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An annotated list of the aquatic insects collected in 2004 in the Wabash River watershed, Indiana.

ABSTRACT. In 2004 the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) biologists sampled 47 streams and rivers within the Wabash River watershed. More than 5500 aquatic insect specimens, representing 229 taxa from nine orders, 61 families, and 167 genera were collected. Diptera (73 taxa) was the most diverse insect order followed by Coleoptera (43 taxa), Odonata (31 taxa), Ephemeroptera (25 taxa), Trichoptera (23 taxa), Hemiptera (20 taxa), Plecoptera (7 taxa), Megaloptera (5 taxa), and Lepidoptera (2 taxa). We collected 50-70% of the families, 21-45% of the genera, and 9-17% of the species of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera currently reported from Indiana. The upper Wabash sub-watershed had the greatest number of insect taxa (148) while the lower Wabash sub-watershed had the fewest taxa (119). Based on rank abundance, Cheumatopsyche spp., Calopteryx maculata, Polypedium spp., Caenis spp., Stenelmis spp., Cricotopus/Orthocladius group, Tanytarsus spp., Ceratopsyche cheilonis, and Thienemannimyia group were found at more than 50% of the sites.

Keywords: Wabash River, environmental quality, macroinvertebrate, IDEM, probabilistic, multi-habitat

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For nearly 100 years aquatic macroinvertebrates have been used as indicators of water quality (Forbes 1928; Pantie & Buck 1955). In the 1970s American scientists shifted the focus of biomonitoring from using qualitatively collected indicator species to the use of quantitative sampling and analysis by means of various diversity indices (Bode 1988; Hilsenhoff 1982, 1987, 1988). In order to calibrate and validate indicator organism indices, basic information about distribution and taxonomy is needed. For many areas this information exists at the order or family level; but, other than large checklists, little information exists at the species or lowest taxonomic level (Helenthal et al. 2003).

In 1990, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) initiated a benthic macroinvertebrate community assessment program (IDEM 2001) based on the EPA RBP II protocols (Plafkin et al. 1989). This method utilized a single habitat for assessing rivers and streams using family-level taxonomic resolution. Recent comparisons of family-level versus genus- and species-level identifications of macroinvertebrates has determined that, in most situations, genus- and species-level identifications provide much greater diagonostic resolution (Lenat & Resh 2001). Later, in 2004, IDEM began the development of a multi-habitat (MHAB) sampling method for collecting benthic macroinvertebrates that would incorporate genus- and species-level identifications (1DEM 2006).

The purpose of the present study is to provide a list of aquatic insect taxa collected within the Wabash River watershed, and present a comparison of taxonomic occurrence in four sub-watersheds based on samples collected in 2004. This effort is based on a stratified random sampling approach that reflects representative occurrence in the area.

METHODS

Study area.--The Wabash River, the second largest tributary to the Ohio River, originates near St. Henry, Ohio and flows in a southwesterly direction for 765 km before entering the Ohio River 18 km southwest of Mt. Vernon, Indiana. The Wabash River watershed encompasses 85,236 [km.sup.2], with nearly 74% (62,693 [km.sup.2]) located in Indiana (Illinois and Ohio contribute 21,805 [km.sup.2] and 738 [km.sup.2], respectively) (Hoggatt 1975). Major streams within the Wabash watershed include the Tippecanoe River, Wildcat Creek, Mississinewa River, Salamonie River, Patoka River, Driftwood River, Flatrock River, Muscatatuck River, and the White River.

The Wabash River watershed is located primarily within the Eastern Corn Belt Plain Ecoregion with the extreme northern area being in the Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Till Plain Ecoregion, the southcentral area being in the Interior Plateau and Eastern Corn Belt Plain Ecoregion, and the southwestern area being found in the Interior River Lowland Ecoregion. The Eastern Corn Belt Plain and Southern Michigan/Northern Indiana Till Plain Ecoregions are formerly glaciated with bedrock composed of Paleozoic shale, sandstone, limestone and dolomite overlain with clay and loam till and outwash. The Interior River Lowland is composed of both formerly glaciated and un-glaciated areas with bedrock composed of Pennsylvanian shale, sandstone, limestone and coal overlain by Quaternary alluvium and glacial outwash. The Interior Plateau Ecoregion, which was never glaciated, is an area with Quaternary loess, colluvium and alluvium underlain with Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, sandstone, and limestone (Woods et al. 1998). About 65% of the Wabash River watershed, primarily within the Eastern Corn Belt Plain and the Northern Indiana Till Plain Ecoregions, is utilized as agricultural cropland for corn and soybean production. Agriculture is also a primary land use within the Interior River Lowland Ecoregion, although oil wells and coal mines are also common. Forests account for 13.5% of the Wabash River watershed and are mostly found within the Interior Plateau Ecoregion (Gammon 1994; Woods et al. 1998).

Study design.--As part of the IDEM Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (2001, 2006), IDEM biologists sampled 47 sites within the Wabash River Watershed during 2004 (Table 1, Fig. 1). Site selection for this study was part of a watershed-based, statewide stratified, random subset of 736 previously sampled macroinvertebrate sampling sites. This study presents a comprehensive phylogenetic taxonomic list of species collected across the Indiana portion of the Wabash River watershed. For the purpose of this study, the Wabash River watershed was divided into four sub-watersheds based on the Monitoring Strategy Areas used by the IDEM Surface Water Monitoring Strategy (2001, 2006). The sub-watersheds are as follows: the upper Wabash River (UWR), lower Wabash River (LWR), West Fork of the White River (WFWR) and East Fork of the White River (EFWR) (Fig. 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Numerical classification analysis was conducted using STATISTICA for Windows (StatSoft 2002). We analyzed the 30 most commonly ranked taxa occurring in the entire Wabash River watershed and each of its four sub-watersheds. This information is presented in a cumulative frequency-distribution table of the most common taxa (Table 2).

