An "arch-villain" to be rehabilitated? Mixed perceptions of pangeran Anom of sambas in the early nineteenth century; with an appendix on John Hunt (1).Introduction
Maritime raiding that included attacks on both native and (more rarely) foreign shipping was endemic around Borneo until well into the nineteenth century. The Muslim rulers of the coastal polities inextricably in·ex·tri·ca·ble
a. So intricate or entangled as to make escape impossible: an inextricable maze; an inextricable web of deceit.
b. combined trading and raiding, and the relative profitability of the latter probably increased when local trading patterns were disrupted by European powers that attempted to control regional trade--including that with China--for their own commercial ends. (2) Local political events were also an important factor. Pontianak, established in the early 1770s, soon destroyed Sukadaua, took over Mempawah and extended its influence progressively up the Kapuas River The Kapuas River (Indonesian: Sungai Kapuas) is located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. At approximately 1,143 km, it is the longest river in Indonesia, and is the major river of the western portion of Borneo. It is also the world's longest river on an island. . This led to rivalry between Pontianak and Sambas for control over the Chinese mining communities (kongsis) and ongoing warfare on land and sea. Supported at first by the Dutch and increasingly by country trade (3) from Calcutta and Penang, Pontianak became a major center of trade in West Borneo, putting additional pressure on Sambas. British country vessels maintained trade with both sultanates and coastal ports under their respective control. However, in the first twelve years of the nineteenth century attacks by vessels based at Sambas and adjacent ports created much alarm in the English East India Company (EIC EIC Editor-In-Chief
EIC Euro Info Centre (DIN)
EIC Earned Income Credit
EIC Excellence in Cities (UK)
EIC Enterprise Interaction Center (Interactive Intelligence) ) governments at Penang and, later, Batavia. (4) The commander, Pangeran Anom, (5) became a particular bete noir and was blamed for many of the attacks on trading vessels at the time. The following extract from John Hunt's Sketch of Borneo or Pulo Kalamantan, communicated to T.S. Raffles, then Lieutenant Governor lieutenant governor
n. Abbr. Lt. Gov.
1. An elected official ranking just below the governor of a state in the United States.
2. The nonelective chief of government of a Canadian province. of Java, gives the flavor of opinion about Sambas and its allies. (6) Names of vessels have been italicized.
In 1803, the ship Susanna of Calcutta, Captain Drysdale, was cut off near Pontiana by the Sambas and Borneo pirates; the Europeans were all massacred and the vessel taken.--In 1769 Captain Sadler, with his boat's crew, was murdered by the Sambas pirates off Mompava, having a prodigious quantity of gold dust; they did not succeed in cutting off the ship.--In 1806 Mr. Hopkins and crew, of the Commerce, were murdered by the pirates of Borneo proper; the ship was plundered by them and the Sambas pirates.--In 1810 Capt. Ross was cut off.--In 1811 Capt. Graves was cut off by the Pasir pirates.--In 1812, the enormities of Pangeran Annam have out-heroded Herod; these are too recent to require recapitulation. Independent of his depredations on the Coromandel, the Portuguese ship, &c. nine Europeans of the Hecate have been seized and made slaves: two have been since murdered, two have escaped, and five are ham-strung and otherwise maimed. Mrs. Ross and her son are still in slavery there (Hunt 1820a:45-46).
A different impression of Pangeran Anom is given in the memoirs of Captain David Macdonald
David Samuel Horne MacDonald, PC, BA, LLD, DD, (born August 20, 1936 in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island) is a United Church of Canada (1840). (7) Macdonald commanded a "cruizer" (corvette corvette, small warship, classed between a frigate and a sloop-of-war. Corvettes usually were flush-decked and carried fewer than 28 guns. They were widely employed in escorting convoys and attacking merchant ships during the great naval wars of the late 18th and ) of the EIC's navy that was based in Bombay and took part in campaigns against the Pangeran, who in 1813 put a price on his head. Hostilities over, Macdonald met the Pangeran in 1814 at Sambas. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Macdonald, the Pangeran believed himself protected from Europeans because he had survived a shot in an earlier action with the EIC. The ball, in his face, was never extracted. "But of whatever atrocities and crimes he may have been accused--and doubtless there were many--there must still have existed some secret agency, some one redeeming point of character by which he retained so firm a hold over the affections of the Malay, Dayak, and the enormous Chinese population of the mining districts, as well as those loose and idle spirits who came to join him, into whom he instilled a portion of his own energy and courage" (Macdonald 1840:206). In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , Pangeran Anom was a charismatic leader with the ability to hold together some very disparate racial groups. He "was apparently about thirty years of age, perhaps a little more" [indeed he was], "and although slightly deformed, might still be called a smart-looking little man; his mother was a Chinese, and from her he inherited the fair complexion and features, with the smallest hands and feet it is possible to conceive, and much of the cunning and shrewdness of that race. His face was disfigured dis·fig·ure
tr.v. dis·fig·ured, dis·fig·ur·ing, dis·fig·ures
To mar or spoil the appearance or shape of; deform.
[Middle English disfiguren, from Old French desfigurer by a blemish blem·ish
A small circumscribed alteration of the skin considered to be unesthetic but insignificant.
blemish on the cheek" [caused by the shot in the action in 1805] ... "which, when excited, gave his mouth a peculiarly disagreeable expression." He "spoke with great rapidity and fluency" [Macdonald: unlike most Malays] "while his restless little eyes Little eyes or Little Lize is a folksong popular in Cornwall but may have originated in America. It was first recorded in the 1950s by an American harmony group called the Delta Rhythm Boys but was later taken up a Cornish group from Camborne called the Joy Boys. gave evident indication of an irascible i·ras·ci·ble
1. Prone to outbursts of temper; easily angered.
2. Characterized by or resulting from anger.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Late Latin and vindictive temper ...", though there was no illustration of this during Macdonald's stay of three days at Sambas (Macdonald 1840:305-6).
This paper summarizes Pangeran Anom's early life, re-examines some of the piratical deeds of which he was accused, and includes information from sources that have received little attention. It places the events in the context of the political climate in the region at the time and considers whether Pangeran Anom has been ill-judged by history. Because of the emphasis given over the years to John Hunt's report to Raffles, I attach an appendix summarizing Hunt's activities at the time, building on the account in Dutch by de Haan De Haan or de Haan may refer any of the following people or places:
Pangeran Anom's rise to power
According to current genealogy of the Sambas sultanate (Buyers 2002-2005), Pangeran Anom was born in 1767. He was the son of a royal concubine CONCUBINE. A woman who cohabits with a man as his wife, without being married. , and half-brother of the Sultan of Sambas who succeeded to the throne in 1790. The sultan was a weak man and the Pangeran strove to exert his own authority (Veth 1854:367). He allied himself with the Chinese from Monterado, who by then paid little heed to the demands of Sambas for taxes. Pangeran Anom settled for five years among the Chinese not far from the coast on the lower Sungai Dori. He dressed in Chinese style, sacrificed in their temples and gambled with them (Veth 1854:367). This distinctly "un-Malay" behavior is explicable ex·plic·a·ble
Possible to explain: explicable phenomena; explicable behavior.
ex·plic by his Chinese blood (assuming Macdonald's account is accurate), though his mother was most likely an offspring of a Chinese father and Dayak (or Chinese/Dayak) mother. The Pangeran also became an active dealer in opium and the Chinese paid him taxes previously paid to the sultan. After five years, mediation by the royal family caused him to be reconciled with the sultan, who appointed him Pangeran Bendahara, i.e., Regent of Sambas (Veth 1854:367).
