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An ethnobotanical survey and pharmacological evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Garo tribal community living in Netrakona district, Bangladesh.

Introduction

Throughout history plants have been used by human beings for medicinal purposes and even in modern times have formed the basis of many pharmaceuticals in use (Schmidt, et al, 2008). Plants produce a vast array of secondary metabolites as defense against environmental stress or other factors like pest attacks, wounds, and injuries. The complex secondary metabolites produced by plants have found various therapeutic uses in medicine from time immemorial. The early history of modern medicine contains descriptions of plant-derived phytochemicals, many of which are still in use. Some examples are the discovery of cardiotonics in foxglove, salicylic acid in willow bark, and morphine in poppies (Rishton, 2008). Various terpenoid compounds, which are synthesized in plants as secondary metabolites are proving their potential in modern scientific studies against inflammatory diseases and cancer (Salminen, 2008). A recent review has shown that approximately 25% of modern medications have been plant derived, while 75% of new drugs against infectious diseases that have arrived between 1981 and 2002 originated from natural sources (Bedoya, et al, 2009). Herbs and spices have been used from ancient times not only to increase palatability in foods but also for their health beneficial effects. Scientific studies have demonstrated the anti-oxidative potential of many herbs and spices, which is important since oxidative damages have been implicated in major diseases like atherosclerosis, arthritis, and diabetes. The cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic, use of ginger in ameliorating arthritic knee pain, and the effect of several herbal supplements on psychological and cognitive function has been reviewed by Tapsell et al (2006). Despite the progresses in modern medicine, it has been reported that more than 70% of the developing world's population still depends on complementary and alternative systems of medicine, otherwise known as traditional medicine (Shaikh, 2005).

The advent of allopathic medicine shifted scientific and general population interest from traditional medicinal preparations. However, in recent years, a major paradigm shift has taken place. Interest has refocused on traditional medicine, because of the high cost of modern drugs, time and expenditure that is necessary to bring a drug to market after appropriate clinical trials, serious side-effects of a number of modern drugs, and drug-resistance developing in both microorganisms and parasites. As a result, scientists are now taking an active interest in traditional medicinal preparations of indigenous peoples, which mostly are plantbased. One example is the renewed interest in anti-inflammatory traditional medications. Inflammatory diseases are common in the aging society of developed and developing countries; yet, the drugs used to combat inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis often have serious side-effects. Several leads from plant sources, like curcumin, resveratrol, baicalein, boswellic acid, betulinic acid, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid are now studied as possible drugs for the future against inflammatory diseases (Gautam, 2009). Edible plant extracts have shown promising anti-tumorigenic activity (Amara, et al, 2008). Anti-cancer agents from plant sources currently being used or undergoing clinical trials include vinblastine, vincristine, nevelbine, etoposide, teniposide, taxol, taxotere, topotecan, and irinotecan (Wang, 1998). A large number of traditional medicinal preparations used in various countries of the world have shown promise as treatment for herpes virus infections, which cannot be completely cured by the available anti-herpes drugs like nucleoside analogs (Chattopadhyay, 2008). The various ailments for which searches are going on in plants for newer drugs are too numerous to mention; to cite just a few examples, new plant-derived compounds are being searched for treatment of malaria because of the increasing resistance of Plasmodium falciparum against currently available anti-malarial drugs (Batista, et al, 2009; Kihampa, et al, 2009), searches for anti-fungal, molluscicidal and larvicidal compounds in African medicinal plants has been reviewed by Marston et al (1993), anti-leishmanial activity in Israeli plants has been reviewed by El-On et al (2009), and anti-trypanosomal and cytotoxic activities of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-producing plants of Ethiopia has been reported by Nibret et al (2009).

Since indigenous peoples have a long history and expertise in the use of medicinal plants, it is important that their plant usage be documented as the basis for development of lead compounds before this knowledge is lost due to the influences of modern civilization. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous people or tribes, including the Chakmas, Garos, Santals, Marmas, Oraon, Mrus, Rakhains, Tripuras and others. We have previously conducted ethnobotanical surveys among the Rakhains and Tripura tribes residing in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region, the Santals residing in Rajshahi district, and the Garo tribal community inhabiting the Madhupur forest region (Tangail district) of Bangladesh (Hanif, et al, 2009; Hossan, et al, 2009; Shahidullah, et al, 2009; Mia, et al, 2009). The Garos (once a nomadic tribe of the Bodo group of Mongoloids) are a large tribal community spread among the north-central districts of the country like Mymensingh, Netrakona, Gazipur, Sherpur and Tangail. A number of Garos have recently adopted Christianity; however, they still basically follow their own religion with its associated customs and rituals. They have their own traditional medicinal practitioners, known as khamals or kamals, who besides practicing medicine, also conducts vows and arranges festivals. The khamals possess considerable expertise on medicinal plants, which is learnt through teachers or "gurus", family members, and trials on patients. This knowledge is usually confined to the family and passed on from generation to generation. Because the Garo communities lack any alphabet and because they are spread-out among the different districts, the traditional uses of medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments differ among the khamals of different districts. The objective of this present study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey among the khamals of the Garo community living in Netrakona district, Bangladesh to document their medicinal plant usage and to compare their use of medicinal plants with that of the Garo community living in the Madhupur forest region of the country.

2. Materials and methods

2.1. Study area

Netrakona district in Bangladesh is situated roughly between 90[degrees]30-91[degrees]15 E and 24[degrees]35- 25[degrees]15 N. The district is comprised of several sub-districts. The present survey was conducted among the khamals of Garo communities living in the villages of Ranikong, Madhavpur and Bipinganj, all villages being situated within Durgapur sub-district.

2.2. Data collection and sampling techniques

A total of five khamals were interviewed in the present survey. They were all males and named Raja, Xavier, Sentu, Semintas, and Badsha. Among them Xavier has adopted Christianity and regularly goes to a church located between Madhavpur and Bipinganj villages, where he has picked up acquaintances with the church doctor (a modern allopathic doctor). Xavier, however, practices the traditional system of Garo medicine (including diagnosis and treatment of ailments), which he has picked up from his family. Nevertheless, he has picked up a few medical terms like cancer and diabetes from the allopathic doctor. However, his diagnosis and choice of medicinal plants for treatment of the above two diseases did not differ from the other khamals, who diagnose diabetes and cancer, respectively, by the sweetness of urine, and by the presence of symptoms like weakness, loss of appetite, fever, itches that do not heal, or swellings, and which cannot be attributed to any of their known ailments. It needs to be pointed out in this respect, that diabetes is a known ailment of the khamals who refer to it as "chini-rogh", "chini" standing for sugar and "rogh" standing for disease. Cancer is a modern term picked up by the khamals, who do not understand it properly and attributed it to unexplained symptoms as described earlier.

