Always out front.
In recent issues of MIPB you may have noticed an increasing number of articles on Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT GEOINT Geospatial Intelligence ). This reflects the U.S Army Intelligence Center's (USAIC USAIC United States Army Infantry Center
USAIC United States Army Intelligence Center ) recognition that our mission is constantly evolving to improve our support to the warfighter. My goal in this article is to update you on our efforts to ensure GEOINT is fully incorporated into the Military Intelligence strategic goal--to provide the force with integrated Intelligence capabilities. In February 2006, I approved the designation of GEOINT as an Army Intelligence discipline and directed a full functional review of GEOINT through a Cradle-to-Grave (C2G) analysis. The C2G is assessing GEOINT and Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) throughout the domains of Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leader Development, Personnel, and Facilities (DOTMLPF DOTMLPF Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership and Education, Personnel and Facilities (US DoD) ) to:
* Identify problem areas.
* Develop solutions.
* Identify decisions/statements for the Commanding General (CG), USAIC.
* Facilitate the integration of solutions.
Our C2G effort is done in coordination with a wide range of GEOINT players to include National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), INSCOM INSCOM United States Army Intelligence & Security Command , USAES, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC TRADOC Training & Doctrine Command (US Army) ) and various tactical users. The results of our C2G assessment and pending actions include:
Doctrine. USAIC is writing emerging GEOINT doctrine that is fully coordinated with the U.S. Army Engineer School (USAES), the other armed services, and the NGA. GEOINT doctrine will further describe what it is, who does it, how it is done, and how it will support the operational environment. GEOINT doctrine will be incorporated in the following manuals:
* FM 2-22.11/3-34.630, Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT)
* FM 2-22.5, Imagery Intelligence
* FM 2-01.3/MCRP-2-3A, Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB)
* FMI 2-01.301, Specific Tactics, Techniques, Procedures, and Applications of IPB
* FM 2-33.4, Intelligence Analysis
* FM 2-0, Intelligence
* FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency
Organization. USAIC (in full coordination with USAES) designed and proposed GEOINT cells and structures at the brigade through Army Service Component levels to facilitate information sharing and GEOINT production. The proposals, if approved, will result in changes to Tables of Organization and Equipment (TOEs), and subsequently how we do business.
Training. Here at USAIC, we are enhancing our military occupational specialties (MOSs) 96D/35G (Imagery Analyst) and 96H/35H (Common Ground Station Operator) training to meet evolving mission requirements as documented during our Lessons Learned collection effort and Critical Task Site Selection Board process. Based on lessons learned from the field we are adding Advanced Geospatial Intelligence (AGI (Artificial General Intelligence) A machine intelligence that resembles that of a human being. Considered impossible by many, most artificial intelligence (AI) research, projects and products deal with specific applications such as industrial robots, playing chess, ), Full Motion Video (FMV), Imagery Exploitation Support System (IESS) functions, and Moving Target Indicator A radar presentation which shows only targets which are in motion. Signals from stationary targets are subtracted out of the return signal by the output of a suitable memory circuit. (MTI) familiarization to our 96D/35G training. We have added MTI forensics and FMV familiarization training for MOS 96H/35H. Upon acquiring additional resources we will expand MOS 96D/35G training to ensure we more thoroughly train these new skills.
Our MOS 96D/35G and 96H/35H Skill Level 10 through 40 soldiers, warrant officers and officers are exposed to division level GEOINT Cell operations during their final course exercises at our Joint Intelligence-Combat Training Center (JI-CTC) conducted in a collaborative intelligence environment with students from Human Intelligence, Counterintelligence, Measurement and Signature Intelligence, Signals Intelligence, and all-Source disciplines using a dynamic, real world scenario. Skills trained and reinforced in the JI-CTC GEOINT cells include:
* FMV exploitation.
* Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) basic flight operations, mission planning.
* Joint Surveillance Target Acquisition Radar System (J-STARS) MTI exploitation.
* Cross-cueing of assets, emphasis on UAS and MTI.
* Writing reports hyperlinked to Imagery Derived Product (IDP) and raw imagery in concert with the Distributed Common Ground Station-Army (DCGS-A DCGS-A Distributed Common Ground System - Army ), video clip of action from UAS and/or MTI, advanced mapping products, etc.
