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An Australian story: school sustainability education in the lucky country.

Introduction

For many Australians "the lucky country" has become a celebrated phrase used to describe Australia's bountiful Bountiful, city (1990 pop. 36,659), Davis co., N central Utah; inc. 1892. It is a residential suburb N of Salt Lake City with some farming and floral nurseries; machinery and motor vehicles are produced. Bountiful was settled by Mormons in 1847.  natural resources, weather, lifestyle, history, and distance from problems elsewhere in the world. This phrase, though originally intended to be an indictment indictment (ĭndīt`mənt), in criminal law, formal written accusation naming specific persons and crimes. Persons suspected of crime may be rendered liable to trial by indictment, by presentment, or by information.  of Australia (Horne, 1964), has become an affirmation A solemn and formal declaration of the truth of a statement, such as an Affidavit or the actual or prospective testimony of a witness or a party that takes the place of an oath. An affirmation is also used when a person cannot take an oath because of religious convictions.  of the Australian way of life and produced a "she'll be right" mentality men·tal·i·ty
n.
The sum of a person's intellectual capabilities or endowment.
 (AG, 2011). For environmental educators in Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital.  this relaxed mentality combined with economic reliance on the mining and resources industry is an obstacle to discussing the implications of climate change and encouraging uptake uptake /up·take/ (up´tak) absorption and incorporation of a substance by living tissue.

up·take
n.
 of environmentally responsible behaviours. Another obstacle to environmental education in Australia Education in Australia is primarily regulated by the individual state governments. Generally education in Australia follows the three-tier model which includes Primary education (Primary Schools), followed by Secondary education (Secondary Schools / High Schools) and Tertiary , especially apparent among children in affluent counties, is the phenomena of "action paralysis paralysis or palsy (pôl`zē), complete loss or impairment of the ability to use voluntary muscles, usually as the result of a disorder of the nervous system. " where people feel disempowered about making lasting change because of continuous negative reports of environmental problems without sufficient action-oriented information (Ballantyne, Connell, & Fien, 2006; Jensen & Schnack, 2006). Studies suggest action paralysis needs to be replaced by action competence based on feelings of shared responsibility. These two factors combined create unique challenges for environmental education in Australia.

This paper presents a case study framed within whole-school, whole-system approaches to environmental education for sustainability, supported by the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative in Western Australia (AuSSI--WA) and the Millennium Kids Millennium Kids is an international youth empowerment environmental organization. Canada
In Canada, as a not-for-profit organization, the organization facilitates many environmental activities across Ontario (from Ottawa, Toronto, to Kitchener-Waterloo).
 approach to sustainability facilitation Facilitation

The process of providing a market for a security. Normally, this refers to bids and offers made for large blocks of securities, such as those traded by institutions.
. The school featured in this case study is a prestigious private school located in an affluent suburb of Perth. This suburb and those surrounding it are among the greatest polluters, biggest water users and have the highest eco-footprints, per person per year, in the state of Western Australia (ACF (Advanced Communications Function) An earlier official product line name for IBM SNA programs, such as VTAM (ACF/VTAM) and NCP (ACF/NCP).

ACF - Advanced Communications Function
, 2010). The school's principal and staff were aware that many of the children's parents work in the mining and resources industry and may be more financially driven than environmentally driven. They also were aware, however, that many of these children are from families of influence and some children may be in a position to lead systemic systemic /sys·tem·ic/ (sis-tem´ik) pertaining to or affecting the body as a whole.

sys·tem·ic
adj.
1. Of or relating to a system.

2.
 change when they grow up. In 2008 the school set out to implement sustainability education using principles of action competence and shared responsibility. To do this, the school adopted a whole-school, whole-system approach and formed partnerships with AuSSI-WA and Millennium Kids. The Australian-ness of this environmental education story is framed between the school's focus on sustainability education and shared responsibility among the whole school community, and the lucky country mentality and reliance on natural resources by most of the families whose children attend the school.

