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An examination of legal cases involving the use of Tasers and stun guns on pretrial detainees.

Tasers and stun guns are conducted-energy devices used by jail all and prison officers to subdue inmates. As nonlethal weapons Weapons that are explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or material, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment. a. , Tasers and stun guns are not designed to inflict serious injury or permanent harm, but they have nevertheless caused deaths when used on individuals with existing or potential health problems. The Taser was developed by Jack Cover, an aerospace engineer, in the 1960s, for the purpose of providing an alternative to the handgun (Ready, White and Fisher, 2008). It has been controversial since its inception (Kornblum and Reddy, 1991). In fact, when the Taser first appeared in law enforcement, it was banned by the state legislatures of New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
 and Michigan (Johnston, 1981).

Stun guns are weapons similar to Tasers. The stun gun stun gun, hand-held electronic device that produces a high-voltage pulse that can immobilize a person for several minutes with no permanent damage in most cases.  is "an electrical self-defense device which sends out 50,000 volts to the body when pressed against the skin" (Kornblum and Reddy, 1991). Although it is commonly believed that Tasers and stun guns discharge 50,000 volts of electricity to the body, that may not be the case. According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 Williams (2008), both the M26 and the X26 Tasers have 50,000 peak open circuit voltage at the main capacitator that allows a spark to go through a gap between clothing and a person's body. However, he asserts that the weapons do not deliver 50,000 volts into a person's body. Williams (2008) claims that once the weapon is applied to the body and the spark crosses a gap, the TASER M26 model delivers a peak loaded voltage of 5,000 volts, and the TASER X26 model delivers a peak loaded voltage of 1,200 volts. The 50,000 peak open circuit voltage at the main capacitator is used to produce a spark of a lesser voltage that is applied to a person's body. Tasers and stun guns cause victims to lose control of their muscles, collapse and remain immobile im·mo·bile
adj.
1. Immovable; fixed.

2. Not moving; motionless.



immo·bil
 for a few minutes. The primary difference between the Taser and the stun gun is that the latter must be placed next to the subject's skin, while the former can be fired from up to a distance of 25 feet (Kornblum and Reddy, 1991; Williams, 2008).

Excessive use of force is embedded in the correctional officer subculture subculture /sub·cul·ture/ (sub´kul-chur) a culture of bacteria derived from another culture.

sub·cul·ture
n.
 (Marquart, 1986). During the hands-off era courts were reluctant to try or decide cases filed by prisoners. The position of the courts during this era is best reflected in an infamous Virginia Court decision, Ruffin v. Commonwealth (1871), where an inmate was declared to be a "slave of the state." This changed with the coming of the hands-on era between the late 1960s and early 1970s when issues like equal protection and due process revolutionized the attitude of the courts. Since this time, use-of-force lawsuits have become a major part of all inmate litigation An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.

When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation.
 (Robertson, 2006).

While there has been at least some discussion devoted to the use of electronic energy devices by law enforcement officers, very few studies have exclusively examined the use of these devices on pretrial pre·tri·al  
n.
A proceeding held before an official trial, especially to clarify points of law and facts.

adj.
1. Of or relating to a pretrial.

2.
 detainees in jail settings. Unlike inmates who have already been convicted, pretrial detainees are presumed innocent, and they therefore retain their constitutional right to be free from punishment even though they are confined (Bell v. Wolfish Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520 (1979)[1], is a case in which the United States Supreme Court found that it was not a violation of the Fourth Amendment to perform body cavity searches, strip searches, and the like on persons being held in prison pending a , 1979). While the excessive force claims of inmates are examined under the Eighth Amendment, those for pretrial detainees are usually governed by: the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard, as established in Graham v. Connor Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989) was a case decided by the United States Supreme Court, in which the court determined that an objective reasonableness standard should apply to a free citizen's claim that law enforcement officials used  (1989); the governmental policy or custom standard, as established in Monell v. Department of Social Services social services
Noun, pl

welfare services provided by local authorities or a state agency for people with particular social needs

social services nplservicios mpl sociales 
 of the City of New York (1978); and the failure to adequately train standard under City of Canton v. Harris (1989). This article explores jail officer liabilities for the use of Tasers and stun guns with regard to pretrial detainees.

A Primer on the Rights of Detainees

As Rosen (1990) writes, in the landmark case landmark case Law & medicine A civil or, far less commonly, criminal action that has had an impact on a particular area of medicine.  Bell v. Wolfish, "the Supreme Court for the first time explored the constitutional rights of pretrial detainees as a distinct group and articulated the principles that presently govern constitutional claims of jail inmates." The court ruled in Bell v. Wolfish (1979) that pretrial detainees retain their constitutional protections under the Fourth, Fifth and 14th Amendments, despite their confinement. This is because these detainees have not been found guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. Instead, pretrial detainees are held on the basis of probable cause Apparent facts discovered through logical inquiry that would lead a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that an accused person has committed a crime, thereby warranting his or her prosecution, or that a Cause of Action has accrued, justifying a civil lawsuit.  that they have committed the crimes for which they have been arrested. This is not the same as being proved guilty; therefore, pretrial detainees retain most of their constitutional rights. However, the U.S. Supreme Court has pointed out that "[a] detainee de·tain·ee  
n.
A person held in custody or confinement: a political detainee.

Noun 1. detainee - some held in custody
political detainee
 simply does not possess the full range of freedoms of an unincarcerated individual" (Bell v. Wolfish, 1979). Most pretrial detainees are placed in jail to ensure their presence at trial rather than to punish them (Rosen, 1990).

In the Bell case, pretrial detainees at the New York City New York City: see New York, city.
New York City

City (pop., 2000: 8,008,278), southeastern New York, at the mouth of the Hudson River. The largest city in the U.S.
 Metropolitan Correctional Center filed a suit alleging that their constitutional rights had been violated because the facility had been filled beyond its capacity and single bunks were replaced by double bunks in the cells and dormitories. The detainees alleged that their constitutional rights were violated because of crowding, undue length of confinement, improper searches, inadequate recreational facilities and lack of educational and employment opportunities. The court held that double-bunking, body-cavity searches and searches of detainees' quarters in their absence did not deprive pretrial detainees of their due process rights under the Fifth Amendment and their Fourth Amendment rights to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures. The court ruled, absent a showing of an expressed intent to punish, if a particular condition or restriction is reasonably related to a legitimate nonpunitive governmental objective, it does not amount to punishment and hence does not violate a pretrial detainee's due process rights under the Fifth Amendment. In fact, the core distinction between detainees and inmates with regard to their constitutional rights is that under the due process clause, detainees may not be punished without a prior adjudication The legal process of resolving a dispute. The formal giving or pronouncing of a judgment or decree in a court proceeding; also the judgment or decision given. The entry of a decree by a court in respect to the parties in a case.  of guilt (Bell v. Wolfish, 1979).

