An annotated list of the aquatic insects collected in 2004 in the Wabash River watershed, Indiana.
ABSTRACT. In 2004 the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM [Latin, The same.] Used to indicate a reference that has previously been made and typically abbreviated "id." in legal and scholarly bibliographic citations. ) biologists sampled 47 streams and rivers within the Wabash River Wabash River
River, flowing westward across Indiana, U.S. After crossing Indiana, the Wabash forms the 200-mi (320-km) southern section of the Indiana-Illinois boundary below Terre Haute, Ind. watershed. More than 5500 aquatic insect specimens, representing 229 taxa taxa: see taxon. from nine orders, 61 families, and 167 genera genera, in taxonomy: see classification. were collected. Diptera (73 taxa) was the most diverse insect order followed by Coleoptera (43 taxa), Odonata (31 taxa), Ephemeroptera (25 taxa), Trichoptera (23 taxa), Hemiptera (20 taxa), Plecoptera (7 taxa), Megaloptera (5 taxa), and Lepidoptera (2 taxa). We collected 50-70% of the families, 21-45% of the genera, and 9-17% of the species of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera currently reported from Indiana. The upper Wabash sub-watershed had the greatest number of insect taxa (148) while the lower Wabash sub-watershed had the fewest taxa (119). Based on rank abundance, Cheumatopsyche spp., Calopteryx maculata, Polypedium spp., Caenis spp., Stenelmis spp., Cricotopus/Orthocladius group, Tanytarsus spp., Ceratopsyche cheilonis, and Thienemannimyia group were found at more than 50% of the sites.
Keywords: Wabash River, environmental quality, macroinvertebrate, IDEM, probabilistic (probability) probabilistic - Relating to, or governed by, probability. The behaviour of a probabilistic system cannot be predicted exactly but the probability of certain behaviours is known. Such systems may be simulated using pseudorandom numbers. , multi-habitat
For nearly 100 years aquatic macroinvertebrates have been used as indicators of water quality (Forbes 1928; Pantie & Buck 1955). In the 1970s American scientists American Scientist (ISSN 0003-0996) is an illustrated bimonthly magazine about science and technology. Each issue includes four to five feature articles written by prominent scientists and engineers. shifted the focus of biomonitoring from using qualitatively collected indicator species to the use of quantitative sampling and analysis by means of various diversity indices (Bode 1988; Hilsenhoff 1982, 1987, 1988). In order to calibrate To adjust or bring into balance. Scanners, CRTs and similar peripherals may require periodic adjustment. Unlike digital devices, the electronic components within these analog devices may change from their original specification. See color calibration and tweak. and validate indicator organism indices, basic information about distribution and taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.
In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order, is needed. For many areas this information exists at the order or family level; but, other than large checklists, little information exists at the species or lowest taxonomic tax·o·nom·ic also tax·o·nom·i·cal
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.
tax level (Helenthal et al. 2003).
In 1990, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) initiated a benthic ben·thos
1. The collection of organisms living on or in sea or lake bottoms.
2. The bottom of a sea or lake.
[Greek. macroinvertebrate community assessment program (IDEM 2001) based on the EPA EPA eicosapentaenoic acid.
n.pr See acid, eicosapentaenoic.
n. RBP RBP Retinol Binding Protein
RBP Regular Baptist Press
RBP Retinoblastoma Binding Protein
RBP Risk-Based Pricing
RBP Royal Black Preceptory (Loyal Orange Lodge Offshoot)
RBP Rated Burst Pressure
RBP Registered Biosafety Professional II protocols (Plafkin et al. 1989). This method utilized a single habitat for assessing rivers and streams using family-level taxonomic resolution. Recent comparisons of family-level versus genus- and species-level identifications of macroinvertebrates has determined that, in most situations, genus- and species-level identifications provide much greater diagonostic resolution (Lenat & Resh 2001). Later, in 2004, IDEM began the development of a multi-habitat (MHAB) sampling method for collecting benthic macroinvertebrates that would incorporate genus- and species-level identifications (1DEM See digital elevation model. 2006).
The purpose of the present study is to provide a list of aquatic insect taxa collected within the Wabash River watershed, and present a comparison of taxonomic occurrence in four sub-watersheds based on samples collected in 2004. This effort is based on a stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. random sampling approach that reflects representative occurrence in the area.
Study area.--The Wabash River, the second largest tributary to the Ohio River Ohio River
Major river, eastern central U.S. Formed by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers, it flows northwest out of Pennsylvania, and west and southwest to form the state boundaries of Ohio–West Virginia, Ohio-Kentucky, Indiana-Kentucky, and , originates near St. Henry, Ohio St. Henry is a village in Mercer County, Ohio, United States. The population was 2,271 at the 2000 census. Geography
St. Henry is located at (40.418715, -84.636054)GR1. and flows in a southwesterly south·west·er·ly
1. Situated toward the southwest.
2. Coming or being from the southwest.
south·west direction for 765 km before entering the Ohio River 18 km southwest of Mt. Vernon, Indiana Vernon is a town in Jennings County, Indiana, in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the town population was 330. The city is the county seat of Jennings CountyGR6 and is the smallest county seat in the State of Indiana. . The Wabash River watershed encompasses 85,236 [km.sup.2], with nearly 74% (62,693 [km.sup.2]) located in Indiana (Illinois and Ohio contribute 21,805 [km.sup.2] and 738 [km.sup.2], respectively) (Hoggatt 1975). Major streams within the Wabash watershed include the Tippecanoe River The Tippecanoe River is a gentle, 225 mile (362 km) long river in northern Indiana that flows from Lake Tippecanoe in Kosciusko County to the Wabash River near Battle Ground, about twelve miles northeast of Lafayette. , Wildcat Creek Wildcat Creek is a creek over 10 miles (16 km) long which flows through Wildcat Canyon situated between the Berkeley Hills and the San Pablo Ridge, emptying into San Pablo Bay in northern California. The creek originates in Tilden Regional Park just east of Berkeley, California. , Mississinewa River The Mississinewa River is a tributary of the Wabash River in eastern Indiana and a small portion of western Ohio in the United States. It is about 100 mi (160 km) long. Via the Wabash and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. , Salamonie River The Salamonie River is a tributary of the Wabash River, 82 mi (132 km) long, in eastern Indiana in the United States. Via the Wabash and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River. The USS Salamonie was named for the river. , Patoka River The Patoka River is a tributary of the Wabash River, approximately 138 mi (222 km) long, in southwestern Indiana in the United States. It drains a largely rural area of forested bottomland and agricultural lands among the hills north of Evansville. , Driftwood River The Driftwood River is a tributary of the East Fork of the White River, about 16 mi (26 km) long, in central Indiana in the United States. Via the White, Wabash and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River. , Flatrock River The Flatrock River is a tributary of the East Fork of the White River, about 90 mi (145 km) long, in east-central Indiana in the United States. Via the White, Wabash and Ohio Rivers, it is part of the watershed of the Mississippi River, draining an area of 532 mi² , Muscatatuck River, and the White River.