Pangeran Anom's close relations with "pirates" began during his time on the Sungai Dori, and continued, with the sultan's support, after his return to the capital (Veth 1854:368). He became associated with the Illanun (Iranun) raiders and others who included those from Bangka, Sarawak, Brunei, and Pasir (Hunt 1820a). According to Veth (1854:368), Pangeran Anom's first great undertaking was directed in 1799 against Banjarmasin. At the head of 15 or 16 "penjajaps" (long, two-masted vessels) he burned a vessel belonging to the Sultan of Banjarmasin. He was driven away after a fierce battle with armed vessels sent by the Dutch Resident and after, according to his own account, capturing two prahus under Dutch colors (Richardson 1805:60). The departure of the Dutch from the region by the end of the eighteenth century doubtless weakened the strength and influence of both Banjarmasin and Pontianak, where the Dutch had held fortified fortified (fôrt´fīd),
adj containing additives more potent than the principal ingredient. outposts.
Relations between Sambas and the Illanun pirates were not always harmonious. In 1803 a force of Illanun prahus plundered the lower reaches of the Sambas River, causing prahus from Sambas to counterattack Attacking an attacker. Even though a criminal hacker or other agent is attempting to penetrate a security perimeter or damage systems, the counterattack must not violate applicable laws. . Hostile relations were also demonstrated when a Sambas prahu pra·hu
Variant of proa. took a prahu from Java that was then captured by some Illanun pirates, and finally retaken by Pangeran Anom and his fleet (Richardson 1805:51-52). The main maritime efforts of Sambas were, however, directed against Pontianak. In 1803 Sambas planned to use 40 fighting prahus, plus the captured Java prahu and a captured British country ship, the Calcutta, to cut off Chinese junks at Pontianak, and capture the town. If this were successful, Banjarmasin would be attacked again (Richardson 1805:60). This campaign does not seem to have eventuated, at least on the scale that was planned, but attacks against Pontianak continued. As time went on, Sambas formed alliances with other raiders, including the Illanuns, to strengthen their forces (Veth 1854:386).
Banjarmasin and Pontianak were greatly alarmed by the threats from Sambas and lobbied the EIC for the support that they had previously enjoyed from the Dutch. In January 1811 Raffles, then in Malacca, warned Lord Minto, EIC Governor-General in India, that Banjarmasin was unstable after the departure of the Dutch and that in 1810 Pangeran Anom had carried away 50 local vessels (Raffles 1811). In February and March 1811, Sultan Kassim of Pontianak wrote to Raffles seeking help against Pangeran Anom and the Illanuns, who had plundered two Chinese junks in Pontianak roads. He also said that the Illanuns were gathering at Sambas (Ahmat 1971). The letters were accompanied by correspondence from Joseph Burn, a disgraced British country trader, who was living in Pontianak and to whom Raffles had also written (Burn 1811; Smith 2004; Reece and Smith 2006). This correspondence was prompted by requests from Raffles for information about attacks on British country vessels that were attributed to Pangeran Anom, some of which were listed a little later in Hunt's report. It is therefore useful now to return to Hunt's list of attacks. As will be seen, it is, in fact, very inaccurate and incomplete.
Death of Captain Sadler
Sambas was not involved in the murder of Captain Sadler and his boat's crew, which occurred at Mempawah in 1795. (8) The deed was done by the then Panembahan Kassim who ruled there on behalf of his father, Sultan Abdulrahman of Pontianak. Although at the time Kassim attempted to blame Sambas (Nicholl 1984), it became well-known in Pontianak that he was the guilty party. (9) According to Burn (1811:57-60), Kassim had been heavily in debt to Sadler. Kassim later told Macdonald that he had killed Sadler because the latter had sold him small arms small arms, firearms designed primarily to be carried and fired by one person and, generally, held in the hands, as distinguished from heavy arms, or artillery. Early Small Arms
The first small arms came into general use at the end of the 14th cent. that were useless because they had no touchholes, and that Sadler had become drunk, threatened Kassim with a pistol, and invaded the harem. However, Kassim said that he later paid the debt (presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. to Sadler's employers). Macdonald commented that traders often treated the natives dishonorably dis·hon·or·a·ble
1. Characterized by or causing dishonor or discredit.
2. Lacking integrity; unprincipled.
dis·hon . As a result, the latter were often branded "bloodthirsty blood·thirst·y
1. Eager to shed blood.
2. Characterized by great carnage.
blood and treacherous" (Macdonald 1840:216-219). This was clearly something not unique to the Sambas sultanate.
Capture of the Calcutta and the aftermath
The country ship commanded by Captain Drysdale in 1803 was not the "Susanna" but the Calcutta. (10) It was indeed captured by Pangeran Anom, and the loss illustrates very well the uncertain relationships between the European traders and the local native rulers. (11) After an extensive voyage from Calcutta through the East Indies East Indies, name formerly used for the Malay Archipelago, but also more restrictively for Indonesia and more widely to include SE Asia. It once referred chiefly to India. , the ship arrived in Borneo in mid-June 1803. By 1 July it was in Sambas roads in company with the Clyde, commanded by Captain Tait. The ships soon departed, the Clyde bound for Penang and the Calcutta for Selekau to the south, the latter voyage in accord with an agreement with Pangeran Anom. Captain Drysdale had purchased six chests of opium from Captain Tait, who had previously pledged them to Pangeran Anom, but Drysdale tried to overcharge the Pangeran. Although Drysdale took the usual precautions against attack by issuing arms, he allowed on board too many of the local people along with Pangeran Anom. Drysdale was stabbed and thrown overboard, the first officer was wounded and jumped overboard to swim ashore but was drowned, and most of the senior crew members and nine sepoys were murdered. Seven crew members who had jumped overboard reached the shore and were subsequently taken by local Chinese to Pontianak. The sole British survivor was John Burgh BURGH. A borough; (q. v.) a castle or town. , the second officer. He had gone into the hold to select some bales of textiles for the Pangeran and by the time he was back on deck the massacre had taken place. After a chase worthy of a Hollywood action movie, Burgh was wounded, and overpowered o·ver·pow·er
tr.v. o·ver·pow·ered, o·ver·pow·er·ing, o·ver·pow·ers
1. To overcome or vanquish by superior force; subdue.
2. To affect so strongly as to make helpless or ineffective; overwhelm.
3. along with other survivors, who included the serang Se`rang´
n. 1. The boatswain of a Lascar or East Ondian crew. (boatswain Boatswain
Byron’s favorite dog. [Br. Hist.: Harvey, 239]
See : Dogs ), lascars (ordinary seamen), Drysdale's "native girl" and a slave boy. The arrival of the Sultan of Sambas restored calm. He told Burgh that "the ship Calcutta was doomed to be seized and the commander and other Christians on board to be massacred by way of recompense RECOMPENSE. A reward for services; remuneration for goods or other property.