* National and Remote Sensing (Commercial) exploitation.
* Section Leader duty responsibilities.
* Fast-paced, first phase Tactical Identification and Ground Order-of-Battle (GOB) analysis.
* Briefing skills.
* Communications skills and systems.
* Common Operational Picture (COP) development.
* Field Artillery Intelligence Officer (FAIO) interaction.
* Battle Damage Assessment The timely and accurate estimate of damage resulting from the application of military force, either lethal or nonlethal, against a predetermined objective. Battle damage assessment can be applied to the employment of all types of weapon systems (air, ground, naval, and special forces (BDA).
* Brigade Combat Team The brigade combat team (BCT) is the basic deployable unit of maneuver in the US Army. A brigade combat team consists of one combat arms branched maneuver brigade, and its attached support and fire units. commander support operations
* AGI and DCGS-A (Version two) GEOINT toolsets and applications
JI-CTC GEOINT training today includes sister services and NGA personnel. In coordination with the USAES we will soon expand our training to include selected Engineer Geospatial Analysts.
Materiel. We are closely tracking the development of emerging GEOINT capabilities for integration into our current and future processing and collection capabilities. With our transition to DCGS-A, our TRADOC Capabilities Manager Sensor Processing (TCM (1) (Trellis-Coded Modulation/Viterbi Decoding) A technique that adds forward error correction to a modulation scheme by adding an additional bit to each baud. TCM is used with QAM modulation, for example. SP) is integrating Engineer and Imagery Analyst tools sets. The Engineer's Digital Topographic Support System (DTSS) will be integrated with DCGS-A beginning in 2008. Part of our materiel tracking includes ensuring that all future fielded systems have an embedded means to train Intelligence soldiers with realistic simulations or systems replication tools.
Leadership. There are multiple leader level skills one needs to understand to fully exploit GEOINT and all its components-Imagery, IMINT and Geospatial Information and Services The concept for collection, information extraction, storage, dissemination, and exploitation of geodetic, geomagnetic, imagery (both commercial and national source), gravimetric, aeronautical, topographic, hydrographic, littoral, cultural, and toponymic data accurately referenced to a (GI&S). We have begun to analyze these skills, reviewing what and where we currently train, and then looking towards expanding and updating that training.
Personnel. Along with possible organizational changes we have been looking at what MOSs we will need for the future. The first changes are in our MOSs 96H/35H Common Ground Station Analyst and 96D/35G Imagery Analyst. With the transition of CGS from a stand alone station to its inclusion into DCGS-A, we need a blending of skill sets for those soldiers performing their mission on a DCGS-A system. In addition, our Lessons Learned collection tells us that commanders need more Imagery Analysts to keep up with the increased reliance on FMV. Adaptive commanders and soldiers are already using MOS 96H/35H soldiers to perform Imagery Analysis. In addition to cross training MOSs 96D/35G and 96H/35Hs, we have proposed merging these MOSs by fiscal year 2011 and provide reclassification training for 96H/35Hs to become 96D/35Gs. Reclassification training is currently planned to last 10 weeks.
Other personnel issues include a detailed examination of Area of Concentration (AOC AOC,
n an acronym for the Aromatherapy Organizations Council. ) 35C, Imagery Intelligence Officer. We are determining if GEOINT assignments will increase the requirement for AOC 35C; whether we need to expand the skill sets of our 35C officers beyond just imagery management, or whether the 35C AOC should be a Skill Identifier (SI) and taught only to those projected to go to an IMINT assignment.
Facilities. While Army wide GEOINT production does not require new facilities, we are examining whether GEOINT training facilities are adequate.
We are working the implications of GEOINT daily and push decisions and issues to the forefront so they can be acted upon. We will continue our C2G effort until we get GEOINT to a place where it permeates our Intelligence DOTMLPF responsibilities.
What does this new discipline GEOINT mean to the warfighter? It means that our analysts will continue to produce the products they need today but will also be able to provide more detailed, accurate, timely, and relevant visualization products to the warfighter at all echelons. It also means that our leaders and analysts will have more adaptive skills and tools to allow them to do even more than they do today, to further increase their contribution to victory.