The Wabash River watershed is located primarily within the Eastern Corn Belt Corn Belt, major agricultural region of the U.S. Midwest where corn acreage once exceeded that of any other crop. It is now commonly called the Feed Grains and Livestock Belt. Plain Ecoregion An ecoregion (ecological region), sometimes called a bioregion, is the next smallest ecologically and geographically defined area beneath "realm" or "ecozone". Ecoregions cover relatively large area of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct with the extreme northern area being in the Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Till Plain Ecoregion, the southcentral area being in the Interior Plateau The Interior Plateau comprises a large region of central British Columbia, and lies between the Cariboo and Monashee Mountains on the east, and the Hazelton Mountains, Coast Mountains and Cascade Range on the west. and Eastern Corn Belt Plain Ecoregion, and the southwestern area being found in the Interior River Lowland Ecoregion. The Eastern Corn Belt Plain and Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Till Plain Ecoregions This is a list of ecoregions as compiled by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The WWF identifies terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions.
The terrestrial scheme divides the Earth's land surface into 8 terrestrial ecozones, containing 867 smaller ecoregions. are formerly glaciated gla·ci·ate
tr.v. gla·ci·at·ed, gla·ci·at·ing, gla·ci·ates
a. To cover with ice or a glacier.
b. To subject to or affect by glacial action.
2. To freeze. with bedrock composed of Paleozoic shale shale, sedimentary rock formed by the consolidation of mud or clay, having the property of splitting into thin layers parallel to its bedding planes. Shale tends to be fissile, i.e., it tends to split along planar surfaces between the layers of stratified rock. , sandstone, limestone and dolomite dolomite (dō`ləmīt', dŏl`ə–).
1 Mineral, calcium magnesium carbonate, CaMg (CO3)2. overlain o·ver·lain
Past participle of overlie. with clay and loam loam, soil composed of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter in evenly mixed particles of various sizes. More fertile than sandy soils, loam is not stiff and tenacious like clay soils. Its porosity allows high moisture retention and air circulation. till and outwash outwash
Deposit of sand and gravel carried by running water from the melting ice of a glacier and laid down in stratified deposits. An outwash may be as much as 330 ft (100 m) thick at the edge of a glacier, and it may extend for many miles. . The Interior River Lowland is composed of both formerly glaciated and un-glaciated areas with bedrock composed of Pennsylvanian shale, sandstone, limestone and coal overlain by Quaternary quaternary /qua·ter·nary/ (kwah´ter-nar?e)
1. fourth in order.
2. containing four elements or groups.
1. Consisting of four; in fours. alluvium al·lu·vi·um
n. pl. al·lu·vi·ums or al·lu·vi·a
Sediment deposited by flowing water, as in a riverbed, flood plain, or delta. Also called alluvion. and glacial gla·cial
a. Of, relating to, or derived from a glacier.
b. Suggesting the extreme slowness of a glacier: Work proceeded at a glacial pace.
a. outwash. The Interior Plateau Ecoregion, which was never glaciated, is an area with Quaternary loess loess (lĕs, lō`əs, Ger. lös), unstratified soil deposit of varying thickness, usually yellowish and composed of fine-grained angular mineral particles mixed with clay. , colluvium col·lu·vi·um
n. pl. col·lu·vi·ums or col·lu·vi·a
A loose deposit of rock debris accumulated through the action of gravity at the base of a cliff or slope. and alluvium underlain un·der·lain
Past participle of underlie. with Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, sandstone, and limestone (Woods et al. 1998). About 65% of the Wabash River watershed, primarily within the Eastern Corn Belt Plain and the Northern Indiana Northern Indiana is the region of Indiana including 26 counties bordering parts of Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio. The area is generally sub-classified into other regions. The northwest is economically and culturally intertwined with Chicago, and is considered part of the Chicago Till Plain Ecoregions, is utilized as agricultural cropland crop·land
Land that is fit or used for growing crops. for corn and soybean soybean, soya bean, or soy pea, leguminous plant (Glycine max, G. soja, or Soja max) of the family Leguminosae (pulse family), native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Asia, where it has been production. Agriculture is also a primary land use within the Interior River Lowland Ecoregion, although oil wells and coal mines are also common. Forests account for 13.5% of the Wabash River watershed and are mostly found within the Interior Plateau Ecoregion (Gammon 1994; Woods et al. 1998).