Informed consent was obtained from the healers prior to the survey. The purpose of the survey was explained to them in details and they were told that the survey had no other intentions apart from documentation of their medicinal plant usage. The survey was conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. Interviews were conducted in the Bangla language, all healers being fluent in the language spoken by over 95% of the Bangladesh population. The local names of the medicinal plants, however, were given in the Habeng language spoken by the Garos and which was found to have similarities to the Bangla language. The basic survey method was that of the guided field-walk method as described by Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995). In this method, the khamals took the interviewers to the areas from where they collected their medicinal plants and gave information as to plant name, plant parts used and ailments treated. All information was cross-checked with the khamals in later evening sessions. Plant specimens were collected and dried on site and brought back to the Bangladesh National Herbarium for identification, where voucher specimens were also deposited.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Plants and their distribution into families

The result of the present survey shows that the khamals of the Garo community of Netrakona district used 74 plants distributed into 45 families for treatment of various ailments (Table 1). The Fabaceae family contributed the largest number of species (eight). Other families contributing more than one plant per family included the Araceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae and Verbenaceae families (three plants per family), and the Acanthaceae, Anacardiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae families (two plants per family). Some plants were not obtained from the wild. Among plants cultivated for both home consumption and commercial purposes were Mangifera indica (mango), Areca catechu (betel nut), Borassus flabellifer (sugar palm), Cocos nucifera (coconut), Ananas comosus (pineapple), Carica papaya (papaya), Luffa cylindrica (vegetable sponge), Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry), Manihot esculenta (cassava), Cajanus cajan (spotted pigeon pea), Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean), Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Moringa oleifera (drumstick tree), Musa sapientum (banana), Psidium guajava (guava), Syzygium cumini (black plum), Averrhoa carambola (star fruit), Piper betle (betel leaf), Ziziphus mauritiana (Indian jujube), Aegle marmelos (wood apple), and Zingiber officinale (ginger).

3.2. Plant parts used and mode of preparation

The various plant parts used included whole plant, leaf, root, stem, flower, seed, bark, gum, fruit, petiole, and rhizome. Of the 107 uses observed in the present survey, leaves formed the part predominantly used (33.6%), followed by whole plant (15.9%), fruits (15.0%) and stems (11.2%). For a number of plants, multiple plant parts from the same plant were used. For instance, the roots of Achyranthes aspera were used to treat snake bite and diabetes, while seeds from the same plant were used for treatment of gonorrhea. A combination of bark and seed of Thevetia peruviana was used to treat mental disorders. The mode of administration was either oral or topical. For oral administration, generally juice was extracted from the plant part following crushing and then taken. However, in the case of Cocos nucifera, juice of the fruit (coconut juice) was directly taken for treatment of diarrhea. The barks and seeds of Syzygium cumini are also directly taken for diabetes, while a combination of leaf and petiole paste of Piper betle is taken as treatment for bronchitis, indigestion, and as antidote to poison. For topical applications, usually a paste of the plant part (e.g. Mikania cordata) or powdered plant part (e.g. bark of Crataeva religiosa) was applied.

3.3. Medical applications

A plant or plant part may be used to treat a single ailment or multiple ailments. The leaves of Lannea grandis were used for diuretic purposes in case of urinary problems. Similarly, crushed whole plants of Typhonium giganteum were topically applied to reduce pain. On the other hand, the roots of Areca catechu were used to treat both helminthiasis and constipation. The leaves and fruits of Ananas comosus were used to treat fever, helminthiasis, and jaundice. In this case, the fruits were used for treatment of fever, while leaf juice was used to treat helminthiasis or jaundice. Mostly the uses of medicinal plants were for common ailments like respiratory tract disorders (cough, pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis), gastrointestinal problems (diarrhea, dysentery, constipation), skin diseases (scabies, eczema, itches), bone fractures, and cuts and wounds. However, the khamals used medicinal plants to treat more complicated diseases like heart diseases, hypertension, diabetes, urinary calculus, sexual disorders, malaria, and leprosy. One plant, Argyreia speciosa, was used to treat small pox when the disease was prevalent.

From the number of plant species used for treatment of various ailments, it appears that gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract infections, skin diseases, sexual disorders, and diabetes are common among the Garos. The number of plants used to treat the above disorders or ailments were 18, 10, 15, 8, and 11. Nine plants were used to treat cuts and wounds. Other ailments treated included bone fractures, urinary tract problems, helminthiasis, heart diseases, hypertension, fever, debility, pain, chicken pox, toothache, jaundice, mental disorders, snake bites, measles, menstrual disorders, malaria, leprosy, insomnia, urinary calculus, and head lice. Certain plants were also used as abortifacient, diuretic, anti-emetic, energy stimulant, insect repellent, or as antidote to poison.

3.4. Reported pharmacological activities on plants used by the Garo tribal healers

The various medicinal plants used by the Garo tribal healers of Netrakona district, Bangladesh were screened in the available scientific literature for reported relevant pharmacological activities. The results are summarized in Table 2. It may be seen from Table 2 that 32 medicinal plants out of the 74 plants used by Garo traditional healers have reported pharmacological activities, which validate their traditional use.

Discussion

We have previously conducted and published an account of an ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Garo tribal healers of Madhupur forest region, Bangladesh (Mia, et al, 2009). The present survey shows that considerable differences exist in the usage of medicinal plants between the Garo healers of Madhupur and the Garo healers of Netrakona district. While the Garo healers of Madhupur used 65 medicinal plants distributed into 43 families for treatment of various ailments, the Garo healers of Netrakona district used 74 plants distributed into 45 families. Out of these plants, only 18 plants were found to be used in common in both areas. These common use plants can be classified into three groups based on the ailments treated. The first group comprised of the same plant being used to treat the same ailment (e.g. use of Mikania cordata for treatment of cuts and wounds, use of Hibiscus rosa sinensis for treatment of dysentery, and use of Aphanamixis polystachya for treatment of skin diseases). The second group comprised of plants, which although not used for treatment of the same ailment, are used for treatment of related ailments (e.g. use of Cissus quadrangularis to treat bone fractures in Madhupur versus use of the same plant to treat wounds and sprains in Netrakona). The third group comprised of plants used to treat different ailments in the two regions surveyed (e.g. use of Achyranthes aspera as an abortifacient in Madhupur, while the same plant was used for treatment of snake bite, diabetes, and gonorrhea in Netrakona). Thus obviously, the traditional healers of the Garo tribe residing in different areas have developed their own unique system of medicinal plant usage. The differences cannot be attributed to geographical availability of plants, for both Madhupur and Netrakona have closely similar climate and vegetation. Thus this difference has arisen possibly from individual clinical practices of the healers with individually conducted trial and error methods. It is to be noted in this regard that the traditional Garo healers do not have any central database of medicinal plants; rather, each healer has developed his own treatment system, which again is dependent on his teacher and his personally developed expertise. As such, treatment with medicinal plants is a continually developing process among the healers and quite possibly has changed both with time as well as area of residence.

