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An ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemical review of some Bignoniaceae family plants and a description of Bignoniaceae plants in folk medicinal uses in Bangladesh.

Introduction

Human beings have been aware of medicinal plants possibly as long ago as 3,000 BC [Sofowara, 1982]. Virtually every indigenous culture in the world uses medicinal plants in some form or other for treatment of ailments. The actual knowledge of medicinal plants is possessed by a select group of practitioners, who determine the nature of the ailments and then prescribe remedies. Although indigenous cultures possess a holistic view of ailments and their cure, medicinal plants do form a major part of indigenous medicinal or traditional medicinal practices. Since the advent of modern or allopathic medicine, traditional medicine lost quite a bit of ground, being determined to be somewhat akin to superstitious beliefs or even quackery by allopathic doctors. However, in recent periods, traditional medicine has made a major come-back. It has been realized that a number of important modern pharmaceuticals have been derived from, or are plants used by indigenous people [Balick and Cox, 1996]. A number of modern drugs like aspirin, atropine, ephedrine, digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and tubocurarine are examples, which were originally discovered through observations of traditional cure methods of indigenous peoples [Gilani and Rahman, 2005].

The Indian sub-continent comprising of the countries India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh form one of the richest sources of traditional medicinal practices in the whole world. Overall, the alternative medicinal systems of India uses more than 7500 plant species [Mukherjee and Wahile, 2006]. The various traditional medicinal systems practiced in the above countries are the well known homeopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and the Siddha systems of medicine with their well-defined formulations and selection of medicinal plants. What is not so well known is another system of medicine, which can best be referred to as folk medicine. In Bangladesh, the folk medicinal practitioners, known otherwise as Kavirajes or Vaidyas form the first tier of primary health care for a substantial segment of the rural and urban population of the country. The Kavirajes each have their unique repertoire of medicinal plants for treatment of ailments, a knowledge which is closely guarded and usually passed on from generation to generation. The distinctive feature of treatment of ailments by the Kavirajes is that unlike the other systems of traditional medicine, the Kavirajes rely almost exclusively on simple preparations of medicinal plants or plant parts in their treatments.

In our ethnomedicinal surveys among the various Kavirajes spread throughout the country and the tribal medicinal practitioners of various tribes [Hanif et al., 2009; Hossan et al, 2009, 2010; Mollik et al, 2010; Rahmatullah et al., 2009a-e; Rahmatullah et al., 2010 a,b], we have observed considerable variations about the plant species selected by any individual Kaviraj for treatment of a specific ailment. Quite naturally, this variation extended to families of plants. A plant family that is not often used by the folk medicinal or tribal medicinal practitioners (henceforth both will be referred to as folk medicinal practitioners or Kavirajes unless necessary otherwise) in Bangladesh is the Bignoniaceae family. Yet this family, although containing worldwide a relatively small number of genera (about 110) and species (about 650) is important on account of the considerable scientific literature present on bio-active constituents and pharmacological activities in Bignoniaceae family plant species. The objective of the present study was to conduct a review of reported bio-active constituents from some important plants belonging to this family along with reported pharmacological activities in the scientific literature and compare the traditional medicinal uses of this family in various countries of the world including Bangladesh.

Materials and Methods

Reports of ethnomedicinal studies, bio-active phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activity studies on Bignoniaceae family plants were obtained from existing scientific data bases. Interviews of folk medicinal practitioners within Bangladesh were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided-field walk method as described previously [Martin, 1995; Maundu, 1995]. Briefly, in this method, the folk medicinal practitioners took the interviewers in guided field-walks during daytime through the areas from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and gave their local name(s) with a description of their uses. Prior permission was obtained from all folk medicinal practitioners before the interview and the guided field-walks. The informants were specifically told that the information obtained may be disseminated in both national as well as international publications. All information was cross-checked with the folk medicinal practitioners in later evening sessions. Interviews were conducted in the Bengali language when Kavirajes practicing within the mainstream population were interviewed and in the corresponding tribal language when tribal medicinal practitioners were interviewed. In the latter case, the tribal Headman acted as the interpreter, the Headman being conversant in both Bengali as well as the language of his tribe. Plant specimens were collected and dried in the field and later identified by the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results and Discussion

Bignoniaceae family plants are widely used in traditional medicinal systems of many countries as shown in Table 1. A notable number of bioactive compounds have been reported from Bignoniaceae family plants. These compounds reportedly demonstrated a number of important activities, which are beneficial to human beings. The various activities included molluscicidal, trypanocidal, mosquito larvicidal, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-plasmodial, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, anti-microbial, anti-depressant, anti-snake venom, anti-cancer, antinociceptive, and neurotrophic activities. The findings from published studies are summarized in Table 1. It is to be noted that Table 1 does not cover all plants of the Bignoniaceae family but only several important plants.

Among the various bio-active constituents reported from Bignoniaceae family plantsand reviewed in the present study, some of the more common but pharmacologically important compounds are ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, a- and b-lapachone, lapachol, verbascoside, corymboside, lupeol, quercitrin, apigenin, pomolic acid, and isoacteoside. Although a comprehensive evaluation of the activities of these compounds is beyond the scope of the present study, a brief review of some of the most recent literature on these compounds shall be presented.

The anti-trypanocidal activity of ursolic acid has already been mentioned in Table 1. The compound has been shown to ameliorate thymic atrophy and hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice (Lee et al., 2010). Inhibition of early lesions of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice has also been reported (Zhou et al., 2010). Anti-diabetic activity has further been demonstrated by enhancement of the cellular immune system and pancreatic b-cell function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice fed a high-fat diet (Jang et al., 2009). Anti-cancer activity has also been demonstrated through report of the compound's inducing apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 (Yu et al., 2010). Both ursolic acid and oleanolic acid (constituents reported from Bignoniaceae family plants) demonstrated anti-cancer activity by inducing apoptosis in four human liver cancer cell lines, HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7 and HA22T (Yan et al., 2010). Notably, the compound also demonstrated protective effects against oxidative DNA damage, which included enhancement of DNA repair in Caco-2 cells (Ramos et al., 2010). It reportedly also attenuated oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular carcinoma induction by diethylnitrosamine in male Wistar rats (Gayathri et al., 2009). The compound potentially can be used to treat obesity as demonstrated by its stimulation of lipolysis in primary-cultured rat adipocytes (Li et al., 2010). Anti-nematicidal activity has been reported for both ursolic and pomolic acids (the latter also being present in Bignoniaceae family plants) against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Begum et al., 2008). Anti-arthritic effect has been reported for ursolic acid in zymosan-induced acute inflammation and adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis in rodent models (Kang et al., 2008). Ursolic and oleanolic acid reportedly demonstrated anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory protection in PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide- or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion-induced cell injury (Tsai and Yin, 2008). Anti-fungal activity has also been reported for ursolic acid (Shai et al., 2008).

