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An ethnomedicinal survey conducted amongst folk medicinal practitioners in the two southern districts of Noakhali and Feni, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Human beings have been aware of the medicinal value of plants from as long as 3,000 years B.P. (Sofowora, A., 1982). A number of important modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from, or are plants used by indigenous people (Balick, J.M. and P.A. Cox, 1996). A number of modern drugs like aspirin,

atropine, ephedrine, digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and tubocurarine are examples, which were originally discovered through observations of traditional cure methods of indigenous peoples (Gilani, A.H. and A.U. Rahman, 2005). In recent years, interest has focused on the indigenous uses of plants in the scientific quest for discovery of newer and more effective medicines.

The folk medicinal history of Bangladesh goes back centuries of years ago. Folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes rely on medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments. The knowledge of medicinal plants is usually kept within the family and passed on from generation to generation. Over the years, this successive accumulation of knowledge has led the Kavirajes to develop considerable expertise in the use of medicinal plants. We have been conducting extensive ethnomedicinal surveys amongst the Kavirajes of various regions and tribes of Bangladesh and have observed considerable variation in the use of medicinal plants by individual Kavirajes (Mia, M.M.K., 2009; Hossan, M.S., 2009; Nawaz, A.H.M.M., 2009; Nawaz, A.H.M.M., 2009; Shahidullah, M., 2009; Hanif, A., 2009). The objective of the present study was to document the medicinal uses of various plant species by the Kavirajes of Noakhali and Feni, two adjoining districts in the southern part of Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods

Area of survey

Noakhali district lies approximately between 89[degrees]50-91[degrees]15 E and 22[degrees]05-23[degrees]05 N. Feni district adjoins Noakhali district and lies approximately between 91[degrees]15-91[degrees]35 E and 22[degrees]45-23[degrees]15 N. The survey was conducted in the villages covered by Begumganj, Maizdi, Senbagh, Laxmipur, and Amanapullahpur police stations in Noakhali district and villages covered by Dagonbhuiyan police station in Feni district. Data collection and mode of survey

Informed consent was obtained from the Kavirajes prior to the survey. The Kavirajes were briefed extensively about the purpose of the visit and told that any information obtained from them may be disseminated in both national and international scientific journals and conferences. Interviews were conducted in the Bangla language (spoken by all Kavirajes) with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. The basic method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers on guided field-walks through areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and mentioned their names, uses and mode of use. All data were cross-checked with the Kavirajes in subsequent sessions. Plant specimens were photographed and collected on the spot. Dried specimens were brought to the Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification.

Results

The findings of the present study shows that the Kavirajes of Noakhali and Feni districts used 101 plant species distributed into 47 families for treatment of various ailments. The results are summarized in Table 1. It was observed that a number of common ailments as well as a few ailments, which are not cured with modern medicines, were being treated by the Kavirajes with medicinal plants. The common ailments included skin infections (e.g. eczema, boils, itch), pain, respiratory tract infections (e.g. cold, coughs, asthma), gastrointestinal disorders (e.g. diarrhea, dysentery, bloating, indigestion, ulcer), cuts and wounds, and helminthiasis. From the number of plants used, it appeared that gastrointestinal disorders were the most common afflictions among the population, probably because of the unhygienic sanitary conditions prevalent in the rural areas. Pain was the next ailment treated with the second largest number of plants. It is interesting that the Kavirajes had medicinal plants for several difficult to cure ailments (at least with allopathic drugs). These ailments included rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, kidney and gall bladder stones, and tuberculosis. The Kavirajes reported one medicinal plant (Paederia foetida) for treatment of cancer. However, when asked about diagnostic procedures for cancer, they replied that they usually think people of having cancer with visible signs of unexplained swellings combined with the patient getting continuously weak over time and losing appetite. In general, it appeared that any unexplained or unknown diseases were thought to be cancer especially if the patient's health was fast eroding.

Fever, sexual disorders, and urinary disorders were the other major afflictions treated by the Kavirajes. The Kavirajes could differentiate between different kinds of fever, like fever arising from cold, or rheumatic fever and used fourteen different plants to combat fever. Sexual disorders included sexual dysfunctioning as well as sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea. The most common urinary disorder treated with medicinal plants was leucorrhea. However, the Kavirajes also treated problems like burning sensations during urination and edema, which is caused by retention of water in the body and can be a result of non-functional or less functional kidneys leading to reduced passage of urine. The Kavirajes used seven different plants for treatment of edema, which suggests it to be a common disorder among the inhabitants of Noakhali and Feni districts. Sixteen plants were used for treatment of debility or weakness. A substantial number of the rural population suffers from poverty and consequent malnutrition and weakness. In this case the plants may possess phytochemicals (steroidal in nature), which can act as physical stimulants and at least temporarily give a feeling of strength.

Diabetes is a major debilitating disease afflicting the world population and is also fairly common in Bangladesh. Four plants (Scoparia dulcis, Aloe barbadensis, Coccinea grandis, and Mikania cordata) were used by the Kavirajes to treat diabetes. The Kavirajes diagnose diabetes mainly through three symptoms--frequent urination, frequent thirsts, and sweetness of urine. The Kavirajes claimed that use of any of the four abovementioned plants can completely cure diabetes, given enough time. Two plants--Cyperus rotundus and Blumea lacera, were used to treat cholera, which occurs every year in Bangladesh. Tinospora sinensis was used to treat tuberculosis and Streblus asper for treatment of chicken pox. The Kavirajes claimed to cure cataract without surgery through the use of a medicinal plant, Centella asiatica. It was interesting that two plants were also used as contraceptives, namely, Bauhinia acumunata and Sida acuta. The Kavirajes also used 5 plants as blood purifier. According to them, toxins accumulate in blood based on food habits and lifestyle and unless such blood is purified through periodic ingestion of certain plants, the person may be overcome with diseases. So plants are prescribed whenever a patient reports of a general feeling of ill-health without showing any symptoms for a particular disease.

Of the 183 uses observed in the present survey of whole plant or plant parts used, leaves constituted the major plant part used (33.3%), followed by whole plants (20.2%) and roots (19.1%). Other plant parts used included barks, stems, flowers, seeds, and fruits. The results are summarized in Table 2. A single plant part or a combination of various parts may be used for treatment of a given ailment. For instance, the leaves of Barleria prionitis were used to treat rheumatism, skin disorders, pain, or as a blood purifier. On the other hand, the leaves and barks of Hygrophila auriculata were combined for treatment of urinary disorders. Various parts from the same plant may be used for treatment of multiple ailments. An example is that of Justicia gendarussa. The oil from leaves of this plant is used to treat eczema and the roots are used for treatment of rheumatism, dysentery, or jaundice. There were four instances where a number of plants in combination were used. The whole plant of Achyranthes aspera, leaves of Centella asiatica, roots of Clerodendrum viscosum, and leaves of Alternanthera sessilis were mixed and administered for treatment of gonorrhea, low semen density, and leucorrhea. For all three ailments, the same formulation and dosage was used. A mixture made from juice of crushed whole plant of Euphorbia prostrata, juice of whole plant of Cynodon dactylon and raisins was used for treatment of piles. The plants Saraca asoca, Withania somnifera, Piper cubeba, Abroma augusta, and Rauwolfia serpentina were combined and administered with iron for treatment of irregular menstruation, burning sensations in the uterus, and uterine disorders. Tinospora sinensis was combined with Santalum album and Pterocarpus santalinus for treatment of tuberculosis, debility, and burning sensations during urination. A plant may be used for treatment of two ailments with opposite symptoms. The seeds of Ocimum basilicum were used to treat both diarrhea (frequent passing of stool) and constipation (lack of or abnormally less frequency of passing of stool).