The use of a number of medicinal plants by the Garo healers of Netrakona district finds support from scientific studies conducted on these plants regarding their phytochemical components as well as pharmacological activity studies. This validation indicates that the use of medicinal plants for treatment of specific ailments by indigenous healers need not be ignored by modern science; instead, this ethnobotanical information can form the basis for further studies leading to the development of lead compounds and newer drugs. Certainly, the available studies indicate that plants like Centella asiatica, Ageratum conyzoides, Terminalia arjuna, Moringa oleifera, and Aegle marmelos present excellent potential for development of drugs leading to treatment of both widespread but common ailments like gastrointestinal disorders, as well as complicated ailments like diabetes and heart diseases, which are prevalent throughout the world population and which cannot be treated satisfactorily with modern allopathic medicine. Many other plants have not been studied at all scientifically thus far. The importance of the present survey lies in the knowledge gained from indigenous tribal healers, which can in turn, lead to scientific research on the plants, leading to discovery of novel efficacious drugs. The study, through highlighting these medicinal plant species, can also serve an important purpose in the cultivation and conservation of these plants, many of which are getting endangered in the wild.

Acknowledgements

This study has been funded through internal support provided by the University of Development Alternative. The authors are also grateful to Mr. Manzurul Kadir Mia, retired taxonomist at the Bangladesh National Herbarium for his help.

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(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (1) Israt Jahan Mukti, (1) A.K.M. Fahmidul Haque, (1) Md. Ariful Haque Mollik, (1) Kanta Parvin, (1) Rownak Jahan, (2) Majeedul H. Chowdhury, (3) Taufiq Rahman

(1) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh

(2) New York City College of Technology The City University of New York Broooklyn, NY 11201, USA

(3) Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road CB2 1PD, Cambridge, UK

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh E-mail: rahamatm@hotmail.com Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Medicinal plants utilized by the Garo tribal healers of
Netrakona district, Bangladesh

Serial   Scientific Name              Family Name
Number

1        Adhatoda vasica Nees         Acanthaceae

2        Justicia gendarussa L.       Acanthaceae

3        Achyranthes aspera L.        Amaranthaceae

4        Lannea grandis               Anacardiaceae
         (Dennst.) Engl.

5        Mangifera indica L.          Anacardiaceae

6        Centella asiatica            Apiaceae
         (L.) Urb.

7        Thevetia peruviana           Apocynaceae
         (Pers.) K. Schum.

8        Amorphophallus               Araceae
         campanulatus

9        Colocasia esculenta          Araceae
         (L.) Schott

10       Typhonium                    Araceae
         giganteum Engl.

11       Areca catechu L.             Arecaceae

12       Borassus flabellifer L.      Arecaceae

13       Cocos nucifera L.            Arecaceae

14       Ageratum conyzoides L.       Asteraceae

15       Mikania cordata              Asteraceae
         (Burm.f.) B. L.
         Robinson

16       Tagetes patula L.            Asteraceae

17       Bombax ceiba L.              Bombacaceae

18       Ananas comosus               Bromeliaceae
         (L.) Merr.

19       Cereus grandiflorus          Cactaceae
         (L.) P.Mill.

20       Crataeva religiosa           Capparidaceae
         G. Forst.

21       Carica papaya L.             Caricaceae

22       Terminalia arjuna            Combretaceae
         (Roxb. ex DC.)
         Wight & Arn.

23       Argyreia speciosa            Convolvulaceae
         (L.f.) Sweet

24       Ipomoea fistulosa            Convolvulaceae
         Mart. ex Choisy

25       Luffa cylindrica             Cucurbitaceae
         M. Roem

26       Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.        Cuscutaceae