In this research we explored the question: what organisational outcomes and challenges might this newly enrolled AuSSI--WA school encounter when they utilise the Millennium Kids approach to sustainability facilitation? We present results about three key elements of sustainability education (DoE, 2010b): community links and partnerships, school governance and policy, and curriculum integration. We also discuss the strengths and challenges of the school's new direction as reported by the staff. Because of their importance to this case study, in the next section we introduce two organisations, AuSSI-WA and Millennium Kids.

AuSSI--WA

The Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative is a federal and state partnership, that promotes a whole-school, whole-system approach to sustainability (DSEWPC, 2011; Lewis, Baudains, & Mansfield, 2009). In Western Australia, AuSSI advocates a holistic Holistic
A practice of medicine that focuses on the whole patient, and addresses the social, emotional, and spiritual needs of a patient as well as their physical treatment.

Mentioned in: Aromatherapy, Stress Reduction, Traditional Chinese Medicine
, integrated vision of education for sustainability, by placing equal emphasis on environmental, socio-cultural, and economic perspectives and facilitating explicit links across the curriculum (DoE, 2010a; Lewis et al., 2009). It encourages schools to tailor a sustainability journey appropriate to their school community, while still drawing on AuSSI--WA for access to networks, tools and resources. Similar to other states, AuSSI--WA provides schools with professional development, access to an alliance of key educational providers and case studies of school experiences to foster resource sharing (Davis & Ferreira, 2009; Gough, 2005; Ilich, 2008). In addition, AuSSI--WA provides a detailed rubric RUBRIC, civil law. The title or inscription of any law or statute, because the copyists formerly drew and painted the title of laws and statutes rubro colore, in red letters. Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 8; Diet. do Juris. h.t.  self-assessment tool, a basic step-by-step guide to help schools get started and visual tools termed the "ecological footprint Ecological footprint (EF) analysis measures human demand on nature. It compares human consumption of natural resources with planet Earth's ecological capacity to regenerate them. " and "social handprint hand·print  
n.
An outline or indentation left by a hand.
" that emphasise the environmental, socio-cultural, and economic perspectives of sustainability (DoE, 2010a, 2010b; Ilich, 2008). Currently more than three hundred and fifty schools across Western Australia are registered as participating AuSSI-WA schools.

Millennium Kids

Millennium Kids Inc. is a Perth-based non-profit, non-government environmental organisation for young people aged 10-25 years old. Over the past 15 years Millennium Kids have developed strong relationships with schools and a wide variety of organisations. Millennium Kids currently provide services as a sustainability facilitator for almost 40 schools in Western Australia List of schools in Western Australia: Government Schools
Primary Schools

School Town or Suburb Years Founded Website
Adam Road Primary School Bunbury K-7 website
Albany Primary School Albany K-7
 (Taylor, 2010). Millennium Kids act as a conduit conduit /con·du·it/ (kon´doo-it) channel.

ileal conduit  the surgical anastomosis of the ureters to one end of a detached segment of ileum, the other end being used to form a stoma on the
 for a school by "advertising] the diversity of groups and people out there who care about the environment and with which young people could participate" (Taylor, 2010, p. 79). Based on the school's priorities Millennium Kids "call in the people with expertise in other areas, rather than overlapping or competing" (Taylor, 2010, p. 79). Millennium Kids promote AuSSI-WA to all the schools they work with because "the AuSSI framework has supported the way Millennium Kids works ... [and] gives us credibility in a federal framework" (C. Aniere, personal communication, August 4, 2010). Because of their diverse community networks, including AuSSI-WA, and experience working with young people, Millennium Kids is well placed to act as a school sustainability facilitator.

Methods

The data presented in this case study are a subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original.  of a larger research program and focus on organisational aspects of the school's sustainability program. The data for this case study were drawn from document searches and interviews with one teacher from each of Year 4, 5 and 6, the main staff sustainability coordinator, the deputy principal, principal and CEO (1) (Chief Executive Officer) The highest individual in command of an organization. Typically the president of the company, the CEO reports to the Chairman of the Board.  of Millennium Kids. To enhance validity a range of opinions was purposefully pur·pose·ful  
adj.
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.

2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look.
 sampled (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). Purposeful pur·pose·ful  
adj.
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.

2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look.
 sampling of interviewees provided triangulation triangulation: see geodesy.