Field collection.--Aquatic macroinvertebrate samples were collected at each site upstream of bridges (if present) to decrease any effects that the bridges might have on the downstream fauna. Following a modified D-frame dipnet method (IDEM 2001, 2006) described from Plafkin et al. (1989) and Barbour et al. (1999), a one-minute kick sample was taken within a riffle (if available), run, or a typical glide area at each site. In addition, a 50 m length of stream habitat was sampled with a D-frame dipnet to obtain a MHAB sample. Instream habitats included emergent vegetation, submerged macrophytes, depositional zones, logs, sticks, rootwads, rootmats, cobble, and sand. All habitats were sampled as encountered. The MHAB sample and the kick sample were combined and elutriated a minimum of five times through a 50 [micro]m sieve. The contents of the sieve were emptied into a tray and picked through for 15 min, collecting at least 100 organisms per site, obtaining the greatest diversity of organisms possible. Aquatic macroinvertebrates were preserved in 80% isopropyl alcohol and returned to the lab to be processed and identified, usually to genus or species, using regionally-recognized taxonomic references (such as Merritt & Cummins 1996; Hilsenhoff 1995; and Brigham et al. 1982). All specimens were retained and are maintained at the IDEM Shadeland office/laboratory, Indianapolis, Indiana.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

This single year sampling effort of 47 sites in the Wabash River watershed collected more than 5500 aquatic insects. Using a MHAB sampling approach a total of 229 aquatic insect taxa, distributed over nine orders, 61 families, and 167 genera was collected (Table 3). The most diverse insect orders were Diptera (73 taxa), Coleoptera (43 taxa), and Odonata (31 taxa). The remaining 82 taxa were distributed among the orders Ephemeroptera (25 taxa), Trichoptera (23 taxa), Hemiptera (20 taxa), Plecoptera (7 taxa), Megaloptera (5 taxa), and Lepidoptera (2 taxa).

Hellenthal et al. (2003) published a list of 2307 aquatic insect species either recorded from Indiana or likely to occur within the state. The data collected from the Wabash River watershed are presented and compared with this list in Table 4. This study collected 50-70% of the families, 21-45% of the genera, and 9-17% of the species of Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera currently reported from Indiana (Table 4) (Hellenthal et al. 2003). These are surprisingly high numbers considering the temporal and spatial limits of this study, which sampled only 47 sites in Indiana's largest watershed from September to November.

Diversity by subwatershed.--The UWR sub-watershed had the greatest number of insect taxa (148) while the LWR sub-watershed had the fewest taxa (119). The WFWR and the EFWR had 122 taxa and 132 taxa, respectively. The greatest number of taxa (48) was found in both the LWR sub-watershed in Sugar Creek, Montgomery County (site B5), and within the EFWR sub-watershed, in Brandywine Creek, Shelby County (site D11). The fewest taxa (9) were found in Wolf Creek, Lawrence County (site D4). The average number of taxa collected in the Wabash River watershed was 29. Among the individual subwatersheds, the greatest average number of taxa (31) was in the LWR sub-watershed while the smallest average number of taxa (27) was in the EFWR sub-watershed. The average number of taxa at sites in the UWR and WFWR sub-watersheds was 29.

Rank abundance by site occurrence. Table 2 presents the 30 most abundant taxa by site occurrence. The most commonly encountered taxon, the Trichoptera genus Cheumatopsyche spp., occurred at 72% of all sites (Table 2). Although Hellenthal et al. (2003) reported 11 Cheumatopsyche species for Indiana, the larvae of this genus currently cannot be identified to species level. Sampling and identification of adult material using larval-rearing, emergence traps, black-lights or other such collection methods may be useful for providing species occurrence data for problem insect genera.

Numerical classification analysis.--Numerical classification analysis of the percentage of occurrence of the 30 most common taxa (Table 2) from the four sub-watersheds is presented in Fig. 2. This dendogram shows that sites in the UWR sub-watershed are most compositionally similar to sites within the WFWR. These two sub-watersheds are then most similar to sites in the LWR sub-watershed. The internodal distance between the EFWR and the other sub-watersheds is reflected by a relative difference of 40% (Fig. 2) indicating that this sub-watershed is significantly different in composition and structure. Sobat et al. (2006) reported that the Wabash River (including both UWR and LWR subwatersheds), the WFWR, and the EFWR fish communities, based on analysis of Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores, have been assessed in the good-to-excellent condition at 14%, 17% and 33%, respectively. This numerical pattern of aquatic insect and fish community data suggested that the EFWR sub-watershed was of a higher environmental quality than the other sub-watersheds within the Wabash River watershed.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We appreciate the assistance of IDEM biologists Todd Davis, Holly Jackson, Joshua Brosmer, Jim Butler, Jennifer Wingstrom, Stacey Sobat, James Stahl, and Cindy Martin, who helped in field collection and in other professional courtesies. We particularly appreciate the comments and review of C. Lee Bridges, Charles Morris, and Thomas E Simon III.

Manuscript received 1 September 2006, revised 20 October 2006.

LITERATURE CITED

Barbour, M.T., J. Gerritsen, B.D. Snyder & J.B. Stribling. 1999. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Wadeable Rivers: Periphyton, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish, Second Edition. EPA 841-B-99-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C.

Bode, R.W. 1988. Quality Assurance Workplan for Biological Stream Monitoring in New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, New York. 122 pp.

Brigham, A.R., W.U. Brigham & A. Gnilka (eds.). 1982. Aquatic Insects and Oligochaetes of North and South Carolina. Midwest Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, Illinois. 837 pp.

Forbes, S.A. 1928. The biological survey of a river system--its objects, methods and results. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 17:277-284.