Study design.--As part of the IDEM Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (2001, 2006), IDEM biologists sampled 47 sites within the Wabash River Watershed during 2004 (Table 1, Fig. 1). Site selection for this study was part of a watershed-based, statewide stratified, random subset of 736 previously sampled macroinvertebrate sampling sites. This study presents a comprehensive phylogenetic phy·lo·ge·net·ic
1. Of or relating to phylogeny or phylogenetics.
2. Relating to or based on evolutionary development or history. taxonomic list of species collected across the Indiana portion of the Wabash River watershed. For the purpose of this study, the Wabash River watershed was divided into four sub-watersheds based on the Monitoring Strategy Areas used by the IDEM Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (2001, 2006). The sub-watersheds are as follows: the upper Wabash River (UWR UWR Universal Waste Rule
UWR Underwater Rugby (sport)
UWR Upper West Region (Ghana)
UWR Ungulate Winter Range
UWR Ultra Wideband Radio
UWR Urban Wood Residue ), lower Wabash River (LWR LWR Lower
LWR Lutheran World Relief
LWR Light Water Reactor
LWR Locally Weighted Regression
LWR Laser Warning Receiver
LWR Launch When Ready
LWR Long-Wave Radiation
LWR Lakeland & Waterways Railway
LWR Long Wavelength Redundant Camera
LWR Local Wage Rate ), West Fork West Fork may be:
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Numerical classification analysis was conducted using STATISTICA for Windows (StatSoft 2002). We analyzed the 30 most commonly ranked taxa occurring in the entire Wabash River watershed and each of its four sub-watersheds. This information is presented in a cumulative frequency-distribution table of the most common taxa (Table 2).
Field collection.--Aquatic macroinvertebrate samples were collected at each site upstream of bridges (if present) to decrease any effects that the bridges might have on the downstream fauna. Following a modified D-frame dipnet method (IDEM 2001, 2006) described from Plafkin et al. (1989) and Barbour et al. (1999), a one-minute kick sample was taken within a riffle (if available), run, or a typical glide area at each site. In addition, a 50 m length of stream habitat was sampled with a D-frame dipnet to obtain a MHAB sample. Instream habitats included emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.
2. pertaining to an emergency.
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.
2. coming on suddenly. vegetation, submerged macrophytes, depositional zones, logs, sticks, rootwads, rootmats, cobble, and sand. All habitats were sampled as encountered. The MHAB sample and the kick sample were combined and elutriated a minimum of five times through a 50 [micro]m sieve. The contents of the sieve were emptied into a tray and picked through for 15 min, collecting at least 100 organisms per site, obtaining the greatest diversity of organisms possible. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were preserved in 80% isopropyl alcohol isopropyl alcohol: see isopropanol. and returned to the lab to be processed and identified, usually to genus or species, using regionally-recognized taxonomic references (such as Merritt & Cummins 1996; Hilsenhoff 1995; and Brigham et al. 1982). All specimens were retained and are maintained at the IDEM Shadeland office/laboratory, Indianapolis, Indiana “Indianapolis” redirects here. For other uses, see Indianapolis (disambiguation).
Indianapolis (IPA: [ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɪs]) is the capital city of the U.S. .
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
This single year sampling effort of 47 sites in the Wabash River watershed collected more than 5500 aquatic insects Aquatic insects live some portion of their life cycle in the water. They feed in the same ways as other insects. Some diving insects, such as predatory diving beetles, can hunt for food underwater where land-living insects cannot compete. . Using a MHAB sampling approach a total of 229 aquatic insect taxa, distributed over nine orders, 61 families, and 167 genera was collected (Table 3). The most diverse insect orders were Diptera (73 taxa), Coleoptera (43 taxa), and Odonata (31 taxa). The remaining 82 taxa were distributed among the orders Ephemeroptera (25 taxa), Trichoptera (23 taxa), Hemiptera (20 taxa), Plecoptera (7 taxa), Megaloptera (5 taxa), and Lepidoptera (2 taxa).
Hellenthal et al. (2003) published a list of 2307 aquatic insect species either recorded from Indiana or likely to occur within the state. The data collected from the Wabash River watershed are presented and compared with this list in Table 4. This study collected 50-70% of the families, 21-45% of the genera, and 9-17% of the species of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera currently reported from Indiana (Table 4) (Hellenthal et al. 2003). These are surprisingly high numbers considering the temporal and spatial limits of this study, which sampled only 47 sites in Indiana's largest watershed from September to November.
Diversity by subwatershed.--The UWR sub-watershed had the greatest number of insect taxa (148) while the LWR sub-watershed had the fewest taxa (119). The WFWR and the EFWR had 122 taxa and 132 taxa, respectively. The greatest number of taxa (48) was found in both the LWR sub-watershed in Sugar Creek Sugar Creek may refer to:
Cities and towns:
Rank abundance by site occurrence. Table 2 presents the 30 most abundant taxa by site occurrence. The most commonly encountered taxon taxon (pl. taxa), in biology, a term used to denote any group or rank in the classification of organisms, e.g., class, order, family. , the Trichoptera genus Cheumatopsyche spp., occurred at 72% of all sites (Table 2). Although Hellenthal et al. (2003) reported 11 Cheumatopsyche species for Indiana, the larvae Larvae, in Roman religion
Larvae: see lemures. of this genus currently cannot be identified to species level. Sampling and identification of adult material using larval-rearing, emergence traps, black-lights or other such collection methods may be useful for providing species occurrence data for problem insect genera.
Numerical classification analysis.--Numerical classification analysis of the percentage of occurrence of the 30 most common taxa (Table 2) from the four sub-watersheds is presented in Fig. 2. This dendogram shows that sites in the UWR sub-watershed are most compositionally similar to sites within the WFWR. These two sub-watersheds are then most similar to sites in the LWR sub-watershed. The internodal in·ter·node
A section or part between two nodes, as of a nerve or stem.
inter·nod distance between the EFWR and the other sub-watersheds is reflected by a relative difference of 40% (Fig. 2) indicating that this sub-watershed is significantly different in composition and structure. Sobat et al. (2006) reported that the Wabash River (including both UWR and LWR subwatersheds), the WFWR, and the EFWR fish communities, based on analysis of Index of Biotic biotic /bi·ot·ic/ (bi-ot´ik)
1. pertaining to life or living matter.
2. pertaining to the biota.