Ursolic acid, present in methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia (Phil.) Epling (Lamiaceae) reportedly gave an [IC.sub.50] value of 4.9 mg/ml against Plasmodium falciparum K1 strain and was also active against P. falciparum 3D7 strain (van Baren et al., 2006). The anti-plasmodial activity of ursolic acid isolated from hydromethanol extract of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O Ktze. (Rubiaceae) have also been reported (Traore-Keita et al., 2000). Extract of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), containing ursolic acid, also demonstrated anti-plasmodial activity against P. falciparum ([IC.sub.50] value of about 20 mg/ml, da Silva Filho et al., 2009).

Oleanolic acid, together with ursolic acid reportedly showed inhibitory activities against amastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis (Passero et al., 2010). A synergistic anti-hyperglycemic effect has been reported between Syzygium cordatum-derived oleanolic acid and insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Musabayane et al., 2010). The compound reportedly increased urinary [Na.sup.+] outputs and creatinine clearance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Mapanga et al., 2009).

Oleanolic acid has also been reported to have anti-plasmodial activity. Bioactivity guided fractionation of whole plant of Viola verecunda A. Gray (Violaceae) led to the isolation of epi-oleanolic acid with high anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant FcB1 strain of P. falciparum with an [IC.sub.50] value of 0.18 mg/ml (Moon et al., 2007). Oleanolic acid has been isolated from the methanol extract of Satureja parvifolia (Phil.) Epling (Benth.) Briq. (Lamiaceae). The [IC.sub.50] value against P. falciparum K1 strain has been reported to be 9.3 mg/ml (van Baren et al., 2006). A moderate in vitro anti-plasmodial effect has been observed with extract of Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Bentham (Lamiaceae) flowers, which has been attributed to presence of oleanolic acid. The observed effect has been attributed to incorporation of oleanolic acid into the erythrocyte membrane thus adversely affecting the growth of P. falciparum (Sairafianpour et al., 2003).

Inhibitory activities of lapachol and a- and b-lapachone derivatives have been reported against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Salas et al., 2008). The oxyrane derivative of a-lapachone has also been shown to be a potent growth inhibitor of T. cruzi epimastigote forms (Jorqueira et al., 2006). Anti-neoplastic activity has been reported for monoarylhydrazones of a-lapachone (Renou et al., 2003).

Verbascoside has been reported to demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells (human myelomonocytic leukemia) (Speranza et al., 2010). The compound also clearly demonstrated its efficacy in experimental mice model of spinal cord trauma, where it significantly ameliorated the recovery of function as evaluated by motor recovery score (Genovese et al., 2010). Anti-sports anemia effects of the compound have also been demonstrated in mice (Zhu et al., 2010). Verbascoside has been shown as the major anti-oxidant constituent in experiments with methanolic extract of Phlomis lychnitis L. (Lamiaceae) in rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) exposed to hydrogen peroxide (Lopez et al., 2010). The compound, isolated from Lepechinia speciosa Benth. (Lamiaceae) reportedly showed inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2 in vitro (Martins et al., 2009).

Lupeol has been reported to be one of the constituents isolated from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) responsible for antinociceptive effects in models of acute pain in rodents (Pereira et al., 2010). The compound has also been regarded to be mainly responsible for anti-inflammatory effects of extracts of Acacia visco Lor. Ap Griseb (Fabaceae) in animal models (Pedernera et al., 2010). The anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of lupeol have been reviewed (Saleem, 2009).

The anti-oxidative protective effect of quercitrin against hydrogen peroxide-induced dysfunction in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells has been reported (Choi, 2010). Quercitrin also reportedly attenuated Ab(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons through possible anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties (Rattanajarasroj and Unchern, 2010). Anti-oxidation property has further been suggested for quercitrin, present in leaf extract of Rosa agrestis Savi (Rosaceae) (Bitis et al., 2010). Quercitrin has been shown to inhibit methylmercury-induced radical oxygen species production in rat brain slices (Wagner et al., 2010). Quercitrin has also been found in extract of Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb (Rosaceae), which demonstrated anti-oxidant properties and has been suggested as a possible dietary nutritional supplement to prevent oxidation- related diseases (Zhu et al., 2009).

The anti-genotoxic and anti-clastogenic properties of apigenin has been demonstrated in 7,12-dimethyl[a]anthracene-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of golden Syrian hamsters (Silvan et al., 2010). Anti-oxidant and hypolipidemic effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Sapindaceae) leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats has been attributed to apigenin and luteolin (Veeramani et al., 2010). Apigenin has further been shown to inhibit human hepatoma Huh7 cell proliferation (Cai et al., 2010). The compound, isolated from leaves of Adinandra nitida Merr. ex H. L. Li (Theaceae) also reportedly demonstrated angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory properties, suggesting that the compound may play a potential role in development of new anti-hypertensive drugs (Liu et al., 2010).

Pomolic acid, isolated from Euscaphis japonica (Tunb.) Kantiz (Staphyleaceae) showed anti-fibrotic activity by inhibiting proliferation of HSC-T6, a rat hepatic stellate cell line (Lee et al., 2009). The compound isolated from Weigela subsessilis (Nakai) L. H. Bailey (Caprifoliaceae), stimulated glucose uptake in both basal and insulin-stimulated L6 muscle cells thus demonstrating its anti-diabetic potential (Lee and Thuong, 2010). Nematicidal activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita has also been reported for the compound isolated from aerial parts of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) (Begum et al., 2008). Anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and apoptotic activity in human polymorphonuclear cells has been demonstrated for pomolic acid isolated from leaves of Cecropia pachystachya Trecul (Cecropiaceae) (Schinella et al., 2008). The compound further inhibited the growth of K562 cell line-originated from chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis- and its vincristine-resistant derivative K562-Lucenal (Vasconcelos et al., 2007).

Isoacteoside, isolated from Cistanche tubulosa Schenk Hook.f. (Orobanchaceae) reportedly demonstrated hepatoprotective activity through inhibition of D-galactosamine-induced death of hepatocytes (Morikawa et al., 2010). The compound, isolated from seeds of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) demonstrated anti-hypertensive potential by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (Geng et al., 2010). Anti-oxidative activity has been reported for the compound isolated from Cistanche salsa (C.A. Mey) G. Beck (Orobanchaceae) (Yang et al., 2009), which activity is similar to when the compound was isolated from the Bignoniaceae family plant, Jacaranda caucana Pittier (Martin et al., 2009). Isoacteoside, isolated from leaves of Acanthus ilicifolius L. (Acanthaceae) reportedly increased the growth and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, indicating that it may help prevent osteoporosis (Van Kiem et al., 2008).

Taken together, the bio-active constituents from Bignoniaceae family plants as reported above present considerable potential for development of novel therapeutics against a wide array of human ailments. Thus they form important chemical compounds on which more scientific studies and clinical trials need to be conducted.