Gammon, J.R. 1994. The Wabash River Ecosystem. A Report for PSI-Energy, Plainfield, Indiana and Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana. 213 pp.

Hellenthal, R.A., R.D. Waltz, A.V. Provonsha & J.D. Haddock. 2003. Preliminary Checklist of Indiana Aquatic Insects. Indiana Academy of Science Aquatic Macroinvertebrates Workshop: Overview of the State of Science. October 17, 2003. Anderson, Indiana. iv + 73 pp.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1982. Using a Biotic Index to Evaluate Water Quality in Streams. Technical Bulletin No. 132. Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. 22 pp.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1987. An improved biotic index of organic stream pollution. Great Lakes Entomologist 20:31-39.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1988. Rapid field assessment of organic pollution with a family-level biotic index. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7:65-68.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1995. Aquatic Insects of Wisconsin, Keys to Wisconsin Genera and Notes on Biology, Habitat, Distribution and Species. University of Wisconsin-Madison Natural History Museums Council Publication No. 3, G3648. 79 pp.

Hoggatt, R.E. 1975. Drainage Areas of Indiana Streams. U.S. Department of the Interior Geological Survey, Water Resource Division. 231 pp.

Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM). 2001. IDEM Surface Water Quality Monitoring Strategy 2001-2005. Assessment Branch, Office of Water Quality, Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Indianapolis, Indiana. IDEM/32/01/021, May 2001.

Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM). 2006. Indiana Water Quality Monitoring Strategy 2006-2010. M-001-OWQ-A-00-06R03. IDEM, Office of Water Quality, Assessment Branch, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Lenat, D.R. & V.H. Resh. 2001. Taxonomy and stream ecology: The benefits of genus- and species-level identifications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20:287-298.

Merritt, R.W. & K.W. Cummins (eds.). 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 862 pp.

Pantle, R. & H. Buck. 1955. Die biologische Uberwachung der Gewasser und die Daistellung der Ergebnisse. (Biological monitoring of waterbodies and the presentation of results). Gas und Wasserfach 96:604.

Plafkin, J.L., M.T. Barbour, K.D. Porter, S.K. Gross & R.M. Hughes. 1989. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols For Use in Streams and River: Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. EPA 440/4-89/001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington D.C.

Sobat, S.L., C.C. Morris, A.K. Stephan & T.P. Simon. 2006. Changes in the condition of the Wabash River drainage from 1990-2004. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 115: 156-169.

StatSoft. 2002. STATISTICA for Windows. StatSoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Woods, A.J., J.M. Omemik, C.S. Brockman, T.D. Gerber, W.D. Hosteter & S.H. Azevedo. 1998. Ecoregions of Indiana and Ohio. (Map poster). U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

Paul D. McMurray, Jr. and Steven A. Newhouse: Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Biological Studies Section, 100 North Senate Avenue, Indianapolis, Indiana 46204 USA
Table 1.-Site localities of all sites sampled in the Wabash River
watershed, Indiana, in 2004. Site numbers correspond to Table 3
and are shown in Fig. 1.

Site County Locality

Upper Wabash River sub-watershed

Al Tippecanoe Wildcat Creek @ Wolfe Rd
A2 Carroll Wildcat Creek @ US 421
A3 Carroll Wildcat Creek @ CR 50 E
A4 Carroll Little Deer Creek @ CR 300 N
A5 Carroll Deer Creek @ CR 300 N
A6 Carroll Deer Creek U/S of Delphi, Indiana
A7 Carroll Deer Creek D/S of Delphi Water Treatment Plant
A8 White Honey Creek @ CR 225 N
A9 Pulaski Tippecanoe River @ Pulaski
A10 Pulaski Mud Creek @ SR 119
All Starke House Ditch @ CR 850 S
A12 Fulton Mill Creek @ CR 250 N (Olson Rd)
A13 Wabash Eel River U/S Wabash Rd
A14 Huntington Wabash River D/S Huntington Reservoir
A15 Wells Eightmile Creek @ Aboite Rd
A16 Jay Wabash River @ CR 215 E
A17 Delaware Mississinewa River 200m D/S of CR 700 N

Lower Wabash River sub-watershed

B1 Knox Snapp Creek 30m D/S of Iron Bridge
B2 Knox Smalls Creek @ ford W of RR, Sec 26
B3 Knox Maria Creek @ CR 1050 S
B4 Sullivan Sulphur Creek @ SR 48
B5 Montgomery Sugar Creek @ CR 600 E
B6 Warren Big Pine Creek @ SR 55
B7 Warren Mud Pine Creek @ CR 850 N

West Fork White River sub-watershed

Cl Greene Buck Creek @ SR 54, E of Linton
C2 Clay Wabash and Erie Canal @ CR 113 W
C3 Owen Little Mill Creek @ CR 25 E
C4 Morgan Lambs Creek @ Middle Patton Lake Rd
C5 Hendricks East Fork White Lick Creek @ CR 800 S
C6 Putnam Big Walnut Creek D/S Wildwood Bridge
C7 Putnam Plum Creek @ CR 500 N
C8 Hamilton Stony Creek @ Cumberland Rd Gaging Station
C9 Madison Pipe Creek U/S Alexandria, in WWTP
C10 Randolph West Fork White River 120 m U/S CR 1100 W

East Fork White River sub-watershed

Dl Orange Lost River @ Potato Rd
D2 Lawrence Guthrie Creek @ Leesville/ Fort Rimer Rd
D3 Lawrence Pleasant Run Creek @ CR 50 E
D4 Lawrence Wolf Creek @ CR 825 N
D5 Lawrence Henderson Creek @ CR off of SR 446
D6 Jennings Otter Creek @ CR 190 E, Cherry Park Rd
D7 Jennings Leatherwood Creek @ CR 925 N at Zenas
D8 Jennings Vernon Fork Muscatatuck River @ CR 1225 N
D9 Shelby Lewis Creek @ SR 252
D10 Johnson Sugar Creek @ CR 650 S at old CCC Dam
D11 Shelby Brandywine Creek @ SR 9
D12 Rush Little Blue River @ CR 300 N
D13 Henry Big Blue River @ CR 400 S