In Turner v. Safley Turner v. Safley, 482 U.S. 78 (1987), was a U.S. Supreme Court decision involving the constitutionality of prison regulations. Applying a lower standard of review due to the reduced liberty and greater security needs of the prison context, the Court upheld a regulation that  (1987), the Supreme Court ruled that in order to determine if a prison regulation that burdens constitutional rights is valid, a court has to examine whether it is reasonably related to legitimate penological pe·nol·o·gy also poe·nol·o·gy  
n.
The study, theory, and practice of prison management and criminal rehabilitation.



[Latin poena, penalty (from Greek
 objectives or whether it represents an exaggerated response to those concerns. In Turner, state inmates brought a class-action suit Noun 1. class-action suit - a lawsuit brought by a representative member of a large group of people on behalf of all members of the group
class action
 challenging regulations of the Missouri Division of Corrections that restricted inmate-to-inmate correspondence and allowed inmates to marry only if there were compelling reasons to do so. The court laid down a four-pronged test to determine reasonableness:

* There must be a valid rational connection between the prison regulation and the legitimate governmental interest put for ward to justify it;

* Whether there are alternative means of exercising the right that remains open to prison in mates;

* The impact that accommodation of the asserted constitutional right will have on correctional officers and other inmates and on the allocation of resources allocation of resources

Apportionment of productive assets among different uses. The issue of resource allocation arises as societies seek to balance limited resources (capital, labour, land) against the various and often unlimited wants of their members.
 generally; and

* The absence of ready alternatives to the prison regulation.

Accordingly, the court ruled that while the inmate-to-inmate correspondence was reasonably related to legitimate security concerns, the inmate marriage regulation was not related to any legitimate penological objective.

In Hause v. Vaught (1993), the 4th Circuit applied Turner v. Safley (1987) to pretrial detainees as the "Turner test still remains the default standard in First Amendment cases" (Robertson, 2007). In this case, Hause challenged the detention center's policy that did not allow detainees to receive books and periodicals in the mail as an infringement of his First Amendment rights. The policy was put in place to prevent the smuggling of contraband. Hause argued that receiving material sent by publishers provided an easy alternative. The 4th Circuit ruled that considering the brief period of time that detainees are confined, publications are likely to arrive in most cases after the detainee has been transferred to other facilities, thus causing an unnecessary administrative burden on the jail officers. Moreover, even though a publisher-only rule would prevent the smuggling of contraband, publications could still be used to start fires, the court pointed out. Applying Turner, the court ruled that the detention center's ban on outside publications was reasonably related to legitimate penological interests.

A standard for individual jail officer liability that is applied in cases of pretrial detainees by lower courts was set by the Supreme Court in Graham v. Connor (1989). In this case, there was evidence that Graham was physically hurt by law enforcement officers during an investigatory stop. Graham was a diabetic suffering from an insulin reaction Noun 1. insulin reaction - hypoglycemia produced by excessive insulin in the system causing coma
insulin shock

shock - (pathology) bodily collapse or near collapse caused by inadequate oxygen delivery to the cells; characterized by reduced cardiac output and
. During the traffic stop, Graham passed out briefly, and one of the officers who arrived at the scene rolled Graham over on the sidewalk and cuffed his hands tightly behind his back, ignoring the pleas of Graham's friend that he was diabetic. (1) During the encounter, Graham sustained a broken foot, cuts on his wrists, a bruised forehead and an injured shoulder. Thereafter, Graham filed a Section 1983 action, claiming his Fourth Amendment rights were violated. The court ruled that excessive force claims against the police should be analyzed under the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard, not the 14th Amendment's substantive due process The substantive limitations placed on the content or subject matter of state and federal laws by the Due Process Clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.  standard. Under objective reasonableness, the question is what an ordinary prudent police officer at the scene would have done in the same or similar situation. Because the standard for liability is objective reasonableness, not subjective reasonableness, the specific officer's mindset mind·set or mind-set
n.
1. A fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person's responses to and interpretations of situations.

2. An inclination or a habit.
 at the scene is irrelevant. The court held that the relevant inquiry focuses on what the hypothetical reasonable officer with the proper training, experience and foresight would have done. Although they are confined, pretrial detainees retain their constitutional rights and, hence, the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard affords protection to them.

Departmental liability for the use of Tasers and stun guns against detainees is deficient policy, procedure and custom, leading to constitutional deprivations. Lower courts have followed Monell v. Department of Social Services of the City of New York (1978), which established that a Monell violation occurs when an agency articulates an official policy and that policy causes constitutional injury. In addition, nonofficial customs and procedures have the same weight as official policies when causing constitutional violations. In this case, female employees of the Department of Social Services and the Board of Education of the City of New York objected to official policies that required pregnant employees to take unpaid leaves of absence before those leaves were required for medical reasons. The district court and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit found the policy unconstitutional, but denied claims for back pay. The Supreme Court observed that the touchstone for a Section 1983 action to succeed against a governmental entity is that the official policy must be responsible for the constitutional deprivation. In Monell, the deprivation arose out of an official policy; thus, the local government was held liable. Monell was highly significant because it opened the liability floodgates for lawsuits against cities and counties (del Carmen, 1991; Kappeler, 2001).

Failure to adequately train jail officers may result in governmental liability, especially for the use of Tasers and stun guns. The Supreme Court's leading case on failure to train is City of Canton v. Harris (1989). The issue before the Supreme Court was whether the training program provided by the city of Canton, Ohio Canton is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Stark CountyGR6. The municipality is located in northeastern Ohio and is situated on the Nimishillen Creek, approximately 24 miles (38 km) south of Akron[4] , to its police officers was adequate. In this case, the facts showed that Geraldine Harris was in need of medical attention when she was arrested and taken to jail. Harris was found sitting on the floor of the patrol wagon, she slumped to the floor twice inside the station, and after her release from police custody without any medical care Harris was taken by an ambulance (provided by her family) to a nearby hospital. There, Harris was diagnosed with several emotional ailments, resulting in hospitalization for one week and outpatient treatment for a year. Harris sued under the legal theory that a person has a right to receive medical attention while in police custody. Citing Monell's rule, that a city may be liable under Section 1983 when policies or customs cause constitutional deprivations, the court held that the training provided to the city's police officers was clearly inadequate. The court ruled that such lawsuits can only yield liability against a municipality when the city's failure to train reflects deliberate indifference to the constitutional rights of its inhabitants.