The use of two known coordinates to determine the location of a third. Used by ship captains for centuries to navigate on the high seas, triangulation is employed in GPS receivers to pinpoint their current location on earth.
 across levels of organisation within the school's sustainability program with a focus on the upper-primary years. The findings of the case study are limited by the opinions and experiences of the participant sample. Interview and document data were analysed using deductive de·duc·tive  
adj.
1. Of or based on deduction.

2. Involving or using deduction in reasoning.



de·duc
 content analysis where coding of categories was guided by previous research findings (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002).

All interviews were semi-structured, conducted individually, voice recorded and transcribed. Interviews ranged from 30 to 60 minutes. Interviews with the teachers and deputy principal included questions about their opinions of climate change, how they incorporate sustainability into class lessons, and the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats involved in the school's collaboration with Millennium Kids and AuSSI--WA. Interview questions for the principal were similar, with additional questions about the history of sustainability education at the school, and milestones. Interviews with the CEO of Millennium Kids included questions regarding the history and nature of their collaboration with this school, their approach to sustainability facilitation, and their relationship with AuSSI--WA.

Documents that were analysed included school newsletters and newspaper clippings related to the school's sustainability initiatives and reports from the school's self-documented timeline of sustainability activities located on the Millennium Kids social networking See social networking site.

social networking - social network
 website (Millennium Kids, 2010).

Results and Discussion

The results address three key elements that influence the organisation of sustainability in school life (DoE, 2010b).

Community Links and Partnerships

Providing support is seen as critical to the effectiveness of whole-school sustainability initiatives (Henderson & Tilbury Tilbury (tĭl`bərē), part of the urban district of Thurrock, Essex, E England. Tilbury Fort originated under Henry VIII; it was rebuilt and strengthened in the 17th cent. , 2004; Ilich, 2008). Facilitators and external support staff contribute to this effectiveness. In early 2008, the case study school signed up to AuSSI--WA and in June 2008 the school's principal, in consultation with the teaching staff, contracted Millennium Kids to facilitate their sustainability initiatives. The CEO of Millennium Kids described their collaboration as a "partnership" and stated, "A partnership is more than Millennium Kids giving to the schools. It's about sharing knowledge and ideas." The case study school's partnership with Millennium Kids was founded upon a pre-existing interest among the school's staff towards adopting a whole-school sustainability focus (Figure 1). From June 2008 onwards on·ward  
adj.
Moving or tending forward.

adv. also on·wards
In a direction or toward a position that is ahead in space or time; forward.

Adv. 1.
, the number and diversity of sustainability initiatives undertaken by the school grew rapidly (Figure 2).

Millennium Kids worked closely with the principal and the main school sustainability coordinator to provide step-by-step support to the school. They delivered professional development tailored to the staff's sustainability interests, used the Millennium Kids' Ten Step Methodology with students, and helped the school foster relationships with parents, other sustainable schools, organisations and educational providers. Of their approach to sustainability facilitation, the CEO of Millennium Kids explained, "it's about capacity building. It's not about taking a package in. It's actually about sitting around collaborating and creating". The principal described their collaboration as dynamic, saying "they keep stimulating us, keep us moving along, stop us from becoming complacent com·pla·cent  
adj.
1. Contented to a fault; self-satisfied and unconcerned: He had become complacent after years of success.

2. Eager to please; complaisant.
". When asked whether and in what ways the partnership helped the school develop its sustainability focus and policies, the deputy principal said, "definitely [by providing] guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
, expertise, passion, they've got the passion." Teacher D remarked:
   I think it focuses us, I think it helps us to find useful
   activities that you can do in school. Other schools have done them
   so you can have a look and follow through. That's a real strength.


Sustainable schools are encouraged to build partnerships and networks with community organisations to enhance their local relevance and increase multistakeholder involvement (Tilbury, Coleman, & Garlick, 2005). In less than two years, the school built relationships with various agencies to tailor activities relevant to the school's focus and the students' interests. Millennium Kids facilitated connections with groups such as Ribbons of Blue, Travel Smart, Slow Food International, Millennium Kids--South Africa, Aboriginal groups, other schools, the local town council, local bushland friends group and a local supermarket (Figure 2). Of this the principal said, "There are lots more ventures that are happening, like us connected with The Centre for Water Research [at The University of Western Australia]".