Site County Latitude Longitude
 N W
Upper Wabash River sub-watershed

Al Tippecanoe 40 [degrees] 27.17' 86 [degrees] 43.59'
A2 Carroll 40 [degrees] 27.52' 86 [degrees] 38.13'
A3 Carroll 40 [degrees] 28.58' 86 [degrees] 30.43'
A4 Carroll 40 [degrees] 35.24' 86 [degrees] 28.04'
A5 Carroll 40 [degrees] 35.23' 86 [degrees] 37.18'
A6 Carroll 40 [degrees] 35.10' 86 [degrees] 40.08'
A7 Carroll 40 [degrees] 34.28' 86 [degrees] 40.59'
A8 White 40 [degrees] 47.05' 86 [degrees] 47.39'
A9 Pulaski 40 [degrees] 58.22' 86 [degrees] 39.35'
A10 Pulaski 40 [degrees] 59.01' 86 [degrees] 38.51'
All Starke 41 [degrees] 10.44' 86 [degrees] 32.26'
A12 Fulton 41 [degrees] 05.30' 86 [degrees] 13.53'
A13 Wabash 40 [degrees] 59.38' 85 [degrees] 46.55'
A14 Huntington 40 [degrees] 50.46' 85 [degrees] 28.16'
A15 Wells 40 [degrees] 54.53' 85 [degrees] 19.09'
A16 Jay 40 [degrees] 34.05' 84 [degrees] 50.55'
A17 Delaware 40 [degrees] 17.33' 85 [degrees] 18.47'

Lower Wabash River sub-watershed

B1 Knox 38 [degrees] 42.04' 87 [degrees] 29.57'
B2 Knox 38 [degrees] 45.06' 87 [degrees] 29.16'
B3 Knox 38 [degrees] 52.53' 87 [degrees] 20.48'
B4 Sullivan 39 [degrees] 11.13' 87 [degrees] 16.15'
B5 Montgomery 40 [degrees] 06.28' 86 [degrees] 47.38'
B6 Warren 40 [degrees] 18.14' 87 [degrees] 15.47'
B7 Warren 40 [degrees] 26.24' 87 [degrees] 21.30'

West Fork White River sub-watershed

Cl Greene 39 [degrees] 02.17' 87 [degrees] 06.31'
C2 Clay 39 [degrees] 11.54' 87 [degrees] 08.09'
C3 Owen 39 [degrees] 21.32' 86 [degrees] 45.50'
C4 Morgan 39 [degrees] 28.10' 86 [degrees] 30.23'
C5 Hendricks 39 [degrees] 38.46' 86 [degrees] 20.48'
C6 Putnam 39 [degrees] 42.11' 86 [degrees] 47.24'
C7 Putnam 39 [degrees] 43.53' 86 [degrees] 46.04'
C8 Hamilton 40 [degrees] 01.44' 85 [degrees] 59.42'
C9 Madison 40 [degrees] 15.47' 85 [degrees] 42.00'
C10 Randolph 40 [degrees] 09.59' 85 [degrees] 11.11'

East Fork White River sub-watershed

Dl Orange 38 [degrees] 38.11' 86 [degrees] 21.57'
D2 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 48.08' 86 [degrees] 17.43'
D3 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 54.01' 86 [degrees] 28.10'
D4 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 58.35' 86 [degrees] 28.40'
D5 Lawrence 38 [degrees] 57.43' 86 [degrees] 22.08'
D6 Jennings 38 [degrees] 59.20' 85 [degrees] 34.31'
D7 Jennings 39 [degrees] 07.03' 85 [degrees] 28.21'
D8 Jennings 39 [degrees] 09.53' 85 [degrees] 27.45'
D9 Shelby 39 [degrees] 21.49' 85 [degrees] 51.29'
D10 Johnson 39 [degrees] 22.52' 86 [degrees] 00.21'
D11 Shelby 39 [degrees] 41.13' 85 [degrees] 46.26'
D12 Rush 39 [degrees] 39.18' 85 [degrees] 34.15'
D13 Henry 39 [degrees] 52.26' 85 [degrees] 26.20'

Table 2.-Percent occurrence of the 30 most common aquatic insects
collected in the Wabash River watershed, Indiana, and its
sub-watersheds in 2004. UWR =upper White River sub-watershed, LWR =
lower White River sub-watershed, WFWR = West Fork White River
sub-watershed, EFWR = East Fork White River sub-watershed.

 Entire
 Wabash
 watershed UWR LWR
 Taxa (N=47) (n=17) (n=7)

Cheumatopsyche spp. 72 71 57
Calopteryx maculata 66 53 86
Polypedilum spp. 60 82 86
Caeinis spp. 55 29 71
Stenelmis spp. 55 53 43
Cricotopus/Orthocladius grp. 53 59 57
Tanytarsus spp. 53 59 57
Ceratopsyche cheilonis 53 65 43
Thienemannimyia grp. 51 47 57
Enallagma divagans 49 47 57
Tipula spp. 43 18 14
Isonychia spp. 43 41 29
Microtendipes spp. 43 53 43
Tricorythodes spp. 43 65 43
Peltodytes duodecimpunctatus 38 41 29
Dubiraphia spp. 36 29 43
Boyeria vinosa 34 35 14
Dicrotendipes spp. 34 29 57
Argia tibialis 34 41 43
Baetis intercalaris 34 47 43
Hydroporus spp. 32 35 29
Chironomus spp. 32 24 43
Helichus lithophilus 32 18 57
Stenonema femoratum 30 6 29
Microvelia americana 30 6 43
Peltodytes lengi 30 18 14
Ceratopsyche spp. 30 35 14
Dubiraphia minima 30 35 14
Cladotanytarsus spp. 30 29 43
Cricotopus trifascia 30 35 43