Despite most courts following the objective reasonableness standard laid down by Graham, some courts have refused to apply this standard to pretrial detainees. The 4th Circuit Court of Appeals observed, "The point at which Fourth Amendment protections end and Fourteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment, addition to the U.S. Constitution, adopted 1868. The amendment comprises five sections. Section 1


Section 1 of the amendment declares that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens and citizens
 protections begin is often murky" (Orem v. Rephann, 2008). According to the 4th Circuit, once arrested, the Fourth Amendment protections cease and the 14th Amendment due process clause applies (Orem v. Rephann, 2008). Courts have also used the de minimis An abbreviated form of the Latin Maxim de minimis non curat lex, "the law cares not for small things." A legal doctrine by which a court refuses to consider trifling matters.  injury standard to Find jail officer's liable. Where the injury is de minimis, officers cannot be found liable (Valentine v. Richardson, 2008).

Methods

A sample of 19 cases on jail officers' use of Taser and stun guns under Section 1983 is examined in this paper. The cases were obtained by cross-referencing Westlaw Campus and LexisNexis. Searches were performed on the terms "taser" "Section 1983," "jail" and "stun gun." The search terms were executed for all federal cases. Not all the cases returned by the searches were Taseror stun-gun-related cases. These were immediately eliminated from further consideration in this analysis. Additionally, cases that involved Tasers or stun guns but did not relate to jail officers were not considered in this analysis. The researchers systematically examined the summaries of each of the cases returned by the searches to select the appropriate ones for this study. So far, none of the cases has reached the Supreme Court. The cases examined in this article are lower federal court cases decided in the U.S. District Courts and U.S. Courts of Appeals. They are broadly divided into cases in which the courts ruled against jail officers at this stage of the proceedings and cases in which they ruled in favor of jail officers.

Court Rulings Against Jail Officers

Excessive use of force: Objective reasonableness standards and conflicting versions of events. Tasering of an arrested person by police officers for being verbally unruly and refusing to wear a jail uniform is objectively unreasonable. In Stephens v. City of Butler, Alabama (2007), an arrestee ARRESTEE, law of Scotland. He in whose hands a debt, or property in his possession, has been arrested by a regular arrestment. If, in contempt of the arrestment, he shall make payment of the sum, or deliver the goods arrested to the common debtor, he is not only liable criminally for  was tasered four times by two police officers after he was brought to jail. The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Alabama applied the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard to this case as the plaintiff, a pretrial detainee, was under the control of the police officers who were making the arrest report. Applying Graham, the court looked at the reason for the application of the Taser. Although the plaintiff was charged with running over senior citizens and handicapped persons in his vehicle, the event that triggered the tasering was the plaintiffs refusal to wear a jail uniform. Considering the second factor (2) laid down by Graham, the District Court observed that the plaintiff did not pose an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others. He was unarmed and confined in a small room in the jail surrounded by three police officers. Third, the plaintiff was not actively resisting arrest resisting arrest n. the crime of using physical force (no matter how slight in the eyes of most law enforcement officers) to prevent arrest, handcuffing and/or taking the accused to jail.  nor was he attempting to flee from the interior room of the jail. Examining the totality of the circumstances, the court ruled that repeatedly applying a Taser on an unarmed person in police custody, surrounded by three police officers within the confines of a jail was "objectively unreasonable and excessive, particularly where the use of force was over something as minor as being verbally unruly and refusing to don jail The Toronto Jail (also known by the nickname The Don, or in the media as the The Don Jail for clarity) is a provincial jail for remanded offenders in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  garb." The plaintiff after all had made no effort to escape and was posing no threat to the safety of any officer. Accordingly, the District Court refused to grant summary judgment to the defendants.

Although the Supreme Court is not clear at which point after arrest the Fourth Amendment ceases to protect an individual, the 6th Circuit has held that the protection extends to the entire time the individual is in the custody of the arresting officers (McDowell v. Rogers, 1988). In Harris v. City of Circleville (2008), Harris, a pretrial detainee, sustained a spinal cord injury Spinal Cord Injury Definition

Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord that causes loss of sensation and motor control.
Description

Approximately 10,000 new spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur each year in the United States.
 while being booked at the Circleville Jail. Passively resisting the officers, Harris refused to allow them to take away his belongings. Once Harris was on the ground, the officers used Tasers on his back. He could not move. The officers ignored his protests and removed the arrestee's belongings from his person. Harris was left on the floor for 80 minutes, after which he was taken to a hospital. He underwent surgery, but there was permanent injury to his spinal cord spinal cord, the part of the nervous system occupying the hollow interior (vertebral canal) of the series of vertebrae that form the spinal column, technically known as the vertebral column. . Harris filed a Section 1983 action for excessive use of force against the officers. Since Harris was injured at the very beginning of the booking process in the presence of the arresting officers, the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Ohio The District of Ohio was a federal judicial district of the United States created by the Federal Judiciary Act of 1801 which consisted of the Northwest and Indiana Territories.  held that Harris' excessive force claim would be governed by the Fourth Amendment. Applying Graham to this case, the court found that the actions of the officers were objectively unreasonable. The court observed that Harris was not accused of a serious crime. He did not pose an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others and was already handcuffed and inside a jail cell surrounded by several officers. Although Harris was verbally protesting, there was no evidence showing that he was violent or combative. Ruling the defendants were not entitled to qualified immunity Qualified immunity is a doctrine in United States law providing immunity from suit to government officials performing discretionary functions when their action did not violate clearly established law. Qualified immunity was created by the U.S. , the court cited McDowell (1988), where the 6th Circuit held that the need for force is nonexistent non·ex·is·tence  
n.
1. The condition of not existing.

2. Something that does not exist.



non
 when a handcuffed arrestee is not trying to escape or hurt anyone.