The use of Bignoniaceae family plants by folk and tribal medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh are shown in Table 2. Overall, seven plants are used belonging to six genera. Oroxylum indicum was the plant most used by both Kavirajes as well as various tribal medicinal practitioners, being used by four tribes within the country. The only other plant used by tribal medicinal practitioners was Heterophragma adenophyllum, which was used by the Chakma tribe and not the mainstream folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes). It was observed that the practitioners (both Kavirajes and tribal practitioners) used whole plant as well as plant parts like leaf, stem, bark, root, fruit, and flower for treatment.

Although only seven Bignoniaceae family plants were used by the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners, the number of ailments treated was diverse. The various ailments treated included cancer, snake bite, skin disorders, alopecia, impotency, respiratory tract illnesses, gastrointestinal disorders, cholera, spleen enlargement, rheumatoid arthritis, edema, gynecological disorders, epilepsy, cold, fever, hepatic disorders, leucorrhea, pain, urinary tract infections, malaria, sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction.

Some of the folk medicinal uses of Bignoniaceae family plants can be validated by existing reports in the scientific literature. For instance, immunostimulant and anti-oxidative properties has been described for Oroxylum indicum (see Table 1 for details), which properties can be useful in the plant's folk medicinal use in bangladesh for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, tonsillitis, cold, and fever. The anti-inflammatory properties of Stereospermum suaveolens validate its use for pain, which is often accompanied by inflammation. Other Bignoniaceae plants used by the folk medicinal healers of Bangladesh need to be scientifically studied towards validation and discovery of new therapeutics. Overall, the Bignoniaceae family plants form an important source of plants for folk medicinal use as demonstrated by their use for treatment of a variety of ailments (Table 2). The Bignoniaceae family can therefore be considered an important family in folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh even though the number of plants in use is small. The plants can become important sources of novel drugs and lead compounds.

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Yu, Y.X., Z.L. Gu, J.L. Yin, W.H. Chou, C.Y. kwok, Z.H. Qin and Z.Q. Liang, 2010. Ursolic acid induces human hepatoma cell line SMMC-7721 apoptosis via p53-dependent pathway. Chinese Medical Journal, 123: 1915-1923.

Yu, Z.W., H.Y. Zhu, X.S. Yang, Q.Y. Sun and X.J. Hao, 2005. Study on chemical constituents from Incarvillea arguta and their accelerating PC-12 cell differentiation. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30: 1335-1338.

Zaveri, M., P. Gohil and S. Jain, 2006. Immunostimulant activity of n-butanol fraction of root bark of Oroxylum indicum, Vent. Journal of Immunotoxicology, 3: 83-99.

Zhou, Y., J.S. Li, X. Zhang, Y.J. Wu, K. Huang and L. Zheng, 2010. Ursolic acid inhibits early lesions of diabetic nephropathy. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 26: 565-570.

Zhu, L., J. Tan, B. Wang, R. He, Y. Liu and C. Zheng, 2009. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb and its fractions. Chemistry & Biodiversity, 6: 1716-1726.

Zhu, M., N. Tan, H. Zhu, G. Zeng, W. He, B. Yu and X. Chen, 2010. Anti-sports anaemia effects of verbascoside and martynoside in mice. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31: 537-541.

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor and Dean, Faculty of Life Sciences University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Telephone: +88-01715032621 E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com Fax: +88-02-815739

(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (2) Walied Samarrai, (1) Rownak Jahan, (1) Shahnaz Rahman, (1) Nasima Sharmin, (1) Z.U.M. Emdad Ullah Miajee, (2) Majeedul H. Chowdhury, (3) Sazzadul Bari, (1) Farhana Jamal, (1) A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, (1) A.K. Azad, (1) Shamima Ahsan

(1) Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205, Bangladesh.

(2) Present address: New York City College of Technology The City University of New York 300 Jay Street, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA.

(3) MonicoPharma Ltd. House No. 89/1, Road No. 12A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.

Mohammed Rahmatullah, Walied Samarrai, Rownak Jahan, Shahnaz Rahman, Nasima Sharmin, Z.U.M. Emdad Ullah Miajee, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Sazzadul Bari, Farhana Jamal, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, A.K. Azad, Shamima Ahsan; An ethnomedicinal, pharmacological and phytochemical review of some Bignoniaceae family plants and a description of Bignoniaceae plants in folk medicinal uses in Bangladesh

Table 1: A pharmacological, phytochemical and ethnomedicinal
evaluation of Bignoniaceae family plants.

Botanical name          Reported phytochemical constituents and
                        pharmacological activities

Adenocalymma comosum    Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria
(Cham.) A.P. DC.        glabrata reported for ethanolic extract
                        of whole plant (Silva et al., 2007).

Anemopaegma arvense     Antioxidant activities reported for
(Vell.) Stelff.         flavan-3-ol-phenylpropanoid conjugates,
Ex Souza                catuabin A, cinchonain Ia, cinchonain Iia,
                        and kandelin A1 isolated from ethyl
                        acetate fraction of stem bark (Tabanca et
                        al., 2007).

Arrabidaea chica        Used in Brazilian traditional medicine as
Verlot                  wound healing agent; leaf extract
                        demonstrated wound healing properties as
                        exhibited by stimulation of fibroblast
                        growth and collagen synthesis both in vitro
                        and in vivo (Jorge et al., 2008).

Arrabidaea              Ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, pomolic acid,
triplinervia H.         and alpinetine has been reported from ethanol
Baill.                  extract of leaves; the first two compounds
                        demonstrated trypanocidal activity against
                        trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, which
                        causes Chagas disease (Leite et al, 2006).

Arrabidaea parviflora   Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria
Bureau & K.Schum.       glabrata reported for ethanolic
                        extract of whole plant (Silva et al., 2007).

Campsis grandiflora     Extract from the flower has been shown to
K. Schum.               contain oleanolic acid, ursolic acid,
                        ursolic aldehyde, maslinic acid, corosolic
                        acid, 23-hydroxyursolic acid, and
                        arjunolic acid, of which the last four
                        components reportedly demonstrated high
                        human acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase
                        inhibitory activities (Kim et al., 2005).

Catalpa                 Anti-oxidant activity reported for
bignonioides Walt.      methanolic extracts from inflorescence
                        rachises, corollas, calyxes, leaves, valves
                        of capsules and hypertrophied placenta
                        (Dvorska et al, 2007).