27       Shorea robusta C. F.         Dipterocarpaceae
         Gaertn. (Smit)

28       Emblica officinalis          Euphorbiaceae
         Gaertn.

29       Manihot esculenta            Euphorbiaceae
         Crantz.

30       Cajanus cajan (L.)           Fabaceae
         Millsp.

31       Cassia alata L.              Fabaceae

32       Cassia fistula L.            Fabaceae

33       Cassia tora L.               Fabaceae

34       Lablab purpureus             Fabaceae
         (L.) Sweet

35       Mimosa pudica L.             Fabaceae

36       Mucuna pruriens              Fabaceae
         (L.) DC.

37       Tamarindus indica L.         Fabaceae

38       Ocimum tenuiflorum L.        Lamiaceae

39       Asparagus racemosus          Liliaceae
         Willd.

40       Lawsonia inermis L.          Lythraceae

41       Punica granatum L.           Lythraceae

42       Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.    Malvaceae

43       Melastoma                    Marantaceae
         malabathricum L.

44       Aphanamixis polystachya      Meliaceae
         (Wall.) R. Parker

45       Azadirachta indica           Meliaceae
         A. Juss.

46       Tinospora cordifolia         Menispermaceae
         (Willd.) Hook.f. &
         Thoms.

47       Ficus benghalensis L.        Moraceae

48       Ficus racemosa L.            Moraceae

49       Streblus asper Lour.         Moraceae

50       Moringa oleifera Lam.        Moringaceae

51       Musa sapientum L.            Musaceae

52       Psidium guajava L.           Myrtaceae

53       Syzygium cumini (L.)         Myrtaceae
         Skeels

54       Nymphaea nouchali            Nymphaeaceae
         Burm.f.

55       Averrhoa carambola L.        Oxalidaceae

56       Piper betle L.               Piperaceae

57       Bambusa vulgaris             Poaceae
         Schrad. ex J. C. Wendl.

58       Cynodon dactylon             Poaceae
         (L.) Pers.

59       Persicaria hydropiper        Polygonaceae
         (L.) Delarbre

60       Drynaria quercifolia         Polypodiaceae
         (L.) J. Smith

61       Ziziphus mauritiana          Rhamnaceae
         Lam.

62       Aegle marmelos               Rutaceae
         (L.) Corr.

63       Citrus grandis               Rutaceae
         (L.) Osbeck

64       Smilax china L.              S milacaceae

65       Datura metel L.              Solanaceae

66       Solanum melongena L.         Solanaceae

67       Solanum torvum               Solanaceae
         Swartz

68       Abroma augusta L.f.          Sterculiaceae

69       Clerodendrum viscosum        Verbenaceae
         Vent.

70       Duranta repens L.            Verbenaceae

71       Nyctanthes                   Verbenaceae
         arbortristis L.

72       Cissus quadrangularis L.     Vitaceae

73       Curcuma zedoaria             Zingiberaceae
         (Christm.) Roscoe

74       Zingiber officinale          Zingiberaceae
         Roscoe

Serial   Local Name                   Plant part
Number                                utilized

1        Alot                         Leaf

2        Dojogopy                     Leaf

3        Mimang-khache                Root, seed

4        Jikkha                       Leaf

5        Theghace                     Bark, fruit

6        Mishichel                    Whole plant

7        Kolshe-phool                 Bark, seed

8        Thajhang                     Stem

9        Kochu                        Stem

10       Doodh-kochu                  Whole plant

11       Ghua                         Root

12       Taal-phang                   Leaf, fruit, gum

13       Narikhol                     Fruit

14       Phool-kure                   Whole plant

15       Rifjhe                       Whole plant

16       Gendha-phang                 Whole plant

17       Bolchu                       Root

18       Annarhos                     Leaf, fruit

19       S hijhu-kantha               Whole plant

20       Dathon                       Leaf, bark

21       Modhu                        Leaf, fruit, gum

22       Oorjun-phang                 Leaf, bark

23       Bainnajhan                   Whole plant

24       Dhool-kolme                  Stem, gum

25       Shakkhapang                  Seed

26       S hunhalota                  Whole plant

27       Shal-phang                   Leaf

28       Amloke-phang                 Fruit

29       Tamachul                     Tuber

30       Mehndher                     Leaf, seed

31       Akad-bijakh                  Leaf

32       Bhandhor-late                Leaf, fruit

33       Jhejhe                       Leaf

34       Genhache                     Seed

35       Ambe-miocchup                Whole plant

36       B ilhai-chimte               Leaf

37       Tintle                       Fruit, seed

38       Tulshe-phang                 Leaf, seed

39       Mimang-thamache Root

40       Mehendhe                     Leaf, stem

41       Dahlum-phang                 Leaf

42       Joyhba                       Whole plant,

43       Kakkhu                       Leaf

44       Uha-phang                    Seed

45       Nimmho                       Leaf, bark

46       Poddho-guloncho              Whole plant

47       Prup                         Leaf

48       Ladhum                       Fruit

49       Sheola-phang                 Leaf

50       Khonjhon                     Leaf

51       Thirikh-phang                Fruit

52       Hobirham                     Leaf, fruit,
                                      seed

53       Jayham                       Bark, seed

54       Aphlak                       Whole plant

55       Kamarangha                   Fruit

56       Paan                         Leaf, petiole

57       Todhah-woah                  Leaf, root

58       Shame-cheng                  Whole plant

59       Memang-ballat                Leaf, whole
                                      plant

60       Ponkhe-raaz                  Whole plant

61       Khankare                     Leaf, fruit

62       Belate-phang                 Leaf, fruit

63       Jhambura                     Fruit

64       Saam-rhefhu                  Whole plant

65       Dhutra-phang                 Leaf, seed

66       Bharhing                     Leaf

67       Khumka                       Leaf, root

68       Ulot-kombol                  Leaf, root

69       Maccha-moggul                Leaf

70       Kata-mehendhe                Leaf, bark,
                                      fruit

71       Sheuly-phang                 Leaf, flower,
                                      seed

72       Haarzora                     Whole plant

73       Ramane-sham                  Tuber

74       Hiiching                     Rhizome

Serial   Ailment(s) treated [Administration, O = oral,
Number   T = topical]

1        Cough, pneumonia, asthma. Leaf juice is
         used against cough, pneumonia and
         asthma [O].

2        Bone fracture and fracture-associated pain.
         Leaf paste is applied to area of fracture [T].

3        Snake bite, diabetes, gonorrhea. Root is used
         for snake bite and diabetes [O]. Seed is
         used for gonorrhea [O].

4        Urinary problems. Leaf is taken as diuretic
         [O].

5        Influenza, helminthiasis. The green fruit is
         used against influenza [O]. The bark is
         used against helminthic infections [O].

6        Dysentery, intestinal pain. Whole plant juice
         is used against dysentery and intestinal pain
         [O].

7        Mental disorders. A combination of bark
         and seed paste is taken for mental disorders
         [O].

8        Skin diseases (scabies, eczema, itches). Juice
         obtained from stem is used against skin
         diseases [T].

9        Cuts and wounds. Juice obtained from stems
         is used to stop bleeding from cuts and
         wounds [T].

10       Pain. Crushed whole plant is used to reduce
         pain [T].

11       Constipation, helminthiasis. The juice of
         young root is used for treatment of
         constipation [O]. Root juice is used for
         treatment of helminthiasis [O].

12       Debility, insomnia. Fruit juice or gum from
         the plant is used for treatment of debility
         [O]. Leaf juice is taken for treatment of
         insomnia [O].

13       Skin diseases, skin spots, diarrhea. The green
         fruit's cores are used to treat skin
         disease and skin spots [T]. Water present
         within the fruit (coconut water) is used
         for treatment of diarrhea [O].

14       Insect repellent, wounds, itches. Paste of
         the whole plant is used as an insect
         repellent and for treatment of wounds and
         itches [T].

15       Cuts and wounds (to stop bleeding). Paste
         of whole plant is used to stop bleeding
         [T].

16       Cuts and wounds (to stop bleeding). Paste
         of the whole plant is applied to stop
         bleeding [T].

17       Urinary calculus, loss of libido. Root is used
         for treatment of urinary calculus [O].
         Root is also used to increase sexual
         ability [O].

18       Fever, helminthiasis, jaundice. Fruit is used
         against fever [O]. Leaf juice used against
         helminthiasis and jaundice [O].