Whenever a plaintiff alleges that he or she presented no threat and that the use of force on the plaintiff was excessive, while the defendant claims that the force used was as per departmental policies, there are genuine issues of material fact, and summary judgment cannot be granted. Issues of material fact exist when there is a dispute about important facts of the case; that is, when the two parties have different versions of the relevant events. Summary judgment is usually granted when there are no factual disputes and the parties agree as to the relevant facts of the case. Once the court is convinced that there are no factual disputes, it will apply the law and rule on the motion for summary judgment motion for summary judgment n. a written request for a judgment in the moving party's favor before a lawsuit goes to trial and based on recorded (testimony outside court) affidavits (or declarations under penalty of perjury), depositions, admissions of fact, answers . Such judgments are resorted to for the sake of speedy justice.

In Pipkins Pipkins (originally Inigo Pipkin) was a British children's TV programme. Hartley Hare, Pig, Topov and the gang, were the stars of ATV's legendary pre-school series which ran from January 1973 to 29 December 1981.  v. Pike County, Arkansas (2007), the plaintiff alleged that her constitutional rights were violated while she was incarcerated incarcerated /in·car·cer·at·ed/ (in-kahr´ser-at?ed) imprisoned; constricted; subjected to incarceration.

in·car·cer·at·ed
adj.
Confined or trapped, as a hernia.
 in the Pike County Jail. At about 1:40 a.m. on the night of the event, the defendants allegedly entered the plaintiffs cell. She was lying on the floor. The plaintiff alleged that the defendants used a Taser on her several times even though she was not presenting any threat. The department conducted an investigation and concluded that the officers were acting as per departmental policies. The plaintiff filed a Section 1983 action for excessive use of force by the defendants. The U.S. District Court for the Western District of Arkansas applied Kuha v. City of Minnetonka (2004), which held that an excessive force claim is analyzed under the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard. According to Kuha, the relevant inquiry is whether the plaintiff provided sufficient proof to show that the defendant's use of force was objectively unreasonable. In examining the case at hand, the District Court found that the plaintiff did provide documents showing that she was not acting in an uncontrolled or dangerous manner. Moreover, the court found that there were genuine issues of material fact as to the events that led up to the defendants using the Taser on the plaintiff. As such, viewing the plaint PLAINT, Eng. law. The exhibiting of any action, real or personal, in writing; the party making his plaint is called the plaintiff.  in the light most favorable to the plaintiff, the court denied summary judgment to the defendants.

Summary judgment cannot be granted when there are genuine issues of material facts. In Ndaula v. Holliday (2007), Ndaula, an immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important.  and customs enforcement detainee, considered equivalent to a pretrial detainee, alleged that excessive force was used against him by a "gang" of correctional officers when he was in his dorm drinking coffee while two wardens were present. Ndaula claims he was beaten and shocked with a Taser. After the incident, he was denied medical care. Analyzing the facts of the case, the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Louisiana The District of Louisiana or Louisiana District was an official United States government designation for the portion of the Louisiana Purchase that had not been organized into Orleans Territory. The area north of present-day Arkansas was also known as Upper Louisiana.  held that since the affidavits submitted by Ndaula and the medical record reflecting complaints of pain refute the affidavits submitted by the defendants, there are genuine issues of material fact that preclude a summary judgment in favor of the defendants.

Use of force by jail officials against an inmate for being a sex offender sex offender n. generic term for all persons convicted of crimes involving sex, including rape, molestation, sexual harassment and pornography production or distribution.  is excessive and unreasonable. In Burr v. Hill (2005), Burr was rearrested for failing to register as a sex offender. While Burr was housed in the Dallas County Dallas County is the name of five counties in the United States of America:
  • Named for Vice President of the United States of America George M. Dallas:
  • Dallas County, Arkansas
 Jail, jail officials double-cuffed his hands behind his back, dragged him through the jail and threatened to use a Taser against him, saying that was the treatment a child molester Noun 1. child molester - a man who has sex (usually sodomy) with a boy as the passive partner
paederast, pederast

degenerate, deviant, deviate, pervert - a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior
 got in prison. As a result of this incident, Burr suffered from serious injuries for which he had to be taken to the Parkland Hospital. Without judging on the merits on the merits adj. referring to a judgment, decision or ruling of a court based upon the facts presented in evidence and the law applied to that evidence. A judge decides a case "on the merits" when he/she bases the decision on the fundamental issues and considers , the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Texas determined that Burr had sufficiently stated an excessive force claim against the jail officers. Accordingly, the court allowed Burr to proceed with his excessive force claim.

Where there is a genuine issue of material fact as to whether an individual is subjected to use of a Taser inappropriately, summary judgment cannot be granted. In Castaneda v. Douglas County Sheriff's Investigator Rory Planeta (2007), the plaintiff alleged that a Taser was used on him during the booking process at the jail even though he was compliant. Moreover, he was not told that he would be subjected to Taser. The defendants contend that the plaintiff was highly combative during the booking process and was repeatedly warned that a Taser would be used if he did not stop resisting. Once the Taser was used, the plaintiff became compliant and followed orders. The plaintiff filed a Section 1983 action for inappropriate use of the Taser. Looking at the facts of the case, the U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada noted that a material issue of fact existed regarding whether the plaintiff was subjected to use of a Taser inappropriately. Accordingly, the court refused to grant summary judgment to the defendants.

When filing a Section 1983 suit for excessive use of force, a plaintiff must specify each individual responsible for the excessive force and show an affirmative link between the injury suffered and that conduct (Rizzo v. Goode, 1976). In Monroe v. Arpaio (2005), Monroe was tasered shortly after he was housed in a jail. Monroe asserts that he sustained scars on his back from the Taser. Monroe filed a Section 1983 action for excessive use of force. The U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona acknowledged that given the circumstances, Monroe could have a claim for excessive use of force. However, applying Rizzo, the court noted that for Monroe's claim to survive, he must connect the claim to the named defendants. Accordingly, the court advised Monroe to name the defendants in their individual capacities and mention what each individual did or failed to do.

In Orem v. Rephann (2008), the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals applied the 14th Amendment's due process clause instead of the Fourth Amendment in an excessive use of force claim against Officer Rephann. Orem was arrested for disrupting and assaulting an officer after being served with a family protective order. While Orem was being transported to the West Virginia West Virginia, E central state of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania and Maryland (N), Virginia (E and S), and Kentucky and, across the Ohio R., Ohio (W). Facts and Figures


Area, 24,181 sq mi (62,629 sq km). Pop.
 Regional Jail, Rephann tasered Orem twice, underneath her left breast and on her left inner thigh. During this time, Orem, 27 years old and 100 pounds in weight, was in a police car with handcuffs and a foot restraint device on her. Rephann, on the other hand, weighed 280 pounds. The District Court found the use of force unreasonable and in violation of Orem's Fourth Amendment rights. Accordingly, the court denied summary judgment to Rephann. Rephalm appealed to the 4th Circuit Court of Appeals. Citing Riley v. Dorton (1997), the court pointed out that Fourth Amendment protections did not extend to arrestees and pretrial detainees. Considering the factors laid down in Johnson v. Glick (3) (1973), the 4th Circuit concluded that Rephann's actions were not a good faith attempt to restore order, but unnecessary and wanton Grossly careless or negligent; reckless; malicious.