Discussion

A number of modern drugs have become ineffective because of development of resistant strains of bacteria, fungus or parasites. A further group of allopathic drugs addresses either the symptoms of the disease without curing the disease or have serious side-effects. For instance, a very common disease like diabetes cannot be cured with modern allopathic medicine. As a result scientific interest is re-focusing on indigenous use of medicinal plants, for experience has shown that scientific studies based on indigenous uses can be an effective way towards rapid discovery of novel compounds with therapeutic potential. A perusal of the scientific literature of some selective plants indicated that the scientific studies validate the use of a number of medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes of Noakhali and Feni districts. The results are shown in Table 3. That the use of a number of medicinal plants have been validated by scientific studies suggest that more studies be conducted on the plants for which such studies are absent.

Scientific studies need to be conducted along with serious efforts for conservation of medicinal plants. Bangladesh is a small country with a high density of population. Because the forests are fast depleting due to encroachment of human habitat, the traditional resources like medicinal plants are also rapidly becoming endangered. Along with ethnomedicinal studies, we are also working on clonal propagation of endangered medicinal plant species. However, a more concerted effort needs to be made to conserve and cultivate medicinal plant species and to conduct scientific studies on such plants, for they represent the most promising source of discovery of lead compounds and development of newer drugs.

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(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (1) Abdullah-Al-Mahmud, (1) Md. Atikur Rahman, (1) Md. Farhan Uddin, (1) Mehedi Hasan, (2) Mst. Afsana Khatun, (1) A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, (1) Shamima Ahsan, (1) Sadia Moin Mou, (1) Rahima Begum, (1) Rownak Jahan

(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

(2) Present address: Dept. of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, Mayang Plaza, Block A, No 1, Jalan SS 26/2, Taman Mayang Jaya, 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new)Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh

Email: rahamatm@hotmail.com Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Usage of medicinal plants by Kavirajes in various
villages of Feni and Noakhali districts, Bangladesh

No.   Botanical name     Family             Local name

1     Andrographis       Acanthaceae        Kalomegh
      paniculata Nees

2     Barleria           Acanthaceae        Jeuti, Jhingti
      prionitis L.

3     Hygrophila         Acanthaceae        Kule-khara
      auriculata
      (Schumach.)
      Heine

4     Justicia           Acanthaceae        Bashok
      adhatoda L.

5     Justicia           Acanthaceae        Bish dorun
      gendarussa L.

6     Glinus             Aizoaceae alt.     Tita dima
      oppositifolius     Molluginaceae
      (L.) Aug.DC.

7     Achyranthes        Amaranthaceae      Apang
      aspera L.

8     Aerva              Amaranthaceae      Rokto-keshob
      sanguinolenta
      (L.) Blume

9     Alternanthera      Amaranthaceae      Haicha
      sessilis
      (L.) DC.

10    Curculigo          Amaryllidaceae     Talmuli
      orchioides         alt. Hypoxidac     eae
      Gaertn.

11    Rauwolfia          Apocynaceae        Shorpogondha
      serpentina (L.)
      Benth. ex. Kurz.

12    Alocasia           Araceae            Mankochu
      macrorrhizos
      (L.) Schott

13    Lasia spinosa      Araceae            Bonadi
      (L.) Thwaites

14    Stendnera          Araceae            Bishkochu
      virosa Prain

15    Calotropis         Asclepiadaceae     Apon
      gigantea
      (L.) R.Br.

16    Tylophora indica   Asclepiadaceae     Onontomul
      (Burm.f.) Merr.

17    Asparagus          Asparagaceae       Shatamuli
      racemosus          alt. Liliaceae
      Willd.

18    Ageratum           Asteraceae         Ati chada
      conyzoides L.      alt. Composita

19    Blumea lacera      Asteraceae         Hial mutra
      (L.) (Burm.        alt. Compositae
      F.) DC.

20    Mikania            Asteraceae         Libuji lota
      cordata            alt. Compositae
      (Burm. f.) B.
      L. Robinson

21    Spilanthes         Asteraceae         Shormoni
      paniculata         alt. Compositae
      Wall. ex DC.

22    Stereospermum      Bignoniaceae       Parul
      suaveolens
      (Roxb.) DC.

23    Oroxylum           Bignoniaceae       Thona gach
      indicum
      Vent.

24    Ananas comosus     Bromeliaceae       Anarosh
      (L.) Merr.

25    Terminalia         Combretaceae       Bohera
      belerica Roxb.

26    Argyreia           Convolvulaceae     Bidda
      speciosa                              dharok
      (L.f.)Sweet

27    Ipomoea            Convolvulaceae     Kalmi lota
      aquatica
      Forssk.

28    Kalanchoe          Crassulaceae       Pathorkuchi
      pinnata
      (Lam.) Pers.

29    Coccinia           Cucurbitaceae      Telakochu
      grandis
      Voigt.

30    Cuscuta            Cuscutaceae        Aloklata
      reflexa
      Roxb.

31    Cyperus            Cyperaceae         Mutha
      rotundus L.

32    Baliospermum       Euphorbiaceae      Donti
      montanum
      (Willd.) Mull.
      Arg.

33    Euphorbia          Euphorbioaceae     Khir-kakoli
      prostrata
      Aiton.

34    Phyllanthus        Euphorbiaceae      Bhumi amlok
      amarus
      Schumach.
      & Thonn.

35    Phyllanthus        Euphorbiaceae      Vui amloki
      fraternus
      G.L.Webster

36    Ricinus            Euphorbiaceae      Arondo mul
      communis
      L.

37    Ocimum             Labiatae           Babui tulshi
      basilicum L.       alt. Lamiaceae

38    Ocimum             Labiatae           Tulshi
      tenuiflorum L.     alt. Lamiaceae

39    Leucas aspera      Lamiaceae          Dron pushpo
      Willd.

40    Barringtonia       Lecythidaceae      Hijal
      acutangula (L.)
      Gaertn.

41    Bauhinia           Leguminosae        Shet-kanchan
      acuminata L.       alt. Fabaceae

42    Bauhinia           Leguminosae        Rokto-kanchan
      variegata L.

43    Cajanus cajan      Leguminosae        Aral pata
      (L.) Millsp.       alt. Fabaceae

44    Cassia alata L.    Leguminosae        Daud pata
                         alt. Fabaceae

45    Cassia fistula L.  Leguminosae        Sonalu
                         alt. Fabaceae

46    Dalbergia sissoo   Leguminosae        Shishu
      Roxb.              alt. Fabaceae

47    Pterocarpus        Leguminosae        Rokto-chondon
      santalinus L.f.    alt. Fabaceae

48    Saraca asoca       Leguminosae        Ashok
      (Roxb.) de Wilde.  alt. Fabaceae

49    Uraria picta       Leguminosae        Pitani
      (Jacq.) DC.        alt. Fabaceae

50    Aloe barbadensis   Liliaceae          Ghritokumari
      Mill.

51    Lygodium           Lygodiaceae        Dheki shak,
      flexuosum                             Loha chura
      (L.) Sw.

52    Hibiscus           Malvaceae          Sthol-padma
      mutabilis L.

53    Hibiscus rosa      Malvaceae          Rokto-joba
      sinensis L.

54    Malvaviscus        Malvaceae          Morich-phool
      arboreus Dill.
      Ex Cav.

55    Sida acuta         Malvaceae          Balikori,
      Burm.f.                               goru-chagolio

56    Sida               Malvaceae          Bailodi
      rhombifolia L.

57    Urena lobata L.    Malvaceae          Bilai-kan

58    Stephania          Menisper           Modi ani,
      japonica (Thunb.   -maceae            mucchani
      Ex Murray) Miers.