Catalpa ovata           Isolation from methyl chloride-soluble
G. Don.                 fractions of stems a naphthoquinone,
                        4-hydroxy-2-(2-methoxy-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-
                        but-1-enyl)-4-hydro-1H-naphthalen-1-one
                        as well as catalponol, catalponone,
                        catalpalactone, a-lapachone,
                        9-hydroxy-a-lapachone,
                        4,9-dihydroxy-a-lapachone,
                        9-methoxy-a-lapachone, 4-oxo-a-lapachone,
                        and 9-methoxy-4-oxo-a-lapachone of which
                        catapalactone, 9-hydroxy-a-lapachone,
                        and 4,9-dihydroxy-a-lapachone exhibited
                        potent inhibitory effects on
                        lipopolysaccharide-induced NO synthesis
                        in RAW 264.7 cells (Park et al., 2010).
                        Chemopreventive effect of seed oil against
                        azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant
                        crypt foci in male F344 rats (Suzuki et
                        al., 2006).
                        Compounds isolated from stem bark, namely
                        8-methoxydehydroiso-a-lapachone,
                        9-methoxy-4-oxo-a-lapachone, (4S, 4aR, 10R,
                        10aR)-4,10-dihydroxy-2,2,-dimethyl-2,3,
                        4,4a,10,10a-hexahydrobenzo[g]chromen-5-one,
                        3-hydroxydehydroiso-a-lapachone,
                        4,9-dihydroxy-a-lapachone,
                        4-hydroxy-a-lapachone, 9-methoxy-a-lapachone,
                        and catalpalactone exhibited significant
                        inhibitory activity against
                        12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate-induced
                        Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation
                        in Raji cells (Fujiwara et al., 1998).

Clytostoma binatum      Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria
(Thunb.) Sandw.         glabrata reported for ethanolic extract
                        of whole plant (Silva et al., 2007).

Crescentia cujete L.    A number of compounds have been reported
                        from the plant, all compound showing
                        activity toward DNA-repair-deficient yeast
                        mutants; the compounds are
                        (2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-
                        a-lapachone, (2R)-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-
                        a-lapachone, (2R)-5-methoxydehydroiso-a-
                        lapachone, 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]
                        furan-4,9-dione, 5-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)
                        naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione,
                        2-isopropenylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione,
                        and 5-hydroxydehydroiso-a-lapachone (Hetzel
                        et al., 1993).

Cuspidaria argentea     Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria
(Wawra) Sandw.          glabrata reported for ethanolic
                        extract of whole plant (Silva et al., 2007).

Cybistax                Larvicidal activity reported for stem wood
antisyphilitica         hexane extract against Aedes aegypti
(Mart.) Mart.           larvae, which bio-activity guided
                        fractionation indicated the active component
                        to be lapachol (Rodrigues et al., 2005).

Dolichandrone           Dolichandroside-A, a-lapachone, lapachol,
falcata (Wall.          aloesaponarin II, 8-hydroxydehydroiso-a-
ex DC.) Seem.           lapachone, b-sitosterol,
                        3,8-dihydroxydehydroiso-a-lapachone and
                        verbascoside reported from ethyl acetate
                        soluble extract of heartwood; a-glucosidase
                        inhibitory activity observed with
                        verbascoside and aloesaponarin II,
                        a-glucosidase inhibitory and free radical
                        scavenging activity observed with
                        dolichandroside A (Aparna et al., 2009).

Incarvillea arguta      Five components have been reported from
(Royle) Royle           alcohol extract of plant, namely,
                        plantarenaloside, 5-hydroxy-4
                        ,6,7-trimethoxyflavone, 4 ,5-dihydroxy-6,7-
                        dimethoxyflavone, 4 ,5-dihydroxy-7-
                        methoxyflavone, and 5-dydroxy-4 ,7-
                        dimethoxyflavone, of which plantarenaloside
                        has been shown to have neurotrophic
                        activity for PC-12 cell (Yu et al., 2005).

Jacaranda acutifolia    In ethnomedicine of South America, bark
Humb. & Bonpl.          extract considered as astringent and diuretic
                        (Roth and Lindorf, 2002) and used for
                        treatment of wounds; ground bark used
                        against venereal diseases, rheumatism,
                        and sciatica (Correa and Bernal, 1989;
                        quoted in Gachet and Schuhly, 2009).
                        Constituents isolated from bark include 7,2,
                        3,4-tetrahydroxyflavone 3-O-neohesperidoside
                        (Ferguson and Lien, 1982).

Jacaranda caerulea      Leafy branches used in Camaguey for eczema
(L.) Juss.              and pimples; leaves used to treat skin
                        cancer and other skin disorders (Morten,
                        1981; quoted in Gachet and Schuhly, 2009)

Jacaranda caroba D.C.   In some regions of Brazil, leaves used for
                        treatment of infections, syphilis, and ulcer
                        (Di Stasi and Hiruma-Lima, 2002; Botion
                        et al., 2005). Hydroethanolic extract of
                        the plant is one of the constituents of a
                        Brazilian phytopharmaceutical product,
                        'Ierobina' used for treatment of dyspepsia,
                        which has been validated in rat models
                        (Botion et al, 2005).

Jacaranda caucana       Leaves and bark reported to be used in
Pittier                 traditional medicine for treatment of
                        venereal disease (Gentry, 1992); reported to
                        be used in Colombia for treatment of
                        rheumatism, colds and skin diseases (Weniger
                        et al., 2001; quoted in Gachet and
                        Schuhly, 2009).
                        Plant constituents reported include ursolic
                        acid, b-sitosterol, 2a-hydroxyursolic acid,
                        jacarandic acid and 2a,3a-dihydroxyurs-12-en-
                        28-oic acid (Ogura et al., 1977a);
                        from the stem bark--jacoumaric acid and,
                        betulinic acid (Ogura et al., 1977b);
                        from twigs and leaves--jacaranone (Ogura
                        et al., 1976).
                        Jacaranone isolated from the plant
                        demonstrated in vivo and in vitro anti-cancer
                        activity against P-388 lymphocytic leukemia
                        cells (Ogura et al., 1976, 1977a).
                        Anti-oxidant phenylethanoid glycosides
                        reported from the plant along with
                        protocatechuic acid, acteoside, jionoside D,
                        isoacteoside, martynoside, and a rhamnosyl
                        derivative of sisymbrifolin (Martin et al.,
                        2009).
                        Methanolic extract of leaves reportedly
                        active against both chloroquine-sensitive and
                        chloroquine resistant strains of Plasmodium
                        falciparum (Weniger et al., 2001).