The term wanton implies a reckless disregard for the consequences of one's behavior. A wanton act is one done in heedless disregard for the life, limbs, health, safety, reputation, or property rights of
.

Court Rulings in Favor of Jail Officers

Actions reasonably related to a legitimate goal. Pretrial detainees are not considered guilty beyond a reasonable doubt, and they therefore retain their constitutional right to be free from punishment, even though they are confined (Bell v. Wolfish, 1979). In Davis v. Lancaster County, Nebraska Lancaster County is a county located in the U.S. state of Nebraska. As of 2000, the population was 250,291. The 2005 population estimate puts Lancaster County at 264,814. Its county seat is Lincoln6, which is also the capital of Nebraska.  (2007), Davis, a pretrial detainee, was allegedly kicked, punched and tasered while he was taken to his holding cell. The defendants argued that Davis was restrained to maintain order and security at the jail. In Bell v. Wolfish (1979), the Supreme Court recognized that "Ensuring security and order at [an] institution is a permissible nonpunitive objective, whether the facility houses pretrial detainees, convicted inmates, or both." Thus, the U.S. District Court for the District of Nebraska found the defendants' actions reasonably related to furthering a legitimate purpose of maintaining order and security. Accordingly, the defendants were granted summary judgment.

Objective reasonableness, governmental policy or custom, and failure to train standard for pretrial detainees. Excessive force claims of pretrial detainees are examined under the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard. In Bustamante v. Roman (2008), the plaintiff alleged that a Taser was applied by unidentified police officers on his testicles Testicles
Also called testes or gonads, they are part of the male reproductive system, and are located beneath the penis in the scrotum.

Mentioned in: Testicular Cancer, Testicular Surgery, Vasectomy
 during the course of his arrest, which led to one of his testicles being removed. The plaintiff filed a Section 1983 action against the police. Citing Lolli v. County of Orange (2003), the U.S. District Court for the District of Arizona observed that the Fourth Amendment applies to excessive force claims of pretrial detainees. The court observed that the plaintiff failed to allege facts supporting his claim that the force used was objectively unreasonable under the circumstances. He also failed to connect any of the named defendants to the alleged excessive force. Citing Rizzo v. Goode (1976), the court noted that in an action under Section 1983, a plaintiff must allege that he or she suffered a specific injury as a result of the conduct of a particular defendant and must allege a link between the alleged injury and conduct of the defendant. Since the plaintiff failed to connect any of the defendants with the alleged injury, the court found that the plaintiff failed to state a claim for violation of his constitutional rights. Hence, the complaint was dismissed.

In Tyson v. Dykes (2007), inmate Tyson claims that he had called the sheriffs office as armed men were chasing him on his property. However, when the officers arrived, they used excessive force against Tyson and arrested him. Tyson filed a Section 1983 suit against the sheriff for tolerating and encouraging civil rights violations by his officers. He alleged that Sheriff Dykes was on notice about the tasering of pretrial detainees but chose to ignore it. Citing Burge v. St. Tammany Parish (2003), the court noted that claims of inadequate training and supervision generally require a showing of more than a single incident (Monell, 1978). The court observed that Tyson has not presented any evidence showing a pattern in Dykes' conduct to defeat his plea for qualified immunity.

If a violation of constitutional rights takes place, it is imperative for a plaintiff to specify whether this act occurred before or after he or she was taken into custody. Accordingly, different legal standards apply. In Poteet v. Polk County, Tennessee Polk County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee. The county had a population of 16,050 in 2000. Its county seat is Benton6.

It is included in the Cleveland, Tennessee Metropolitan Statistical Area. Geography
According to the U.S.
 (2007), inmate Poteet was tasered by McMinn County officers for giving chase, and Poteet was subsequently hospitalized and incarcerated. The officers stated that Poteet was intoxicated in·tox·i·cate  
v. in·tox·i·cat·ed, in·tox·i·cat·ing, in·tox·i·cates

v.tr.
1. To stupefy or excite by the action of a chemical substance such as alcohol.

2.
 at the time he was booked. In fact, the officer at the county jail could not complete the booking process because of Poteet's drunkenness. Poteet filed a Section 1983 suit for excessive use of force in arresting and detaining him, claiming that his constitutional rights were violated. The defendants moved for summary judgment, claiming that they were shielded by the doctrine of qualified immunity. The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee observed that the predicament of the plaintiff at the time of the incident has to be taken into consideration. If the plaintiff was a free person at the time of the incident, the Graham standard would apply for a violation of Fourth Amendment rights. However, if the incident took place while the plaintiff was in custody after conviction, the Eighth Amendment's cruel and unusual punishment Such punishment as would amount to torture or barbarity, any cruel and degrading punishment not known to the Common Law, or any fine, penalty, confinement, or treatment that is so disproportionate to the offense as to shock the moral sense of the community.  clause would apply. The court found no evidence to show that Poteet was abused or that there was excessive force used against him. Accordingly, the complaint was dismissed.

The standard that governs excessive force claims for pretrial detainees has not yet been made clear by the 8th Circuit. "Between arrest and sentencing lies something of a legal twilight zone twilight zone - [IRC] Notionally, the area of cyberspace where IRC operators live. An op is said to have a "connection to the twilight zone". " (Wilson v. Spain, 2000). In McBride v. Clark (2006), officers applied a stun gun to McBride, a pretrial detainee, for creating a disturbance in the detention center A detention center or a detention centre is any location used for detention. Specifically, it can mean:
  • A prison
  • A structure for immigration detention
  • An internment camp or concentration camp
. The officers were trained in the use of Tasers and stun guns. McBride filed a Section 1983 suit against the officers for excessive use of force. The parties to the suit disagreed on the appropriate governing standard for the excessive use of force. While McBride contended that the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard applied, the defendant argued that the Eighth Amendment's cruel and unusual punishment standard applied. In this case, the plaintiff was being held on warrant for suspicion of drug-related offenses. As such, he was not technically a pretrial detainee. Under such circumstances, the 8th Circuit has applied the Fourth Amendment standard. Accordingly, the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Montana applied the Fourth Amendment's objective reasonableness standard. Reviewing the facts of the case, the court observed that McBride was yelling vulgarities and, after being told that he had hepatitis C Hepatitis C Definition

Hepatitis C is a form of liver inflammation that causes primarily a long-lasting (chronic) disease. Acute (newly developed) hepatitis C is rarely observed as the early disease is generally quite mild.
, he removed his IV and caused himself to bleed. Under the circumstances, the officer's action was objectively reasonable.