 WFWR EFWR
 Taxa (n=10) (n=13)

Cheumatopsyche spp. 80 77
Calopteryx maculata 60 77
Polypedilum spp. 60 15
Caeinis spp. 60 77
Stenelmis spp. 70 54
Cricotopus/Orthocladius grp. 60 38
Tanytarsus spp. 60 38
Ceratopsyche cheilonis 60 38
Thienemannimyia grp. 40 62
Enallagma divagans 70 31
Tipula spp. 50 85
Isonychia spp. 40 54
Microtendipes spp. 30 38
Tricorythodes spp. 40 15
Peltodytes duodecimpunctatus 40 38
Dubiraphia spp. 40 38
Boyeria vinosa 50 31
Dicrotendipes spp. 40 23
Argia tibialis 30 23
Baetis intercalaris 30 15
Hydroporus spp. 0 54
Chironomus spp. 30 38
Helichus lithophilus 50 23
Stenonema femoratum 20 69
Microvelia americana 30 54
Peltodytes lengi 40 46
Ceratopsyche spp. 40 23
Dubiraphia minima 40 23
Cladotanytarsus spp. 40 15
Cricotopus trifascia 30 15

Table 3.--Aquatic insects collected in the Wabash
River watershed, Indiana, in 2004. Orders are arranged
phylogenetically, followed by the alphabetical
listing of families, genera, and species. Numbers
associated with each taxon correspond to the site localities
listed in Table 1 and shown in Fig. 1.

Order Ephemeroptera (10 families)

 Family Baetidae
 Acentrella turbida (McDunnough): A6, A7,
 A13, B5, B7, C6
 Baetis spp.: B6, D1
 Baetis flavistriga McDunnough: A1, A2, A4,
 A6, A7, A13, A15, B7, C7, C10
 Baetis intercalaris McDunnough: A1, A3, A6,
 A7, A9, A13, A15, A16, B1, B2, B7, C1, C4,
 C5, D11, D13
 Callibaetis spp.: B2, C8
 Procloeon spp.: A2, C3, C5, C6

 Family Baetiscidae
 Baetisca lacustris McDunnough: D9

 Family Caenidae
 Caenis spp.: A8, A9, A12, A15, A17, B1, B2,
 B5, B6, B7, C1, C2, C3, C4, C6, C10, D1,
 D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D11, D12

 Family Ephemerellidae
 Eurylophella spp.: D1, D5

 Family Ephemeridae
 Ephemera simulans Walker: A17, B5, B6, D2
 Hexagenia limbata (Serville): A9, D9

 Family Heptageniidae
 Leucrocuta hebe (McDunnough): A1, A5, A6,
 A7, A12, A15, A17, B6, B7, C5, D11
 Mccaffertium spp.: A1, A5, A6, A7, B6, C6
 Mccaffertium mediopunctatum (McDunnough):
 A4, A5, A6, A7, B6, B7, C6, D10, D11, D12
 Mccaffertium pulchellum (Walsh): A5, A7,
 A13, A16, A17, BS, B6, C10, D1, D6, D9,
 D10
 Mccaffertium terminatum (Walsh): A3, A5, A6,
 A7, A9, A17, B6, C6, D10
 Stenacron spp.: A17, B1
 Stenacron interpunctatum (Say): A4, A5, A6,
 A7, A8, A9, A15, B2, C1, C2, C4, C6, D2
 Stenonemafemoratum (Say): A15, B6, B7, C3,
 C4, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, D9

 Family Isonychiidae
 Isonychia spp.: A1, A2, A3, A5, A6, A7, A17,
 B6, B7, C4, C6, C7, C10, D2, D6, D7, D9,
 D10, D11, D12

 Family Leptohyphidae
 Tricorythodes spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6,
 A7, A9, A13, A14, A16, B5, B6, B7, C5, C6,
 C8, C10, D10, D11

 Family Leptophlebiidae
 Leptophlebia cupida (Say): D1, D2, D3, D7,
 D10
 Paraleptophlebia ontario (McDunnough): A9

 Family Potamanthidae
 Anthopotamus spp.: C6
 Anthopotamus myops (Walsh): A3, A17, B5,
 D10

Order Odonata (7 families)

 Family Calopterygidae
 Calopteryx maculata (Beauvois): A4, A6, A8,
 A9, A10, A11, A12, A13, A17, B2, B3, B4,
 B5, B6, B7, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8, D1, D2,
 D3, D4, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12, D13
 Hetaerina americana (Fabricius): A4, A6, C2,
 C5, C8, D11

 Family Coenagrionidae
 Argia spp.: A12, A16, B6, B7, C1, C2, C4, D1,
 D4
 Argia apicalis (Say): A4
 Argia fumipennis (Burmeister): A4, A8, B5, C2,
 C8, D7
 Argia moesta (Hagen): A3, A5, A6, A7, A17,
 B5, B6, B7, C8, D1, D2, D6, D8
 Argia sedula (Hagen): C1, C2
 Argia tibialis (Rambur): A2, A3, A4, A8, A12,
 A13, A16, B3, B5, B6, C1, C6, C10, D9,
 D10, D11
 Enallagma spp.: C1, C4
 Enallagma divagans Selys: A2, A4, A6, A7,
 A8, A9, A12, A16, B1, B2, B4, B5, C1, C2,
 C4, C5, C6, C8, C10, D1, D9, D10, D11
 Ischnura spp.: C1
 Ischnura posita (Hagen): A8, A9, A 11, A16, B4
 Ischnura verticalis (Say): A8, A11, A16

