
JAC Joint Astronomy Centre
JAC Joint Advisory Committee (Board of Directors for SEI)
JAC John Abbott College
JAC Juvenile Assessment Center
JAC Joint Analysis Center ) as its items describe task identity, goal orientation and affective commitment.
Factor four had 11 items having reverse scores with significant loading, which ranged from 0.50 to 0.69. This explained 9.30 percent of variance with an eigen value of 5.58. The items described are unsafe working environment, injustice, stress, underperformance and job insecurity Insecurity
Inseparability (See FRIENDSHIP.)
Insolence (See ARROGANCE.)
introspective, vacillating Prince of Denmark. [Br. Lit.: Hamlet]
cartoon character who is lost without his security blanket. . This factor is named as "Unconducive Work Environment" (UWE UWE University of the West of England
UWE Uml-Based Web Engineering
UWE University Women of Europe ).
The fifth factor is named as "Perceived Organizational Culture" (POC (Proof Of Concept) See PoC exploit.
POC - Point Of Contact ) which had only three strong positive loading items, describing the employees' outlook on organizational value and self respect. It contributed to 3.85 percent of total variance with an eigen value of 2.31.
Split half co-efficient and Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. Reliability Analysis was done for the five factors separately and for the total 41 items, that were proved significant through factor analysis. The reliability of the instrument is relatively high as the Split half co-efficient and Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.6 for all the factors. The overall Split half co-efficient and Cronbach's alpha was 0.71 and 0.92 respectively.
The inter factor correlation was done to identify the relationship between the factors. The negative correlations in each case between the factors reveal the uniqueness of factor with purity of the items defining them. Therefore the internal consistency of the instrument is proved to be good.
An expression used to distinguish or separate other expressions in a quantity or equation. Analysis
incremental; additional information is added at each step.
stepwise multiple regression
used when a large number of possible explanatory variables are available and there is difficulty interpreting the partial regression canonical discriminant function analysis was done to determine which predictor variables (factors identified through factor analysis) contribute to the most of the intergroup in·ter·group
Being or occurring between two or more social groups: intergroup relations; intergroup violence. differences. The details are shown in table no. VII.
On the basis of test of equality of group means, Employee Satisfaction and Continuance (ESC) was found to be more significant other among factors (Wilk's lambda 0.871 and significance .004) and therefore has entered the step 1. Canonical discriminant function discriminant function
A function of a set of variables used to classify an object or event. (ESC) was used in the analysis on account of large coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. value among other functions. Since other factors Job Awareness and Commitment (JAC), Perceived Organizational Culture (POC), Perceived Job Motivators (PJM), Unconducive Work environment (UWE) were not used in the analysis their high coefficient functions were discarded dis·card
v. dis·card·ed, dis·card·ing, dis·cards
1. To throw away; reject.
a. To throw out (a playing card) from one's hand.
b. . The details are shown in table no. VIII.
On the basis of function at group centroids The following diagrams depict a list of centroids. A centroid of an object in , it can be seen that group 2 (Insurance) has the highest value (0.308) on ESC while group 4 (Finance) has the lowest (-0.596) indicative of insurance sales representatives are likely to have comparatively more positive perception on satisfaction in career. They enjoy more freedom in decision making; have more authorities and responsibilities, better compensation and work-life balance. They are more likely to continue in their jobs in comparison to other groups considered in the study while banking and pharmaceutical sales representatives are likely to have comparatively lesser positive perceptions on the above issues (as Banking sales representatives are still on the negative side are likely to be more negative than pharmaceutical sales representatives).
Our study attempted to construct and validate a consolidated scale to measure the major dimensions of Quality of working life of sales executives with minimum number of items, which is applicable to Indian sample. The factor analysis resulted in five factors indicating Employee satisfaction and continuance, Perceived job motivators, Job awareness and commitment, Unconducive work environment and Perceived organizational culture. Among the five factors Unconducive work environment was found to have negative items. These factors with 41 items accounted for 50.63 percent of total variance in the questionnaire. Nineteen items were omitted due to their multicollinearity.