Jacaranda copaia        Used medicinally by the Yanesha, an
(Aubl.) D. Don          Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group for ailments
                        related to leishmaniasis and malaria;
                        ethanolic extract of plant reportedly
                        demonstrated good activity against a
                        Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant
                        strain (Valadeau et al., 2009). In the
                        Amazon region sap of bark and leaves used
                        to treat skin infections; the Andoque
                        Indians in Colombian Amazon use leaves to
                        promote healing (Correa and Bernal, 1989;
                        Evans-Schultes and Raffauf, 1990;
                        quoted in Gachet and Schuhly, 2009); Used
                        also for treatment of skin disorders by
                        the Wao and Shuar Indians of the
                        Ecuadorian-Amazon region (De la Torre et al.,
                        2007); bark used to treat leishmaniasis in
                        South America (Roth and Lindorf, 2002)
                        and by people of Guiana's tableland (Sauvain
                        et al., 1993); used against cancer in
                        Venezuela (Roth and Lindorf, 2002);
                        tubercles used in Brazilian Amazon for
                        treatment of gastrointestinal disorders
                        (Rodrigues, 2006); leaves used to treat
                        rheumatism by the Chacobo Indians in
                        Bolivia; used by the Tiriy6 of northern
                        Brazil to heal debility and fever; bark of
                        young trees used to treat syphilis in
                        French Guiana; leaves used to treat skin
                        infections by the Jivaros of Peru; sap of
                        bark used to treat skin infections by the
                        Vaupes River Indians in Colombia (Gachet
                        and Schuhly, 2009).
                        Jacaranone and ursolic acid reported from
                        leaves (Sauvain et al., 1993).
                        Anti-cancer studies reported on ethanolic
                        extract in different cell lines as well as
                        inhibitory activitiy against four proteases
                        (Villasmil et al., 2006; Taylor et al.,
                        2006).

Jacaranda               Leaves used to treat leishmaniasis by the
cuspidifolia Martius    Chinane Indians and Colonos (Fournet
ex. DC.                 et al, 1994).

Jacaranda decurrens     In Brazil, leaves and bark used to treat
Cham.                   wounds and skin disorders; bark used to
                        treat itching; leaves and roots used to
                        treat syphilis, rheumatism, skin disorders,
                        and inflammation (Maroni et al., 2006;
                        quoted in Gachet and Schuhly, 2009).
                        Reported constituent from epicuticular wax
                        include ursolic acid (Varanda et al., 1992);
                        from leaves, luteolin, 6-hydroxyluteolin
                        7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside,
                        quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Blatt et al.,
                        1998).

Jacaranda               Reported constituents of the plant stem
filicifolia D. Don      include b-sitosterol, ursolic acid,
                        2a,3a,dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, and
                        2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl
                        1-dodecyloctadecanoate
                        (triacontanoic acid) (Ali and Houghton, 1999).
                        Dichloromethane extract of stem bark showed
                        anti-fungal activities against Coriolus
                        versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum, and
                        Bostryodiplodia theobromae (Ali et al., 1998).

Jacaranda puberula      Anti-leishmanial activity demonstrated by
Cham.                   methanolic extract from leaves against
                        promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis
                        (Passero et al., 2007).

Jacaranda glabra        Used by the Tacana Indians in Bolivia and
(DC.) Bureau & K.       the Kichwas of Ecuadorian Amazon to
Schumann                treat leishmaniasis; the Kichwas also use
                        leaves to treat skin disorders (De la
                        Torre et al., 2007; quoted in Gachet and
                        Schuhly, 2009).

Jacaranda hesperia      Used to treat leishmaniasis in the Choco
Dugand                  region of Colombia (Vazquez et al., 1991;
                        quoted in Gachet and Schuhly, 2009).

Jacaranda               Reported constituents from root bark include
mimosifolia D. Don      lupenone, b-sitosterol, ursolic acid and
                        oleanolic acid (Prakash and Garg, 1980);
                        from leaves--hydroquinone (Gachet and
                        Schuhly, 2009); scutellarein
                        (Sankara-Subramanian et al., 1972);
                        scutellarein 7-glucuronide
                        (Sankara-Subramanian et al., 1973);
                        isoquercitrin, isovitexin, apigenin
                        7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin
                        7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, scutellarein
                        7-O-b-D-glucoronopyranoside methyl ester,
                        apigenin 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside methyl
                        ester, luteolin 7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside
                        methyl ester, E-acteoside, Z-acteoside,
                        isoacteoside, cistanoside, 6 -acetylacteoside,
                        campneoside and jacraninoside A (Moharram
                        and Marzouk, 2007); from seed oil--8Z, 10E,
                        12Z-octadocatrienoic acid (Chisholm and
                        Hopkins, 1962).
                        Bark used in Ecuador to treat venereal
                        diseases and as a blood purifier
                        (Acosta-Solis, 1992; quoted in Gachet and
                        Schuhly, 2009).
                        Anti-microbial activity reported for hexane,
                        ethanol, and aqueous extracts of leaves
                        against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli
                        and Staphylococcus aureus (Rojas et al.,
                        2006).
                        Hypotensive property reported for
                        methanol-water extract of leaves (Nicasio and
                        Meckes, 2005).
                        8Z, 10E, 12Z-octadocatrienoic acid, a major
                        component in seed oil (Chisholm and
                        Hopkins, 1962) reportedly showed high
                        cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity and
                        inhibited prostaglandin biosynthesis
                        (Nugteren and Christ-Hazelhof, 1987).

Jacaranda               Used in Venezuela and Guyana to promote
obtusifolia Humboldt    wound healing (Roth and Lindorf, 2002);
and Bonpland            leaves used in Colombia to treat syphilis
                        (Perez-Arbelaez, 1990; quoted in Gachet
                        and Schuhly, 2009).

Jacaranda puberula      Leaves used by the Xokleng Indians of Terra
Cham.                   Indigena Ibarama who resides in southern
                        Brazil to treat frostbites (Sens, 2002;
                        quoted in Gachet and Schuhly, 2009).

Kigelia africana        Used in African traditional medicine for
(Lam.) Benth.           anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and
                        anti-skin aging effects; polar extract of
                        fruit contains an iridoid, verminoside and
                        polyphenols like verbascoside of which
                        verminoside has been reported to have
                        anti-inflammatory activity (Picerno et
                        al., 2005).

Kigelia pinnata         From the roots, the following anti-bacterial
(Jacq.) DC.             and anti-fungal compounds have been
                        isolated--kigelinone, isopinnatal,
                        dehydro-a-lapachone, and lapachol
                        (naphthoquinones) and the phenylpropanoids,
                        p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid; from
                        fruits has been reported the following
                        anti-bacterial and anti-fungal
                        compounds--kigelinone and caffeic acid
                        (Binutu et al., 1996).

Macfadyena              Used in folk medicine of Brazil as an
unguis-cati L.          anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, and
                        anti-venereal; a number of phytochemicals
                        have been reported from extracts of leaves
                        and lianas of the plant, namely,
                        corymboside, vicenin-2, quercitrin,
                        chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid,
                        lupeol, b-sitosterol, b-sitosterylglucoside,
                        allantoin, and lapachol; anti-tumoral and
                        anti-trypanosomal activities have been
                        demonstrated of extracts and components
                        (Duarte et al., 2000).

Mansoa hirsuta D.C.     Reported vasodilation of rat aortic rings
                        mediated through NO and endothelium by
                        ethanol extract of leaves (Campana et al.,
                        2009).