59    Tinospora          Menispermaceae
      sinensis (Lour.)   Guloncho
      Merrill

60    Artocarpus         Moraceae           Kanthal
      heterophyllus
      Lam.

61    Ficus racemosa     Moraceae           Jogh-dumur
      L.

62    Ficus religiosa L. Moraceae           Ashoth

63    Streblus asper     Moraceae           Hapra
      Lour.

64    Boerhaavia         Nyctaginaceae      Punarnava
      diffusa L.

65    Nyctanthes arbor   Oleaceae           Shefali
      tristis L.         alt.
                         Verbenaceae

66    Ludwigia           Onagraceae         At-tika
      hyssopifolia
      (G Don) Exell

67    Ludwigia           Onagraceae         Kalo-keshari,
      prostrata Roxb.                       agni-dolon

68    Rhynchostylis      Orchidaceae        Rashna
      retusa Blume

69    Pandanus           Pandanaceae        Keya kanta
      foetidus Roxb.

70    Piper chaba        Piperaceae         Bon pipul
      W. Hunter

71    Piper cubeba       Piperaceae         Kabab-chini
      L.f.

72    Piper longum L.    Piperaceae         Pipul

73    Plumbago           Plumbaginaceae     Chitamool
      zeylanica L.

74    Bambusa            Poaceae            Bash
      arundinacea
      (Retz.) Willd.

75    Cynodon dactylon   Poaceae            Durba
      (L.) Pers.

76    Saccharum          Poaceae            Moyda
      spontaneum L.

77    Polygonum          Polygonaceae       Borha-kandok
      chinensis L.

78    Hedyotis           Rubiaceae          Khetroa
      corymbosa
      (L.) Lam.

79    Paederia foetida   Rubiaceae          Gondho
      L.                                    badali, she
                                            t gondho badali

80    Aegle marmelos     Rutaceae           Bel
      (Linn.) Corr.

81    Glycosmis          Rutaceae           Hotik khira
      pentaphylla
      (Retz.) DC.

82    Santalum           Santalaceae        Sheth-chondon
      album L.

83    Scoparia dulcis    Scrophulariaceae   Modhu
      L.                                    maloti, chini
                                            pata

84    Smilax ovalifolia  Smilacaceae        Koaria mul
      Roxb.

85    Datura             Solanaceae         Konok dhutra
      stramonium L.

86    Solanum indicum    Solanaceae         Brihoti
      L.

87    Solanum            Solanaceae         Kakmachi
      nigrum L.

88    Solanum            Solanaceae         Kondikari
      surattense Burm.f.

89    Solanum            Solanaceae         Bihuti
      violaceum Orteg.

90    Withania           Solanaceae         Ashwagondha
      somnifera
      (L.) Dunal

91    Abroma             Sterculiaceae      Ulot kombol
      augusta L.f.

92    Centella asiatica  Umbelliferae       Thankuni
      (L.) Urb.

93    Pouzolzia          Urticaceae         Rokto-dalom
      zeylanica (L.)
      Benn.

94    Clerodendrum       Verbenaceae        Bamon haki
      indicum (L.)       alt. Lamiaceae
      Kuntze.

95    Clerodendrum       Verbenaceae        Vait, Bha
      viscosum Vent      alt. Lamiaceae     t gach

96    Gmelina arborea    Verbenaceae        Gamir
      Roxb.              alt. Labiatae

97    Phyla nodiflora    Verbenaceae        Horinga lota
      (L.) Greene

98    Premna             Verbenaceae        Goniari
      integrifolia L.

99    Vitex negundo L.   Verbenaceae        Nishinda

100   Leea indica        Vitaceae/          Huria
      (Burm. f.) Merr.   Leeaceae

101   Vitis              Vitaceae           Hapta vanga
      quadrangularis
      L. Wall. ex
      Wight & Arn.

No.   Part(s) used      Ailment(s) and              Location of use
                        formulations

1     Whole plant       Liver diseases. 1-2         Dagonbhuiyan,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Feni district
                        obtained from crushed
                        whole plant is taken
                        twice daily for 1-2
                        months.

2     1. Leaf           1. Rheumatism, skin         1. Begumganj,
                        disorders. 2 teaspoonful    Noakhali district
                        of juice obtained from
                        crushed leaves is applied
                        to areas affected by
                        rheumatism or skin
                        disorders twice daily for
                        2-4 weeks.

      2. Leaf           2. Pain, blood purifier.    2.Dagonbhuiyan,
                        One teaspoonful of juice    Feni district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 2-4 weeks.

3     Leaf, bark        Urinary disorders. Juice    Dagonbhuiyan,
                        obtained from a mixture     Feni district
                        of crushed leaves and
                        barks is given 1
                        teaspoonful 2-3 times
                        daily for 1-2 weeks.

4     1. Leaf, stem,    1. Pain, cold, asthma,      1. Maizdi,
      root (tap root/   wounds. The esculent root   Noakhali district
      esculent root)    is used as pain killer.
                        It is especially used for
                        pain during pregnancy.
                        The leaves and stems are
                        used in the treatment of
                        asthma, cold, and to cure
                        wounds. Paste of 1-2
                        fresh leaves is applied
                        to wounds.

      2. Leaf           2. Coughs, asthma, mucus.   2. Begumganj,
                        2 teaspoonful of juice      Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        fresh leaves is taken 2-3
                        times daily with warm
                        water for 3-7 days.

5     1. Leaf, root     1. Eczema, rheumatism,      1. Maizdi,
                        dysentery, jaundice. Leaf   Noakhali district
                        oil is used in eczema. A
                        decoction of roots boiled
                        in water is given in
                        rheumatism, dysentery,
                        and jaundice. Leaf oil is
                        used twice daily for 1
                        week in eczema.

      2. Leaf           2. Animal or bird bites.    2. Begumganj,
                        2-3 teaspoonful of juice    Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 2-3 days.

6     Whole plant       Improvement of appetite,    Amanullahpur,
                        digestive aid, itch, skin   Noakhali district
                        diseases, earache. Whole
                        plant juice is stomachic
                        (something which improves
                        appetite and aid
                        digestion), and is
                        applied to itch and skin
                        diseases. Mixed with
                        castor oil, it is applied
                        to ears to cure earache.

7     1. Whole plant,   1. Coughs, pneumonia,       1. Laxmipur,
      leaf, root        snake bites, eczema,        Noakhali
                        stomach pain. The whole     district
                        plant is used in cough,
                        pneumonia, and
                        snakebites. Leaves are
                        used in eczema. Roots are
                        used in stomach pain.
                        Paste of 3-5 leaves is
                        applied for 2 weeks to
                        cure eczema.

      2. Whole plant    2. Gonorrhea, low semen     2. Senbagh,
                        count, leucorrhea. 1 tola   Noakhali district
                        (local measure, 1 tola =
                        11.4 g) sugar, 1 tola
                        whole plant of
                        Achyranthes aspera, 1
                        tola leaves of Centella
                        asiatica, 1 tola roots of
                        Clerodendrum viscosum, 1
                        tola leaves of
                        Alternanthera sessilis
                        are mixed together. 2.5
                        tolas of the mixture is
                        taken once daily in the
                        morning on an empty
                        stomach for 3 days.

8     Whole plant       Rheumatism, leucorrhea.     Senbagh,
                        1/2 tola juice obtained     Noakhali district
                        from crushed whole plant
                        is taken twice daily for
                        2-4 weeks.

9     Leaf              Gonorrhea, low semen,       Senbagh,
                        leucorrhea. 1 tola sugar,   Noakhali district
                        1 tola whole plant of
                        Achyranthes aspera, 1
                        tola leaves of Centella
                        asiatica, 1 tola roots of
                        Clerodendrum viscosum, 1
                        tola leaves of
                        Alternanthera sessilis
                        are mixed together. 2.5
                        tolas of the mixture is
                        taken once daily in the
                        morning on an empty
                        stomach for 3 days.

10    1. Root           1. Spermatorrhea,           1. Laxmipur,
                        weakness in sexual          Noakhali district
                        functioning, diabetes,
                        gonorrhea. Roots are
                        taken during
                        spermatorrhea and
      2. Whole plant    weakness in sexual          2. Dagonbhuiyan,
                        functioning. Roots are      Feni district
                        also taken to treat
                        diabetes and gonorrhea.
                        2. Increase semen amount,
                        rheumatism. 1-2
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from crushed
                        whole plant is taken
                        twice daily for 1 month.