1. Relating to life or living organisms. Integrity (IBI See Information Builders. ) scores, have been assessed in the good-to-excellent condition at 14%, 17% and 33%, respectively. This numerical pattern of aquatic insect and fish community data suggested that the EFWR sub-watershed was of a higher environmental quality than the other sub-watersheds within the Wabash River watershed.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
We appreciate the assistance of IDEM biologists Todd Davis Todd Davis is a television soap opera actor who portrayed Bryan Phillips in General Hospital (1978 - 1987) and Dr. Joshua Hall in One Life to Live (1977). , Holly Jackson, Joshua Brosmer, Jim Butler, Jennifer Wingstrom, Stacey Sobat, James Stahl, and Cindy Martin, who helped in field collection and in other professional courtesies professional courtesy Professional discount Medtalk The practice by a physician of waiving of all, or a part, of the fee for services provided to a physician's office staff, other physicians and/or their families; PC has been extended to include the waiver of . We particularly appreciate the comments and review of C. Lee Bridges, Charles Bridges, Charles, fl. 1683–1740, English portrait painter, active (c.1735–c.1740) in Virginia. He was the most skillful practitioner of aristocratic portrait painting in the South. Among the works attributed to him are Mann Page the Second (Coll. Morris, and Thomas E Simon III.
Manuscript received 1 September 2006, revised 20 October 2006.
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Paul D. McMurray, Jr. and Steven A. Newhouse: Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Biological Studies Section, 100 North Senate Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 USA
Table 1.-Site localities of all sites sampled in the Wabash River watershed, Indiana, in 2004. Site numbers correspond to Table 3 and are shown in Fig. 1. Site County Locality Upper Wabash River sub-watershed Al Tippecanoe Wildcat Creek @ Wolfe Rd A2 Carroll Wildcat Creek @ US 421 A3 Carroll Wildcat Creek @ CR 50 E A4 Carroll Little Deer Creek @ CR 300 N A5 Carroll Deer Creek @ CR 300 N A6 Carroll Deer Creek U/S of Delphi, Indiana A7 Carroll Deer Creek D/S of Delphi Water Treatment Plant A8 White Honey Creek @ CR 225 N A9 Pulaski Tippecanoe River @ Pulaski A10 Pulaski Mud Creek @ SR 119 All Starke House Ditch @ CR 850 S A12 Fulton Mill Creek @ CR 250 N (Olson Rd) A13 Wabash Eel River U/S Wabash Rd A14 Huntington Wabash River D/S Huntington Reservoir A15 Wells Eightmile Creek @ Aboite Rd A16 Jay Wabash River @ CR 215 E A17 Delaware Mississinewa River 200m D/S of CR 700 N Lower Wabash River sub-watershed B1 Knox Snapp Creek 30m D/S of Iron Bridge B2 Knox Smalls Creek @ ford W of RR, Sec 26 B3 Knox Maria Creek @ CR 1050 S B4 Sullivan Sulphur Creek @ SR 48 B5 Montgomery Sugar Creek @ CR 600 E B6 Warren Big Pine Creek @ SR 55 B7 Warren Mud Pine Creek @ CR 850 N West Fork White River sub-watershed Cl Greene Buck Creek @ SR 54, E of Linton C2 Clay Wabash and Erie Canal @ CR 113 W C3 Owen Little Mill Creek @ CR 25 E C4 Morgan Lambs Creek @ Middle Patton Lake Rd C5 Hendricks East Fork White Lick Creek @ CR 800 S C6 Putnam Big Walnut Creek D/S Wildwood Bridge C7 Putnam Plum Creek @ CR 500 N C8 Hamilton Stony Creek @ Cumberland Rd Gaging Station C9 Madison Pipe Creek U/S Alexandria, in WWTP C10 Randolph West Fork White River 120 m U/S CR 1100 W East Fork White River sub-watershed Dl Orange Lost River @ Potato Rd D2 Lawrence Guthrie Creek @ Leesville/ Fort Rimer Rd D3 Lawrence Pleasant Run Creek @ CR 50 E D4 Lawrence Wolf Creek @ CR 825 N D5 Lawrence Henderson Creek @ CR off of SR 446 D6 Jennings Otter Creek @ CR 190 E, Cherry Park Rd D7 Jennings Leatherwood Creek @ CR 925 N at Zenas D8 Jennings Vernon Fork Muscatatuck River @ CR 1225 N D9 Shelby Lewis Creek @ SR 252 D10 Johnson Sugar Creek @ CR 650 S at old CCC Dam D11 Shelby Brandywine Creek @ SR 9 D12 Rush Little Blue River @ CR 300 N D13 Henry Big Blue River @ CR 400 S Site County Latitude Longitude N W Upper Wabash River sub-watershed Al Tippecanoe 40 [degrees] 27.17' 86 [degrees] 43.59' A2 Carroll 40 [degrees] 27.52' 86 [degrees] 38.13' A3 Carroll 40 [degrees] 28.58' 86 [degrees] 30.43' A4 Carroll 40 [degrees] 35.24' 86 [degrees] 28.04' A5 Carroll 40 [degrees] 35.23' 86 [degrees] 37.18' A6 Carroll 40 [degrees] 35.10' 86 [degrees] 40.08' A7 Carroll 40 [degrees] 34.28' 86 [degrees] 40.59' A8 White 40 [degrees] 47.05' 86 [degrees] 47.39' A9 Pulaski 40 [degrees] 58.22' 86 [degrees] 39.35' A10 Pulaski 40 [degrees] 59.01' 86 [degrees] 38.51' All Starke 41 [degrees] 10.44' 86 [degrees] 