Markhamia tomentosa     Following compounds has been reported from
(Benth.) K. Schum.      ethyl acetate extract of stem barks:
                        2-acetylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione,
                        2-acetyl-6-methoxynaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-
                        dione, oleanolic acid, pomolic acid,
                        3-acetylpomolic acid, tormentic acid,
                        b-sitosterol, and b-sitosterol-3-O-b-D-
                        glucopyranoside; the first two compounds
                        exhibited anti-protozoal activities but
                        also showed high toxicity against a
                        mammalian (L-6) cell line (Tantangmo et al.,
                        2010).

Melloa quadrivalvis     Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria
(Jacq.)                 glabrata reported for ethanolic extract
                        of stems (Silva et al., 2007).
                        From the stem bark, the following compounds
                        have been reported: 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-a-
                        lapachone, 5,6-dihydroxy-a-lapachone,
                        4 ,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-a-lapachone,
                        lapachol, and 5,5 -dihydroxy-3,4
                        ,7-trimethoxyflavanone, of which the
                        first compound and the chloroform extract
                        of the plant inhibited cell growth of
                        Hep2 and NCIH-292 (Lima et al., 2005).

Millingtonia            Larvicidal activity reported for leaf
hortensis L.            extract against mosquito species, Anopheles
                        stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and
                        Aedes aegypti (Kaushik and Sauni, 2008).
                        Antimutagenic activity shown by flavonoids,
                        hispidulin and hortensin, isolated from
                        the plant, against 2-aminoanthracene,
                        aflatoxin B1, and dimethylnitrosoamine
                        (Chulasiri et al., 1992).

Newbouldia laevis       The plant is used in traditional medicine
P. Beauv.               of Togo for treatment of sickle cell disease;
                        in vitro anti-sickling activity reported for
                        plant extracts (Joppa et al., 2008).
                        From roots, a naphthoquinone-anthraquinone
                        coupled pigment--newbouldiaquinone
                        A has been isolated with anti-malarial
                        activity against Plasmodium falciparum and
                        strong anti-microbial activities against
                        Candida gabrata and Enterobacter aerogens;
                        other components isolated from roots
                        included apigenin, chrysoeriol,
                        newbouldiaquinone, lapachol,
                        2-methylanthraquinone, 2-acetylfuro-1,4-
                        naphthoquinone, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone,
                        oleanolic acid, canthic acid, 2-(4-
                        hydroxyphenyl)ethyl triacontanoate,
                        newbouldiamide, 5,7-dihydroxydehydroiso-a-
                        lapachone, b-sitosterol, and b-sitosterol
                        glucopyranoside (Eyong et al., 2006).
                        Constituents reported from stem bark
                        include the phenylethanoid glycosides,
                        newbouldioside A-C, sodium salt of analogue
                        B, verbascoside, 5-hydroxydehydro-
                        iso-a-lapachone, 3,8-dihydroxydehydro-iso-
                        a-lapachone, apigenin, and luteolin
                        (Gormann et al., 2006);
                        furanonaphthoquinones--1-(1 -methylethenyl)-5-
                        hydroxynaphthol[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione,
                        2-(1 -methylethenyl)-7-hydroxynaphthol[2,3-
                        b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-acetyl-5-hydroxynaphtho
                        [2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, and 2-(1 -
                        methylethenyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione
                        along with atraric acid and 2-(1 -
                        methylethenyl)-6-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran
                        (Gormann et al., 2003). A number of
                        naphthoquinones have been reported from
                        roots with anti-fungal activity against
                        Cladosporium cucumerinum and Candida
                        albicans and anti-bacterial activity against
                        Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; the
                        compounds include 6-hydroxydehydroiso-a-
                        lapachone, 7-hydroxydehydroiso-a-lapachone,
                        5,7-dihydroxydehydroiso-a-lapachone, and
                        3-hydroxy-5-methoxydehydroiso-a-lapachone
                        (Gafner et al, 1996).

Oroxylum indicum        Immunostimulant and anti-oxidant activity
Vent.                   reported for n-butanol fraction of root
                        bark in rats (Zaveri et al., 2006).

Spathodea               Used in traditional medicine to treat
campanulata P. Beauv    convulsion and epilepsy, anti-convulsant
                        activity of ethanol leaf extract
                        demonstrated against pentylenetetrazole-,
                        picrotoxin-, and electroshock-induced models
                        in mice (Ilodigwe et al., 2010).
                        Anti-microbial activity of extracts of stem
                        bark demonstrated against Bacillus
                        subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
                        aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and
                        Candida albicans (Ofori-Kwakye et al.,
                        2009); reported anti-microbial constituents
                        from stem bark--spathoside (a cerebroside),
                        n-alkanes, linear aliphatic alcohols,
                        sitosterol and their esters,
                        b-sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside,
                        oleanolic acid, pomolic acid,
                        p-hydroxybenzoic acid and phenylethanol
                        esters (Mbosso et al., 2008).
                        The plant is used to treat wound healing
                        in Ashanti traditional medicine of Ghana;
                        Methanol extract of bark showed
                        anti-microbial activity as well as
                        anti-oxidant activity by protecting MRC-5
                        cells from hydrogen peroxide induced oxidant
                        injury (Mensah et al, 2006).

Stereospermum           Used in traditional medicine for treatment
kunthianum Cham,        of bronchitis, pneumonia, coughs, gastritis,
Sandrine Petit          wounds, rheumatic arthritis, ulcers,
                        dysentery, leprosy, and sexually transmitted
                        diseases;
                        Anti-inflammatory activity reported for
                        aqueous extract of stem bark in experimental
                        animal models using the carrageenan-induced
                        paw edema, leucocytes migration and
                        granuloma air pouch test in rats (Ching et
                        al., 2009a). Analgesic activity mediated
                        through both central and peripheral
                        mechanisms reported for aqueous extract of
                        stem bark (Ching et al., 2009b). Reported
                        protection by aqueous stem bark extract
                        against generalized seizures in
                        pentylenetetrazole and electro-convulsive
                        models in rodents (Ching et al., 2009c).

Stereospermum           Anti-inflammatory effect observed with
suaveolens (Roxb.) DC   ethanol extract of bark against carrageenan-,
                        dextran-, and histamine-induced hind paw
                        edema, and cotton pellet-induced
                        granuloma formation in rats [Balasubramanian
                        et al., 2010]. Hepatoprotective activity of
                        methanol stem bark extract reported against
                        carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in
                        albino rats (Chandrashekhar et al., 2010).

Stereospermum           From the stem bark of the plant
zenkeri K.Schum.        anthraquinones--zenkequinones A and B along
ex De Wild.             with sterequinone-F, p-coumaric acid,
                        sitosterol-3-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and
                        3b-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-O-b-D-glucopyranoside
                        reported, of which zenkequinone B showed
                        good anti-bacterial activity against
                        Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Lenta et al., 2007).