2. In maritime law there is a distinction between recompense and restitution. (q.v. for the breach of faith on the part of the master of the vessel [Clyde] that absconded." Had Drysdale wanted to trade fairly, he should not have gone to Selekau (Wright 1961:273, citing EIC records; also Richardson 1805:2630). The survivors were detained at Selekau or nearby. Pangeran Anom repeatedly asked Burgh to take charge of the ship and its crew plus 150 Malays in the service of Sambas, but he refused, as he had no wish to become a renegade and pirate.
Burgh was allowed to leave in December 1803 on the Duchess of York Duchess of York is a title held by the wife of the Duke of York since the first Duke of York in 1384. The title is gained with matrimony alone and is forfeited on divorce. , another country ship that had arrived in Sambas roads in ignorance of the capture of the Calcutta. (The fate of the other survivors was not recorded.) The sultan said that if the British would help him capture Pontianak he would willingly pay an annual tribute. The sultan gave Burgh a letter to the governor of Penang, intended to explain the circumstances in the best possible light. This all shows that the British were not afraid to trade with Sambas and that the "piracy" should be assessed in the context of local commercial and political circumstances. Sambas clearly traded as well as raided, and the plundering of the Calcutta arose directly from bad faith among the traders.
Richardson ended his account with comments on the best course of action if the British were to seek restitution for the loss of the Calcutta, or to give security to British commerce in the area, which was a considerable market for opium and piece goods piece goods
Fabrics made and sold in standard lengths. Also called yard goods.
goods, esp. fabrics, made in standard widths and lengths
Noun 1. . He pointed out that Sambas depended on imported rice and other foodstuffs foodstuffs npl → comestibles mpl
foodstuffs npl → denrées fpl alimentaires
foodstuffs food npl → from Java and elsewhere, paid for with gold dust. Richardson suggested that one or two armed vessels cruising along the track of the prahus from Sambas could easily intercept them and cut off Sambas' supplies. He believed that an attack on Sambas would not be feasible because of the sandbar sandbar
or offshore bar
Submerged or partly exposed ridge of sand or coarse sediment that is built by waves offshore from a beach. The swirling turbulence of waves breaking off a beach excavates a trough in the sandy bottom. that would prevent entry of vessels drawing more than 13-14 feet of water. Further, the vessels would have to be warped up, with ropes made fast to trees, for 40 miles before the town was reached. The country all around was a swamp, thus, presumably in his opinion, precluding an attack by land (Richardson 1805:59-71).
Robert Farquhar in Penang initially did not believe that the matter was worth pursuing. In his opinion the ship would be in poor condition and although the town of Sambas could be destroyed by a small expeditionary force An armed force organized to accomplish a specific objective in a foreign country.
expeditionary force n → cuerpo expedicionario
expeditionary force n → corps m , that would be difficult because of its location. He pointed out to his superiors in Calcutta that the polities on the coast of Borneo could nearly all be called to account on the same score ("piracy"), that many of their rulers were related and hence an expedition to Sambas could be fatal to future traders (Wright 1961:273-74). However, Pangeran Anom in fact armed and manned the Calcutta (probably with some of its original crew), so in April 1805 Penang sent an expedition to recapture the ship. The EIC's cruizer Les Freres Unis, accompanied by the armed ship a private ship taken into the service of the government in time of war, and armed and equipped like a ship of war.
See also: Ship Belisarius and small vessels provided by Pontianak and manned by Chinese, proceeded upriver towards Sambas and recaptured the Calcutta, with two Chinese junks and two large prahus. Pangeran Anom escaped in a small boat and was believed (incorrectly, of course) to have died from his wounds (Richardson 1805:74-75, citing the report by Capt. Robert Deane to Farquhar). He soon returned to Sambas.
Capture of the Commerce
The Commerce was lost not in 1806 but early in 1810, and Sambas pirates were not responsible. The Commerce was returning from Manila and became disabled and drifted ashore in the Tambelan islands off the coast of West Borneo. Captain Chapman went to Malacca to obtain material to make the ship serviceable. When he returned he found a fight in progress between prahus from Brunei and local islands for possession of the ship, which was set adrift. Chapman's Malay crew begged him not to follow for fear of their lives, so he gave up the chase. It was reported that some of the cargo of sugar had gone to Pontianak (Prince of Wales Island Prince of Wales Island, Canada
Prince of Wales Island, c.12,800 sq mi (33,150 sq km), Nunavut Territory, Canada, between Victoria and Somerset islands. Government Gazette 5/210:3 Mar 1810; 5/220:12 May 1810). (12) The Sultan of Pontianak and Burn informed Raffles in February 1811 that the Commerce had been finally seized by the pirates of Sarawak in conjunction with those of Sambas (Burn 1811:5; also Ahmat 1971). The captain and 45 of the crew were sent as slaves to Brunei (Wright 1961:272, citing EIC records).
Capture of the Malacca and the aftermath
The brig Malacca, commanded by Hercules Ross Hercules Ross (1745 – December 25 1816), was a Scottish merchant, who made a fortune in Jamaica, became an intimate friend of Horatio Nelson and figured prominently, if briefly, in the campaign for the abolition of the slave trade. , was attacked near Muntok at Bangka at the end of May or beginning of June, 1810, shortly after the loss of the Commerce, and Ross was killed. According to the Prince of Wales Island Gazette (PG 6/224:9 Jun 1810; 6/230:21 Jul 1810), the pirate chiefs lived at Muntok, and much of the cargo of tin ended up at Banjarmasin. Ross had traded in different vessels out of Penang and Malacca for several years, as reported in many issues of the Gazette. The Malacca was owned by Alexander Hare, who was then based at Malacca. Raffles showed a special interest, perhaps because of his friendship with Hare. Some of the pirate chiefs, including Assang (or Assery etc.) Abdul Rassib (or Rassil, Rashid, Rasib etc.), had taken refuge at Sambas, and Raffles asked the Sultan of Sambas, via Sultan Kassim and Joseph Burn, to hand them over, but he refused. The sultan admitted he had assembled "robbers and wicked men" but that was "because I am poor and wanting in many things." He had not invited Rassib to stay, but could not arrest him because Sambas collaborated with Muntok (Ahmat 1971). No other sources that I have consulted mention Mrs. Ross and her son, suggesting strongly that she was not a European: there would have been much less interest in the fate of a native wife and a son of mixed race. Rassib became closely allied with Pangeran Anom, with whom he went out on sorties from Sambas to the coastal waters off Mempawah, Pontianak and Banjarmasin. There were now two small ships from Sambas, which were openly challenging Pontianak and threatening to attack Chinese and English vessels. (13) Raffles passed this information on to Lord Minto when the latter arrived at Malacca. Raffles also reported that the longboat of the Thainstone, a country vessel from Penang, had been taken and the crew murdered (Lady S. Raffles 1830:46). This event--not recorded by Hunt--occurred at Bangka at the end of June 1810 (PG 6/227:30 Jun 1810); there is no reason to blame Pangeran Anom.