Millennium Kids also encouraged the school to weave sustainability messages into some of the existing whole-school traditions and priorities, such as Harmony Day Harmony Day is an event held across Australia on 21 March, coinciding with the United Nations International Day for Elimination of Racial Discrimination. Targeted mainly at primary-school aged children, Harmony Day is an effort to demonstrate the Australian Government's commitment  and Friends of the Library (Figure 2). These included attempts to "involve parents in initiatives that we are doing" (Teacher C). The principal explained, "We're trying to build in some of our current traditions and then just double up on it", for example:
   We have Grandparents Day every year. But what we did this time was
   we actually got the grandparents and children to compare the carbon
   footprint when they went to school versus the children.


Despite best efforts the school encountered some challenges related to its status as a prestigious private, primary school and a lucky country mentality. Staff said they "tread tread

injury to the coronet of the horse's hoof by treading on it by the opposite hoof, or by another horse when they are being worked in a team. If the coronary matrix is injured there may be a subsequent crack or deformity.
 carefully" when approaching the sustainability message "because there's potential for it to backfire" (Teacher D). Teacher B said, "You don't want to annoy anyone too much because a lot of the parents at this school work in the oil and gas industry". The principal acknowledged:
   We're fighting an upward battle of very wealthy and endowed
   families who perhaps are financially driven more than necessarily
   environmentally driven.... There's an unwritten, unspoken sort of
   expectation that everything is just perfect. I think there is a
   slight expectation that we should be providing the service before
   looking after the environment. You know, I paid good money so why
   can't I have my newsletter in paper?


[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Schools involved in sustainability initiatives have reported greater involvement in the life of the school by parents and the community as a whole (Henderson & Tilbury, 2004). For many schools this involvement was garnered through collective efforts of greening the school and meaningful participation on school governing bodies. Data from interviews with parents will be reported in a future paper, but preliminary analysis suggest this school could go further to involving parents in meeting school sustainability priorities.

School Governance and Policy

The way school governance and policies are managed can create tension in the set up of whole-school sustainability initiatives (Wooltorton, 2004). In describing the steps leading up to their partnership with Millennium Kids, the principal explained, "We got more staff on board who were really keen and passionate, then I drove the priorities". She was aware that teachers integrated sustainability to "different extents" and shared her vision that "as the students go from teacher to teacher they'll pick up inspiration for different things". The principal's motivation for driving sustainability priorities at the school was that the students "are more than likely going to be decision makers for big companies or part of a private enterprise" and "these people can influence because some of these kids may go into politics and could make systemic change".

The principal's leadership style could be described as "managerial", where influence is exercised through positions of authority (O'Donoghue & Clarke, 2010). The principal stated that "leadership is essential", and "there's a certain culture here where principal and head of junior school are key decision makers". The principal's enthusiasm and direction were clear when she stated:
   I'm in the position to try and influence things [by introducing
   initiatives such as] fair trade coffee [in the staff room], reduce
   the amount of [plastic] wrap that's used to wrap up dishes, .
   Encouraging walk to school with the community. And institutionally
   talking about how often you should be using your heating and air
   conditioning. It sounds a bit dictatorial, but there are
   whole-school things that you can actually do, like the whole-school
   recycling.


All teachers interviewed acknowledged that leadership of their principal was integral to the school's sustainability focus, and that losing her could be a threat to the process. They also voiced the importance of being flexible with time, resources and expectations, and not over-directing the process but providing support and collaboration. Teacher A explained that the challenge for the school's governance was being able to "keep staff motivated mo·ti·vate  
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.



mo
 but at the same time not giving them additional work" because "when you start loading up the curriculum with initiatives that the school takes on you have to be very aware that you can lose staff". Teacher B expressed her frustration:
   As a teacher it can get boring because you just keep doing it again
   and again and again, and you want to be able to have a bit of fun
   with it. It's got to loosen up a bit. The problem we've got is
   there's so much that we need to teach, and that we're expected to
   teach.