Tabebuia aurea          Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria
(Manso) Benth.          glabrata reported for ethanolic extract
& Hook. f.              of stems (Silva et al., 2007).
ex S. Moore

Tabebuia avellanedae    Used in folk medicine of Central and South
Lorentz ex Griseb.      America to treat bacterial infection,
                        blood coagulation, cancer, and inflammatory
                        diseases.
                        Anti-bacterial activity against
                        methicillin-resistant Staphylococcal strains
                        reported for b-lapachone,
                        3-hydroxy-b-N-lapachone
                        and a-lapachone, isolated from the plant
                        (Pereira et al., 2006).
                        In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory
                        effects reported for taheebo, a water extract
                        from the inner bark (Byeon et al., 2008).
                        Anti-ulcerogenic effect reported for
                        ethanolic extract of bark against ethanol and
                        ibuprofen-induced acute gastric ulceration
                        in rats (Twardowschy et al., 2008).
                        Anti-depressant effect observed of ethanolic
                        extract of plant in forced swimming
                        test and tail suspension test in mice
                        (Freitas et al., 2010).
                        Presence of napthoquinones reported from
                        inner bark, namely (-)-5-hydroxy-2-(1
                        -hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione
                        (1), and (-)-8-hydroxy-2-
                        (1 -hydroxyethyl)naphtho
                        [2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2), with compound 1
                        reportedly exhibiting potent
                        anti-proliferative effect against several
                        human tumor cell lines, and both compounds
                        displaying modest anti-fungal and
                        anti-bacterial activity (against Gram
                        positive bacteria) (Yamashita et al., 2009);
                        reversal of myelosuppression concomitant
                        with increases in spleen CFU-GM and in serum
                        colony-stimulating activity observed in
                        Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice with
                        plant extract and a constituent, b-lapachone
                        (Queiroz et al., 2008), growth inhibitory
                        activity of A549 human lung carcinoma cells
                        mediated through induction of apoptosis and
                        inhibition of telomerase activity shown by
                        b-lapachone, a quinone constituent obtained
                        from bark (Woo and Choi, 2005).

Tabebuia                Bio-active components from dried inner bark
impetiginosa Martius    namely, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone,
ex DC.                  anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol
                        {2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
                        1,4-naphthoquinone} reportedly active
                        against Helicobacter pylori
                        ATCC 43504 (Park et al., 2006);
                        anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol
                        has been isolated from the inner bark of the
                        plant with the former compound demonstrating
                        strong growth inhibition of the human
                        intestinal bacteria, Clostridium
                        paraputrificum (Park et al., 2005).

Tabebuia rosea          Used by traditional healers for snakebites
(Bertol.) DC.           in the northwest region of Colombia;
                        ethanolic extracts of stem barks found to
                        possess significant neutralizing effect
                        against venom of Bothrops atrox (Otero et
                        al., 2000).

Tecoma sambucifolia     Alcoholic extracts of pods and flowers
H.B.K.                  reported to possess anti-inflammatory and
                        antinociceptive activities; alcoholic
                        extract of flowers also demonstrated
                        cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cell
                        line (Alguacil et al., 2000).

Tecoma stans (L.)       Aqueous extract of the plant used as an
Juss. ex Kunth.         anti-diabetic in traditional medicine of
                        Mexico; a-glucosidase activity and
                        hypoglycemic action along with
                        hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic
                        action noted with aqueous extract in
                        streptozotocin-induced Type 2 diabetic male
                        Sprague-Dawley rats (Aguilar-Santamaria et
                        al., 2009).
                        Extract of fruits reportedly yielded the
                        following compounds--2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)
                        ethyl-2-O-[6-deoxy-a-L-mannopyranosyl-4-
                        (3,4-dihydroxy phenyl)-2-propenoate]-b-D-
                        glucopyranoside (phenylethanoid compound),
                        5-hydroxy-skytanthine hydrochloride
                        (Compound 8, monoterpene alkaloid),
                        4-O-E-caffeoyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1
                        [right arrow]3)-a,b-D-glucopyranose
                        (Compound 1), E/Z-acteoside (Compound 2),
                        isoacteoside (Compound 4), rutin, luteolin
                        7-O-b-D-neohespridoside, luteolin
                        7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, and sucrose.
                        Extracts of flowers yielded luteolin
                        7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, diosmetin
                        7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside, diosmetin
                        7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, diosmetin
                        7-O-b-D-glucuronopyranoside methyl ester, and
                        acteoside. The extract and compounds 1, 2
                        and 4 reportedly possessed strong
                        radical scavenging activity; extract, and
                        compounds 2 and 4 exhibited cytotoxic
                        activity against human hepatocarcinoma
                        cells (Hep-G2), while extract and
                        compounds 2 and 8 demonstrated potent
                        growth inhibition of human breast
                        carcinoma cells, MCF-7 (Marzouk et al.,
                        2006).

Tecoma undulata Seem.   Hepatoprotective activity reported of
                        ethanol extract of stem barks against
                        thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in
                        albino rats (Khatri et al., 2009).

Zeyheria montana        Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive
Mart.                   effects described for ethanol extract of
                        leaves in mice and rats (Guenka et al.,
                        2008).

Zeyheria tuberculosa    Extract of the plant reportedly cytotoxic in
(Vell.) Bur.            brine shrimp assays; in bio-activity guided
                        assays, four flavones were isolated from the
                        plant--two of them 5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone
                        and 4 -hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetramethoxyflavone
                        displayed anti-microbial activity against
                        Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans,
                        5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone was active against
                        Staphylococcus aureus, while 4 -hydroxy-5,6,
                        7-trimethoxyflavone did not show any
                        anti-microbial activity (Bastos et al., 2009).

Table 2: Folk medicinal uses of Bignoniaceae family plants in
Bangladesh.