The most important component of Quality of Working Life dealing with the organizational characteristics was found to be employee satisfaction and continuance (ESC). At the negative side of this continuum is unconducive work environment (UWE), which defines unsafe working environment, injustice, stress, under performance and insecurity, was found to be second important component of QWL. Whereas perceived job motivators (PJM) and job awareness and commitment (JAC) contributed equally and Perceived organizational culture (POC) was the least. It can also be observed through the inter-factor correlations, that all the factors are independent of each other, with item purity for the factors. The highest centroid centroid
In geometry, the centre of mass of a two-dimensional figure or three-dimensional solid. Thus the centroid of a two-dimensional figure represents the point at which it could be balanced if it were cut out of, for example, sheet metal. distance between the finance and the other groups, in the discriminant analysis is the indicative of the findings that perceived QWL among finance sales representatives is low when compared to the sales representatives of banking, pharmaceuticals and insurance. Discriminant analysis has also proved that the sales representatives among the four sectors differ only in their perception about Employee Satisfaction and Continuance (ESC), whereas their perceptions regarding Perceived Job Motivators (PJM), Job Awareness and Commitment (JAC), Unconducive Work Environment (UWE) and Perceived Organizational Culture (POC) were almost same irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite their sectors.
Thus the 5 factors of this scale, exhaustively estimates the perception of the sales executives on their Quality of working life in reference to the organizational characteristics. The observed factor outcomes define the subjectivity of the QWL construct and the integration of organizational, individual and social aspects.
* The sample size in comparison with the number of items is lower for factor analysis
* Lack of clarity of some constructs has led to its elimination, despite its assumed importance.
* The study was conducted exclusively in various locations of Mumbai as specified during September 2008 to January 2009.
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1. the science dealing with causes of disease.
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Table-I Dimensions of QWL and their Operational Definitions Dimensions Operational Definitions Economic Benefits(EB) Monetary income and financial rewards received for that ask accomplished Work Itself(WI) Nature of work and it's characteristics as per the occupational demand that leads to job satisfaction Working Work environment that influences the Conditions(WC) comfort and convenience on and at the job. Individual Notions that are bound to the individual's perspectives(IP) space and freedom for working to prove one's individuality and enhances confidence and continuity at work Opportunities for Opportunities to learn more and apply Development(0D) skills and abilities meaningfully and in a challenging way Work-life The hangover effect of job on personal Balance(WLB) life of the individual which may be either positive or negative Organizational The organization's climate, structure and Factors(0F) approach in the interest of the worker to promote the betterment of the business and employee Relationship The mutual understanding between the Management(RM) employer and the employee and among the employees that develops interdependency and curtails communication blockages Social The reference of the individual by the Identity(SI) organization in the society for the integrated achievement of one's personal and professional goals through the job Table-II General Information Category N Avg. Gender Mari. Avg. Age Status Experience M F M UM Pharmaceuticals 31 28.55 31 - 18 15 4.38 Insurance 25 28.08 19 8 12 13 5.20 Bank 18 35.89 15 3 18 2 12.17 Finance 28 28.31 15 11 14 12 4.42 Total 100 30.21 80 20 58 42 8.53 Table-III Mean Score Significance Category N Mean score SD T value P value Male 80 209.84 33.16 Female 20 201.86 36.50 0.96 0.339 NS Total 100 207.74 33.72 Table-IV Factor Analysis: Initial Solutions Factors Eigen percent of Cumulative Value Variance percent 1 10.855 18.092 18.092 2 5.928 9.877 27.970 3 5.711 9.518 