19       Bone fracture, to induce hallucinations.
         Whole plant paste is applied to bone
         fractures [T]. Whole plant juice is taken
         to induce hallucinations [O].

20       Gonorrhea, toothache. Leaf juice is used
         against gonorrhea [O]. Bark is used
         against toothache [T].

21       Dysentery, ring worm. Fruit is used against
         dysentery [O]. A combination of gum
         and leaf paste is used against ring worm
         [T].

22       Heart disease, dysentery, diarrhea, jaundice.
         Bark powder is taken for heart disease
         (chest pain, abnormal heart beatings and
         palpitations are taken as symptoms of
         heart ailment), dysentery and diarrhea
         [O]. Leaf juice is taken for jaundice [O].

23       S mall pox, skin diseases. Paste of the whole
         plant is used against small-pox and skin
         diseases [T].

24       Antidote to poison. A combination of gum
         and stem paste is used as antidote to
         poison [O].

25       Abortifacient. The seed is taken as an
         abortifacient [O].

26       Sexual diseases. Juice from whole plant is
         taken for sexual diseases [O].

27       Urinary problems. Leaf paste is taken as
         diuretic [O].

28       To increase taste, jaundice, gastric problems,
         indigestion. Fruits are consumed [O].

29       Feeling of tiredness, uneasy feeling while
         working, dizziness during work, fainting
         when without food. Tuber is taken when
         the above symptoms appear [O].

30       Diabetes, energy stimulant. Leaf juice is
         used against diabetes [O]. Seed paste is
         used as energy stimulant [O].

31       Ring worm. Leaf paste is used against ring
         worm [T].

32       Cancer, injury, dermatitis. Fruit paste is used

         for cancer [O]and injuries [T]. Leaf paste
         is used against dermatitis [T]. Note that
         the Garo healers do not have any
         diagnostic procedures for diagnosis of
         cancer. Cancer is defined by them as
         prolonged weakness, loss of appetite,
         fever, itches that do not heal, or
         swellings, and which cannot be attributed
         to any of their known ailments. The term
         cancer' has probably been picked up
         from intermixing with allopathic doctors
         for there is no equivalent Garo word(s)
         for the disease.

33       Urinary problems. Leaf juice is taken as
         diuretic [O].

34       Low sperm count. Seed is taken to increase
         sperm [O].

35       Gynecological problems, sex stimulant. Juice
         from crushed whole plant is taken to
         treat gynecological problems, as well as
         sex stimulant [O].

36       Skin diseases. Leaf paste is used for skin
         diseases [T].

37       Fever, to stop vomiting, asthma. The fruit
         is used against fever [O]. The fruit pulp
         is used to stop vomiting [O]. Seed is
         used against asthma [O].

38       Cough, fever, bronchitis, diabetes, indigestion.
         A combination of leaf and seed juice is
         used for cough, fever, bronchitis, diabetes,
         and indigestion [O]. Note that diabetes is
         diagnosed by Garo healers by the
         sweetness of urine accompanied by
         fatigue.

39       Snake bite, wounds. Paste of the root is
         used against snake bite and wounds [T].

40       Eczema, leprosy, jaundice. Paste of stem
         is used against eczema and leprosy [T]. Leaf
         juice is used against jaundice [O].

41       Onycomycosis (fungal infection of the nail).
         Newly formed leaf paste is used for
         oncomycosis [T].

42       Dysentery, debility. Paste of whole plant
         is taken for dysentery [O]. Leaf juice is
         taken for debility [O].

43       Urinary problems. Leaf juice is taken as
         diuretic [O].

44       Skin diseases. The oil of seed is used for
         skin diseases [T].

45       Fever, chicken pox, measles, skin diseases.
         Leaf juice is used for fever, pox and measles
         [O]. A combination of leaf and bark paste
         is used against skin diseases [T].

46       Hypertension (identified by dizziness, pain
         in head and neck), diabetes, snake bite.
         Paste of the whole plant is used for
         treatment of hypertension, diabetes and
         snake bites [O].

47       Dysentery. Young leaf juice is used against
         dysentery [O].

48       Diabetes. The fruit is consumed as treatment
         for diabetes [O].

49       Asthma. Leaf juice is used against asthma
         [O].

50       Diabetes. Leaf juice is taken for diabetes
         [O].

51       Dysentery, warts. Fruit is used as a dietary
         item for treatment of dysentery [O]. The
         skin of fruit is used for treatment of
         warts [T].

52       Toothache, acne, diabetes. Leaf is used
         against toothache [T]. Leaf paste is used
         against acne [T]. A combination of seed
         and fruit is used for treatment of diabetes
         [O].

53       Diabetes. A combination of seed and bark
         is used for treatment of diabetes [O].

54       Indigestion, diabetes. Paste of the whole
         plant is taken as treatment for indigestion
         and diabetes [O].

55       Diarrhea, vomiting, influenza. Fruit is taken
         as treatment for diarrhea and influenza and
         to stop vomiting [O].

56       Bronchitis, antidote to poison, indigestion.
         A combination of leaf and petiole paste
         is used against bronchitis, indigestion, and
         as antidote to poison [O].

57       Urinary infection, menstrual disorder. Leaf
         is used for treatment of urinary infection
         [O]. Root is used for treatment of
         menstrual disorder [O].

58       Cuts and wounds. Paste of the whole plant
         is used against cuts and wounds to stop
         bleeding [T].

59       Menstrual pain, cuts and wounds (to stop
         bleeding), insect repellent. Leaf juice is
         taken to reduce menstrual pain [O]. Leaf
         paste is used to stop bleeding [T]. The
         whole plant is used to stop pest attack on
         storage grain.

60       Debility, jaundice. Paste of the whole plant
         is taken for treatment of debility and
         jaundice [O].

61       Influenza, cough, dysentery pain. Green fruits
         are used for treatment of influenza and
         cough [O]. Young leaf paste is used for
         treatment of dysentery pain [O].

62       Constipation, dysentery, indigestion, pain.
         The fruit is taken for constipation, dysentery
         or indigestion [O]. Leaf paste is applied
         to reduce pain [T].

63       Skin diseases (scabies, eczema, itches). Fruit
         juice is applied as treatment for skin
         diseases [T].

64       Sex stimulant, indigestion. Paste of the whole
         plant is taken for indigestion and as a sex
         stimulant [O].

65       Mental disorders. A combination of leaf
         and seed paste is used for treatment of
         mental disorders [O].