Botanical name            Family          Local name

Crescentia cujete L.      Bignoniaceae    Boan-gota
Synonym(s):
Crescentia acuminata
Kunth, Crescentia
arborea Raf.
English: Bottle gourd,
calabash tree,
gourd, calabash pipe

Heterophragma             Bignoniaceae    Kau-a-turi
adenophyllum                              (Chakma tribe)
(Wall. ex G. Don) Seem.
ex Benth. & Hook. f.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
adenophylla Wall. Ex
G. Don, Haplophragma
adenophyllum (Wall. ex
G. Don) Dop
English:

Oroxylum indicum (L.)     Bignoniaceae    Khonha, Pahari-jora,
Vent. Synonym(s):                         Kanai-dingi,
Bignonia indica L.,                       Hanghoal,
Calosanthes indica                        Aklong-singh, Thona
Blume                                     gach, Naori
English: Indian                           Chilana gach
Trumpet, Tree of                          (Chakma tribe)
Damocles                                  Kanaidingi
                                          (Garo tribe)
                                          Krong-sa-bang
                                          (Marma tribe)
                                          Thona gach,
                                          Tou-kharung
                                          (Tripura tribe)

Stereospermum             Bignoniaceae    Parul, Niil parul
suaveolens DC.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
chelonoides L. f.,
Bignonia suaveolens
Roxb. English: Trumpet

Tabebuia argentea         Bignoniaceae    Gui-babla
(Bureau
& K. Schum.) Britton.
Synonym(s): Tabebuia
aurea (Silva Manso)
Benth. & Hook. f.
ex S. Moore, Tabebuia
aurea (Silva Manso)
S. Moore, Tabebuia
caraiba (Mart.)
Bureau , Tecoma
argentea Bureau
& K. Schum., Tecoma
caraiba Mart.
English: Paraguyan
trumpet tree, Silver
trumpet tree, Tree
of gold

Tecoma gaudichaudi DC     Bignoniaceae    Sothin-bahar,
                                          Shona pata

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss.   Bignoniaceae    Sona pata
ex Kunth.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
stans L., Gelseminum
stans (L.) Kuntze,
Stenolobium stans
(L.) Seem., Stenolobium
stans (L.) Seem.
English: Ginger-Thomas,
Trumpet Bush,
Trumpetflower

Botanical name            Parts used

Crescentia cujete L.      1. Whole plant
Synonym(s):
Crescentia acuminata
Kunth, Crescentia
arborea Raf.
English: Bottle gourd,
calabash tree,
gourd, calabash pipe

Heterophragma             1. Root
adenophyllum
(Wall. ex G. Don) Seem.
ex Benth. & Hook. f.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
adenophylla Wall. Ex
G. Don, Haplophragma
adenophyllum (Wall. ex
G. Don) Dop
English:

Oroxylum indicum (L.)     1. Leaf, stem, bark
Vent. Synonym(s):         2. Leaf, bark
Bignonia indica L.,       3. Fruit
Calosanthes indica        4. Leaf, bark, stem
Blume                     5. Leaf, bark
English: Indian           6. Skin of fruit
Trumpet, Tree of          7. Leaf, root
Damocles                  8. Leaf, bark, fruit
                          9. Bark
                          10. Bark, fruit
                          11. Bark, fruit

Stereospermum             1. Leaf, bark, flower
suaveolens DC.            2. Bark
Synonym(s): Bignonia      3. Leaf
chelonoides L. f.,
Bignonia suaveolens
Roxb. English: Trumpet

Tabebuia argentea         1. Root
(Bureau
& K. Schum.) Britton.
Synonym(s): Tabebuia
aurea (Silva Manso)
Benth. & Hook. f.
ex S. Moore, Tabebuia
aurea (Silva Manso)
S. Moore, Tabebuia
caraiba (Mart.)
Bureau , Tecoma
argentea Bureau
& K. Schum., Tecoma
caraiba Mart.
English: Paraguyan
trumpet tree, Silver
trumpet tree, Tree
of gold

Tecoma gaudichaudi DC     1. Whole plant
                          2. Leaf

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss.   1. Leaf
ex Kunth.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
stans L., Gelseminum
stans (L.) Kuntze,
Stenolobium stans
(L.) Seem., Stenolobium
stans (L.) Seem.
English: Ginger-Thomas,
Trumpet Bush,
Trumpetflower

Botanical name            Disease and dosage

Crescentia cujete L.      1. Abortifacient, cancer, snake bite,
Synonym(s):               itch, alopecia, virility, pneumonia, hurt.
Crescentia acuminata
Kunth, Crescentia
arborea Raf.
English: Bottle gourd,
calabash tree,
gourd, calabash pipe

Heterophragma             1. Piles, constipation (Chakma tribe).
adenophyllum
(Wall. ex G. Don) Seem.
ex Benth. & Hook. f.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
adenophylla Wall. Ex
G. Don, Haplophragma
adenophyllum (Wall. ex
G. Don) Dop
English:

Oroxylum indicum (L.)     1. Tonsillitis, cholera, spleen
Vent. Synonym(s):         enlargement, indigestion.
Bignonia indica L.,
Calosanthes indica        2. Tonsillitis, snake bite, rheumatoid
Blume                     arthritis, edema, gynecological
English: Indian           disorders, colic.
Trumpet, Tree of
Damocles                  3. Jaundice.

                          4. Rheumatoid arthritis, tonsillitis,
                          colic, dysentery, skin disorder.

                          5. Epilepsy, antiseptic, diarrhea, cold.

                          6. Jaundice, swelling (Garo tribe).

                          7. Sudden unconsciousness, skin
                          disorders, sex stimulant (Marma tribe).

                          8. Fever, cholera, diarrhea, dysentery,
                          astringent,   sore throat,  throat pain,
                          rheumatic pain.

                          9. Jaundice.

                          10. Scabies, eczema, skin disorders,
                          abscess (bark), leukorrhea, dysentery,
                          urinary  problems  (fruit), toothache,
                          jaundice (bark) (Tripura tribe).

                          11. Pus with urine, burning sensations
                          in  urinary  tract,  pus  with semen,
                          scabies (Chakma tribe).

Stereospermum             1. Malaria, bronchitis, heart diseases,
suaveolens DC.            cancer, purgative.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
chelonoides L. f.,        2. Pain.
Bignonia suaveolens
Roxb. English: Trumpet    3. Gonorrhea.

Tabebuia argentea         1. Worn as a talisman around the
(Bureau                   neck to protect a person from evil
& K. Schum.) Britton.     spirits.
Synonym(s): Tabebuia
aurea (Silva Manso)
Benth. & Hook. f.
ex S. Moore, Tabebuia
aurea (Silva Manso)
S. Moore, Tabebuia
caraiba (Mart.)
Bureau , Tecoma
argentea Bureau
& K. Schum., Tecoma
caraiba Mart.
English: Paraguyan
trumpet tree, Silver
trumpet tree, Tree
of gold

Tecoma gaudichaudi DC     1. Infertility, diabetes, digestive aid.

                          2. Erectile dysfunction.

Tecoma stans (L.) Juss.   1. Pain, piles.
ex Kunth.
Synonym(s): Bignonia
stans L., Gelseminum
stans (L.) Kuntze,
Stenolobium stans
(L.) Seem., Stenolobium
stans (L.) Seem.
English: Ginger-Thomas,
Trumpet Bush,
Trumpetflower

Note that all local names are in Bangla (Bengali) language unless
a specific tribe is mentioned. Ailments treated are as described
by folk medicinal practitioners of the mainstream population
(Bengali-speaking) known as Kavirajes unless a tribe is indicated
when the information was obtained from tribal medicinal practitioners.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Samarrai, Walied; Jahan, Rownak; Rahman, Shahnaz; Sharmin, Nasima; Miajee, Z.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Sep 1, 2010
Words:12173
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