11    Whole plant       Irregular menstruation,     Begumganj,
                        painful menstruation,       Noakhali district
                        burning sensations in the
                        uterus. 10 mg iron, 250
                        mg juice from barks of
                        Saraca asoca, 125 mg of
                        juice from Withania
                        somnifera, 60 mg of Piper
                        cubeba, 60 mg of juice
                        from upper part of stems
                        of Abroma augusta and 50
                        mg of juice from
                        Rauwolfia serpentina is
                        mixed together. 2
                        teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken with
                        water twice daily for 2-3
                        months.

12    Stem              Rheumatic pain. The         Senbagh,
                        decaying upper part of      Noakhali district
                        stems is mixed with 50g
                        common salt and applied
                        twice daily to affected
                        areas for 10-15 days.

13    1. Leaf, root     1. Joint pain, edema, to    1. Begumganj,
                        increase lactation. The     Noakhali district
                        woody root of the plant
                        is eaten daily for 1 week
                        to reduce joint pain. It
                        is also taken as a
      2. Root           diuretic during edema.      2. Senbagh,
                        The leaf juice is taken     Noakhali district
                        to increase mother's
                        milk. 2. Dysentery. 1
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from crushed
                        roots is taken twice
                        daily for 14-28 days.

14    Root              Rheumatism. 1 teaspoonful   Senbagh,
                        of juice obtained from      Noakhali district
                        crushed roots is taken
                        twice daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

15    Leaf              Rheumatic pain. 1/2 tola    Senbagh,
                        juice obtained from         Noakhali district
                        crushed leaves is taken
                        twice daily for 4 weeks.

16    Root              Leucorrhea, blood           Begumganj,
                        purifier. 2 tola juice      Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        roots is taken twice
                        daily for 1-3 months.

17    1. Bark, root     1. Bacterial or fungal      1. Maizdi,
                        infections, edema, tonic,   Noakhali district
                        bloating, hypertension,
                        to increase lactation,
                        malnutrition in children.
                        Bark of the plant is
                        antibacterial and
                        antifungal. Tuberous
                        roots are diuretic, tonic
                        and carminative. Roots
                        are also taken during
                        hypertension. Roots
                        promote lactation in
                        mother and provide
                        nourishment for children.

      2. Root           2. To increase memory,      Begumganj,
                        nerve weakness, increase    Noakhali district
                        strength. 1 teaspoonful
                        of juice obtained from
                        crushed roots is taken
                        twice daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

18    Leaf              Diarrhea, dysentery,        Maizdi, Noakhali
                        boils, skin diseases,       district
                        joint pain. Decoction of
                        leaf is taken during
                        diarrhea and dysentery.
                        Paste of leaves is
                        applied in boils, skin
                        diseases, and joint
                        pains.

19    Leaf, root        Weakness, edema, piles,     Begumganj,
                        microbial infections,       Noakhali district
                        cholera. Leaf juice is
                        stimulant, diuretic. Leaf
                        juice mixed with black
                        pepper is given for 1
                        month as remedy for
                        piles. The essential oil
                        from leaves possess
                        antimicrobial properties.
                        The root of the plant is
                        used to treat cholera.

20    1. Leaf           1. Dysentery, gastric       1. Amanullahpur,
                        ulcer, diabetes.            Noakhali district
                        Decoction of leaves is      dysentery, gastric
                        used to treat ulcer, and
                        taken daily in the
                        morning in case of
                        diabetes.

      2. Whole plant    2. To stop bleeding from    2. Senbagh,
                        wounds and cuts. The        Noakhali district
                        whole plant is crushed
                        and applied to cuts and
                        wounds.

21    Whole plant,      Dysentery, rheumatism,      Amanullahpur,
      flower, seed      toothache, weakness.        Noakhali district
                        Decoction of plant is
                        used in dysentery and
                        rheumatism. Tincture of
                        flowers relieves
                        toothache. Seeds are
                        stimulant.

22    Bark              Pain. 1 teaspoonful of      Dagonbhuiyan,
                        juice obtained from         Feni district
                        crushed barks is taken
                        twice daily for 3-7 days.

23    Bark              Jaundice. 2 teaspoonful     Senbagh,
                        of juice obtained from      Noakhali district
                        crushed barks is taken
                        twice daily for 4 weeks.

24    Leaf              Jaundice, helminthiasis.    Begumganj,
                        Juice obtained from         Noakhali district
                        crushed bottom part of
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 4 weeks.

25    Fruit, seed       Tonic, diarrhea,            Begumganj,
                        dysentery, coughs,          Noakhali
                        breathing problems, hair
                        tonic, joint pain. Fruit
                        of the plant is
                        considered tonic. Inner
                        part of the fruit is
                        given during diarrhea and
                        dysentery. Dried pulp is
                        useful in the treatment
                        of cough and breathing
                        problems. The fruit is
                        also used as a hair
                        tonic. Seed oil is used
                        for treatment of joint
                        pain.

26    Leaf, seed,       Small pox, dysentery,       Laxmipur,
      root              diarrhea, weakness, skin    Noakhali district
                        diseases, pimples. Roots
                        and seeds are used in
                        small pox (when it used
                        to be present),
                        dysentery, and diarrhea.
                        Leaves are used as
                        stimulant and in skin
                        diseases. Paste of leaf
                        reduces pimple.

27    Leaf              Rheumatic swelling. 1       Senbagh,
                        tola juice obtained from    Noakhali district
                        crushed leaves is
                        massaged twice daily on
                        to the affected area for
                        2-3 days.

28    Leaf              Urinary problems, kidney    Begumganj,
                        or gall bladder stones.     Noakhali district
                        1/2 tola amount of juice
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 1-2 months.

29    Whole plant       Diabetes. 1/2 tola of       Dagonbhuiyan,
                        juice obtained from         Feni district
                        crushed whole plant is
                        taken twice daily for 2
                        months.

30    Stem              Carminative. 2              Begumganj,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        vines is taken 2-3 times
                        daily for 15 days to a
                        month.

31    1. Tuber, root    1. Weakness, fever,         1. Begumganj,
                        diarrhea, dysentery,        Noakhali district
                        cholera, vomiting,
                        wounds. Fresh tubers act
                        as stimulant and tonic
                        when taken orally.
                        Infusion of tuber is
                        given in fever, diarrhea,
                        dysentery, cholera, and
                        vomiting. Root paste is
                        used in healing wounds.

      2. Root           2. Hematinic. 1/2 tola      2. Senbagh,
                        juice obtained from         Noakhali district
                        crushed roots are taken
                        2-3 times daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

32    Leaf, root        Asthma, constipation,       Laxmipur,
                        jaundice. Decoction of      Noakhali district
                        leaves is given in
                        asthma. Roots are used in
                        constipation and
                        jaundice.

33    Whole plant       Piles. A mixture is made    Senbagh,
                        from juice obtained from    Noakhali district
                        crushed whole plant of
                        Euphorbia prostrata,
                        juice of whole plant of
                        Cynodon dactylon and
                        raisins. 1 spoonful of
                        mixture is taken twice
                        daily for 1 month.

34    Whole plant       Leucorrhea. Juice is        Dagonbhuiyan,
                        obtained from crushed       Feni district
                        whole plant. 1/2 - 1 tola
                        amount of the juice is
                        taken twice daily for
                        7-15 days.

35    Whole plant,      Fever, gonorrhea,           Maizdi,
      root              diarrhea, dysentery,        Noakhali district
                        jaundice. The whole plant
                        is used in fever,
                        gonorrhea, diarrhea, and
                        dysentery. Fresh roots
                        are beneficial during
                        jaundice. 1 teaspoon of
                        plant decoction is taken
                        daily during fever.

36    1. Leaf, seed     1. Gastric distress         1. Maizdi,
                        caused by disorder of       Noakhali district
                        liver or gall bladder,
                        headache, joint pain.
                        Leaf is anti-bilious and
                        also used in headache.
                        Seed oil is applied
                        externally for 1 month to
                        treat joint pain.

      2. Leaf, seed     2. Constipation. 1          2. Begumganj,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves and seeds is taken
                        once daily for 3 days.