Another attack on a brig owned by Hare?
Macdonald (1840:202-3) discussed with Pangeran Anom the capture of a brig that was returning from Banjarmasin. The Pangeran had been accused of killing the crew but he denied this to Macdonald. He said he had freed the commander, named by Macdonald as Scott, a "drunken and troublesome fellow." This was said in order to illustrate Macdonald's view of the types of Europeans in the country trade. I have found no other reference to this attack--it may be a confused reference to the attack on the Malacca. The Scotts were Penang-based merchants and traders, and identifying this Scott (if he was a relative) is problematical.
Attack on the Minto (or Lord Minto)
Hunt did not mention the attack on this vessel in 1811. The Minto was a small armed schooner schooner (sk`nər), sailing vessel, rigged fore-and-aft, with from two to seven masts. , chartered by the EIC to survey the coastal waters of West Borneo as the favored route for the British fleet which was mustering in Malacca for the invasion of Java. Prakus from Sambas were beaten off after a strong attack "with the loss of several killed and a greater number wounded" (M into 1880:279). Its commander, William Greig, was well-known to Lord Minto, who was with the British expedition (as was Raffles), and this attack was a considerable black mark against Sambas.
Capture of "the Portuguese ship"
This ship can be identified as the Diana, which traded between Penang and Macao (references in PG: Apt-May 1811) and was captured near Pasir in East Borneo late in 1811 or early in 1812 (Medhurst 1829; Macdonald 1840:202, 365). The commander of the attacking vessels was possibly not Pangeran Anom but another Sambas resident, later identified by a visiting English missionary, Rev. W.H. Medhurst, as the "Arang Raja Bujang"--possibly Radin Bujang, a member of the extended Sambas royal family (Buyers 2002-2005). He told Medhurst that the ship was decoyed to an island under the pretext of collecting bird nests and, for reasons not given, all on board except the Portuguese boatswain (ship's mate in some accounts) were killed (Medhurst 1829). The vessel was taken upriver to Sambas and the boatswain (and probably some of the crew) entered Pangeran Anom's service.
Plundering of the Coromandel Cor`o`man´del
n. 1. (Geol.) The west coast, or a portion of the west coast, of the Bay of Bengal.
Calamander wood. and the aftermath
The Coromandel ran aground a·ground
adv. & adj.
1. Onto or on a shore, reef, or the bottom of a body of water: a ship that ran aground; a ship aground offshore.
2. on a reef in the Karimata Islands The Karimata Islands are a chain of small islands off the west coast of Indonesian Borneo, the largest of which is (Pulau) Karimata, being about 20 km across (east-west), and situated at . in August 1812. Details were published in November in the Java Government Gazette (1/35:24 Oct 1812; 1/36:31 Oct 1812; see also Macdonald 1840:199-201, and Smith 2002). The captain and passengers, including John Palmer John Palmer is the name of several notable individuals, including:
See also: Anchor at the mouth of the river and attacked, but it got over the shallow sandbar and escaped upriver because the Aurora was unable to follow.
British attacks on Sambas and the aftermath
When news of the fate of the Coromandel reached Java, Raffles suggested to Captain James Bowen Rear Admiral James Bowen (1751-1835) was a British Naval Officer. Biography
James Bowen was born in 1751. Naval Career
Rear Admiral Bowen was master of the HMS Queen Charlotte, the flagship of Richard, Earl Howe at the Glorious First of , commander of the frigate frigate (frĭg`ĭt), originally a long, narrow nautical vessel used on the Mediterranean, propelled by either oars or sail or both. Later, during the 18th and early 19th cent. HMS Phoenix Fifteen vessels of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Phoenix, after the legendary phoenix bird.
Her (or His) Majesty's Ship
HMS (Brit) abbr (= His (or Her) Majesty's Ship) → Namensteil von Schiffen der Kriegsmarine Procris and Barracouta Noun 1. barracouta - a large marine food fish common on the coasts of Australia, New Zealand, and southern Africa
food fish - any fish used for food by human beings , and gunboats, plus 100 British soldiers. They were joined by vessels from Pontianak, led by Sultan Kassim. The comments made by Richardson in 1805 turned out to be well-founded. The two sloops and supporting vessels struggled across the sandbar and up the river, which was much narrower than that which led to Palembang. Sambas turned out to be heavily defended by a triple log boom across the river and well-constructed forts, which were unsuccessfully attacked on 15 November. The flotilla withdrew under heavy gunfire and with considerable damage to the Barracouta. (15) HMS Phoenix returned in December to Batavia, where Bowen suddenly died "under great depression of spirit, a sacrifice to the climate" (JG 1/45:2 Jan 1813). Shortly after the attack, Bowen had reported to Vice-Admiral Sir Samuel Hood Samuel Hood may refer to two British admirals:
Although Raffles and Gillespie were by then personally on bad terms, they immediately organized a much stronger expedition which built up at the mouth of the Sambas river in the early months of 1813. It was initially an EIC campaign, but was joined by a squadron of vessels of the Royal Navy, no doubt eager to avenge the earlier defeat, and also by the Sultan of Pontianak with his forces. This campaign can be followed in detail in ships' logs in the English National Archives National Archives, official depository for records of the U.S. federal government, established in 1934 by an act of Congress. Although displeasure concerning the method of keeping national records was voiced in Congress as early as 1810, the United States continued , Kew, Macdonald (1840) and in the official report by the military commander, Lieut. Col. James Watson. (16) A naval blockade Noun 1. naval blockade - the interdiction of a nation's lines of communication at sea by the use of naval power
blockade, encirclement - a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy was soon imposed, during which the Aurora captured a Chinese junk that had gone aground on the Sambas river bar. Unknown to Macdonald, Pangeran Anom had been aboard and narrowly escaped. The junk was given to the Sultan of Pontianak. After the capture of the junk, a Chinese delegation from Monterado and Landak came to the British military camp. They announced their readiness to withhold supplies from Sambas and exchange their connections for protection by the British if the captured vessel was restored--but there was no indication that this occurred. Later, Macdonald captured another of Pangeran Anom's vessels, laden with supplies, including gunpowder and shot from the Sultan of Brunei. This vessel (another junk?) was of great bulk, navigated by the renegade Portuguese boatswain from the Diana, and had come from Amoy, with supplies for Monterado and Landak, with 200 Chinese migrants on board (Macdonald 1840:220-23).