Commitment and support from a school's governing body Noun 1. governing body - the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something; "he claims that the present administration is corrupt"; "the governance of an association is responsible to its members"; "he  is required for a wholeschool sustainability program to be successful, without which it "will lose momentum and fail to become embedded Inserted into. See embedded system.  in the school culture" (Henderson & Tilbury, 2004, p. 35). Because of their administrative authority the principal plays an important role in how a school's governing body is managed (Wooltorton, 2004). All collaborators on the governing body, including administrators, teachers, parents and students, need to share responsibility and assume ownership for sustainability initiatives if they are to be successful and lasting. To achieve this shared responsibility, leadership should be distributed and all collaborators engaged in participative, democratic decision-making (Henderson & Tilbury, 2004; O'Donoghue & Clarke, 2010; Wooltorton, 2004). Data from this case study suggest that more can be done at this school for all collaborators to feel more engaged in the decision making process.

Curriculum Integration

In Western Australia, AuSSI advocates a holistic, integrated vision of education for sustainability, by placing even emphasis on environmental, economic and sociocultural perspectives and facilitating explicit links across the curriculum (DoE, 2010a; Lewis, et al., 2009). Curriculum integration at this school was influenced by engaging the student voice. Millennium Kids fostered student engagement through use of their Ten Steps Methodology. This tool was used in student conferences (Figure 2), where students were given opportunities to voice their concerns and opinions about their environment and society. "The concerns realised were centered around the issues of air, water, trees, waste, native animals, energy, peace/lifestyle and leadership" ("Timeline", 2010, para. 1), and became the platform from which the school set its focus. The deputy principal spoke about the process, "They [Millennium Kids] treat them [the students] like adults. They give them adult type activities, for instance creating an audit of what they see as important". Data from interviews and surveys with students will be reported in a future paper, but preliminary analyses suggest students valued this collaborative process.

Staff were asked to participate in the student conferences to observe the Millennium Kids Methodology and were encouraged to develop their yearly planning around one or more of the students' main concerns. The principal said, "There's things you can do personally, things you could do curriculum-wise and things we can do as an institution." She explained that each teacher has an area of sustainability they are personally interested in, such as transport, waste, or water, so she tells teachers they should "follow their passion" when incorporating sustainability into lesson planning "because then you'll do it properly". The principal described how action competence could be developed among students, "instead of thinking just classroom and the wider world, by looking locally they could actually act, the kids could be empowered". And, as a result, "each year level has run with something they can manage and are aware of themselves". Teacher C commented, "There's a lot of teachers who are willing to get their teeth sunk into it" and teacher D explained:
   The year 4s come around and empty the recycling bins every week. .
   The year 5s are focusing on the river so that's their thing, the
   year 1s have got the worm farm and other year levels have got other
   things. There's a lot of things happening. [Figure 2]


Issues arise for teachers when planning and teaching sustainability such as: making links to the curriculum, using whole systems thinking, depth of personal understanding, and teacher time (Summers, Corney, & Childs, 2003; Tilbury et al., 2005). In this case study, several teachers said it was possible to weave sustainability messages across learning areas. Teacher A explained, "As long as the kids are excited and engaged and the teachers are keen and interested the course sort of evolves." However, teachers also discussed the challenge of managing time, and not over-doing the message. The deputy principal explained:
   Timetable is a big problem ... You have to teach smart and
   incorporate it in a lot of different learning areas but without
   overkill, which we could be in danger of doing with one or two
   components.


Interviews revealed that, in practice, teachers weave sustainability into their lessons to different degrees. Teacher B described her approach in this way, "I tend not to incorporate the learning into the other areas, but I do incorporate the action . as an incidental Contingent upon or pertaining to something that is more important; that which is necessary, appertaining to, or depending upon another known as the principal.

Under Workers' Compensation statutes, a risk is deemed incidental to employment when it is related to whatever a
 learning kind of thing". Whereas teacher A stated:
   Once you start going down that track things open up for you, ... so
   long as you're addressing outcomes that we have to cover. And
   sustainability, in terms of the social sciences it's in all the
   areas, and in terms of English being a tool for the social
   sciences, maths, everything ... Sustainability just falls into
   place naturally.