 Family Aeshnidae Anaxjunius (Drury): A8, C2
 Basiaeschna janata Say: B3, C4, D1, D2, D8
 Boyeria vinosa (Say): A2, A6, A9, A10, A12,
 A13, B5, C2, C3, C5, C7, C10, D7, D9, D10,
 D13
 Nasiaeschna pentacantha (Rambur): C2

 Family Corduliidae
 Somatochlora spp.: D7

 Family Libellulidae
 Libellula spp.: C2
 Plathemis lydia (Drury): A8, B2, C4
 Sympetrum obtrusum (Hagen): D2

 Family Macromiidae
 Macromia spp.: A5, A9, B5, D6, D9, D10, D11
 Macromia illinoensis Walsh: B5, D9

 Family Gomphidae
 Dromogomphus spinosus Selys: A4, B2, D1,
 D9, D10
 Dromogomphus spoliatus (Hagen in Selys): A2,
 A3, A6, A9, B5, B6, B7, C5, D2, D8, D9,
 D10
 Erpetogomphus designatus Hagen in Selys: A1,
 A9
 Hagenius brevistylus Selys: C3
 Ophiogomphus rupinsulensis (Walsh): A6
 Progomphus obscurus Rambur: C4
 Stylogomphus sigmastylus Cook and
 Laudermilk: C3
 Stylurus spiniceps (Walsh): A9, D10

Order Plecoptera (4 families)

 Family Nemouridae
 Shipsa rotunda (Claassen): D10

 Family Perlidae
 Acroneuria abnormis (Newman): A9
 Agnetina flavescens Walsh: D1
 Perlinella drymo (Newman): A7, B6, D5, D10,
 D11

 Family Perlodidae
 Isoperla spp.: D2, D5

 Family Taeniopterygidae
 Taeniopteryx spp.: A1, A2, A9, D6, D10, D12
 Taeniopteryx metequi Ricker and Ross: D10

Order Hemiptera (8 families)

 Family Belostomatidae
 Belostomafluminea Say: A2, A4, A5, A8, A11,
 A13, A16, C2, C4, D4, D7, D11

 Family Corixidae Hesperocorixa spp.: D11
 Sigara spp.: A8, A10, A11, B7, C7, C9, C10,
 D1, D11
 Trichocorixa calva (Say): A2, A8, A11, A16,
 B2, C8, C10, D1, D3, D6, D11

 Family Gerridae
 Aquarius spp.: A11, A12, B2, B4, D5
 Gerris spp.: A16, B2, B3, B4, C7, D5
 Metrobates hesperius Uhler: A6, B5, C5
 Rheumatobates spp.: A2, A4, C2, C5
 Trepobates inermis-knighti grp.: C4, C6
 Trepobates pictus (Herrich-Schaeffer): B1, B3,
 C1
 Trepobates subnitidus Esaki: B2, C2, C3

 Family Mesoveliidae
 Mesovelia mulsanti White: A12, C4

 Family Nepidae
 Ranatrafusca Palisot: A2, A8, A13

 Family Notonectidae
 Notonecta irrorata Uhler: A11, B3, B4, C10

 Family Pleidae
 Neoplea striola (Fieber): A2, B2, C5

 Family Veliidae
 Microvelia spp.: C7
 Microvelia americana (Uhler): A12, B2, B3,
 B4, C3, C4, C7, D3, D4, D5, D7, D8, D9,
 D12
 Rhagovelia spp.: A16, C6
 Rhagovelia obesa Uhler: A13, A16, A17, B6
 Rhagovelia oriander Parshley: A4, A9, A10,
 A17, B5, B6, B7, C3, C4, C5, C6

Order Megaloptera (2 families)

 Family Corydalidae
 Corydalus cornutus (Linnaeus): A17, B7, D2,
 D6, D7, D10
 Chauliodes pectinicornis (Linnaeus): B2
 Nigronia fasciatus (Walker): D3
 Nigronia serricornis (Say): C3, D1, D3, D5,
 D6, D7, D8

 Family Sialidae
 Sialis spp.: B4, C1, C8, C10, D1, D2, D9, D12

Order Trichoptera (9 families)

 Family Brachycentridae
 Brachycentrus numerosus (Say): A9

 Family Hydropsychidae
 Ceratopsyche spp.: A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A15,
 B5, C4, C6, C7, C10, D10, D11, D13
 Ceratopsyche bronta (Ross): A5, A6, A7, B6,
 B7, C5, C10, D6, D9, D10, D12
 Ceratopsyche cheilonis (Ross): A1, A2, A3, A4,
 A5, A6, A7, A9, A13, A14, A17, B5, B6, B7,
 C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, D6, D9, D10, D12,
 D13
 Ceratopsyche sparna (Ross): A10
 Cheumatopsyche spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6,
 A7, A9, A14, A15, A16, A17, B1, B2, B6,
 B7, C1, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C9, C10, D1,
 D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D12, D13
 Hydropsyche spp.: A1, A8, A9, B2, C8, D11
 Hydropsyche aerata Ross: A1, B5
 Hydropsyche betteni-depravata group: A4, A8,
 A10, B2, B3, B7, C4, C8, C9, C10, D3, D11,
 D13
 Hydropsyche dicantha Ross: A1, A3, A5, A6,
 A16, B7, C10, D13
 Hydropsyche frisoni Ross: D11
 Hydropsyche simulans Ross: A9, A13, A15, B2,
 B7

 Family Hydroptilidae
 Agraylea spp.: A9
 Hydroptila spp.: C7

 Family Leptoceridae
 Nectopsyche exquisita (Walker): A6, A13
 Oecetis spp.: A3, A4, B5, D6