37.487 4 5.579 9.298 48.785 5 2309 3.848 50.833 Extraction method: Principle Axis Analysis Table-V Pattern Matrix Variable Variable description ESC code VAR1 I am satisfied with my job 0.87 (b) VAR2 I am certain to continue in the 0.88 (b) current job VAR5 I have enough freedom of decision 0.70 (b) making in my job VAR.10 I have authority and responsibility 0.88 (b) in my job VAR.13 I find good job retaining potential 0.71 (b) in my company VAR.15 I find proper balance between work 0.80 (b) and leisure hours VAR.16 I believe I will be working here 0.89 (b) for the next 5 years VAR.26 I am contented with the HR policies 0.52 (b) of my company VAR.31 The company is flexible to my 0.80 (b) family responsibilities VAR.36 I receive enough opportunities to 0.80 (b) perform in my position VAR.40 My working atmosphere is novel 0.65 (b) and promising VAR.42 I am satisfied with the productivity 0.68 (b) of my department VAR.44 I meet the essential needs 0.50 (b) through my job VAR.14 I consult my higher authorities -0.02 regarding my job VAR.17 I am apprised for my best and 0.07 worst performance VAR.19 I win praise and respect of others 0.19 through my job VAR.22 I job provides me opportunity to 0.21 develop good communication VAR.27 The company clearly communicates 0.16 its goals to me VAR.39 My job requirements are clear 0.23 VAR.53 My department operates in cost -0.06 efficient manner VAR.55 I receive enough guidance and 0.22 instructions I need VAR4 I strive to meet the daily targets -0.09 and goals set for me VAR6 I am aware about the problems 0.11 regarding my job VARB I try to go beyond what is expected 0.30 to make customers happy VAR.24 lam motivated to see the company succeed 0.24 VAR.32 I respond quickly and courteously 0.30 to fulfill customer's needs VAR.50 I am aware of the daily operations 0.28 within my department VAR.18 I feel certain restrictions in my 0.25 work area sometimes VAR.21 I become vulnerable to the situations -0.01 in my work settings VAR.23 I feel stressful and overloaded 0.17 sometimes VAR.29 I feel hazardous regarding my -0.1 work environment VAR.33 I face some unfair actions and -0.38 decisions taken against me VAR.41 Despite of my effort I feel 0.08 unproductive VAR.43 I stand defenseless in some 0.25 situations VAR.46 I hesitate for certain tasks as I -0.04 dislike doing them VAR.52 I am under paid for my performance 0.36 VAR.54 I find my profile less challenging 0.20 and boring VAR.57 I am unsure about my career in 0.39 my company VAR3 Individual differences are respected 0.25 in my company VAR.58 Diverse perspective are valued 0.18 in my department VAR.59 Productive time spent working on the 0.32 tasks assigned to me Variable Variable description PJM code VAR1 I am satisfied with my job -0.09 VAR2 I am certain to continue in the 0.00 current job VAR5 I have enough freedom of decision -0.05 making in my job VAR.10 I have authority and responsibility 0.22 in my job VAR.13 I find good job retaining potential 0.18 in my company VAR.15 I find proper balance between work 0.27 and leisure hours VAR.16 I believe I will be working here 0.22 for the next 5 years VAR.26 I am contented with the HR policies -0.02 of my company VAR.31 The company is flexible to my 0.28 family responsibilities VAR.36 I receive enough opportunities to 0.35 perform in my position VAR.40 My working atmosphere is novel 0.35 and promising VAR.42 I am satisfied with the productivity 0.09 of my department VAR.44 I meet the essential needs 0.23 through my job VAR.14 I consult my higher authorities 0.49 (a) regarding my job VAR.17 I am apprised for my best and 0.43 (a) worst performance VAR.19 I win praise and respect of others 0.68 (b) through my job VAR.22 I job provides me opportunity to 0.61 (b) develop good communication VAR.27 The company clearly communicates 0.54 (b) its goals to me VAR.39 My job requirements are clear 0.70 VAR.53 My department operates in cost 0.43 efficient manner VAR.55 I receive enough guidance and 0.61 instructions I need VAR4 I strive to meet the daily targets 0.25 and goals set for me VAR6 I am aware about the problems 0.22 regarding my job VARB I try to go beyond what is expected 0.06 to make customers happy VAR.24 lam motivated to see the company succeed 0.21 VAR.32 I respond quickly and courteously 0.10 to fulfill customer's needs VAR.50 I am aware of the daily operations 0.32 within my department