As the British forces gathered, the Sultan of Sambas prudently retired to the interior but Pangeran Anom remained, rejecting a request to surrender. Accordingly, the sloops HMS Hecate and Procris, the EIC's cruizers Teignmouth and Aurora, the Sultan of Pontianak's ship, and many smaller vessels, with about 1500 troops and armed sailors struggled over the bar and up the river towards the forts. (17) The troops were landed in several divisions on 28 June. Some got lost, but others came across a terrified ter·ri·fy
tr.v. ter·ri·fied, ter·ri·fy·ing, ter·ri·fies
1. To fill with terror; make deeply afraid. See Synonyms at frighten.
2. To menace or threaten; intimidate. elderly Malay woman who was persuaded to show them the way to attack the main fort from the rear. The assault was successful and Pangeran Anom fled upriver in a small boat, escaping a botched botch
tr.v. botched, botch·ing, botch·es
1. To ruin through clumsiness.
2. To make or perform clumsily; bungle.
3. To repair or mend clumsily.
1. pincer movement The pincer movement or double envelopment is a basic element of military strategy which has been used, to some extent, in nearly every war. The flanks of the opponent are attacked simultaneously in a pinching motion after the opponent has advanced towards the center of an to attack Sambas from the rear and so capture him. His vessels--the "Portuguese ship," a brig and several prahus--were burned and the British forces struggled back downriver down·riv·er
adv. & adj.
Toward or near the mouth of a river; in the direction of the current: swam downriver; a downriver canoe race.
Adv. 1. and over the bar. The campaign was described as a glorious victory, though it took a large toll in subsequent sickness. Further, the political consequences were negligible. Raffles had been keen to destroy Sambas and dethrone de·throne
tr.v. de·throned, de·thron·ing, de·thrones
1. To remove from the throne; depose.
2. To remove from a prominent or powerful position. the sultan in favor of a ruler from Pontianak, but soon became uncertain about what to do. Pontianak certainly wanted to take over control, and the Chinese miners (especially those from Monterado) were also hoping for autonomy under the British. However, Raffles decided to adhere to adhere to
verb 1. follow, keep, maintain, respect, observe, be true, fulfil, obey, heed, keep to, abide by, be loyal, mind, be constant, be faithful
2. the original status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. and the sultan was soon allowed to return on condition of swearing allegiance to the British (several references in Java Factory Records for 1813; see Irwin 1955:27). The local people also sought the return of Pangeran Anom, who had retired to Pasir, where he had teamed up with "Rassib," probably in the second ship from Sambas which was not reported captured in the attack on Sambas. Pangeran Anom was allowed to return, but "Rassib" was not (Macdonald 1840:361-63).
Macdonald's potentially hazardous trip in August 1814 to Sambas was in a small EIC gunboat gunboat, small warship for use on rivers and along coasts in places inaccessible to vessels of larger displacement. In the U.S. Civil War both sides used as gunboats, on the Mississippi and other rivers, any boat that had an engine and had room to mount a gun. "completely at their mercy" to receive Pangeran Anom's submission, and his impressions of the Pangeran have already been described here. Macdonald reminded the Pangeran that in 1813 he had put a price on Macdonald's head, at which he showed "feigned feigned
1. Not real; pretended: a feigned modesty.
2. Made-up; fictitious.
Adj. 1. humility and contrition con·tri·tion
Sincere remorse for wrongdoing; repentance. See Synonyms at penitence.
Noun 1. contrition - sorrow for sin arising from fear of damnation
contriteness, attrition ." When Macdonald left Sambas, the gunboat was full of gifts, including a pregnant lady of the court whom the gunboat's Dutch commander agreed to marry (Macdonald 1840:304-8). (18)
Pangeran Anom becomes Sultan of Sambas
Less than a week after Pangaran Anom had made his submission, the sultan died. Pangeran Anom as regent wrote to Raffles, requesting the appointment of a British resident at Sambas, as Raffles had earlier intended. However, by then Raffles had been told by the EIC Government in Bengal not to develop his plans for Borneo (Irwin 1955:3132). Pangeran Anom was chosen by the ruling families of Sambas as sultan. He reformed himself as far as the British were concerned and in 1815 received an official welcome on the Royal Navy's frigate HMS Leda Six ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Leda, after the Leda of Greek mythology.
n. pl. su·ze·rain·ties
The power or domain of a suzerain.
Noun 1. suzerainty - the position or authority of a suzerain; "under the suzerainty of... on 9 August (Irwin 1955:49-50). Typically, he promptly enlisted Dutch military support to pacify pac·i·fy
tr.v. pac·i·fied, pac·i·fy·ing, pac·i·fies
1. To ease the anger or agitation of.
2. To end war, fighting, or violence in; establish peace in. Tayen on the Kapuas and hence maintain strong control over the lower reaches of the river. The Dutch delegation then proceeded to Sambas, arriving at the river mouth on 2 September. There they encountered the Sultan of Sambas with a large fleet ofprahus on the point of raiding Pontianak. He quickly changed his mind and also accepted Dutch suzerainty, the Dutch flag being raised at Sambas on 6 September 1818 (Irwin 1955:50-51).
Events after this time lie beyond the scope of this paper. Suffice it to say that the increasing independence of the Chinese kongsis, and the ongoing tensions and warfare between them, decreased the Sultan of Sambas's authority, as did the presence of the Dutch officials (Yuan 2000). He died in July 1828. The missionary Rev. W.H. Medhurst arrived very soon afterwards--certainly a sign of changing times. His correspondence and reports make it clear that the sometime Pangeran Anom was still greatly respected and that the inhabitants
The game is based loosely on the concepts from SameGame. of Sambas looked back with nostalgia on their days of "piratical" glory (Medhurst 1829; for other references see Smith 2002).
Much of the evidence given here shows that while Pangeran Anom was undoubtedly an aggressive man of his times who followed the time-honored career of maritime raiding, his activities were greatly influenced by external events, especially the increasing influence of Pontianak. He went to considerable effort to try to establish a naval force, perhaps to balance that of Pontianak, and at the same time maintained trade both with Europeans and Chinese. The Pangeran's mixed ethnic background that presumably facilitated relations with local Chinese and Dayak people The Dayak or Dyak (IPA: /ˈdaɪək/) are the peoples indigenous to Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the interior of is especially intriguing. Accordingly, there is really no need for me to "rehabilitate" him, even by challenging Eurocentric views about "Malay piracy"--already challenged by Warren (2001) with respect to the Illanuns who became allies of Sambas. Apart from Macdonald's views--albeit recorded after some 20 years--the fact that the Pangeran was accepted as sultan by the British and reigned without much negative comment by the Dutch, as far as I know, shows that he graduated successfully from "pirate" (dare I say "terrorist"?) to established ruler. Of course, such graduation (and changed views by external powers) is not at all unique in recent history. Stereotyping rulers as absolute villains is best left to politicians and the media: history is rarely so straightforward.
Appendix: John Hunt
Hunt's original report to Raffles was possibly destroyed in the fire on the Fame, in which Raffles was traveling when he finally left Bencoolen in 1824. Despite the inaccuracies, we are fortunate that it was thought useful enough to be included in the short-lived Malayan Miscellanies, a publication established by Raffles. Hunt's report tells us that he had traveled along the coast of West Borneo, and he was also involved in a voyage or voyages to Sulu. A report in the Prince of Wales Island Gazette says that he was supercargo SUPERCARGO, mar. law. A person specially employed by the owner of a cargo to take charge of the merchandise which has been shipped, to sell it to the best advantage, and to purchase returning cargoes and to receive freight, as he may be authorized.