Whole systems thinking, is an encouraged approach to teaching sustainability because it focuses on a holistic understanding of the interconnections and interdependence between all things and helps foster action competence (Tilbury et al., 2005), rather than teaching separate projects which the students may not connect to the bigger picture (Lewis & Baudains, 2007). A whole systems approach requires teachers to weave sustainability messages across curriculum learning areas, which can be a challenge for some teachers, as observed in this case study. Schools require sufficient resource materials, professional development and teacher time to adopt this integrated approach (Tilbury et al., 2005).

Conclusion

Establishing environmental education as a school priority often creates tensions between outcomes and challenges that arise along the journey (Henderson & Tilbury, 2004; Tilbury et al., 2005). In this Australian story, Millennium Kids' approach to sustainability facilitation helped the school establish patterns of whole-school, whole-system sustainability education in less than two years by fostering certain organisational elements. These elements were characterised by several tensions: tension between the school's sustainability focus and a lucky country mentality observed among the parent body, tension between the principal's determination to drive initiatives and the staff's involvement in decision-making, and tension between the expectation on teachers to integrate sustainability messages across curriculum learning areas and the time, effort and training required to do so. These tensions did not prevent the establishment of sustainability education at this school, but they may encumber To burden property by way of a charge that must be removed before ownership is free and clear.

Property subject to an encumbrance may have a lien or mortgage imposed upon it.
 the longevity, integration and support for these initiatives in future years if not addressed.

Every environmental education story is different yet there are often common features that can be learned from and transferred to other schools or contexts (Lindlof & Taylor, 2002). Schools can benefit from considering the tensions highlighted in this Australian story as they plan and navigate (1) "Surfing the Web." To move from page to page on the Web.

(2) To move through the menu structure in a software application.
 their own sustainability journeys.

References

Australian Conservation Foundation (ACF) (2010). Consumption Atlas Atlas, in Greek mythology
Atlas (ăt`ləs), in Greek mythology, a Titan; son of Iapetus and Clymene and the brother of Prometheus.
. Retrieved from http://www.acfonline.org.au/consumptionatlas/

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Ballantyne, R., Connell, S., & Fien, J. (2006). Students as catalysts of environmental change: A framework for researching intergenerational in·ter·gen·er·a·tion·al  
adj.
Being or occurring between generations: "These social-insurance programs are intergenerational and all
 influence through environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 12(3-4), 413.

Davis, J. M., & Ferreira, J. (2009). Creating cultural change in education: A proposal for a continuum for evaluating the effectiveness of sustainable schools implementation strategies in Australia. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 25, 59-70.

Department of Education (DoE) (2010a). AuSSI--WA: About the Intitiative. Retrieved from http://www.det.wa.edu.au/curriculumsupport/sustainableschools/detcms/ navigation/about-the-initiative/

Department of Education (DoE) (2010b). AuSSI--WA: Toolkit. Review, Plan and Celebrate. Retrieved from http://www.det.wa.edu.au/curriculumsupport/sustainableschools/ detcms/navigation/aussi-wa-toolkit/review-plan-and-celebrate/

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Gough, A. (2005). Sustainable schools: Renovating educational processes. Applied Environmental Education and Communication, 4(4), 339.

Henderson, K., & Tilbury, D. (2004). Whole-school approaches to sustainability: An international review of whole-school sustainability programs: Report Prepared by the Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES Aries (âr`ēz) [Lat.,=the ram], constellation lying on the ecliptic (the sun's apparent path through the heavens) between Taurus and Pisces; it is one of the constellations of the zodiac. It contains the bright star Hamal (Alpha Arietis). ) for The Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government.

Horne, D. (1964). The Lucky Country. Ringwood, Victoria Ringwood is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Its Local Government Area is the City of Maroondah. It is notable as the location of a Cadbury production factory, and the Eastland Shopping Centre[1]. : Penguin penguin, originally the common name for the now extinct great auk of the N Atlantic and now used (since the 19th cent.) for the unrelated antarctic diving birds.  Books Australia. Ilich, J. (2008). 2008 Review of the Australian Sustainable Schools Initiative--WA (AuSSI-WA). Perth, Western Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. For the local government area, see City of Perth.
Perth is the capital of the Australian state of Western Australia.
.