32.26' A12 Fulton 41 [degrees] 05.30' 86 [degrees] 13.53' A13 Wabash 40 [degrees] 59.38' 85 [degrees] 46.55' A14 Huntington 40 [degrees] 50.46' 85 [degrees] 28.16' A15 Wells 40 [degrees] 54.53' 85 [degrees] 19.09' A16 Jay 40 [degrees] 34.05' 84 [degrees] 50.55' A17 Delaware 40 [degrees] 17.33' 85 [degrees] 18.47' Lower Wabash River sub-watershed B1 Knox 38 [degrees] 42.04' 87 [degrees] 29.57' B2 Knox 38 [degrees] 45.06' 87 [degrees] 29.16' B3 Knox 38 [degrees] 52.53' 87 [degrees] 20.48' B4 Sullivan 39 [degrees] 11.13' 87 [degrees] 16.15' B5 Montgomery 40 [degrees] 06.28' 86 [degrees] 47.38' B6 Warren 40 [degrees] 18.14' 87 [degrees] 15.47' B7 Warren 40 [degrees] 26.24' 87 [degrees] 21.30' West Fork White River sub-watershed Cl Greene 39 [degrees] 02.17' 87 [degrees] 06.31' C2 Clay 39 [degrees] 11.54' 87 [degrees] 08.09' C3 Owen 39 [degrees] 21.32' 86 [degrees] 45.50' C4 Morgan 39 [degrees] 28.10' 86 [degrees] 30.23' C5 Hendricks 39 [degrees] 38.46' 86 [degrees] 20.48' C6 Putnam 39 [degrees] 42.11' 86 [degrees] 47.24' C7 Putnam 39 [degrees] 43.53' 86 [degrees] 46.04' C8 Hamilton 40 [degrees] 01.44' 85 [degrees] 59.42' C9 Madison 40 [degrees] 15.47' 85 [degrees] 42.00' C10 Randolph 40 [degrees] 09.59' 85 [degrees] 11.11' East Fork White River sub-watershed Dl Orange 38 [degrees] 38.11' 86 [degrees] 21.57' D2 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 48.08' 86 [degrees] 17.43' D3 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 54.01' 86 [degrees] 28.10' D4 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 58.35' 86 [degrees] 28.40' D5 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 57.43' 86 [degrees] 22.08' D6 Jennings 38 [degrees] 59.20' 85 [degrees] 34.31' D7 Jennings 39 [degrees] 07.03' 85 [degrees] 28.21' D8 Jennings 39 [degrees] 09.53' 85 [degrees] 27.45' D9 Shelby 39 [degrees] 21.49' 85 [degrees] 51.29' D10 Johnson 39 [degrees] 22.52' 86 [degrees] 00.21' D11 Shelby 39 [degrees] 41.13' 85 [degrees] 46.26' D12 Rush 39 [degrees] 39.18' 85 [degrees] 34.15' D13 Henry 39 [degrees] 52.26' 85 [degrees] 26.20' Table 2.-Percent occurrence of the 30 most common aquatic insects collected in the Wabash River watershed, Indiana, and its sub-watersheds in 2004. UWR =upper White River sub-watershed, LWR = lower White River sub-watershed, WFWR = West Fork White River sub-watershed, EFWR = East Fork White River sub-watershed. Entire Wabash watershed UWR LWR Taxa (N=47) (n=17) (n=7) Cheumatopsyche spp. 72 71 57 Calopteryx maculata 66 53 86 Polypedilum spp. 60 82 86 Caeinis spp. 55 29 71 Stenelmis spp. 55 53 43 Cricotopus/Orthocladius grp. 53 59 57 Tanytarsus spp. 53 59 57 Ceratopsyche cheilonis 53 65 43 Thienemannimyia grp. 51 47 57 Enallagma divagans 49 47 57 Tipula spp. 43 18 14 Isonychia spp. 43 41 29 Microtendipes spp. 43 53 43 Tricorythodes spp. 43 65 43 Peltodytes duodecimpunctatus 38 41 29 Dubiraphia spp. 36 29 43 Boyeria vinosa 34 35 14 Dicrotendipes spp. 34 29 57 Argia tibialis 34 41 43 Baetis intercalaris 34 47 43 Hydroporus spp. 32 35 29 Chironomus spp. 32 24 43 Helichus lithophilus 32 18 57 Stenonema femoratum 30 6 29 Microvelia americana 30 6 43 Peltodytes lengi 30 18 14 Ceratopsyche spp. 30 35 14 Dubiraphia minima 30 35 14 Cladotanytarsus spp. 30 29 43 Cricotopus trifascia 30 35 43 WFWR EFWR Taxa (n=10) (n=13) Cheumatopsyche spp. 80 77 Calopteryx maculata 60 77 Polypedilum spp. 60 15 Caeinis spp. 60 77 Stenelmis spp. 70 54 Cricotopus/Orthocladius grp. 60 38 Tanytarsus spp. 60 38 Ceratopsyche cheilonis 60 38 Thienemannimyia grp. 40 62 Enallagma divagans 70 31 Tipula spp. 50 85 Isonychia spp. 40 54 Microtendipes spp. 30 38 Tricorythodes spp. 40 15 Peltodytes duodecimpunctatus 40 38 Dubiraphia spp. 40 38 Boyeria vinosa 50 31 Dicrotendipes spp. 40 23 Argia tibialis 30 23 Baetis intercalaris 30 15 Hydroporus spp. 0 54 Chironomus spp. 30 38 Helichus lithophilus 50 23 Stenonema femoratum 20 69 Microvelia americana 30 54 Peltodytes lengi 40 46 Ceratopsyche spp. 40 23 Dubiraphia minima 40 23 Cladotanytarsus spp. 40 15 Cricotopus trifascia 30 15 Table 3.