VAR.18 I feel certain restrictions in my -0.34 work area sometimes VAR.21 I become vulnerable to the situations -0.02 in my work settings VAR.23 I feel stressful and overloaded -0.01 sometimes VAR.29 I feel hazardous regarding my 0.13 work environment VAR.33 I face some unfair actions and -0.02 decisions taken against me VAR.41 Despite of my effort I feel 0.00 unproductive VAR.43 I stand defenseless in some 0.03 situations VAR.46 I hesitate for certain tasks as I -0.06 dislike doing them VAR.52 I am under paid for my performance 0.21 VAR.54 I find my profile less challenging 0.26 and boring VAR.57 I am unsure about my career in 0.24 my company VAR3 Individual differences are respected -0.1 in my company VAR.58 Diverse perspective are valued 0.07 in my department VAR.59 Productive time spent working on the 0.21 tasks assigned to me Variable Variable description JAC code VAR1 I am satisfied with my job 0.34 VAR2 I am certain to continue in the 0.17 current job VAR5 I have enough freedom of decision 0.37 making in my job VAR.10 I have authority and responsibility 0.28 in my job VAR.13 I find good job retaining potential 0.10 in my company VAR.15 I find proper balance between work 0.19 and leisure hours VAR.16 I believe I will be working here 0.02 for the next 5 years VAR.26 I am contented with the HR policies 0.28 of my company VAR.31 The company is flexible to my 0.17 family responsibilities VAR.36 I receive enough opportunities to 0.29 perform in my position VAR.40 My working atmosphere is novel 0.22 and promising VAR.42 I am satisfied with the productivity 0.38 of my department VAR.44 I meet the essential needs 0.39 through my job VAR.14 I consult my higher authorities 0.02 regarding my job VAR.17 I am apprised for my best and 0.05 worst performance VAR.19 I win praise and respect of others 0.15 through my job VAR.22 I job provides me opportunity to 0.31 develop good communication VAR.27 The company clearly communicates 0.22 its goals to me VAR.39 My job requirements are clear -0.02 (b) VAR.53 My department operates in cost -0.02 efficient manner VAR.55 I receive enough guidance and 0.13 (b) instructions I need VAR4 I strive to meet the daily targets 0.44 and goals set for me VAR6 I am aware about the problems 0.55 regarding my job VARB I try to go beyond what is expected 0.60 to make customers happy VAR.24 lam motivated to see the company succeed 0.58 VAR.32 I respond quickly and courteously 0.60 to fulfill customer's needs VAR.50 I am aware of the daily operations 0.67 within my department VAR.18 I feel certain restrictions in my 0.03 work area sometimes VAR.21 I become vulnerable to the situations 0.33 in my work settings VAR.23 I feel stressful and overloaded -0.01 sometimes VAR.29 I feel hazardous regarding my -0.03 work environment VAR.33 I face some unfair actions and 0.02 decisions taken against me VAR.41 Despite of my effort I feel 0.32 unproductive VAR.43 I stand defenseless in some 0.05 situations VAR.46 I hesitate for certain tasks as I -0.19 dislike doing them VAR.52 I am under paid for my performance 0.06 VAR.54 I find my profile less challenging 0.16 and boring VAR.57 I am unsure about my career in 0.00 my company VAR3 Individual differences are respected 0.17 in my company VAR.58 Diverse perspective are valued 0.12 in my department VAR.59 Productive time spent working on the 0.34 tasks assigned to me Variable Variable description UCW code VAR1 I am satisfied with my job 0.24 VAR2 I am certain to continue in the 0.18 current job VAR5 I have enough freedom of decision 0.04 making in my job VAR.10 I have authority and responsibility 0.03 in my job VAR.13 I find good job retaining potential 0.15 in my company VAR.15 I find proper balance between work 0.09 and leisure hours VAR.16 I believe I will be working here 0.14 for the next 5 years VAR.26 I am contented with the HR policies 0.18 of my company VAR.31 The company is flexible to my 0.10 family responsibilities VAR.36 I receive enough opportunities to 0.28 perform in my position VAR.40 My working atmosphere is novel 0.14 and promising VAR.42 I am satisfied with the productivity 0.06 of my department VAR.44 I meet the essential needs -0.02 through my job VAR.14 I consult my higher authorities -0.17 regarding my job VAR.17 I am apprised for my best and -0.14 worst performance VAR.19 I win praise and respect of others 0.09 through my job VAR.22 I job