2. in the Harrier when in 1810 this vessel was wrecked on the north coast of Borneo. The officers and crew narrowly escaped being killed by the local people. There was quite a strong British naval presence there at the time, including the Lord Minto, commanded by Captain Greig. The Sultan of Sulu, who helped in the rescue, was thanked by the British and promised to support them (PG 5/241:6 Oct 1810). According to Gibson-Hill (1959), Hunt was shipwrecked in the Seaflower in the Sulu Sea Sulu Sea
An arm of the western Pacific Ocean between the Philippines and Borneo. The Sulu Archipelago, a chain of small islands belonging to the Philippines, separates the Sulu Sea from the Celebes Sea southwest of Mindanao. in 1812. There was an HMS Seaflower and a merchant vessel
1. Unrestrained or excessive in emotional expression; gushy: an effusive manner.
2. Profuse; overflowing: effusive praise. address to Raffles at a function on 23 September 1812 (JG "'Extraordinary": 29 Sept. 1812; also reported in PG 7/351:21 Nov 1812). The time of his arrival helps explain his errors in listing "from memory" (Hunt 1820a:44) the attacks on British vessels that occurred when he was not in the region. Hunt was in Batavia at the end of December 1812 when he took delivery of a small musical ensemble at the expense of the Batavia Government (de Haan 1935:585). This was possibly a privilege of his forthcoming appointment in Pontianak. Hunt went to Pontianak as resident and commercial agent early in 1813 and stayed there for some months. The Prince of Wales Island Gazette, reporting the appointment in Pontianak, stated that Hunt had been the master attendant at Negapatam in southern India (PG 7/364:20 Feb 1813). Lists of Europeans (not employed by the E1C) in issues of the EIC's East-India Register & Directory between 1803 and 1809 name the master attendant as "James Hunt This article is about the racing driver. For other people named James Hunt, see James Hunt (disambiguation).
James Simon Wallis Hunt (b. 29 August 1947, Belmont, Surrey – d. ." Presumably that name was a continuing mistake (though a surprising one), or perhaps there was confusion in Penang. Given the time taken to update entries in the Register & Directory, the timing of the disappearance of "James Hunt" fits with John Hunt's voyage to Sulu. (19)
In his report to Raffles, Hunt mentioned events in late 1812, such as an attack from Sambas on Mempawah "in October last" and (rather obscurely) the unsuccessful British attack on Sambas on 15 November 1812. Thus, he mentioned that HMS Barracouta just scraped over a reef of rocks in the river, and that below the forts below Sambas had "to haul athwart a·thwart
1. From side to side; crosswise or transversely.
2. So as to thwart, obstruct, or oppose; perversely.
1. the river, to get her broadside to bear." He also mentioned the view from the masthead mast·head
1. Nautical The top of a mast.
2. The listing in a newspaper or periodical of information about its staff, operation, and circulation.
3. (Hunt 1820a:54). These details suggest that he may have been present as a volunteer, though 1 know of no other evidence. In addition, in sentences in Malayan Miscellanies that were edited out of Moor's reprint (Hunt 1837), Hunt referred to his attempts to obtain early manuscripts for Raffles at Pontianak. He could not obtain any ancient records from the Sultan of Pontianak "but was informed by him, he had sent you [Raffles] three historical manuscripts per favor of Capt. Graves" (Hunt 1820a:6). (20) These comments, and detailed information about Pontianak that was not given by Joseph Burn, suggest that Hunt may have been established at Pontianak when he wrote the report and that the correct date may not be 1812 but 1813. If not, it must have been written very late in 1812. Volume 1 of Malay Miscellanies contained many printer's errors, for which the editor (William Jack
William Jack (July 29, 1788 – February 28, 1852) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ) apologized. This is not an important matter in the present context, though it is clear that in assessing Raffles's policy in the region, Bastin (1954) was wrong in assuming that Hunt's report was a factor in Raffles's support for the unsuccessful assault led by Captain Bowen.
Hunt's long report gives much more information about many areas of Borneo, and particularly the north, than does Burn's but contains the errors about piratical attacks The list of piratical attacks concerns all incidents of maritime piracy on land, sea, and air. 2002
1. an external animal parasite.
2. such parasites collectively.ver´minous
n. pl. ," fish and birds: "the ornithology ornithology
Branch of zoology dealing with the study of birds. Early writings on birds were largely anecdotal (including folklore) or practical (e.g., treatises on falconry and game-bird management). of Borneo is somewhat limited" (Hunt 1820a:23). He showed strong interest in the commercial prospects of fishery and gathering oysters for pearls in northern Borneo and Sulu, commenting that Arab divers from Bahrein and Chulias from Nagore and Negapatam in India could teach local Malays the superiority of diving (Hunt 1820a:33-34). This interest could have resulted from time spent at Negapatam. Hunt was probably also the author of an imaginative account of the origin of the Dayaks and Malays by "H," written "about two years ago.., a few alterations excepted, whilst residing on Borneo." This was dated 12 May 1815 and was also published in Malayan Miscellanies (Anon "H" 1820). It contains little of value apart from possibly his account of the origin of the Dayaks of Sekadau, up the River Kapuas, obtained from a chief of the district, according to whom several of the local tribes originated from the country of Lawai and then "settled on the banks of the great Lawai river" [i.e. the Kapuas] (Anon "H" 1820:29-30). This dispersal was said to be due to defeat in warfare with the "Biajus", i.e. the Ngadju Dayaks of southern Borneo--though Hunt misinterpreted or could not identify the place-names. These details add more snippets of information about Lawai (see Smith 2005).
John Hunt was later involved as Raffles's emissary EMISSARY. One who is sent from one power or government into another nation for the purpose of spreading false rumors and to cause alarm. He differs from a spy. (q.v.) in an unsuccessful commercial venture that Raffles initiated in 1814 in Sulu and the Philippines, with the aim of extending trade to Canton and so solving the chronic financial problems in Java. The failure was to cause Raffles some embarrassment and, in the words of Bastin (1954:104), was "gently hushed up." According to Captain Macdonald, who was there in the Aurora, the reception at Sulu was unfriendly because many of the followers of Pangeran Anom had settled there "and circulated amongst this wild and warlike war·like
1. Belligerent; hostile.
a. Of or relating to war; martial.
b. Indicative of or threatening war.
1. people the most exaggerated stories of our conduct in the late affairs at Sambas and Palembang." Also, Hunt was "a half-caste gentleman, [and] had spent some years in the Malay trade"; this comment is intriguing with respect to the EIC's definition of "Europeans" included in the East-India Register & Directory, assuming that he was the EIC's "James Hunt." On one occasion he was stoned at Sulu (Macdonald 1840:280-5). (21) Hunt afterwards wrote a lengthy geographical and historical account of the Sulu Archipelago Sulu Archipelago (s`l), island group, 1,086 sq mi (2,813 sq km), the Philippines, SW of Mindanao. and its relations with the Philippines and northern Borneo; this too was published in Malayan Miscellanies (Hunt 1820b). He settled in Java as a landowner and died there in 1835 (de Haan 1935:585-86). Despite the inaccuracies in Hunt's account of Borneo, his lyrical description of its attractions and products would have contributed greatly to Raffles's enthusiasm for the island as a future British possession even after the return of the Dutch to Java. As suggested by Bastin (1954), the report apparently also greatly impressed James Brooke For the American journalist, see .