66       Lice. Leaf paste is used to get rid of lice
         [T].

67       Asthma, diabetes, hypertension. A
         combination of leaf and root juice is used
         against  asthma, diabetes and
         hypertension [O].

68       Diabetes, sexual disorder. Leaf juice is used
         for diabetes [O]. Root juice is used for
         sexual disorder [O].

69       Lice infections. Leaf juice is used against
         lice [T].

70       Malaria. The fruit is used against malarial
         fever. In the absence of fruit, leaf or bark
         is also administered for malaria [O].

71       Constipation in children, fever. The
         flower or seed is used to treat
         constipation of children [O]. Leaf juice is
         used against fever [O].

72       Wounds, sprains. Paste of the whole plant
         is applied to wounds and sprains [T].

73       Sprain, dermatitis. Tuber paste is used against
         sprain, and dermatitis [T].

74       Coughs, to reduce vomiting, gastric problems.
         Rhizome paste is taken for cough, to reduce
         vomiting, and gastric problems [O].

Table 2: Reported pharmacological activities of some plants used
by the Garo tribal healers of Netrakona district, Bangladesh

Serial     Scientific name    Reported pharmacological activities
number                        of plant or plant parts
(as of
Table 1)

1          Adhatoda vasica    Presence of a bronchodilator alkaloid
           Nees               (vasicinone) in the plant (Amin, 1959);
                              protection by alkaloids present in the
                              plant against allergen-induced bronchial
                              obstruction in guinea pigs (Dorsch,
                              1991); bronchodilator action of
                              6,7,8,9,10,12-hexahydro-azepino-[2,1-b]-
                              quinazoline-12-one, a chemically modified
                              compound of the alkaloid vasicine
                              obtained from the plant (Johri, 2000);
                              anti-inflammatory activity of alkaloid
                              fraction obtained from the plant as
                              demonstrated in modified hen's egg
                              chorioallantoic membrane test
                              (Chakraborty, 2001) beneficial role of
                              the plant in obstructive airway diseases
                              including asthma, chronic obstructive
                              pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis
                              (Sharafkhaneh, et al, 2007).

3          Achyranthes        Powdered whole plant as well as aqueous
           aspera L.          and methanol extracts decreased blood
                              glucose levels in normal and alloxan
                              diabetic rabbits (Akhtar, 1991).

5          Mangifera          Anthelminthic and anti-allergic
           indica L.          properties present in aqueous extract of
                              stem bark as well as mangiferin (the
                              major polyphenol present in the extract)
                              as demonstrated in mice experimentally
                              infected with the nematode, Trichinella
                              spiralis (Garcia, et al, 2003).

6          Centella           Reported healing effects of aqueous
           asiatica (L.)      extract of the plant and asiaticoside (an
           Urb.               active constituent of the water extract)
                              on acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in
                              rats (Cheng, et al, 2004); protective
                              effect of fresh juice of the plant
                              against ethanol-, aspirin-, cold
                              restraint stress-and pyloric ligation
                              induced gastric ulcers in rats (Sairam,
                              et al, 2001); inhibited formation of
                              gastric lesions and decreased
                              myeloperoxidase activity obtained with
                              administration of plant extract in
                              ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions
                              in rats (Cheg, 2000); in vitro and in
                              vivo wound healing activity of
                              asiaticoside isolated from the plant in
                              guinea pigs and streptozotocin (STZ)
                              diabetic rats (Shukla, et al, 1999).

10         Typhonium          Analgesic activity of plant extract as
           giganteum Engl.    demonstrated in receptor binding assays
                              with three neuropeptide
                              receptors--bradykinin II expressed in
                              Chinese hamster ovary cells, neurokinin I
                              expressed in astrocytoma cells, and
                              calcitonin gene related peptide (Sampson,
                              et al, 2000).

13         Cocos nucifera     Used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal
           L.                 disorders, reported anti-bacterial
                              activity of crude extract against various
                              enteropathogenic bacteria (Alanis, et al,
                              2005); husk fiber used in northeastern
                              Brazil traditional medicine for treatment
                              of diarrhea, aqueous extract of husk
                              fiber (containing polyphenolic compounds)
                              demonstrated anti-microbial activity
                              against Staphylococcus aureus (Esquenazi,
                              et al, 2002); reportedly, water from
                              young coconut can be used in children
                              with mild diarrheal disease (Adams,
                              1992).

14         Ageratum           Hematopoietic potential observed in
           conyzoides L.      albino rats with ethanolic leaf extract
                              of the plant (Ita et al, 2007); coumarin,
                              isolated from the plant showed
                              insecticidal activity against Diaphania
                              hyalinata, Musca domestica, Periplaneta
                              americana, and Rhyzopertha dominica
                              (Moreira, et al, 2007); larvicidal
                              activity of oil from the plant against
                              Aedes aegypti larva (de Mendonca, et al,
                              2005); anti-bacterial and wound healing
                              properties reported in methanol extracts
                              of the plant (Chah, et al, 2006) and
                              plant leaves (Oladejo, et al, 2003) in
                              rats; analgesic properties reported in
                              leaf juice extract when administered to
                              Wistar rats using hot plate method and
                              writhing syndrome induced by acetic acid
                              (Abena, et al, 1993); anti-bacterial
                              properties reported for crude extracts
                              from the plant (Durodola, 1977).

15         Mikania cordata    Analgesic activity demonstrated through
           (Burm.f.) B. L.    inhibition of acetic acid-induced
           Robinson           writhing in mice by crude extract of the
                              plant and a sesquiterpene dilactone,
                              deoxymikanolide isolated from the plant
                              (Ahmed, et al, 2001).

21         Carica papaya      Anti-microbial activity of meat, seed and
           L.                 pulp of unripe fruit against several
                              enteropathogens--Bacillus subtilis,
                              Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli,
                              Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus,
                              Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,
                              and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Osato, et al,
                              1993).