37    Whole plant,      Cold, asthma, chest pain,   Laxmipur,
      leaf, seed,       weakness, edema,            Noakhali district
      flower            gonorrhea, piles,
                        dysentery, diarrhea,
                        constipation. The plant
                        (taken orally) is used
                        mainly for cold, asthma,
                        and chest pain. Leaves
                        and flowers, when taken
                        orally are stimulant,
                        diuretic. Seeds,
                        administered orally are
                        stimulant, diuretic, and
                        used to treat gonorrhea,
                        piles, dysentery,
                        diarrhea, and
                        constipation. Leaf juice
                        mixed with honey is taken
                        daily for treatment of
                        cold.

38    Leaf              Coughs, mucus, asthma. 2    Begumganj,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is taken 2-3 times
                        daily with warm water for
                        3-7 days.

39    Leaf, stem,       Dysentery, external         Begumganj,
      flower            bleeding, eye               Noakhali district
                        inflammation. Leaves are
                        taken in case of
                        dysentery; leaf and stem
                        juice is applied to stop
                        bleeding from external
                        cuts and wounds; flower
                        juice is applied to eyes
                        in case of inflammation.

40    Leaf, seed, root  Diarrhea, cold, chest       Begumganj,
                        pain, headache. Juice of    Noakhali district
                        leaves is taken during
                        diarrhea. Seed paste is
                        applied to the chest to
                        relieve cold and pain.
                        Seeds are used to relieve
                        headache. Juice of leaves
                        is taken thrice daily as
                        remedy for diarrhea.

41    Bark              Decrease semen amount       Dagonbhuiyan,
                        (contraceptive). 1          Feni district
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from crus hed
                        bark is taken once daily
                        at night before sleeping
                        for 14-28 days.

42    Bark              Analgesic, appetite         Dagonbhuiyan,
                        stimulant, dysentery. 1     Feni district
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from crushed
                        bark is given twice daily
                        for 2-4 weeks.

43    Leaf              Jaundice. 1 tola juice      Senbagh, Noakhali
                        obtained from crushed       district
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 1 month.

44    Leaf              Skin diseases. 1            Begumganj, Noakhali
                        teaspoonful of juice        district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is applied twice
                        daily to affected area
                        for 2-4 weeks.

45    Leaf              Helminthiasis. VV tola of   Senbagh, Noakhali
                        juice obtained from         district
                        crushed leaves is taken
                        twice daily for 3-7 days.

46    Leaf              Dysentery. 1 teaspoonful    Noakhali district
                        of juice  obtained
                        Begumganj, from crushed
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 2-4 weeks.

47    Bark              Tuberculosis, debility,     Senbagh, Noakhali
                        burning sensations during   district
                        urination. 2 tola of
                        Santalum album bark, 2
                        tola of Tinospora
                        sinensis bark and 2 tola
                        of Pterocarpus santalinus
                        bark are mixed together.
                        4 teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken twice
                        daily for 1-3 months.

48    1. Leaf, bark     1. Dysentery, piles,        1. Begumganj,
                        blood purification. Bark    Noakhali
                        cures dysentery, piles.     district
                        Leaves are considered to
                        have blood purifying
                        properties. Bark or
                        leaves are orally
                        administered.

      2. Bark           2. Irregular                2. Begumganj,
                        menstruation, burning       Noakhali
                        sensations in the uterus,   district
                        uterine disorders. 10 mg
                        iron is mixed with 250 mg
                        Saraca asoca bark juice,
                        125 mg juice from
                        Withania somnifera, 60 mg
                        Piper cubeba, 60 mg from
                        Abroma augusta upper stem
                        juice, and 50 mg juice
                        from Rauwolfia
                        serpentina. 2 teaspoonful
                        of the mixture is taken
                        with water twice daily
                        for 2-3 months.

49    Leaf              Pain. 1 teaspoonful of      Dagonbhuiyan,
                        juice obtained from         Feni
                        crushed leaves is taken     district
                        twice daily for 3-7 days.

50    1. Leaf           1. Chronic constipation,    1. Begumganj,
                        diabetes, asthma, burning   Noakhali
                        sensation during sexual     district
                        ejaculation, to stimulate
                        hair growth. Leaf juice
                        is taken as remedy for
                        chronic constipation,
                        diabetes, and asthma. It
                        reduces burning during
                        sexual ejaculation, when
                        administered orally. Leaf
                        paste applied to the head
                        also stimulates hair
                        growth.

      2. Leaf           2. Carminative,             2. Begumganj,
                        respiratory problems. 2     Noakhali district
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from the inner
                        part of leaves is taken
                        with water once in the
                        morning for 1 month.

51    1. Whole          1. Mucus, eczema, cuts,     1. Amanullahpur,
      plant, root       wounds, rheumatism. The     Noakhali district
                        whole plant is taken as
                        an expectorant. Fresh
                        root boiled in mustard
                        oil is applied to eczema,
                        cuts, wounds, and
                        rheumatism.

      2. Leaf           2. Diarrhea in              2. Senbagh,
                        comparatively older         Noakhali district
                        children following
                        drinking of mother's
                        breast milk. 1
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily for 3-7 days.

52    Leaf              To reduce burning           Dagonbhuiyan,
                        sensations in the body.     Feni district
                        Juice is obtained from
                        crushed leaves. 1 tola of
                        juice is taken 2-3 times
                        daily for 4 weeks.

53    Leaf, flower      Leucorrhea. 1 teaspoonful   Begumganj,
                        of juice obtained from      Noakhali district
                        crushed leaves and
                        flowers is taken twice
                        daily for 4 weeks.

54    Leaf, flower      Skin diseases of hands.     Senbagh,
                        Juice obtained from         Noakhali district
                        crushed leaves and
                        flowers are applied to
                        affected areas twice
                        daily for 4 weeks.

55    1. Root           1. Physical or sexual       1. Laxmipur,
                        weakness, fever. Roots      Noakhali district
                        are used as tonic to
                        overcome physical
                        weakness and act as
                        sexual stimulant.
                        Infusion of roots is
                        given with ginger in
                        fever. Crushed roots are
                        taken for 1 month to
                        overcome physical
                        weakness and act as a
                        sexual stimulant.

      2. Whole plant    2. Decrease semen amount    2. Dagonbhuiyan,
                        (contraceptive). 1          Feni district
                        teaspoonful of juice
                        obtained from crushed
                        whole plant is given once
                        daily at night before
                        sleeping for 1 month.

56    Leaf, root        Rheumatic pain. V tola of   Begumganj,
                        juice obtained from a       Noakhali district
                        mixture of crushed leaves
                        and roots is taken twice
                        daily for 2-4 weeks.

57    Leaves            Ear infections. 1/2 tola
                        juice  obtained from        Noakhali district
                        Begumganj, crushed
                        leaves is taken twice
                        daily  for 4 weeks.

58    1. Leaf, root     1. Fever, diarrhea,         1. Begumganj,
                        urinary diseases. Leaf      Noakhali district
                        juice is taken every
                        morning for 1 week in
                        case of fever. Leaves and
                        roots are used in fevers,
                        diarrhea, and urinary
                        diseases.

      2. Whole plant    2. Dysentery. 1             2. Dagonbhuiyan,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Feni district
                        obtained from crushed
                        whole plant is taken
                        twice daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

59    Stem              Tuberculosis, debility,     Senbagh,
                        burning sensations during   Noakhali district
                        urination. 2 tola of
                        Santalum album bark, 2
                        tola of Tinospora
                        sinensis bark and 2 tola
                        of Pterocarpus santalinus
                        bark are mixed together.
                        4 teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken twice
                        daily for 1-3 months.

60    Leaf, root,       Bloating, constipation,     Amanaullahpur,
      fruit, seed       edema, ulcers, skin         Noakhali district
                        diseases, asthma,
                        diarrhea. Unripe fruit is
                        carminative and tonic;
                        ripe fruits are
                        nutritious and laxative;
                        seeds are diuretic (oral
                        administration). Leaf
                        ash, when administered
                        orally, is useful in
                        healing ulcers. A
                        combination of young
                        leaves and roots are
                        useful in treatment of
                        skin diseases (topical
                        application), asthma, and
                        diarrhea (oral
                        administration).