The Rajah of Sarawak, Sir James Brooke, KCB, LL.D (29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was a British statesman. His father Thomas Brooke was English; his mother Anna Maria was born in Hertfordshire, England, the daughter of Scottish peer : hence its inclusion in Keppel (1846, Vol 2; Appendix 2: xvi-lxiii).
Ahmat bin Adam 1971 A Descriptive Account of the Malay Letters sent to Thomas Stamford Raffles “Raffles” redirects here. For other uses, see Raffles (disambiguation).
Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (July 6, 1781 – July 5, 1826) was the founder of the city of Singapore (now the Republic of Singapore), and is one of the most famous Britons who in Malacca in 1810 and 1811 by the Rulers of the Indigenous States of the Malay Archipelago Malay Archipelago, great island group of SE Asia, formerly called the East Indies. Lying between the Asian mainland and Australia, and separating the Pacific Ocean from the Indian Ocean, it includes Brunei, Indonesia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, East Timor, . Essay in part fulfilment for the University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies M.A. degree (typescript). India Office Records The India Office Records are a very large collection of documents relating to the administration of India from 1600, the date of the establishment of the East India Company, to 1947, the date of Indian and Pakistani independence from British authority. , Private Papers, Raffles Collection, MSS Eur C842. London: British Library British Library, national library of Great Britain, located in London. Long a part of the British Museum, the library collection originated in 1753 when the government purchased the Harleian Library, the library of Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, and groups of manuscripts. .
Anonymous ("H") 1820 Annotations and Remarks with a View to Illustrate the Probable Origin of the Dayaks, the Malays, &c. Malayan Miscellanies, 1/6:1-40.
Anonymous (J.R. Logan?) 1849 The Piracy and Slave Trade slave trade
Capturing, selling, and buying of slaves. Slavery has existed throughout the world from ancient times, and trading in slaves has been equally universal. Slaves were taken from the Slavs and Iranians from antiquity to the 19th century, from the sub-Saharan of the Indian Archipelago. Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, 3:581-636 (reprinted by Kraus-Thomson Organization, Nendel/Liechtenstein, 1970).
Bastin, John 1954 Raffles and British Policy in the Indian Archipelago, 1811-1816. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society The Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (RAS) was, according to its Royal Charter of August 11, 1824, established to further "the investigation of subjects connected with and for the encouragement of science, literature and the arts in relation to Asia. , 27(1):84-119.
Burn, J(oseph) 1811 Mr Burn's Account of Pontianak, 12 February and 12 March 1811 (Manuscript). India Office Records, Private Papers, Raffles Collection, MSS Eur El09, pp. i-151. London: British Library.
Buyers, C. 2002-5 Sambas. www.4dw.net/royalark/index.html.
East-India Register and Directory, John Mathison and Alexander Way Mason, eds. 1803-10 London: Cox, Son & Baylis for East India House East India House in Leadenhall Street in the City of London in England was the headquarters of the British East India Company. It was rebuilt by the architect Richard Jupp in 1799-1800. .
Gibson-Hill, C.A. 1959 George Samuel George Samuel of Shivpuri, India was the first Indian to take over the administration of The Evangelical Alliance Mission.
Samuel was the second child of Indian missionary parents who worked with TEAM in Shivpuri, in Madhya Pradesh, India. Windsor Earl. Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 32(1): 105-153.
Haan, F. de 1935 Personalia per·son·a·li·a
1. Personal allusions or references.
2. Personal belongings or affairs.
[Latin pers der Periode van het Englisch Bestuur over Java 18111816. Bijdragen tot Taal-, Land en Volkenkunde van NederlandschIndie, 92:477-699.
Heidhues, Mary Somers 1998 The First Two Sultans of Pontianak. Archipel, 56:273-94.
Hood, Sir Samuel (manuscript) 1813 Letter to Admiralty, London, 15 Feb 1813. Records of the Admiralty.... Letters from Commander-in-Chief East Indies, ADM See add/drop multiplexer.
(language) ADM - A picture query language, extension of Sequel2.
["An Image-Oriented Database System", Y. Takao et al, in Database Techniques for Pictorial Applications, A. Blaser ed, pp. 527-538]. 1/185. Kew: The National Archives.
Hunt, J. 1820a Sketch of Borneo or Pulo Kalamantan, by J. Hunt, Communicated by J. Hunt Esq. in 1812 to the Honorable Sir T.S. Raffles, Late Lieut. Governor of Java. Malayan Miscellanies, 1/8: 1-67.
1820b Some Particulars Relative to Sulo in the Archipelago of Felicia. Malayan Miscellanies, 1/10:1-108.
1837 Sketch of Borneo ... [Title as for Hunt 1820a] In J.H. Moor, ed. (1837), Notices of the Indian Archipelago and Adjacent Countries (reprinted by Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, London (1968; Appendix, pp. 12-30).
Irwin, G. 1955 Nineteenth-Century Borneo: a Study in Diplomatic Rivalry. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land--en Volkenkunde 15, 's-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff Martinus Nijhoff (b. April 20 1894 - d. January 26 1953) was a Dutch poet and essayist. He studied literature in Amsterdam and law in Utrecht. His debut was made in 1916 with his volume De wandelaar ("The wanderer"). .
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Java Government Gazette, Batavia.
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Macdonald, Capt. D. 1840 Captain Macdonald's Narrative of His Early life and Services, Embracing an Unbroken Period of Twenty-two Years. Extracted from his Journals & Other Official Documents, Third edition. Cheltenham: Thomas Willey.
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1. The middle of the winter.
2. The period of the winter solstice, about December 22.
1. the middle or depth of winter
2. . Brunei Museum Journal 5/4:46-52.
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Reece, Bob and F. Andrew Smith Andrew Smith or Andy Smith may refer to:
Richardson, J.D. 1805 Narrative of the Transactions on Board the Ship Calcutta of Bengal, and Commanded by Captain Hugh Drysdale Colonel Hugh Drysdale (d. July 22, 1726) was a British Colonial Governor of Virginia. More officially, his title was Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia. , who was Unfortunately Cut Off by the Malays at Slackhow on the Island of Borneo, on the 8th of July 1803; Principally Extracted from the Journal of Mr John Burgh.... 1805, Bombay: Gazette Press.
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F. Andrew Smith, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Waite Campus, University of Adelaide Its main campus is located on the cultural boulevard of North Terrace in the city-centre alongside prominent institutions such as the Art Gallery of South Australia, the South Australian Museum and the State Library of South Australia. , SA 5005, Australia e-mail: email@example.com
(1) This account is a revised and extended version of a paper that was presented at the Eighth Biennial Conference of the Borneo Research Council: "Borneo in the New Century," Kuching, Sarawak, 31 July-1 August 2006.
(2) See Warren (2001) for an analysis of the interlinked factors that influenced "piracy" in the Sulu zone at this time. Like Warren, I have some hesitation in using this generic Eurocentric word; hence the quotation marks quotation marks
the punctuation marks used to begin and end a quotation, either `` and '' or ` and '
quotation marks npl → comillas fpl
(3) "Country trade" is the term used for regional trade between India, the East Indies, China, etc., as opposed to trade directly originating from Britain. The traders and their "country vessels" or "country ships" were not employees of the English East India Company (EIC).