22         Terminalia         Inhibitory effects of ethanolic bark
           arjuna (Roxb.      extract on platelet activation in vitro
           ex DC.) Wight &    in healthy subjects and patients with
           Arn.               coronary artery disease (Malik, et al,
                              2009); protective effect of butanolic
                              bark extract against doxorubicin-induced
                              cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats
                              (Singh, et al, 2008); review on the bark
                              of the plant as exerting inotropic and
                              hypotensive effect, increasing coronary
                              artery flow and protecting myocardium
                              against ischemic damage (Dwivedi, 2007);
                              protection of rabbit heart by bark of the
                              plant against ischemic-reperfusion injury
                              (Gauthaman, et al, 2005);
                              cardioprotective effect of alcoholic
                              extract of bark against isoproterenol-
                              induced myocardial injury (Karthikeyan,
                              et al, 2003); administration of bark
                              extract led to improvements in clinical
                              and treadmill exercise parameters in
                              patients with stable angina with
                              provocable ischemia on treadmill exercise
                              (Bharani, et al, 2002); significant
                              cardiac protection against isoproterenol-
                              induced myocardial necrosis in rats by
                              arjunolic acid, a triterpene present in
                              bark (Sumitra, et al, 2001); augmentation
                              by dried pulverized bark of endogenous
                              anti-oxidant compounds in rat heart and
                              prevention of oxidative stress associated
                              with ischemic-reperfusion injury of the
                              heart (Gauthaman, et al, 2001).
                              Protective effect of methanolic extract
                              of the plant against Helicobacter pylori
                              26695 lipopolysaccharide-induced gastric
                              ulcer in rats (Devi, et al, 2008);
                              gastroprotective effect of bark on
                              diclofenac sodium induced gastric ulcer
                              (Devi, et al, 2007); protective effect of
                              aqueous extract of the plant against
                              carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic and
                              renal disorders (Manna, et al, 2006).

23         Argyreia           Anti-microbial activity present in
           speciosa (L.f.)    flavanoid sulfates and other fractions of
           Sweet              the plant (Habbu, et al, 2009);
                              immunomodulatory activity in mice on
                              administration of ethanolic extract of
                              root (Gokhale, et al, 2003).

26         Cuscuta reflexa    Anti-bacterial activity in methanol
           Roxb.              extract of stem (Pal, et al, 2006).

28         Emblica            Enteroprotective efficacy of Triphala, a
           officinalis        herbal preparation, (one of its
           Gaertn.            constituents being the fruit of Emblica
                              officinalis) against methotrexate-induced
                              small intestinal damage in rats (Nariya,
                              et al, 2009); ameliorative effect of
                              aqueous extract of the plant against
                              ochratoxin-induced toxicity in liver and
                              kidney of mice (Verma, 2008); suppression
                              of carcinogen-induced response in rat
                              liver by methanolic fruit extract,
                              (Sultana, et al, 2008); protective effect
                              against antitubercular drugs-induced
                              hepatic damage in rats, (Panchabhai, et
                              al, 2008); healing effects of ethanol
                              extract of the plant against
                              indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration
                              in rats, (Bhattacharya, et al, 2007);
                              protective effects of extract of the
                              plant against ethanol-induced rat hepatic
                              injury (Pramyothin, et al, 2006);
                              hepatoprotective effect of oral
                              administration of methanolic extract of
                              the plant against acute liver damage
                              induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats
                              (Lee, et al, 2006); protective effect of
                              a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract
                              against anti-tuberculosis drugs-induced
                              liver toxicity (Tasduq, et al, 2005);
                              amelioration of hyperthyroidism and
                              hepatic lipid peroxidation induced by
                              L-thyroxine by ethanolic extract of
                              fruits in mice, (Panda, 2003). Analgesic
                              and anti-pyretic effects of ethanol and
                              aqueous extracts of the plant in mice
                              (Perianayagam, et al, 2004);
                              gastroprotective effects of ethanol
                              extract of fruit in different
                              experimental models in rats including
                              pylorus ligation Shay rats,
                              indomethacin-, and hypothermic restraint
                              stress-induced gastric ulcer (Al-Rehaily,
                              et al, 2002); anti-ulcerogenic effect of
                              methanolic extract of the plant against
                              different acute gastric ulcer models in
                              rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold
                              restraint stress pyloric ligation and
                              healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers
                              in rats induced by acetic acid (Sairam,
                              et al, 2002).

29         Manihot            Cassava has good carbohydrate content and
           esculenta          can be a potential source of energy in
           Crantz.            cases of feeling of tiredness, uneasy
                              feeling while working, dizziness during
                              work, and fainting when without food
                              (Okezie, 1982). Note that the Garo
                              healers lack access to oral glucose
                              solutions in their forest habitat.

30         Cajanus cajan      Anti-oxidant activity due to presence of
           (L.) Millsp.       polyphenols in the plant, which can be
                              useful protection against diabetes
                              (Saxena, et al, 2007); used in the
                              ancient Ayurvedic system of medicine in
                              India against diabetes, (Grover, et al,
                              2002); used in Panamanian folk medicine
                              for treatment of diabetes, aqueous
                              fraction of the plant demonstrated
                              hypoglycemic activity in glucose
                              tolerance test in mice, (Esposito, et al,
                              1991).

31         Cassia alata L.    Used in herbal preparations of Nigeria
                              against skin diseases (Ajose, 2007);
                              broad spectrum anti-microbial activity
                              reported for methanol extracts of leaves,
                              flowers, stem and root barks of the plant
                              (Khan, et al, 2001) and ethanol extract
                              of leaves, including high activity
                              against various species of dermatophytic
                              fungi, (Ibrahim, 1995); anti-fungal
                              activity reported for leaf extract
                              (Palanichamy, 1990).

32         Cassia fistula     Anti-parasitic activity of biochanin A,
           L.                 an isolated isoflavone from fruits of the
                              plant (Sartorelli, et al, 2009); reported
                              anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity
                              in various extracts of flowers
                              (Duraipandiyan, 2007); infected dermal
                              wound healing potential demonstrated in
                              albino rats by alcohol extract of leaves
                              (Senthil, et al, 2006); anti-tumor
                              activity of methanolic extract of seed
                              against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (Gupta,
                              et al, 2000).

40         Lawsonia           Anti-bacterial activity present in hot
           inermis L.         aqueous and methanolic extracts of the
                              plant (Ghosh, et al, 2008), as well as
                              ethanolic extracts (Aqil, 2007); reported
                              anti-mycotic activity (Henna, );
                              anti-microbial activity reported for
                              fresh and dry leaves and seeds (Habbal,
                              et al, 2005); fungitoxic activity of bark
                              extract against 13 ring worm fungi
                              (Singh, 1989); an anti-fungal agent,
                              2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone isolated
                              from leaves of the plant, which exhibited
                              wide fungitoxic spectrum (Tripathi, et
                              al, 1978). Hepatoprotective activity of
                              an ethanol-water (1:1) extract of the
                              plant demonstrated against carbon
                              tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in
                              mice, (Anand, et al, 1992).