--Aquatic insects collected in the Wabash River watershed, Indiana, in 2004. Orders are arranged phylogenetically, followed by the alphabetical listing of families, genera, and species. Numbers associated with each taxon correspond to the site localities listed in Table 1 and shown in Fig. 1. Order Ephemeroptera (10 families) Family Baetidae Acentrella turbida (McDunnough): A6, A7, A13, B5, B7, C6 Baetis spp.: B6, D1 Baetis flavistriga McDunnough: A1, A2, A4, A6, A7, A13, A15, B7, C7, C10 Baetis intercalaris McDunnough: A1, A3, A6, A7, A9, A13, A15, A16, B1, B2, B7, C1, C4, C5, D11, D13 Callibaetis spp.: B2, C8 Procloeon spp.: A2, C3, C5, C6 Family Baetiscidae Baetisca lacustris McDunnough: D9 Family Caenidae Caenis spp.: A8, A9, A12, A15, A17, B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6, C10, D1, D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D11, D12 Family Ephemerellidae Eurylophella spp.: D1, D5 Family Ephemeridae Ephemera simulans Walker: A17, B5, B6, D2 Hexagenia limbata (Serville): A9, D9 Family Heptageniidae Leucrocuta hebe (McDunnough): A1, A5, A6, A7, A12, A15, A17, B6, B7, C5, D11 Mccaffertium spp.: A1, A5, A6, A7, B6, C6 Mccaffertium mediopunctatum (McDunnough): A4, A5, A6, A7, B6, B7, C6, D10, D11, D12 Mccaffertium pulchellum (Walsh): A5, A7, A13, A16, A17, BS, B6, C10, D1, D6, D9, D10 Mccaffertium terminatum (Walsh): A3, A5, A6, A7, A9, A17, B6, C6, D10 Stenacron spp.: A17, B1 Stenacron interpunctatum (Say): A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A9, A15, B2, C1, C2, C4, C6, D2 Stenonemafemoratum (Say): A15, B6, B7, C3, C4, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9 Family Isonychiidae Isonychia spp.: A1, A2, A3, A5, A6, A7, A17, B6, B7, C4, C6, C7, C10, D2, D6, D7, D9, D10, D11, D12 Family Leptohyphidae Tricorythodes spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A9, A13, A14, A16, B5, B6, B7, C5, C6, C8, C10, D10, D11 Family Leptophlebiidae Leptophlebia cupida (Say): D1, D2, D3, D7, D10 Paraleptophlebia ontario (McDunnough): A9 Family Potamanthidae Anthopotamus spp.: C6 Anthopotamus myops (Walsh): A3, A17, B5, D10 Order Odonata (7 families) Family Calopterygidae Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois): A4, A6, A8, A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A17, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8, D1, D2, D3, D4, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12, D13 Hetaerina americana (Fabricius): A4, A6, C2, C5, C8, D11 Family Coenagrionidae Argia spp.: A12, A16, B6, B7, C1, C2, C4, D1, D4 Argia apicalis (Say): A4 Argia fumipennis (Burmeister): A4, A8, B5, C2, C8, D7 Argia moesta (Hagen): A3, A5, A6, A7, A17, B5, B6, B7, C8, D1, D2, D6, D8 Argia sedula (Hagen): C1, C2 Argia tibialis (Rambur): A2, A3, A4, A8, A12, A13, A16, B3, B5, B6, C1, C6, C10, D9, D10, D11 Enallagma spp.: C1, C4 Enallagma divagans Selys: A2, A4, A6, A7, A8, A9, A12, A16, B1, B2, B4, B5, C1, C2, C4, C5, C6, C8, C10, D1, D9, D10, D11 Ischnura spp.: C1 Ischnura posita (Hagen): A8, A9, A 11, A16, B4 Ischnura verticalis (Say): A8, A11, A16 Family Aeshnidae Anaxjunius (Drury): A8, C2 Basiaeschna janata Say: B3, C4, D1, D2, D8 Boyeria vinosa (Say): A2, A6, A9, A10, A12, A13, B5, C2, C3, C5, C7, C10, D7, D9, D10, D13 Nasiaeschna pentacantha (Rambur): C2 Family Corduliidae Somatochlora spp.: D7 Family Libellulidae Libellula spp.: C2 Plathemis lydia (Drury): A8, B2, C4 Sympetrum obtrusum (Hagen): D2 Family Macromiidae Macromia spp.: A5, A9, B5, D6, D9, D10, D11 Macromia illinoensis Walsh: B5, D9 Family Gomphidae Dromogomphus spinosus Selys: A4, B2, D1, D9, D10 Dromogomphus spoliatus (Hagen in Selys): A2, A3, A6, A9, B5, B6, B7, C5, D2, D8, D9, D10 Erpetogomphus designatus Hagen in Selys: A1, A9 Hagenius brevistylus Selys: C3 Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis (Walsh): A6 Progomphus obscurus Rambur: C4 Stylogomphus sigmastylus Cook and Laudermilk: C3 Stylurus spiniceps (Walsh): A9, D10 Order Plecoptera (4 families) Family Nemouridae Shipsa rotunda (Claassen): D10 Family Perlidae Acroneuria abnormis (Newman): A9 Agnetina flavescens Walsh: D1 Perlinella drymo (Newman): A7, B6, D5, D10, D11 Family Perlodidae Isoperla spp.: D2, D5 Family Taeniopterygidae Taeniopteryx spp.: A1, A2, A9, D6, D10, D12 Taeniopteryx metequi Ricker and Ross: D10 Order Hemiptera (8 families) Family Belostomatidae Belostomafluminea Say: A2, A4, A5, A8, A11, A13, A16, C2, C4, D4, D7, D11 Family Corixidae Hesperocorixa spp.: D11 Sigara spp.: A8, A10, A11, B7, C7, C9, C10, D1, D11 Trichocorixa calva (Say): A2, A8, A11, A16, B2, C8, C10, D1, D3, D6, D11 Family Gerridae Aquarius spp.: A11, A12, B2, B4, D5 Gerris spp.: A16, B2, B3, B4, C7, D5 Metrobates hesperius Uhler: A6, B5, C5 Rheumatobates spp.: A2, A4, C2, C5 Trepobates inermis-knighti grp.: C4, C6 Trepobates pictus (Herrich-Schaeffer): B1, B3, C1 Trepobates subnitidus Esaki: B2, C2, C3 Family Mesoveliidae Mesovelia mulsanti White: A12, C4 Family Nepidae Ranatrafusca Palisot: A2, A8, A13 Family Notonectidae Notonecta irrorata Uhler: A11, B3, B4, C10 Family Pleidae Neoplea striola (Fieber): A2, B2, C5 Family Veliidae Microvelia spp.: C7 Microvelia americana (Uhler): A12, B2, B3, B4, C3, C4, C7, D3, D4, D5, D7, D8, D9, D12 