 Family Limnephilidae
 Pycnopsyche spp.: A10, D10

 Family Philopotamidae
 Chimarra aterrima (Hagen): C3, C7, D2, D3
 Chimarra obscura (Walker): A1, A2, A3, A6,
 A7, C1, C4, D2, D6, D7, D8, D12

 Family Phyrganeidae
 Ptilostomis spp.: A11, A17, B4, D2

 Family Polycentropodidae
 Cernotina spicata Ross: A17, D9
 Neureclipsis crepuscularis (Walker): A4, A9

 Family Rhyacophilidae
 Rhyacophila lobifera Betten: D2

Order Lepidoptera (1 family)

 Family Pyralidae Crambus spp.: A17, D4
 Petrophila spp.: A1, A2, A4, A6, B5

Order Coleoptera (9 families)

 Family Carabidae
 Stenus spp.: D13

 Family Dryopidae
 Helichus basalis LeConte: C3, D5, D6, D8
 Helichusfastigiatus (Say): D5
 Helichus lithophilus (Germar): A4, A5, A7, B1,
 B2, B5, B6, C1, C3, C4, C6, C7, D4, D8, D9
 Helichus striatus LeConte: A 10

 Family Dytiscidae Agabus spp.: D5
 Copelatus chevrolati Aube: B1
 Coptotomus interrogatus (Fabricius): A3
 Coptotomus loticus Hilsenhoff: A1, A11, B2
 Hydroporus spp.: A1, A2, A3, A8, A11, A16,
 B2, B4, D1, D2, D3, D4, D5, D7, D8
 Ilybius spp.: B4
 Laccophilus spp.: B4
 Laccophilus fasciatus Aube: B4
 Laccophilus maculosus Say: A1, A11, B2, C7,
 C10, D7
 Liodessus affinis (Say): A9, D11

 Family Elmidae
 Dubiraphia spp.: A1, A2, A7, A8, A10, B1, B2,
 B5, C1, C8, C9, C10, D1, D7, D9, D10, D11
 Dubiraphia minima Hilsenhoff: A2, A3, A4,
 A6, A13, A16, B5, C1, C2, C4, C5, D9, D10,
 D11
 Macronychus glabratus (Say): A2, A9, A 13,
 B5, C1, C2, C5, C7
 Optioservus spp.: A4, A6, A10, D12
 Optioservus fastiditus (LeConte): A10
 Optioservus trivittatus (Brown): D12
 Stenelmis spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A7, A15,
 A16, A17, B3, B5, B6, C1, C4, C5, C6, C7,
 C9, C10, D2, D3, D6, D8, D11, D12, D13
 Stenelmis crenata (Say): A4, A15, A17, B5, C1,
 C2, C5, C7, C10, D2, D3, D8, D11
 Stenelmis quadrimaculata Horn: B2
 Stenelmis sexlineata Sanderson: A2, A3, A4,
 A5, A17, B5, C4, C10, D6, D8, D9, D11
 Stenelmis vittipennis Zimmerman: A2, A3, A 16,
 B1, B5, D10

 Family Gyrinidae
 Gyrinus spp.: A10, A11, B4, C2, D9
 Gyrinus maculiventris LeConte: D10

 Family Haliplidae
 Peltodytes duodecimpunctatus (Say): A2, A3,
 A8, A9, A10, A11, A16, B2, B3, C2, C7, C9,
 C10, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12
 Peltodytes edentulus (LeConte): A3, A8, A16,
 D9
 Peltodytes lengi Roberts: A2, A9, A11, B5, C5,
 C8, C9, C10, D1, D2, D7, D8, D11, D12
 Peltodytes sexmaculatus Roberts: A8, B5, D3,
 D11

 Family Hydrophilidae
 Berosus spp.: A1, A2, A4, A8, A14, B6
 Berosus fraternus LeConte: B2
 Berosus pantherinus LeConte: B2
 Enochrus spp.: D9
 Helophorus spp.: A3, A16, D11
 Hydrobius spp.: C7
 Laccobius spp.: C7
 Tropisternus glaber (Herbst): B2, B3, C2, D2

 Family Psephenidae Ectropia spp.: D1
 Psephenus herricki (De Kay): A17, C3, D1, D2,
 D3, D4, D6, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12

 Family Scirtidae
 Cyphon spp.: A2, A9, A10, B3, B5, B6, C1, C4,
 D2, D5, D7, D11

Order Diptera (11 families)

 Family Chironomidae
 Subfamily Orthocladiinae
 Tribe Corynoneurini
 Corynoneura spp.: A4, A6, A17, C7, D2, D7,
 D9, D11, D12
 Thienemanniella spp.: A7
 Thienemanniella taurocapita Hestenes and
 Saether: C7
 Theinemanniella xena (Roback): A12, B5

 Tribe Orthocladiini/Metriocnemini:
 Brillia spp.: A4
 Cardiocladius spp.: A3
 Cricotopus/Orthocladius spp.: A1, A2, A3,
 A4, A5, A6, A7, A9, A13, A14, B2, B5,
 B6, B7, C2, C5, C6, C7, C8, C10, D2, D9,
 D10, D11, D13
 Cricotopus trifascia Edwards: A1, A2, A3,
 A6, A7, A13, B5, B6, B7, C7, C8, C10, D9,
 D11
 Diplocladius cultiger Kieffer: D2
 Eukiefferiella spp.: A3, D10
 Hydrobaenus spp.: A17, D7, D11
 Nanocladius spp.: A4
 Parakiefferiella spp.: A3, A4, A5, A6, A7,
 A8, B6, B7, C8, D9, D10
 Psectrocladius spp.: D11, D13
 Rheocricotopus spp.: A13, C3
 Tvetnia spp.: A1, A14, C8