41         Punica granatum    An anti-fungal peptide, pomegranin
           L.                 isolated from fruit peels, (Guo, et al,
                              2009); reported anti-microbial
                              (Vasconcelos, et al, 2006; Holetz, et al,
                              2002) and anti-fungal effects
                              (Vasconcelos, et al, 2003; Duttta, et al,
                              1998).

45         Azadirachta        Immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory,
           indica A. Juss.    anti-hyperglycemic, anti-ulcer,
                              anti-malarial, anti-fungal,
                              anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-oxidant,
                              anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic
                              properties present in various parts of
                              the plant (Subapriya, 205);
                              anti-dermatophytic activity present in
                              leaf and seed extracts (Natarajan, et al,
                              2002); reported efficacy of plant paste
                              for treatment of scabies (Charles, 1992).

46         Tinospora          Used in Indian traditional medicinal
           cordifolia         systems for diabetes, hypertension,
           (Willd.)           jaundice, rheumatism, common cold and
           Hook.f. &          skin diseases (Gowrishankar, et al,
           Thoms.             2009).

48         Ficus racemosa     a-Amyrin acetate, isolated from fruits
           L.                 reportedly demonstrated in vivo
                              hyperglycemic activity in sucrose
                              challenged streptozotocin-induced
                              diabetic rats (Narender, et al, 2009);
                              reported glucose lowering efficacy of
                              methanol extract of stem bark in normal
                              and alloxan-induced diabetic rats
                              (Bhaskara, et al, 2002).

50         Moringa            Used in Indian traditional medicine
           oleifera Lam.      against diabetes, hypoglycemic and
                              anti-diabetic effects observed with
                              aqueous extract of leaves in normal and
                              streptozotocin-induced sub, mild and
                              severely diabetic rats (Jaiswal, et al,
                              2009); plant extract containing a
                              bio-active component,
                              quercetin-3-glucoside demonstrated
                              ameliorating effect for glucose
                              intolerance in Wistar rats and
                              Goto-Kakizaki rats (Ndong, et al, 2007);
                              used in Senegalese traditional medicine
                              for treatment of diabetes (Dieye, et al,
                              2008); hypoglycemic activity of ethanolic
                              extracts in alloxan diabetic rats (Kar,
                              et al, 2003).

53         Syzygium cumini    Used for treatment of diabetes in
           (L.) Skeels        Brazilian traditional medicine, aqueous
                              leaf extract of the plant reportedly
                              inhibited adenosine deaminase activity
                              and reduced glucose levels in
                              hyperglycemic patients (Bopp, et al,
                              2009); ferulic acid, present in ethanolic
                              extract of seed has been shown to have
                              hypoglycemic, anti-oxidative, and
                              pancreatic b-cell regenerative effect in
                              streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
                              (Mandal, et al, 2008); a-glucosidase
                              inhibitory of seed kernel extract in
                              vitro and in Goto-Kakizaki rats (Shinde,
                              et al, 2008); administration of ethanolic
                              extract of seed powder to alloxan
                              diabetic rats led to decreased blood
                              sugar and improvements in pancreatic
                              islets (Singh, 2007).

56         Piper betle L.     Gastric ulcer healing action of
                              allylpyrocatechol (a component of the
                              plant) against indomethacin-induced
                              stomach ulceration in mice (Yadav, et al,
                              2009) and rat (Bhattacharya, et al,
                              2007).

62         Aegle marmelos     Analgesic activity of methanol extract of
           (L.) Corr.         leaves against acetic acid-induced
                              writhing and tail flick test in mice
                              (Shankarananth, et al, 2007); chloroform
                              extract of root demonstrated inhibition
                              of Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli and
                              Shigella spp. in vitro and also inhibited
                              castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats
                              (Mazumder, et al, 2006); unripe fruit
                              extract demonstrated gastroprotective
                              effect against gastric mucosal damage in
                              rats induced by absolute ethanol, as well
                              as inhibited castor oil-induced
                              intestinal transit and accumulation of
                              intestinal fluids in mice (Dhuley, 2003);
                              anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic and
                              analgesic properties of leaf extract as
                              demonstrated by inhibition of
                              carrageenan-induced paw edema and
                              cotton-pellet granuloma in rats,
                              reduction of early and late phases of paw
                              licking in mice, and reduction of
                              hyperpyrexia in rats (Arul, et al, 2005);
                              inhibition of castor oil-induced diarrhea
                              in mice by aqueous and methanolic
                              extracts of unripe fruits (Shoba, 2001).

67         Solanum torvum     Ethanolic extract of the plant prevented
           Swartz             the development of high blood pressure
                              induced by a diet rich in fructose in
                              rats (Mohan, et al, 2009).

68         Abroma augusta     A combination of aqueous extract of dried
           L.f.               powder of root and leaves of Abroma
                              augusta and Azadirachta indica lowered
                              blood sugar in alloxan diabetic rats when
                              administered orally (Halim, 2003).

70         Duranta repens     Inhibitory action of ethyl acetate and
           L.                 aqueous extracts of fruits reported
                              against Plasmodium berghei, (Castro,
                              1996).

71         Nyctanthes         Chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of
           arbortristis L.    flowers demonstrated anti-bacterial
                              activity against several gram-positive
                              and gram-negative microorganisms
                              (Khatune, 2001); immunostimulant activity
                              observed in mice fed with 50% ethanolic
                              extract of seeds, flowers and leaves
                              (Puri, et al, 1 994); analgesic and
                              anti-pyretic activity in water soluble
                              portion of an ethanol extract of leaves
                              (Saxena, et al, 1987).

72         Cissus             Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects
           quadrangularis     reported of the methanol extract of the
           L.                 plant in mice and rats, respectively
                              (Panthong, et al, 2007).

74         Zingiber           Hydroethanol extract of the plant
           officinale         demonstrated inhibitory activities
           Roscoe             against Helicobacter pylori (causative
                              agent of acute and chronic gastritis),
                              and Campylobacter jejuni (common cause of
                              enteric infections, particularly among
                              children, which results in severe
                              diarrhea)124; reported bactericidal and
                              anti-adhesive properties (assessed by
                              inhibition of binding of four strains of
                              FITC-labeled Helicobacter pylori to
                              stomach sections) of aqueous extracts
                              observed against Helicobacter pylori
                              (O'Mahony, et al, 2005).
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Mukti, Israt Jahan; Haque, A.K.M. Fahmidul; Mollik, Md. Ariful Haque; Parvin,
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Sep 1, 2009
Words:11322
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