61    Fruit             Leucorrhea. A sachet of     Begumganj,
                        powdered fruit is taken     Noakhali district
                        twice daily for 4 weeks.

62    Barks             Leucorrhea. V tola of       Begumganj,
                        juice obtained from         Noakhali district
                        crushed barks is taken
                        twice daily for 1 month.

63    Whole plant       Fever, chicken pox,         Begumganj,
                        diarrhea, dysentery,        Noakhali district
                        rheumatic fever, joint
                        pain. The plant juice is
                        used for the treatment of
                        fever, chicken pox,
                        diarrhea, dysentery,
                        rheumatic fever (oral
                        administration), and
                        joint pain (topical
                        administration).

64    1. Leaf, root     1. Jaundice, anemia,        1. Begumganj,
                        gonorrhea, blood            Noakhali district
                        purifier, abdominal pain,
                        dysentery Leaves and
                        roots are considered
                        useful in jaundice,
                        anemia, gonorrhea and as
                        blood purifier. They are
                        also used for abdominal
                        pain and dysentery. Paste
                        of leaves and roots are
                        taken each morning to
                        cure jaundice. For the
                        other ailments, a mixture
                        of leaf and root juice is
                        taken orally.

      2. Leaf, stem     2. Elephantiasis. 1         2. Begumganj,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves and vines is taken
                        2-3 times daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

65    1. Leaf, bark     1. Fever, rheumatism,       1. Begumganj,
                        mucus. Leaf juice is used   Noakhali district
                        in fever (oral
                        administration) and
                        rheumatism (applied
                        topically). Bark and leaf
                        is taken orally as
                        expectorant.

      2. Leaf           2. Coughs, fever. Juice     2. Dagonbhuiyan,
                        is obtained from crushed    Feni district
                        leaves. 2 teaspoonful of
                        the juice is taken with
                        warm water for 7-15 days.

66    Stem              Gastric discomfort          Begumganj,
                        because of liver or gall    Noakhali district
                        bladder disorders. The
                        stem is anti-bilious.
                        Juice of the stem is
                        taken every morning.

67    1. Whole plant    1. Abscess, leucorrhea.     1. Begumganj,
                        1-2 tola juice obtained     Noakhali district
                        from crushed whole plant
                        is taken twice daily for
                        7-28 days.

      2. Whole plant    2. Increase semen. 1        2. Dagonbhuiyan,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Feni district
                        obtained from whole plant
                        is given once daily at
                        night before sleeping for
                        15-28 days.

68    Leaf, root        Rheumatic pain. 1/2 - 1     Begumganj,
                        tola of juice obtained      Noakhali district
                        from a mixture of crushed
                        leaves and roots is taken
                        twice daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

69    Roots             Skin diseases. Juice        Begumganj,
                        obtained from crushed       Noakhali district
                        roots is applied to
                        affected areas twice
                        daily for 2-4 weeks.

70    Whole plant,      Weakness, asthma, body      Begumganj,
      fruit, root       pain after delivery,        Noakhali district
                        rheumatic pain. The fruit
                        is considered a
                        stimulant, and is also
                        useful in asthma (taken
                        orally). The root is
                        useful in asthma (taken
                        orally). The whole plant
                        is taken to relieve body
                        pain after childbirth,
                        and applied for rheumatic
                        pain.

71    Whole plant       Irregular menstruation,     Begumganj,
                        painful menstruation,       Noakhali district
                        burning sensations in the
                        uterus. 10 mg iron, 250
                        mg juice from barks of
                        Saraca asoca, 125 mg of
                        juice from Withania
                        somnifera, 60 mg of Piper
                        cubeba, 60 mg of juice
                        from upper part of stems
                        of Abroma augusta and 50
                        mg of juice from
                        Rauwolfia serpentina is
                        mixed together. 2
                        teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken with
                        water twice daily for 2-3
                        months.

72    Whole plant       Nerve weakness,             Begumganj,
                        convulsion, rheumatism.     Noakhali district
                        1/2 tola whole plant is
                        mixed with 1/2 tola
                        ginger, 1/2 tola black
                        pepper, and  1/2 tola
                        saffron. 1/2 - 1
                        teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken 1-2
                        times daily for 1-2
                        months.

73    Root              Enlarged liver. 1-2         Begumganj,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
                        leaves is taken with milk
                        twice daily for 1-2
                        months.

74    Leaf, stem,       Coughs, cold, asthma,       Begumganj,
      root              joint pain, to stop         Noakhali district
                        bleeding. Leaves are used
                        as remedy for coughs,
                        cold, and asthma (oral
                        administration). The root
                        is used to treat joint
                        pain (topically applied).
                        Paste of thin green
                        covering of stem stops
                        bleeding immediately when
                        topically applied to cuts
                        and wounds.

75    Whole plant       Piles. A mixture is made    Senbagh,
                        from juice obtained from    Noakhali district
                        crushed whole plant of
                        Euphorbia prostrata,
                        juice of whole plant of
                        Cynodon dactylon and
                        raisins. 1 spoonful of
                        mixture is taken twice
                        daily for 1 month.

76    Whole plant       Vomiting, blood             Begumganj,
                        purification. Reduces       Noakhali district
                        vomiting (taken orally).
                        The juice is taken every
                        morning to purify blood.

77    Whole plant       Pain, dysentery, appetite   Dagonbhuiyan
                        stimulant. Juice is         district, Feni
                        obtained from crushed       district
                        whole plant. 2
                        teaspoonful of the juice
                        is taken daily for 2-4
                        weeks.

78    Whole plant       Jaundice, liver             Begumganj,
                        disorders, fever, heat      Noakhali district
                        eruptions. The entire
                        plant is taken orally as
                        remedy for jaundice,
                        liver disorders, fever,
                        and heat eruptions.

79    1. Leaf,          1. Loss of appetite,        1. Begumganj,
      root, fruit       indigestion, diarrhea,      Noakhali district
                        dysentery, weakness,
                        toothache, cancer. Leaf
                        juice is astringent and
                        given to children in
                        diarrhea. Leaves and
                        roots are regarded as
                        tonic, stomachic, given
                        to sick and convalescing
                        patients, and are used as
                        remedy for diarrhea and
                        dysentery. Fruits are
                        taken during toothache.
                        Fruits are also given in
                        cancer.

      2. Leaf           2. Dysentery, blood         2. Begumganj,
                        dysentery. 2 teaspoonful    Noakhali district
                        of juice obtained from
                        crushed leaves is taken
                        twice daily for 4 weeks.

80    Leaf, fruit,      Indigestion, loss of        Maizdi,
      seed              appetite, constipation,     Noakhali district
                        weakness, dysentery,
                        snake bite, skin
                        infections. Fruits are
                        digestive, stomachic,
                        laxative, astringent, and
                        tonic (oral
                        administration). They are
                        used in constipation and
                        dysentery (to be eaten
                        daily). Leaf juice is
                        useful in snake bite
                        (topical application).
                        Seed oil is antiseptic
                        (topical application).

81    Whole plant,      Jaundice, weak liver,       Begumganj,
      leaf, stem,       pimple prevention, dental   Noakhali district
      fruit             caries, fever, coughs,
                        rheumatism, anemia,
                        eczema, skin diseases,
                        dysentery. The whole
                        plant is taken as remedy
                        for jaundice, liver
                        weakness, prevent pimple,
                        dental caries. Infusion
                        of leaves is taken during
                        fever, cough, rheumatism,
                        anemia and jaundice. A
                        paste made of leaves and
                        ginger is used externally
                        in eczema and other skin
                        afflictions. The roots
                        are taken for fever, and
                        the fruits are eaten
                        during dysentery for 1
                        week.