(4) European names are used here for the main trading settlements.
(5) "Pangeran Anom" is a royal title of Javanese origin, in the contemporary British literature British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. By far the largest part of this literature is written in the English language, but there are also separate literatures in Latin, Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Scots, Cornish, Manx, there were variations in spelling, such as "Annam" or "Annom."
(6) Hunt's report the original now apparently lost--was first published in Malayan Miscellanies (Hunt 1820a); the date of the report was given as 1812. As discussed below in the Appendix it was possibly actually written in 1813 when Hunt was Raffles's representative in Pontianak. This version, along with other material cited later, is now accessible via Google Book Search This article or section contains information about computer software currently in development.
The content may change as the software development progresses. : "Malayan Miscellanies J. Hunt". It was reprinted by Moor (Hunt 1837), with minor editorial changes. This second version was also included in Keppel (1846, Vol 2; Appendix 2: xvi-lxiii); this is now available online on the Cornell University Cornell University, mainly at Ithaca, N.Y.; with land-grant, state, and private support; coeducational; chartered 1865, opened 1868. It was named for Ezra Cornell, who donated $500,000 and a tract of land. With the help of state senator Andrew D. "Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. Visions" website: http:// dlxs.library.cornell.edu/s/sea/). Details of the Sultan of Pontianak's unpleasant punishments of adulterers are omitted in this last version.
(7) The book itself is undated un·dat·ed
1. Not marked with or showing a date: an undated letter; an undated portrait.
2. but is given as c. 1840 in library catalogues. Macdonald commented in his Introduction that he first set down his memoirs in 1830. Pagination (1) Page numbering.
(2) Laying out printed pages, which includes setting up and printing columns, rules and borders. Although pagination is used synonymously with page makeup, the term often refers to the printing of long manuscripts rather than ads and brochures. here refers to the third edition in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. There is another version of the third edition (e.g. in the British Library, London, and now also available online on the Cornell University "Southeast Asia Visions" website). This version has a different publisher (Benson and Barling, Weymouth) and is shorter, but also includes the material cited here except where noted otherwise.
(8) Hunt's date "1769" is presumably a misprint mis·print
tr.v. mis·print·ed, mis·print·ing, mis·prints
To print incorrectly.
An error in printing. for "1796," itself incorrect.
(9) Nicholl (1984) was responsible for publication of a letter written in 1795 by William Midwinter, who was on the ship--its name surprisingly not given--at the time of Sadler's death. Midwinter related the false account given by Kassim to the ship's officers and crew after Sadler's disappearance at Mempawah, and also other experiences of country trade in the region.
(10) A vessel called "Susannah" was captured by pirates between Batavia and Sulu "in about 1807." It was "under Danish colours." This information is in the only report that I have seen about this event, which was brought to the attention of the Government in Java as late as 1814 by relatives of French passengers whose fate was unknown (Java Factory Records; Separate Dependencies Consultations, 14 September 1814). No evidence is given that Sambas was involved. Hunt was in Sulu in 1810 and would presumably have known about this event.
(11) The circumstances are known from the EIC reports and in much more detail from the book, already cited here. by James Douglas Richardson (1805); it was derived from the journal of John Burgh. The only copy known to the present author is in the Toyo Bunko bun·ko
n. & v.
Variant of bunco.
Noun 1. bunko - a swindle in which you cheat at gambling or persuade a person to buy worthless property Library, Tokyo, which kindly provided a photocopy. The book deserves to be better known: hence this summary.
(12) This semi-official publication was established in February 1806; it was published weekly, with an occasional special issue ("Extraordinary"). Volumes were supposed to cover 52 issues, but numbering of early volumes had some inconsistencies. Issues in 1810 were printed as parts of Volumes 4, 5, 6 and 5 again; hence the details that are cited here.
(13) Hunt (1820a:51) said that Pontianak had a fleet of two ships, two brigs, 50 prahus and about 1000 men.
(14) Raffles had no authority over the Royal Navy. Bowen had naval command in the successful expedition in March-May 1812 against Palembang, about 60 miles upriver from the east coast of Sumatra. The expedition was under the overall command of Col. Gillespie, the military commander in Java. Thorn (1815: 127-73) gives a detailed eye-witness account of this hazardous expedition, along with the official reports.
(15) The assault is recorded in detail in the logs of HMS Barracouta and Procris in the English National Archives, Kew (formerly the Public Record Office). Otherwise, information is sparse--the episode was covered up as much as possible.
(16) The report was published several times, e.g. in Thorn (1815:327-32).
(17) Hunt's comment about the capture of the boat's crew of the "Hecate" in 1812 remains a mystery. The log of riMS Hecate is also in the English National Archives and gives no mention of piratical attack. Hunt's report was obviously written before the second campaign against Sambas, during which this event might otherwise have occurred (see Appendix). Perhaps Hunt got the name wrong again.
(18) Bowen's unsuccessful assault on Sambas returned to haunt Raffles early in 1814, after Gillespie, by then in Calcutta, made a series of serious charges against Raffles's governance in Java. Although Raffles's role was apparently not referred to by Gillespie in writing, Raffles believed that he had raised it with both the military and naval commanders in India. In his detailed defense against the charges, Raffles (1814) felt obliged to emphasize that Gillespie had agreed to provide the small military three and that Bowen was solely responsible for planning and mounting the attack. Further, he (Raffles) had already been exonerated from blame by Lord Minto. Gillespie was killed in action later in 1814 but the charges were not cleared up in Raffles's favor until 1817, when he was in England. Wurtzburg (1954, passim PASSIM - A simulation language based on Pascal.
["PASSIM: A Discrete-Event Simulation Package for Pascal", D.H Uyeno et al, Simulation 35(6):183-190 (Dec 1980)]. ) gives a detailed account.
(19) Of course, John Hunt may have been related to James Hunt. There must be more material about Hunt in EIC records that would help clear up his identity and early life.
(20) I have not tracked down Captain Graves, who as already noted "was [in 1811] cut off by the Pasir pirates with a rich cargo" (Hunt 1820a:45). It is possible that Graves commanded the Portuguese-registered Diana (its captain not named in PG), though the implication from Hunt's wording is that this vessel was attacked in 1812, the year in which Pangeran "out-heroded Herod." There is no mention of the Diana or Graves in a later account that detailed attacks on both Dutch and British vessels over the period covered here, with no emphasis on Sambas (Anon. 1849).
(21) The short version of Macdonald's "third edition" mentions the stoning of the "Resident" (not named there) but not the other details about Hunt, suggesting that the copy in the Bodleian Library is really a fourth edition. It contains many handwritten hand·write
tr.v. hand·wrote , hand·writ·ten , hand·writ·ing, hand·writes
To write by hand.
[Back-formation from handwritten.]
Adj. 1. notes by Macdonald, showing that he planned yet another edition. I have not tried to track down his later life and date of death.