provides me opportunity to 0.06 develop good communication VAR.27 The company clearly communicates 0.04 its goals to me VAR.39 My job requirements are clear -0.01 VAR.53 My department operates in cost -0.21 efficient manner VAR.55 I receive enough guidance and 0.10 instructions I need VAR4 I strive to meet the daily targets -0.23 (a) and goals set for me VAR6 I am aware about the problems -0.23 (b) regarding my job VARB I try to go beyond what is expected 0.01 (b) to make customers happy VAR.24 lam motivated to see the company succeed 0.06 (b) VAR.32 I respond quickly and courteously 0.16 (b) to fulfill customer's needs VAR.50 I am aware of the daily operations 0.09 (b) within my department VAR.18 I feel certain restrictions in my 0.54 work area sometimes VAR.21 I become vulnerable to the situations 0.58 in my work settings VAR.23 I feel stressful and overloaded 0.56 sometimes VAR.29 I feel hazardous regarding my 0.61 work environment VAR.33 I face some unfair actions and 0.55 decisions taken against me VAR.41 Despite of my effort I feel 0.64 unproductive VAR.43 I stand defenseless in some 0.57 situations VAR.46 I hesitate for certain tasks as I 0.50 dislike doing them VAR.52 I am under paid for my performance 0.61 VAR.54 I find my profile less challenging 0.56 and boring VAR.57 I am unsure about my career in 0.69 my company VAR3 Individual differences are respected -0.01 in my company VAR.58 Diverse perspective are valued 0.12 in my department VAR.59 Productive time spent working on the 0.13 tasks assigned to me Variable Variable description POC code VAR1 I am satisfied with my job 0.17 VAR2 I am certain to continue in the 0.19 current job VAR5 I have enough freedom of decision 0.07 making in my job VAR.10 I have authority and responsibility 0.14 in my job VAR.13 I find good job retaining potential -0.01 in my company VAR.15 I find proper balance between work 0.13 and leisure hours VAR.16 I believe I will be working here 0.14 for the next 5 years VAR.26 I am contented with the HR policies 0.30 of my company VAR.31 The company is flexible to my 0.22 family responsibilities VAR.36 I receive enough opportunities to -0.01 perform in my position VAR.40 My working atmosphere is novel 0.04 and promising VAR.42 I am satisfied with the productivity 0.06 of my department VAR.44 I meet the essential needs 0.02 through my job VAR.14 I consult my higher authorities -0.02 regarding my job VAR.17 I am apprised for my best and 0.47 worst performance VAR.19 I win praise and respect of others 0.07 through my job VAR.22 I job provides me opportunity to 0.07 develop good communication VAR.27 The company clearly communicates 0.10 its goals to me VAR.39 My job requirements are clear -0.07 VAR.53 My department operates in cost 0.16 efficient manner VAR.55 I receive enough guidance and -0.11 instructions I need VAR4 I strive to meet the daily targets 0.10 and goals set for me VAR6 I am aware about the problems 0.10 regarding my job VARB I try to go beyond what is expected 0.19 to make customers happy VAR.24 lam motivated to see the company succeed -0.01 VAR.32 I respond quickly and courteously 0.05 to fulfill customer's needs VAR.50 I am aware of the daily operations 0.04 within my department VAR.18 I feel certain restrictions in my 0.06 (b) work area sometimes VAR.21 I become vulnerable to the situations -0.36 (b) in my work settings VAR.23 I feel stressful and overloaded 0.10 (b) sometimes VAR.29 I feel hazardous regarding my 0.02 (b) work environment VAR.33 I face some unfair actions and 0.17 (b) decisions taken against me VAR.41 Despite of my effort I feel -0.01 (b) unproductive VAR.43 I stand defenseless in some 0.19 (b) situations VAR.46 I hesitate for certain tasks as I -0.04 (b) dislike doing them VAR.52 I am under paid for my performance -0.22 (b) VAR.54 I find my profile less challenging -0.12 (b) and boring VAR.57 I am unsure about my career in -0.11 (b) my company VAR3 Individual differences are respected 0.58 (b) in my company VAR.58 Diverse perspective are valued 0.65 (b) in my department VAR.59 Productive time spent working on the 0.51 (b) tasks assigned to me Variable Variable description Communalities code VAR1 I am satisfied with my job 0.88 VAR2 I am certain to continue in the 0.53 current job VAR5 I have enough freedom of decision 0.83 making in my job VAR.10 I have authority and responsibility 0.58 in my job VAR.13 I find