Jensen, B. B., & Schnack, K. (2006). The action competence approach in environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 12(3-4), 471.

Lewis, E., & Baudains, C. (2007). Whole systems thinking: Education for sustainability at a Montessori school. Eingana, 30(1), 9.

Lewis, E., Baudains, C., & Mansfield, C. (2009). The impact of AuSSI-WA at a primary school. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 25, 45-57.

Lindlof, T. R., & Taylor, B. C. (2002). Qualitative Communication Research Methods: Second Edition. California, USA: Sage Publications This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article.  Inc.

Millennium Kids (2010). Swan-Canning Online Schools Project: Timeline. Retrieved from http://millenniumkids.ning.com/page/timeline-2

O'Donoghue, T., & Clarke, S. (2010). Leading Learning: Process, themes and issues in international contexts. London & New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Routledge.

Summers, M., Corney, G., & Childs, A. (2003). Teaching Sustainable Development Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. The linkage between environment and development was globally recognized in 1980, when the International Union  in Primary Schools: An empirical study of issues for teachers. Environmental Education Research, 9(3), 327-346.

Taylor, F. (2010). Young People Active in Communities: Stories from around Australia. Melbourne, Victoria: Australian Youth Research Centre. Foundation for Young Australians.

Tilbury, D., Coleman, V., & Garlick, D. (2005). A National Review of Environmental Education and its Contribution to Sustainability in Australia: School Education: Canberra: Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage and Australian Research Institute in Education for Sustainability (ARIES).

Wooltorton, S. (2004). Local Sustainability at School: A political reorientation Noun 1. reorientation - a fresh orientation; a changed set of attitudes and beliefs
orientation - an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs

2. reorientation - the act of changing the direction in which something is oriented
. Local Environment, 9(6), 595-609.

Zarin Salter salt·er  
n.
1. One that manufactures or sells salt.

2. One that treats meat, fish, or other foods with salt.

Noun 1.
 ([dagger]), Grady Venville & Nancy Longnecker

University of Western Australia

([dagger]) Address for correspondence: Zarin Salter, PhD Candidate, Graduate School of Education, The University of Western Australia, M428, 35 Stirling Highway Stirling Highway is, for most of its length, a four-lane single carriageway and major arterial road between Perth, Western Australia and the port city of Fremantle, Western Australia on the northern side of the Swan River. The speed limit is 60 km/h. , Crawley, WA 6009, Australia. Email: zarin.salter@graduate.uwa.edu.au

Author Biographies

Zarin Salter is a PhD Candidate in the field of Education for Sustainability at the University of Western Australia. Zarin's research explores the impact of whole-school approaches to education for sustainability on adoption of environmentally responsible attitudes and behaviours by upper-primary students and their families.

Grady Venville is Winthrop Professor of Science Education at the University of Western Australia. Grady has published widely in international and national journals on curriculum integration, conceptual change, and cognitive acceleration and is co-editor of the science education textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible. , 'The Art of Teaching Science'

Associate Professor Nancy Longnecker coordinates the Science Communication program at The University of Western Australia. Her research areas include informal science education, volunteering, teaching science communication and impact of communication on public attitudes and policy. Nancy is author of over 60 edited books, book chapters and refereed papers. One of her aims is to improve effectiveness of science education experiences.
Figure 2: Detailed timeline of sustainability activities at the study
school since beginning the partnership with Millennium Kids

     Time                                Event

June 2008        Millennium Kids hired as sustainability facilitator

July 2008        Whole-school: Millennium Kids Conference 2008, July
                   25th
                 Sustainability Committee established, July 26th

August 2008      Whole-school: The green games; mini-olympics,
                   cultural sharing
                 Year 4: Assume responsibility for school recycling
                 Whole-school: School newsletter goes digital

September 2008   Sustainability Committee: Attend West Australian
                   Youth Environment Conference, September 19th & 20th

October 2008     Year 1: Adopt a pond
                 Year 2: Plant a veggie garden
                 Year 1: Start a worm farm
                 Year 4: Enter Quest Atlantis; simulated
                   environmental investigations
                 Sustainability Committee: "No plastic bags"
                   initiative