The use of stun guns by prison officials to subdue a violent pretrial detainee does not violate the detainee's constitutional rights. In Birdine v. Gray (2005), Birdine, a pretrial detainee, was incarcerated at the Lancaster County Lancaster County is the name of four counties in the United States:
  • Lancaster County, Nebraska
  • Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
  • Lancaster County, South Carolina
  • Lancaster County, Virginia
 Jail. Due to violent behavior toward correctional officers, a stun gun was applied to Birdine on two occasions by an officer trained in its use. Birdine was first shocked soon after he was taken to a cell in the holding area. As the officers tried to take off his handcuffs, he started resisting them physically. Birdine was shocked a second time immediately after the officers left his cell in the holding area. He created a disturbance by banging and kicking the door. He refused to follow instructions and was attempting to destroy the light fixture in his cell. At that point, officers trained in the use of stun guns shocked Birdine for the second time in order to subdue him. Birdine filed a Section 1983 suit against the officers for excessive use of force. Citing Jasper v. Thalacker (1993), the U.S. District Court for the District of Nebraska concluded that the use of stun guns on Birdine did not violate the Constitution. Moreover, the court observed that in neither occasion did the stun gun use cause any significant injury to Birdine. Also, the force used was commensurate to the risk posed, and not excessive, observed the court. Accordingly, the court concluded that Birdine's constitutional rights as a pretrial detainee were not violated, and hence, his suit was dismissed.

For an excessive use of force claim under Section 1983, it is necessary to name the defendants who used excessive force. If the department is named, it will be a municipal liability case, and under Monell, a plaintiff must show a policy, custom, practice or procedure that can be linked to the constitutional violation complained of. In Goodwin v. Hamilton County Hamilton County is the name of a number of counties in the United States of America, named for Alexander Hamilton, first United States Secretary of the Treasury (except as indicated below):
  • Hamilton County, Florida
  • Hamilton County, Illinois
 (2005), Goodwin, an inmate of the Hamilton County Jail, was transported to a medical facility. Upon reaching the facility, the officers initially refused to release him. Later, they did let him out of the cruiser but with handcuffs. Goodwin alleges that soon after he got out of the cruiser, several officers tasered him, applied pepper spray, and kicked and choked him. Goodwin Fried a Section 1983 suit for excessive use of force against the sheriffs department. The U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Tennessee directed Goodwin to rile an amended complaint amended complaint n. what results when the party suing (plaintiff or petitioner) changes the complaint he/she has filed. It must be in writing, and can be done before the complaint is served on any defendant, by agreement between the parties (usually their lawyers),  naming all the defendants who used excessive force against him. In the second amended complaint, Goodwin named the officer who transported him to the medical facility, but did not seek monetary damages Monetary damages, in civil law, refers to compensation given to an injured party by a liable party. Monetary damages may be restitution, a penalty, or both. , and did not clarify if he was being sued in his official or individual capacity. As such, the court assumed that the officer was being sued in his official capacity. In that case, the court must proceed as if Goodwin has sued the county itself. In order to prevail on a suit against a county, the plaintiff must show that the constitutional violation was a result of an official custom or policy adopted by the county. Goodwin failed to show that the alleged violation of his rights was a result of Hamilton County's official custom or policy. Accordingly, the defendants were granted summary judgment.

The principle of respondeat superior [Latin, Let the master answer.] A common-law doctrine that makes an employer liable for the actions of an employee when the actions take place within the scope of employment.

The common-law doctrine of respondeat superior
 does not apply to Section 1983 actions. In Ramirez v. Johnson (2007), inmate Ramirez filed a complaint about an event that occurred while he was a pretrial detainee. Ramirez alleged that he was handcuffed, beaten and tasered for taking a sandwich that did not belong to him from the jail's food cart A food cart is a mobile kitchen that is set up on the street to facilitate the sale and marketing of street food to people from the local pedestrian traffic. They are often found in large cities through out the world and can be found to sell food of just about any variety. . He filed a Section 1983 suit for excessive use of force against the sheriff. Citing Polk County Polk County is the name of twelve counties in the United States, all except two named after president of the United States James Knox Polk:
  • Polk County, Arkansas
  • Polk County, Florida
  • Polk County, Georgia
  • Polk County, Iowa
  • Polk County, Minnesota
 v. Dodson (1981), Cottone v. Jenne (2003) and Harris v. Ostrout (1995), the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of Florida observed that "respondeat superior, without more, does not provide a basis for recovery under Section 1983" (Ramirez v. Johnson, 2007). The mere right to control without any direct participation does not lead to Section 1983 liability. Accordingly, advising the plaintiff to file an amended complaint, the court held that unless the plaintiff alleges facts establishing a causal connection between the actions of Sheriff Johnson and the alleged constitutional violation, the complaint will fail.

In addition to the above holding, the court has also ruled that applying a Taser to a mentally ill inmate is not a violation of his or her constitutional rights as long as it does not amount to deliberate indifference to the inmate's serious medical needs. In Burkett v. Alachua County (2007), the mother of a detainee who died while in jail filed a Section 1983 suit for excessive use of force and deliberate indifference to the detainee's mental health. Mark Burkett, the detainee, was agitated ag·i·tate  
v. ag·i·tat·ed, ag·i·tat·ing, ag·i·tates

v.tr.
1. To cause to move with violence or sudden force.