good job retaining potential 0.57 in my company VAR.15 I find proper balance between work 0.50 and leisure hours VAR.16 I believe I will be working here 0.57 for the next 5 years VAR.26 I am contented with the HR policies 0.48 of my company VAR.31 The company is flexible to my 0.52 family responsibilities VAR.36 I receive enough opportunities to 0.64 perform in my position VAR.40 My working atmosphere is novel 0.61 and promising VAR.42 I am satisfied with the productivity 0.62 of my department VAR.44 I meet the essential needs 0.46 through my job VAR.14 I consult my higher authorities 0.27 regarding my job VAR.17 I am apprised for my best and 0.43 worst performance VAR.19 I win praise and respect of others 0.54 through my job VAR.22 I job provides me opportunity to 0.51 develop good communication VAR.27 The company clearly communicates 0.37 its goals to me VAR.39 My job requirements are clear 0.56 VAR.53 My department operates in cost 0.26 efficient manner VAR.55 I receive enough guidance and 0.45 instructions I need VAR4 I strive to meet the daily targets 0.32 and goals set for me VAR6 I am aware about the problems 0.43 regarding my job VARB I try to go beyond what is expected 0.48 to make customers happy VAR.24 lam motivated to see the company succeed 0.45 VAR.32 I respond quickly and courteously 0.49 to fulfill customer's needs VAR.50 I am aware of the daily operations 0.64 within my department VAR.18 I feel certain restrictions in my 0.48 work area sometimes VAR.21 I become vulnerable to the situations 0.58 in my work settings VAR.23 I feel stressful and overloaded 0.35 sometimes VAR.29 I feel hazardous regarding my 0.40 work environment VAR.33 I face some unfair actions and 0.47 decisions taken against me VAR.41 Despite of my effort I feel 0.51 unproductive VAR.43 I stand defenseless in some 0.43 situations VAR.46 I hesitate for certain tasks as I 0.29 dislike doing them VAR.52 I am under paid for my performance 0.59 VAR.54 I find my profile less challenging 0.46 and boring VAR.57 I am unsure about my career in 0.70 my company VAR3 Individual differences are respected 0.44 in my company VAR.58 Diverse perspective are valued 0.49 in my department VAR.59 Productive time spent working on the 0.54 tasks assigned to me (a) Considered as high scores for that factor (b) Pure Rems Table-VI Communalities for Reasons Initial Extraction Communicate with family 1.000 .582 Communicate with friends 1.000 .750 Reconnect with old friends 1.000 .699 Leisure/Time pass 1.000 .728 Convenient than Phone/Email 1.000 .570 Entertain myself 1.000 .790 Share videos/ pictures/ music 1.000 .635 Make new friends 1.000 .612 Keep up-to-date with social happenings/events 1.000 .579 Explore possibility of a future relationship 1.000 .646 Business purpose 1.000 .689 Educational purpose 1.000 .656 Bully others 1.000 .413 Table-VII Inter-Factor Correlation Matrix Factors ESC PJM JAC UWE POC ESC 1.000 -0.301 -0.199 -0.199 -0.301 PJM -0.301 1.000 -0.301 -0.199 -0.199 JAC -0.199 -0.301 1.000 -0.301 -0.199 UWE -0.199 -0.199 -0.301 1.000 -0.301 POC -0.301 -0.199 -0.199 -0.301 1.000 Table-VIII Test of Equality of Group Means Factors Wilks Lambda F Value dfi Significance ESC 0.871 4.37 3 .004 PJM 0.978 0.779 3 .508 JAC 0.987 0.412 3 .745 UWE 0.939 2087 3 .110 POC 0.975 0.828 3 .483 Table-IX Canonical Discriminant Function Analysis Function Eigen percent Value Variance ESC=1 * .148 100.00 Function n ESC Banking 18 Insurance 25 Pharmaceuticals 31 Finance 26 Function CannonicalWilks Chi df Significance CorrelatioLambda Square ESC=1 * 0.359 0.871 13.304 3 .004 Function Standardized Discriminant Function Coefficient ** ESC Banking -0.058 Lower ESC Insurance 0.308 Highest ESC Pharmaceuticals 0.285 Moderate ESC Finance -0.596 Lowest ESC * First 1 canonical discriminant function were used in the analysis. ** On comparative basis FOR GENERAL COMPLETE INFORMATION Pooled within group correlations (between discriminating variables and Standardized Canonical discriminating function variables) ordered by absolute size of correlation with function significance which are not used in the analysis are also depicted below. JAC-.585, POC-.518, PJM-.482, UWE-.301 Figure-1 Number of research articles published in QWL from 1973-2002 Years No. of Publications 1973-1979 12 1980-1984 26 1985-1989 54 1990-1994 42 1995-2002 44
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