November 2008    Year 5: Walk through time; researched the history
                   and vegetation of local Swan River
                 Year 1: Worm tea for sale
                 Sustainability Committee: Report
                 Local council Bushland Management Plan: All staff
                   support the plan by integrating into relevant
                   learning areas

December 2008    Staff professional development: Point to port;
                   history, geography, environmental, Indigenous
                 Friends of the Bush: Many students and their
                   families became volunteers of the local community
                   group

January 2009     Whole-school: From river to sea; school mural

February 2009    Year 6: The river past
                 Whole-school: Millennium Kids Conference 2009

March 2009       Pre Primary: How the river was
                 Staff Meeting: Local author of 'Dead Men's
                   Dreaming' addressed the staff; Indigenous story
                 Year 5: Sustaining culture, sustaining country;
                   Indigenous
                 Whole-school: 'Walking School Bus' begins; three
                   days per week, driven by parents
                 Whole-school: Adoption of local park
                 Whole-school: Harmony Day with Indigenous dancing
                 Pre-Primary: Spinafex pigeon; art project with
                   Indigenous links
                 Whole-school: Change for good; fundraising for
                   charity

April 2009       Whole-school: Class art projects
                 Year 2: Invite community to share their stories;
                   Indigenous stories
                 Friends of the Library: Parents group start a mural
                   of the Swan River
                 Year 5: From port to point
                 Whole-school: Join River Guardians
                 Year 6: Prepare seedlings & activities for
                   grandparents day
                 Year 5: Kindy observations
                 Year 5: River science; unit begins

May 2009         Whole-school: Students enter local literature award
                   competition
                 Sustainability Committee: The Hype Hotline;
                   students on radio show
                 Whole-school: National Walk Safely to School Day,
                   May 15th
                 Whole-school: Grandparents Day
                 Friends of the Bush: planted seedlings
                 Year 5: New Norcia camp; Indigenous & historical
                   investigation

June 2009        Year 6: Digital dreaming; virtual activity, Indigenous
                 Year 3: International lunch; cultural sharing
                 Year 5: Popcorn fundraiser for African school
                 Whole-school: Grandparents return nurtured
                   seedlings ready for planting in local park
                 Year 3: Visit Burarra; virtual activity, indigenous
                 Friends of the Library: parents group continues
                   work on Swan River mural
                 Year 5: Student wins local literature award
                 Year 5: Secret women's business; visit from
                   Indigenous Nyoongar women

July 2009        Year 5: Make dolls for African children
                 Year 5: Ntshidi Initiative; South African connection
                 Year 5: Community service announcements
                 Teacher visits Millennium Kids South Africa
                 Teacher Reports after South Africa visit
                 Year 4: Indigenous dance program

August 2009      Whole-school: Partnership with Centre for Water
                   Research, University of Western Australia
                 Whole-school: project meeting, Schools for Water
                   Research and Management
                 Whole-school: Web tools for water management

September 2009   Whole-School: Digital dreaming; the story grows
                 Year 4: Knob Creek; simulated river watch
                 Whole-School: Facelift for local park; seedlings
                   planted by students
                 Whole-School: Crazy shoes to kick-start fund; walk
                   to school day & fundraising for local hospital

October 2009     Whole-School: School joins collaborative project
                   with Slow Food International; plans for school
                   veggie & bush tucker garden in 2010
                 Teacher wins Ribbons of Blue award
                   Year 5: Two students win Ribbons of Blue climate
                   change competition for their short film
                 School is finalist for Best School Garden
                   competition run by Garden Gurus

November 2009    Whole-School: Official launch of Schools for Water
                   Research and Management
                 Two teachers attend AuSSI--WA professional development
                 Pre-Primary: Pupils show real vision; charity
                 Year 5: Make dolls for African children

December 2009    Play pump proposed for school gardens in 2010
                 Staff professional development: A river runs through
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Author:Salter, Zarin; Venville, Grady; Longnecker, Nancy
Publication:Australian Journal of Environmental Education
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Jun 1, 2011
Words:4698
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