2.
 in his cell when officers came to take him for his first appearance before the judge. The officers shot Burkett with a Taser to handcuff him. At court, the judge ordered that Burkett be given a mental health evaluation and a blood sample be drawn from him. Later, when officers and a nurse tried to take blood from Burkett at his cell, he was highly agitated and resisted the officers. An officer used a stun gun on him while other officers placed him into a three-point restraint. Soon after, Burkett stopped breathing. Medical personnel conducted CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) Definition

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a procedure to support and maintain breathing and circulation for a person who has stopped breathing (respiratory arrest) and/or whose heart has stopped (cardiac
 on him, but he was declared dead at the hospital. Burkett's mother filed a Section 1983 suit. The 11th Circuit, in assessing the standard for excessive use of force, quoted Lee v. Ferraro (2002), which stated that the inquiry should be to "ask whether a reasonable officer would believe that [the] level of force [was] necessary in the situation at hand." The 11th Circuit observed that considering Burkett's agitation when officers entered his cell, his earlier aggression and his altered mental state, an officer could have believed that the use of force was reasonably necessary. Accordingly, the court held that the use of force was not excessive in violation of the Fourth Amendment, even though the detainee died in the process.

The de minimis standard. For an excessive force claim to succeed under Section 1983, there must be more than de minimis injury. In Valentine v. Richardson (2008), Valentine, a pretrial detainee, claimed that he was severely beaten by officers using stun guns and billy clubs. He was taken to the hospital the next day after he had seizures. Valentine filed a Section 1983 action against the officers for excessive use of force. Relying on hospital reports, the District Court concluded that Valentine had not been subjected to excessive force since there was no evidence of any bruising or injuries from the alleged assault. The court noted that even if Valentine was assaulted, his injuries were de minimis. After reviewing the magistrate judge's report, the U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures


Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15.
 granted the defendants' motion for summary judgment.

Excessive force claims in prisons do not survive if the injury is de minimis. In Henderson v. Gordineer (2007), Henderson, a pretrial detainee, had a skin problem. He alleged that his whole body was itching and that the defendants were deliberately indifferent to his medical needs. On the day of the incident, Henderson claims that he was distressed and, so, snatched some pills from Nurse Hudson and swallowed them. Detention officers threatened to taser him if he did not stop running and spit out Verb 1. spit out - spit up in an explosive manner
splutter, sputter

cough out, cough up, expectorate, spit up, spit out - discharge (phlegm or sputum) from the lungs and out of the mouth

2.
 the pills. Since he refused to do either, he was tasered once. Soon after, the Taser prongs were removed, he was medically examined and there was no injury found from the Taser. Henderson later filed a Section 1983 suit for excessive use of force against the detention officers for misuse of the Taser. The U.S. District Court for the District of South Carolina applied the 4th Circuit decision of Norman v. Taylor (1994), which held that absent the most extraordinary circumstances, excessive force claims do not lie where the injury is de minimis. The Norman decision was based on a convicted inmate. The District Court ruled that the de minimis injury standard may also be applicable to pretrial detainees. Quoting Norman, the court observed that with de minimis physical injury, an inmate may recover only if the conduct resulted in "an impermissible im·per·mis·si·ble  
adj.
Not permitted; not permissible: impermissible behavior.



im
 infliction in·flic·tion  
n.
1. The act or process of imposing or meting out something unpleasant.

2. Something, such as punishment, that is inflicted.

Noun 1.
 of pain" or was "repugnant REPUGNANT. That which is contrary to something else; a repugnant condition is one contrary to the contract itself; as, if I grant you a house and lot in fee, upon condition that you shall not aliens, the condition is repugnant and void. Bac. Ab. Conditions, L.  to the conscience of mankind" (Norman v. Taylor, 1994). The use of a Taser device was also reasonable under the circumstances to gain control of Henderson. Accordingly, the defendants' motion for summary judgment was granted.

Conclusion

There are eight cases in this study that show circumstances where the courts found the use of Tasers and stun guns by jail officers to be inappropriate. Tasering a pretrial detainee in the back that resulted in permanent injury to his spinal cord, when he was only passively resisting, is objectively unreasonable (Harris v. City of Circleville, 2008). Tasering a person without provocation when she was lying on the floor of her cell at night is objectively unreasonable (Pipkins v. Pike County, Arkansas, 2007). Being shocked by a "gang" of correctional officers when the plaintiff was in his dorm drinking coffee is objectively unreasonable (Ndaula v. Holliday, 2007). Dragging and threatening to taser a sex offender who was real Tested for failing to register as a sex offender is excessive use of force (Burr v. Hill, 2005). Where the plaintiff was tasered during the booking process at a jail even though he was compliant raises questions of inappropriate use of a Taser device (Castaneda v. Douglas County Sheriffs Investigator Rory Planeta, 2007).

In 11 cases, the courts ruled in favor of prison officials. Where a pretrial detainee was kicked, punched and tasered while being taken to his holding cell, the court found the officers' actions reasonably related to the legitimate purpose of maintaining order and security (Davis v. Lancaster County, Nebraska, 2007). The use of Tasers and stun guns to induce compliance by difficult inmates during strip searches is justified since it is reasonably related to legitimate penological interests.

In an excessive force claim for use of Tasers, a plaintiff must specify each defendant and link the injury to the action of the defendant (Monroe v. Arpaio, 2005). Where the plaintiff alleged that a Taser was applied by unidentified police officers on his testicles, the court held that the plaintiff failed to show that the force was objectively unreasonable under the circumstances (Bustamante v. Roman, 2008). A pattern of the sheriff's ignoring the tasering of pretrial detainees must be shown to find him liable for such a policy, custom or practice under Monell (Tyson v. Dykes, 2007). Whether an excessive force claim will fall under the Fourth or the Eighth Amendment will depend on the stage at which it was used, before or after being taken into custody (Poteet v. Polk County, Tennessee, 2007). It is objectively reasonable to use Tasers and stun guns to maintain and restore order where the plaintiff was creating a disturbance in the detention center (McBride v. Clark, 2006). The court found the use of a Taser to be reasonable on two occasions: first, when a pretrial detainee was physically resisting the officers, and second, when a detainee was trying to destroy a light fixture in his cell, thereby posing a threat to the officers (Birdine v. Gray, 2005). In order to rind a supervisor liable for tasering done by his subordinate under Section 1983, the plaintiff must show a failure to train that is responsible for the constitutional violation, as the principle of respondeat superior does not apply. Moreover, such failure must amount to deliberate indifference (Sparks v. Reno County Sheriffs Department, 2004; Ramirez v. Johnson, 2007). Where a mentally ill inmate who was agitated and resisting officers died after he was tasered to bring him under control in order to take a sample of his blood, the court found the use of force objectively reasonable (Burkett v. Alachua County, 2007).

Where a plaintiff is suing a county because he was tasered by several officers, he must show that the action of the officers was related to an official policy, custom or practice to find the county liable under Monell (Goodwin v. Hamilton County, 2005). A pattern of the sheriff ignoring the tasering of pretrial detainees may result in liability for such a policy, custom or practice under Monell.