82    Bark              Tuberculosis, debility,     Senbagh,
                        burning sensations during   Noakhali district
                        urination. 2 tola of
                        Santalum album bark, 2
                        tola of Tinospora
                        sinensis bark and 2 tola
                        of Pterocarpus santalinus
                        bark are mixed together.
                        4 teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken twice
                        daily for 1-3 months.

83    1. Whole          1. Diabetes, cuts and       1. Begumganj,
      plant, leaf       wounds, gastric ulcer,      Noakhali district
                        weakness, fever, coughs,
                        bronchitis, diarrhea,
                        dysentery, edema,
                        toothache. The whole
                        plant is taken during
                        diabetes, and juice
                        applied to cuts and
                        wounds to stop bleeding.
                        There leaves are used as
                        a cu for gastric ulcer
                        and weakness. Infusion o
                        leaves is taken for
                        fever, cough, bronchitis
                        diarrhea, dysentery, as a
                        diuretic, and gargled for
                        toothache.

      2. Whole plant    2. Jaundice, diabetes. 1    2. Begumganj,
                        teaspoonful of juice        Noakhali district
                        obtained from crushed
84    Root              whole plant is taken        Begumganj,
                        twice daily for 4 weeks.    Noakhali district
                        Wounds. Root of the plant
                        is used in healing wounds
                        (topical application of
                        crushed roots).

85    Leaf, fruit,      Mental disorders,           Laxmipur,
      seed              headache, earache,          Noakhali district
                        diarrhea, skin diseases,
                        painful swellings, joint
                        pain. Juice from a
                        mixture of leaf, fruit
                        and seed is taken for
                        mental disorder headache,
                        earache, and diarrhea,
                        and topically applied for
                        skin diseases, painful
                        swellings and joint pain.

86    Leaf, stem        Rheumatism. 1 tola juice    Senbagh,
                        obtained from crushed       Noakhali district
                        leaves and stems is taken
                        twice daily for 4 weeks.

87    Leaf, fruit       Physical weakness, edema,   Laxmipur,
                        fever, diarrhea. Fruits     Noakhali district
                        are taken as tonic,
                        diuretic, and in the
                        treatment of fever and
                        diarrhea. Fruits are also
                        taken as stimulant and in
                        cases of physical
                        weakness. Leaf juice
                        mixed with honey is taken
                        every night for a month
                        as stimulant and as

                        remedy for physical
                        weakness.

88    Whole plant,      Gonorrhea, other sexually   Begumganj,
      leaf, root,       transmitted diseases,       Noakhali district
      seed              joint pain, mucus,
                        asthma, coughs, chest
                        pain. Decoction of the
                        whole plant is used in
                        treating gonorrhea and
                        other sexually
                        transmitted diseases.
                        Paste of leaf is applied
                        to joint pains. Seeds and
                        roots are expector and
                        are taken for the
                        treatment of asthma,
                        cough, and chest pains.

89    Leaf, root        Vomiting, asthma, dry       Maizdi,
                        coughs, helminthiasis,      Noakhali district
                        toothache, fever. Leaf
                        juice mixed with ginger
                        juice (2 tea spoonful) is
                        given to stop vomiting.
                        Root juice is taken
                        during asthma dry coughs,
                        helminthiasis, toothache,
                        and fevers.

90    Whole plant       Irregular menstruation,     Begumganj,
                        painful menstruation        Noakhali
                        burning sensations in the   district
                        uterus. 10 mg iron, 250
                        mg juice from barks of
                        Saraca asoca, 125 mg of
                        juice from Withania
                        somnifera, 60 mg of Piper
                        cubeba, 60 mg of juice
                        from upper part of stems
                        of Abroma augusta and 50
                        mg of juice from
                        Rauwolfia serpentina is
                        mixed together. 2
                        teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken with
                        water twice daily for 2-3
                        months.

91    Stem              Irregular menstruation,     Begumganj,
                        painful menstruation,       Noakhali district
                        burning sensations in the
                        uterus. 10 mg iron, 250
                        mg juice from barks of
                        Saraca asoca, 125 mg of
                        juice from Withania
                        somnifera, 60 mg of Piper
                        cubeba, 60 mg of juice
                        from upper part of stems
                        of Abroma augusta and 50
                        mg of juice from
                        Rauwolfia serpentina is
                        mixed together. 2
                        teaspoonful of the
                        mixture is taken with
                        water twice daily for 2-3
                        months.

92    1. Whole plant    1. Weakness, skin           1. Amanullahpur,
                        problems, dysentery,        Noakhali district
                        indigestion, cataract.
                        The whole plant is taken
                        as a tonic and used
                        topically as a cleansing
                        herb for skin problems.
                        The whole plant is eaten
                        during dysentery and
                        digestive disorders. In
                        case of dysentery, 5-6
                        leaves of the plant are
                        eaten every morning up to
                        1 month. The leaf juice
                        is applied to eyes for
                        cataract and other eye
                        problems.

      2. Leaf           2. Gonorrhea, low semen,    2. Senbagh,
                        leucorrhea. 1 tola sugar,   Noakhali district
                        1 tola whole plant of
                        Achyranthes aspera, 1
                        tola leaves of Centella
                        asiatica, 1 tola roots of
                        Clerodendrum viscosum,
                        and 1 tola leaves of
                        Alternanthera sessilis
                        are mixed together. 2.5
                        tolas of the mixture is
                        taken once daily in the
                        morning on an empty
                        stomach for 3 days for
                        treatment of gonorrhea,
                        low semen, and
                        leucorrhea.

93    Whole plant       Leucorrhea. 2 tolas of      Senbagh, Noakhali
                        juice obtained from         district
                        crushed whole plant is
                        taken twice daily for a
                        month.

94    Root              Cold, asthma. Root juice    Laxmipur,
                        of the plant is             Noakhali
                        administered orally for     district
                        the treatment of cold and
                        asthma.

95    1. Leaf           1. Coughs, asthma, skin     1. Maizdi,
                        diseases, snake bites. A    Noakhali
                        strong infusion of leaves   district
                        is taken As a bitter
                        tonic for coughs and
                        asthma. Leaf juice is
                        also applied to skin
                        diseases and snake bites.

      2. Root           2. Gonorrhea, low semen,    2. Senbagh,
                        leucorrhea. 1 tola sugar,   Noakhali
                        1 tola whole plant of       district
                        Achyranthes aspera, 1
                        tola leaves of Centella
                        asiatica, 1 tola roots of
                        Clerodendrum viscosum,
                        and 1 tola leaves of
                        Alternanthera sessilis
                        are mixed together. 2.5
                        tolas of the mixture is
                        taken once daily in the
                        morning on an empty
                        stomach for 3 days.

96    Bark              Leucorrhea. 1 teaspoonful   Begumganj,
                        of juice obtained from      Noakhali
                        crushed barks is taken      district
                        twice daily for 1 month.

97    Whole plant       Pain. Juice is obtained     Dagonbhuiyan,
                        from crushed whole plant.   Feni district
                        1 teaspoonful of the
                        juice is taken twice
                        daily for 2-3 days.

98    Leaf              Fever. 1 teaspoonful of     Begumganj,
                        juice obtained from         Noakhali
                        crushed leaves is taken     district
                        twice daily for 3-7 days.

99    Leaf, seed,       Joint pain,                 Laxmipur,
      root              helminthiasis, weakness,    Noakhali
                        to increase lactation.      district
                        Leaf juice is applied to
                        joint pains. The root is
                        also considered tonic and
                        to increase breast milk
                        (oral administration).
                        Seed powder is taken
                        every morning for 3 days
                        in cases of
                        helminthiasis.

100   Leaf              Boils. Leaves are crushed   Senbagh,
                        and then mixed with         Noakhali
                        powdered black pepper and   district
                        applied to boils 3 times
                        daily for 2-3 days.

101   1. Whole plant    1. Rheumatic fever, joint   1. Begumganj,
                        pain. Juice of the whole    Noakhali
                        plant is used in the        district
                        treatment of rheumatic
                        fever (oral
                        administration) and joint
                        pain (applied topically).