Subfamily Chironominae
 Tribe Chironomini
 Chironomus spp.: A2, A3, A4, A7, B2, B4,
 B6, C6, C7, C9, D7, D9, D10, D11, D13
 Cryptochironomus spp.: A2, A17, B2, B5, B6,
 B7, C5, C9
 Cryptotendipes spp.: B2, C2
 Dicrotendipes spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B2,
 B5, B6, B7, C6, C7, C8, C10, D9, D11, D12
 Glyptotendipes sp.: B2, C7
 Microtendipes spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A6, A8,
 A14, A15, A17, B5, B6, B7, C3, C6, C10,
 D7, D9, D10, D11, D12
 Paracladopelma spp.: B 1
 Paurolaterborniella nigrohalteralis
 (Malloch): A3
 Paratendipes spp.: B1
 Phaenopsectra spp.: A1, A2, A4, A5, A7,
 A14, B7, C1, C6, D13
 Polypedilum spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6,
 A7, A9, A12, A13, A14, A15, A16, A17,
 B1, B2, B3, B4, B6, B7, C1, C2, C3, C6,
 C7, C10, D6, D12
 Saetheria spp.: A15, C5, C6
 Stictochironomus spp.: A3, A4, A7, A17, B3,
 C5, D7, D10, D11

 Tribe Pseudochironomini
 Pseudochironomus spp.: A3

 Tribe Tanytarsini
 Cladotanytarsus spp.: A3, A5, A6, A7, A15,
 B1, B6, B7, C4, C5, C6, C7, D9, D11
 Neozavrelia spp.: A6
 Paratanytarsus spp.: C2, C6, C8, D9, D10
 Rheotanytarsus spp.: A1, A6, A8, A14, B5,
 B6, B7, C6, C7
 Stempellinella spp.: A4, A7, B5, B7, C6, D11,
 D12
 Subletta spp.: C6
 Subletta coffrnani (Roback): A8
 Tanytarsus spp.: A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6,
 A7, A13, A14, A17, B1, B2, B5, B7, C1,
 C4, C6, C7, C8, C10, D9, D10, D11, D12,
 D13

Subfamily Tanypodinae
 Tribe Procladiini
 Procladius spp.: A12, B2, B5, C7, C9, D10
 Tribe Pentanuerini
 Ablabesmyia spp.: A12
 Ablabesmyia janta (Roback): A3
 Ablabesmyia mallochi (Walley): B2, B5, B6,
 C6, D1
 Labrundinia pilosella (Loew): A3, A6, A9,
 A12, C3, C4, C7
 Paramerina spp.: A2, A4, D12
 Pentaneura spp.: C7
 Telopelopia spp.: A15
 Theinenmannimyia group: A2, A5, A6, A12,
 A13, A14, A15, A17, B2, B5, B6, B7, C5,
 C6, C7, C9, D2, D6, D7, D8, D9, D11, D12,
 D13
 Zavrelimyia spp.: D8

 Tribe Tanypodini
 Tanypus neopunctipennis Sublette: B2

 Family Athericidae
 Atherix spp.: A9

 Family Ceratopogonidae
 Bezzia-Palpomyia group: D9
 Ceratopogon spp.: B5
 Dasyhela spp.: D9

 Family Culicidae
 Anopheles punctipennis (Say): B2, C4, C7
 Culex spp.: C1

 Family Dixidae
 Dixella spp.: C3, C4, D7, D11

 Family Empididae
 Hemerodromia spp.: A1, A4, A5, A6, A7, A8,
 A16, B5, B7, C7

 Family Simuliidae
 Simulium spp.: A3, A6, A15, D10
 Simuliumjenningsi Malloch: A1, A3, A13, B7,
 C6
 Simulium tuberosum complex: A4, A15,
 B1, C4
 Simulium venustum complex: D6
 Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt: A3, A4, A5, A6,
 A7, A8, A14, A15, B7, C8, C10, D11

 Family Stratiomyidae
 Nemotelus spp.: D13

 Family Syrphidae
 Helophilus spp.: D12

 Family Tabanidae
 Chrysops spp.: A2, A5, A7, A8, A15, B5, C1,
 C3, C4, C5, C10, D7, D12
 Tabanus spp.: B7, C6, D5, D12

 Family Tipulidae
 Antocha spp.: C7, D10
 Dicranota spp.: D5
 Erioptera spp.: A7, A17
 Hexatoma spp.: A12, C4, C5, C7, C10, D2, D5,
 D12
 Pilaria spp.: C10
 Pseudolimnophila spp.: B2, D7
 Tipula spp.: A4, A10, A17, B7, C1, C7, C8, C9,
 C10, D1, D2, D3, D6, D7, D8, D9, D10, D11,
 D12, D13

Table 4.--Comparison of number of families,
general and species of Ephemeroptera, Odonata,
Plecoptera and Trichoptera collected from the
Wabash River watershed during the present study
to those currently known from Indiana (Hellenthal
et al. 2003).

 Families Genera Species

Ephemeroptera
 Hellenthal et al. (2003) 16 50 143
 Wabash (present study) 10 18 18
 % representation 63% 36% 13%
Odonata
 Hellenthal et al. (2003) 10 47 154
 Wabash (present study) 7 21 26
 % representation 70% 45% 17%
Plecoptera
 Hellenthal et al. (2003) 8 29 71
 Wabash (present study) 4 6 6
 % representation 50% 21% 9%
Trichoptera
 Hellenthal et al. (2003) 16 58 194
 Wabash (present study) 9 14 21
 % representation 56% 24% 11%
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Author:Newhouse, Steven A.
Publication:Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science
Article Type:Bibliography
Date:Feb 12, 2007
Words:5911
Previous Article:Current status of freshwater mussels (Order Unionoida) in the Wabash River drainage of Indiana.
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