Of the 19 cases discussed, the courts ruled in favor of jail officers in 11. However, the number of cases in which they did not at this stage of the proceedings is comparable. As such, the issues of individual officer liability, official custom or policy, and adequate training must be addressed at the policy-making level on the basis of court decisions that show instances where individual officers and the municipality can be held liable.

REFERENCES

Bell v. Wolfish, 441 U.S. 520 (1979).

Birdine v. Gray, 375 F.Supp.2d 874 (D. Neb. 2005).

Burge v. St. Tammany Parish, 336 E 3d 363 (5th Cir. 2003)

Burkett v. Alachua County, WL 2963844 (11th Cir. 2007).

Burr v. Hill, WL 2291891 (N.D. Tex. 2005).

Bustamante v. Roman, WL 622021 (D. Ariz. 2008).

Castaneda v. Douglas County Sheriff's Investigator Rory Planeta, WL 160816 (D. Nev. 2007).

City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989).

Cottone v. Jenne, 326 F.3d 1352 (11th Cir. 2003).

Davis v. Lancaster County, Nebraska, WL 2728549 (D. Neb. 2007).

del Carmen, R.V. 1991. Civil liabilities in American policing." A text for law enforcement personnel. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Brady.

Goodwin v. Hamilton County, WL 1840259 (E.D. Tenn. 2005).

Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).

Harris v. City of Circleville, WL 211363 (S.D. Ohio 2008).

Harris v. Ostrout, 65 F.3d 912 (11th Cir. 1995). Hause v. Vaught, 993 F.2d 1079 (1993).

Henderson v. Gordineer, WL 840273 (D.S.C. 2007).

Jasper v. Thalacker, 999 F.2d 353 (8th Cir. 1993). Johnson v. Glick, 481 F.2d 1028 (2nd Cir. 1973).

Johnston, D. 1981. Stop! Or I'll throw my net at you. Police Magazine, 4, 23-28.

Kappeler, V.E. 2001. Critical issues in police civil liability. Prospect Heights Prospect Heights may refer to:
  • Prospect Heights, Illinois
  • Prospect Heights, Brooklyn
  • Prospect Heights
, Ill: Waveland.

Kornblum, R.N. and S.K. Reddy. 1991. Effects of the taser in fatalities involving police confrontation. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 36, 434-448.

Kuha v. City of Minnetonka, 365 F.3d 590 (8th Cir. 2004).

Lee v. Ferraro, 284 F.3d 1188 (11th Cir. 2002).

Lolli v. County of Orange, 351 F.3d 410 (9th Cir. 2003).

Marquart, J.W 1986. Prison guards and the use of physical coercion as a mechanism of prisoner control. Criminology, 24, 347-366.

Martin, M. 1961. The unconscious diabetic patient. American Journal of Nursing, 61, 92-94.

McBride v. Clark, WL 581139 (W.D. Mo. 2006).

McDowell v. Rogers, 863 F.2d 1302 (6th Cir. 1988).

Monell v. Department of Social Services, City of New York, 436 U.S. 658 (1978).

Monroe v. Arpaio, WL 3054067 (D. Ariz. 2005).

Ndaula v. Holliday, WL 1098954 OV.D. La. 2007).

Norman v. Taylor, 25 F.3d 1259 (4th Cir. 1994).

Orem v. Rephann, 523 F.3d 442 (4th Cir. 2008).

Pipkins v. Pike County, Arkansas, WL 1521714 (W.D. Ark. 2007).

Polk County v. Dodson, 454 U.S. 312 (1981).

Poteet v. Polk County, Tennessee, WL 1138461 (E.D. Tenn. 2007).

Ramirez v. Johnson, WL 2254317 (N.D. Fla. 2007).

Ready, J., M.D. White and C. Fisher. 2008. Shock value: A comparative analysis of news reports and official police records on TASER deployments. Policing, 31, 148-170.

Riley a Dorton, 115 F.3d 1159 (4th Cir. 1997). Rizzo v. Goode, 423 U.S. 362 (1976).

Robertson, J.E. 2006. Recent legal developments: Correctional case law, 2004-2005. Criminal Justice Review, 31,185-204.

Robertson, J.E. 2007. Recent legal developments: Correctional case law 2006. Criminal Justice Review, 32, 184-204.

Rosen, C.J. 1990. Jail law. The Prison Journal, 70, 24-37.

Ruffin v. Commonwealth, WL 4928 (Va. 1871).

Sparks v. Reno County Sheriff's Department, WL 1664007 (D. Kan. 2004).

Turner v. Safley, 482 U.S. 78 (1987).

Tyson v. Dykes, WL 3357189 (S.D. Miss. 2007).

Valentine v. Richardson, WL 80129 (D.S.C. 2008).

Stephens v. City of Butler, Alabama, 509 ESupp.2d 1098 (S.D. Ala. 2007).

Williams, H.E. 2008. Taser electronic control devices and sudden in-custody death: Separating evidence from conjecture. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.

Wilson v. Spain, 209 F.3d 713 (8th Cir. 2000).

Vidisha Barua, Ph.D., Esq., and Robert M. Worley, Ph.D., are assistant professors of criminal justice at Penn State University, Altoona.

ENDNOTES

(1) One of the physical manifestations of a diabetic insulin reaction shock is poor muscular coordination and the diabetic person may stagger or fall down. This could be confused with alcohol intoxication intoxication, condition of body tissue affected by a poisonous substance. Poisonous materials, or toxins, are to be found in heavy metals such as lead and mercury, in drugs, in chemicals such as alcohol and carbon tetrachloride, in gases such as carbon monoxide, and  (Martin, 1961); hence the police thought Graham was intoxicated.

(2) The three Graham factors: "The severity of the crime at issue, whether the suspect poses an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others, and whether he is actively resisting arrest or attempting to evade arrest by flight" (Graham, 1989).

(3) "In determining whether [this] constitutional line has been crossed, a court must look to such factors as the need for the application of force, the relationship between the need and the amount of force used, the extent of the injury inflicted, and whether the force was applied in a good faith effort to maintain and restore discipline or maliciously and sadistically for the very purpose of causing harm" Johnson v. Glick (1973).
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Title Annotation:Jailhouse Shock
Author:Barua, Vidisha; Worley, Robert M.
Publication:Corrections Compendium
Date:Jun 22, 2009
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