      2. Whole plant    2. Pain-killer              2. Dagonbhuiyan,
                        (analgesic). Juice          Feni district
                        obtained from crushed
                        whole plant is taken
                        twice In 1-2 teaspoonful
                        amounts for 2-3 days.

Table 2: Percentage of use of
whole plant or plant parts by
Kavirajes of Noakhali and Feni
districts

Plant part    Percent
              (%) of use

Whole plant   20.2
Leaf          33.3
Bark          7.1
Stem          6.0
Root          19.1
Flower        2.7
Seed          6.6
Fruit         4.9

Table 3: Relevant scientific findings (phytochemicals and
pharmacological activities) on plants or plant parts used by
the Kavirajes of Noakhali and Feni districts, Bangladesh

Serial     Scientific name                   Ailment(s)
number                                       treated by the
(as in                                       Kavirajes of
Table 1)                                     Noakhali or
                                             Feni district

1          Andrographis paniculata Nees      Liver diseases.

10         Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.      Diabetes.

15         Calotropis gigantea (L.) R.Br.    Rheumatic pain.

18         Ageratum conyzoides L.            Diarrhea, dysentery,
                                             joint pain.

20         Mikania cordata (Burm. f.)        Dysentery,
           B. L. Robinson                    gastric ulcer.

50         Aloe barbadensis Mill.            Diabetes.

60         Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.     Ulcers, skin diseases,
                                             asthma.

63         Streblus asper Lour.              Fever, diarrhea,
                                             dysentery, joint pain.

64         Boerhaavia diffusa L.             Jaundice.

65         Nyctanthes arbor tristis L.       Fever, rheumatism.

78         Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam.      Jaundice, liver
                                             disorders.

83         Scoparia dulcis L.                Diabetes.

Serial     Relevant phytochemicals and pharmacological
number     activity findings in the medicinal plant used
(as in
Table 1)

1          Hepatoprotective activity of andrographolide isolated from
           the plant against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage
           in rats (Handa, S.S. and A. Sharma, 1990); hepatoprotective
           activity of andrographolide against galactosamine and
           paracetamol intoxication in rats (Handa, S.S. and A. Sharma,
           1990); hepatoprotective effect of alcoholic extract of
           leaves of the plant against carbon tetrachloride-induced
           liver damage (Rana, A.C. and Y. Avadhoot, 1991); choleretic
           effect by andrographolide in rats and guinea pigs (Shukla,
           B., 1992); anti-hepatoxic effects induced in mice by carbon
           tetrachloride or tert-butylhydroperoxide by the diterpenes -
           -andrographolide, andrographiside, and neoandrographolide,
           isolated from the plant ( Kapil, A.,1993); protection of rat
           hepatocytes by andrographolide against paracetamol-induced
           damage (Visen, P.K., 1993); hepatoprotective and antioxidant
           effect of the plant against BHC-induced liver damage in mice
           (Trivedi, N.P. and U.M. Rawal, 2001); hepatoprotective
           effect of andrographolide against hexachlorocyclohexane-
           induced oxidative injury in mice (Trivedi, N.P. and U.M.
           Rawal, 2007).

10         Isolation of anti-oxidative phenols and phenolic glycosides
           from the plant (Wu, Q., 2005); these could be potentially
           important in ameliorating the oxidative damages during
           diabetes.

15         Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of chloroform
           extract of root against carageenin-induced pedal edema,
           cotton pellet granuloma, and formaldehyde-induced arthritis
           in rats and acetic acid-induced writhings in mice (Basu, A.
           and A.K. Chaudhuri, 1991); analgesic activity of dry latex
           from the plant against acetic acid-induced writhings in mice
           (Dewan, S., 2000); anti-inflammatory effect of plant latex
           against peritonitis, paw edema, and hemorrhagic cystitis
           (Alencar, N.M., 2004); antinociceptive activity of plant
           latex in mice (Soares, P.M., 2005); analgesic activity of
           alcoholic extract of flowers in chemical and thermal models
           in mice (Pathak, A.K. and A. Argal, 2007); anti-inflammatory
           activity against carragenin- and kaolin- induced rat paw
           edema, and cotton pellet- or adjuvant-induced arthritis
           model for chronic inflammation in rats (Adak, M. and J.K.
           Gupta, 2006); protective effect of latex against
           inflammation and oxidative stress in Freund's complete
           adjuvant-induced monoarthritis in rats (Kumar, V.L. and S.
           Roy, 2007); protective effect of latex against Freund's
           complete adjuvant-induced monoarticular arthritis in rats
           (Kumar, V.L. and S. Roy, 2009).

18         Gastroprotective effect of ethanol extract of the plant
           against ibuprofen, ethanol and cold restraint stress ulcer
           models in rats (Shirwaikar, A., 2003); analgesic effect of
           crude extract of the plant as evaluated by the hot plate
           method and acetic acid-induced writhings (Abena, A.A.,
           1993).

20         Anti-ulcer activity of alkaloidal fraction obtained from
           ethanol extract of leaves against diclofenac sodium-induced
           gastric erosions in Long Evans rats (Paul, R.K., 2000);
           anti-ulcerogenic effect of an alkaloidal fraction obtained
           from whole plant against diclofenac sodium-induced
           gastrointestinal lesions in rats (Mosaddik, M.A. and K.M.
           Alam, 2000); protective effect of methanol extract of root
           against gastric ulcers induced by water-immersion stress,
           ethanol, aspirin, and phenylbutazone in male Sprague-Dawley
           rats (Bishayee, A. and M. Chatterjee, 1994).

50         Isolation of five anti-diabetic phytosterols from the plant
           (lophenol, 24- methyl-lophenol, 24-ethyl-lophenol,
           cycloartanol, and 24- methylene-cycloartanol) (Tanaka, M.,
           2006).

60         Anti-inflammatory effects of three phenolic compounds
           (artocarpesin, norartocarpetin, oxyresveratrol) isolated
           from ethyl acetate extract of fruits (Khan, M.R., 2003);
           anti-bacterial activity of various solvent extracts of
           stems, root barks, heart-wood, leaves, fruits, and seeds
           (Sripanidkulchai, B., 2009).

63         Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract (Wongkham, S.,
           2001); anti- microbial activity in ethanol extract of leaves
           (Rawat, A.K., 1997) *.

64         Hepatoprotective activity demonstrated by an aqueous extract
           of roots against thioacetamide intoxicated rats (Rawat,
           A.K., 1997); hepatoprotective activity of alcoholic extract
           of whole plant against carbon tetrachloride-induced
           hepatotoxicity in rats and mice (Chandan, B.K., 1991).

65         Analgesic and anti-pyretic activity present in leaf extract
           (Saxena, R.S., 1987); anti-inflammatory activity of
           alcoholic extract of leaves against carrageenin, formalin,
           histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and hyaluronidase-induced
           edema in hind paw of rats (Saxena, R.S., 1984).

78         Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of whole plant
           against paracetamol overdose-induced liver damage In Wistar
           rats (Sadasivan, S., 2006); anti-inflammatory and
           hepatoprotective effect demonstrated by plant extract (Lin,
           C.C., 2002).

83         Anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-oxidant properties
           demonstrated In vitro in Rat insulinoma cell lines (RINm5F)
           and isolated islets as well as in vivo in
           streptozotocin-treated male Wistar rats (Latha, M., 2004);
           specific improvement in insulin binding following
           administration of plant extract in streptozotocin-induced
           diabetic rats (Pari, L., 2004); anti-oxidant and
           hypoglycemic effect of plant extract in
           streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Pari, L., 2005); anti-
           hyperlipidemic effect of plant extract in
           streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Pari, L., 2006);
           anti-diabetic effect of scoparic acid D isolated from the
           plant in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats
           (Latha, M., 2009).
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Title Annotation:Original Articles
Author:Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Abdullah-Al-Mahmud; Rahman, Atikur; Uddin, Farhan; Hasan, Mehedi; Khatun, Afs
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Mar 1, 2011
Words:9633
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