Rhagovelia spp.: A16, C6 Rhagovelia obesa Uhler: A13, A16, A17, B6 Rhagovelia oriander Parshley: A4, A9, A10, A17, B5, B6, B7, C3, C4, C5, C6 Order Megaloptera (2 families) Family Corydalidae Corydalus cornutus (Linnaeus): A17, B7, D2, D6, D7, D10 Chauliodes pectinicornis (Linnaeus): B2 Nigronia fasciatus (Walker): D3 Nigronia serricornis (Say): C3, D1, D3, D5, D6, D7, D8 Family Sialidae Sialis spp.: B4, C1, C8, C10, D1, D2, D9, D12 Order Trichoptera (9 families) Family Brachycentridae Brachycentrus numerosus (Say): A9 Family Hydropsychidae Ceratopsyche spp.: A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A15, B5, C4, C6, C7, C10, D10, D11, D13 Ceratopsyche bronta (Ross): A5, A6, A7, B6, B7, C5, C10, D6, D9, D10, D12 Ceratopsyche cheilonis (Ross): A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A9, A13, A14, A17, B5, B6, B7, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, D6, D9, D10, D12, D13 Ceratopsyche sparna (Ross): A10 Cheumatopsyche spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A9, A14, A15, A16, A17, B1, B2, B6, B7, C1, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C9, C10, D1, D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D12, D13 Hydropsyche spp.: A1, A8, A9, B2, C8, D11 Hydropsyche aerata Ross: A1, B5 Hydropsyche betteni-depravata group: A4, A8, A10, B2, B3, B7, C4, C8, C9, C10, D3, D11, D13 Hydropsyche dicantha Ross: A1, A3, A5, A6, A16, B7, C10, D13 Hydropsyche frisoni Ross: D11 Hydropsyche simulans Ross: A9, A13, A15, B2, B7 Family Hydroptilidae Agraylea spp.: A9 Hydroptila spp.: C7 Family Leptoceridae Nectopsyche exquisita (Walker): A6, A13 Oecetis spp.: A3, A4, B5, D6 Family Limnephilidae Pycnopsyche spp.: A10, D10 Family Philopotamidae Chimarra aterrima (Hagen): C3, C7, D2, D3 Chimarra obscura (Walker): A1, A2, A3, A6, A7, C1, C4, D2, D6, D7, D8, D12 Family Phyrganeidae Ptilostomis spp.: A11, A17, B4, D2 Family Polycentropodidae Cernotina spicata Ross: A17, D9 Neureclipsis crepuscularis (Walker): A4, A9 Family Rhyacophilidae Rhyacophila lobifera Betten: D2 Order Lepidoptera (1 family) Family Pyralidae Crambus spp.: A17, D4 Petrophila spp.: A1, A2, A4, A6, B5 Order Coleoptera (9 families) Family Carabidae Stenus spp.: D13 Family Dryopidae Helichus basalis LeConte: C3, D5, D6, D8 Helichusfastigiatus (Say): D5 Helichus lithophilus (Germar): A4, A5, A7, B1, B2, B5, B6, C1, C3, C4, C6, C7, D4, D8, D9 Helichus striatus LeConte: A 10 Family Dytiscidae Agabus spp.: D5 Copelatus chevrolati Aube: B1 Coptotomus interrogatus (Fabricius): A3 Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff: A1, A11, B2 Hydroporus spp.: A1, A2, A3, A8, A11, A16, B2, B4, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D7, D8 Ilybius spp.: B4 Laccophilus spp.: B4 Laccophilus fasciatus Aube: B4 Laccophilus maculosus Say: A1, A11, B2, C7, C10, D7 Liodessus affinis (Say): A9, D11 Family Elmidae Dubiraphia spp.: A1, A2, A7, A8, A10, B1, B2, B5, C1, C8, C9, C10, D1, D7, D9, D10, D11 Dubiraphia minima Hilsenhoff: A2, A3, A4, A6, A13, A16, B5, C1, C2, C4, C5, D9, D10, D11 Macronychus glabratus (Say): A2, A9, A 13, B5, C1, C2, C5, C7 Optioservus spp.: A4, A6, A10, D12 Optioservus fastiditus (LeConte): A10 Optioservus trivittatus (Brown): D12 Stenelmis spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, A15, A16, A17, B3, B5, B6, C1, C4, C5, C6, C7, C9, C10, D2, D3, D6, D8, D11, D12, D13 Stenelmis crenata (Say): A4, A15, A17, B5, C1, C2, C5, C7, C10, D2, D3, D8, D11 Stenelmis quadrimaculata Horn: B2 Stenelmis sexlineata Sanderson: A2, A3, A4, A5, A17, B5, C4, C10, D6, D8, D9, D11 Stenelmis vittipennis Zimmerman: A2, A3, A 16, B1, B5, D10 Family Gyrinidae Gyrinus spp.: A10, A11, B4, C2, D9 Gyrinus maculiventris LeConte: D10 Family Haliplidae Peltodytes duodecimpunctatus (Say): A2, A3, A8, A9, A10, A11, A16, B2, B3, C2, C7, C9, C10, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12 Peltodytes edentulus (LeConte): A3, A8, A16, D9 Peltodytes lengi Roberts: A2, A9, A11, B5, C5, C8, C9, C10, D1, D2, D7, D8, D11, D12 Peltodytes sexmaculatus Roberts: A8, B5, D3, D11 Family Hydrophilidae Berosus spp.: A1, A2, A4, A8, A14, B6 Berosus fraternus LeConte: B2 Berosus pantherinus LeConte: B2 Enochrus spp.: D9 Helophorus spp.: A3, A16, D11 Hydrobius spp.: C7 Laccobius spp.: C7 Tropisternus glaber (Herbst): B2, B3, C2, D2 Family Psephenidae Ectropia spp.: D1 Psephenus herricki (De Kay): A17, C3, D1, D2, D3, D4, D6, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12 Family Scirtidae Cyphon spp.: A2, A9, A10, B3, B5, B6, C1, C4, D2, D5, D7, D11 Order Diptera (11 families) Family Chironomidae Subfamily Orthocladiinae Tribe Corynoneurini Corynoneura spp.: A4, A6, A17, C7, D2, D7, D9, D11, D12 Thienemanniella spp.: A7 Thienemanniella taurocapita Hestenes and Saether: C7 Theinemanniella xena (Roback): A12, B5 Tribe Orthocladiini/Metriocnemini: Brillia spp.: A4 Cardiocladius spp.: A3 Cricotopus/Orthocladius spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A9, A13, A14, B2, B5, B6, B7, C2, C5, C6, C7, C8, C10, D2, D9, D10, D11, D13 Cricotopus trifascia Edwards: A1, A2, A3, A6, A7, A13, B5, B6, B7, C7, C8, C10, D9, D11 Diplocladius cultiger Kieffer: D2 Eukiefferiella spp.: A3, D10 Hydrobaenus spp.: A17, D7, D11 Nanocladius spp.: A4 Parakiefferiella spp.: A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, B6, B7, C8, D9, D10 Psectrocladius spp.: D11, D13 Rheocricotopus spp.: A13, C3 Tvetnia spp.: A1, A14, C8 Subfamily Chironominae Tribe Chironomini Chironomus spp.: A2, A3, A4, A7, B2, B4, B6, C6, C7, C9, D7, D9, D10, D11, D13 Cryptochironomus spp.: A2, A17, B2, B5, B6, B7, C5, C9 Cryptotendipes spp.: B2, C2 Dicrotendipes spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B2, B5, B6, B7, C6, C7, C8, C10, D9, D11, D12 Glyptotendipes sp.: B2, C7 Microtendipes spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A8, A14, A15, A17, B5, B6, B7, C3, C6, C10, D7, D9, D10, D11, D12 Paracladopelma spp.: B 1 Paurolaterborniella nigrohalteralis (Malloch): A3 Paratendipes spp.: B1 Phaenopsectra spp.: A1, A2, A4, A5, A7, A14, B7, C1, C6, D13 Polypedilum spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A9, A12, A13, A14, A15, A16, A17, B1, B2, B3, B4, B6, B7, C1, C2, C3, C6, C7, C10, D6, D12 Saetheria spp.: A15, C5, C6 Stictochironomus spp.: A3, A4, A7, A17, B3, C5, D7, D10, D11 Tribe Pseudochironomini Pseudochironomus spp.: A3 Tribe Tanytarsini Cladotanytarsus spp.: A3, A5, A6, A7, A15, B1, B6, B7, C4, C5, C6, C7, D9, D11 Neozavrelia spp.: A6 Paratanytarsus spp.: C2, C6, C8, D9, D10 Rheotanytarsus spp.: A1, A6, A8, A14, B5, B6, B7, C6, C7 Stempellinella spp.: A4, A7, B5, B7, C6, D11, D12 Subletta spp.: C6 Subletta coffrnani (Roback): A8 Tanytarsus spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A13, A14, A17, B1, B2, B5, B7, C1, C4, C6, C7, C8, C10, D9, D10, D11, D12, D13 Subfamily Tanypodinae Tribe Procladiini Procladius spp.: A12, B2, B5, C7, C9, D10 Tribe Pentanuerini Ablabesmyia spp.: A12 Ablabesmyia janta (Roback): A3 Ablabesmyia mallochi (Walley): B2, B5, B6, C6, D1 Labrundinia pilosella (Loew): A3, A6, A9, A12, C3, C4, C7 Paramerina spp.: A2, A4, D12 Pentaneura spp.: C7 Telopelopia spp.: A15 Theinenmannimyia group: A2, A5, A6, A12, A13, A14, A15, A17, B2, B5, B6, B7, C5, C6, C7, C9, D2, D6, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12, D13 Zavrelimyia spp.: D8 Tribe Tanypodini Tanypus neopunctipennis Sublette: B2 Family Athericidae Atherix spp.: A9 Family Ceratopogonidae Bezzia-Palpomyia group: D9 Ceratopogon spp.: B5 Dasyhela spp.: D9 Family Culicidae Anopheles punctipennis (Say): B2, C4, C7 Culex spp.: C1 Family Dixidae Dixella spp.: C3, C4, D7, D11 Family Empididae Hemerodromia spp.: A1, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A16, B5, B7, C7 Family Simuliidae Simulium spp.: A3, A6, A15, D10 Simuliumjenningsi Malloch: A1, A3, A13, B7, C6 Simulium tuberosum complex: A4, A15, B1, C4 Simulium venustum complex: D6 Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt: A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8, A14, A15, B7, C8, C10, D11 Family Stratiomyidae Nemotelus spp.: D13 Family Syrphidae Helophilus spp.: D12 Family Tabanidae Chrysops spp.: A2, A5, A7, A8, A15, B5, C1, C3, C4, C5, C10, D7, D12 Tabanus spp.: B7, C6, D5, D12 Family Tipulidae Antocha spp.: C7, D10 Dicranota spp.: D5 Erioptera spp.: A7, A17 Hexatoma spp.: A12, C4, C5, C7, C10, D2, D5, D12 Pilaria spp.: C10 Pseudolimnophila spp.: B2, D7 Tipula spp.: A4, A10, A17, B7, C1, C7, C8, C9, C10, D1, D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D11, D12, D13 Table 4.--Comparison of number of families, general and species of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera collected from the Wabash River watershed during the present study to those currently known from Indiana (Hellenthal et al. 2003). Families Genera Species Ephemeroptera Hellenthal et al. (2003) 16 50 143 Wabash (present study) 10 18 18 % representation 63% 36% 13% Odonata Hellenthal et al. (2003) 10 47 154 Wabash (present study) 7 21 26 % representation 70% 45% 17% Plecoptera Hellenthal et al. (2003) 8 29 71 Wabash (present study) 4 6 6 % representation 50% 21% 9% Trichoptera Hellenthal et al. (2003) 16 58 194 Wabash (present study) 9 14 21 % representation 56% 24% 11%