Aluminum extruding industry.
Aluminum extruding industry has expanded in the past several years with the revival of property industry, which is the main consumer of extruded aluminum. Around 40% of extruded aluminum is used by property sector. The remaining 60% is used by other industries such as household equipment, automotive and electronic goods industries.
Extruded aluminum is used in property industry for light structure such as curtail wall, doors, windows of buildings like apartments, office buildings and housing.
High demand comes when the price of extruded aluminum is rising especially in urban areas. The price of extruded aluminum in the past year has increased five times by an average of 5%.
The increase in the price of extruded aluminum followed the rise in the price of aluminum in international market. The country still imports most of the basic material of extruded aluminum.
The price of aluminum has increased in the world market as a result of strong demand from China. In 2008, the prices of aluminum products are expected to remain high as consumption grows faster than production in China. China is in difficulty to increase its aluminum production because of scarcity of bauxite as basic material, supply of which 70% comes from Indonesia.
Extruded aluminum is available in the forms of bars, round tube, rectangular, ovals, trapezoidal, full round bars, half round bars, half round square, and angular.
Extruded aluminum is an intermediate material used widely such as in building construction, for household goods, and furniture, car accessories, electronic goods, curtain walls, doors, window, cupboards, kitchen sets, roof racks, truck carriage, heat sink, etc.
Extruded aluminum is used widely as it is strong but light, rust resistant and is a good heat conductor. The basic material for extruded aluminum is aluminum ingot generally in the form of billet. In Indonesia, there are two types of aluminum ingot--primary and secondary. Primary aluminum is a pure aluminum produced from alumina. Secondary aluminum is produced through recycling of aluminum scraps. The producer of primary aluminum in the country is PT. Indonesia Asahan Aluminium (Inalum).
Process of production
Aluminum extrusion is a process of extruding by forcing aluminum ingot through a die in a desired forms.
There are four phases of aluminum extrusion--heating, pressing, and moulding, drawing and finishing.
There are two types of finishing--anodized finish and powder coating finish. Powder coating is differentiated into two--dry and wet. Process of anodizing is by adding Aluprimasan into aluminum to be resistant to scratch, rust, discoloration and ultraviolet ray.
Aluminum extruding industry was developed for the first time in the country in the 1970s to follow development of metal industry in the country. Among the first companies operating in extruded aluminum industry is PT. Indal Aluminium Industry (INDAL), which came on stream in 1971. INDAL is the only domestic investment (PMDN) company operating in aluminum extruding industry.
The pioneer in the industry is YKK Alumico (YKK) a foreign investment (PMA) company from Japan. YKK belongs to the YKK Group The YKK Group has three divisions including Fastening Product, Architectural Products, and Machine and Engineering divisions. In Indonesia, YKK operates in industry producing fastening products.
Other producer of extruded aluminum is PT. Alakasa Ekstrusindo (Alakasa), which was established in 1972 as a PMA company from Canada that is Aluminum Canada (Alcan).
Alakasa is owned by PT. Alakasa Industrindo, Tbk, which is the parent company of Alakasa. Other subsidiaries of PT. Alakasa Industrindo, Tbk is Alakasa Company Limited located in Hong Kong operating in the trade of aluminum basic material.
Later, a number of other PMDN companies invested in the industry. From the 1980s to the 2000s, the number of companies operating in the industry continued to increase. Currently there are at least 16 companies producing extruded aluminum with a total capacity of 155,000 tons per years.
Large producers integrated with downstream industry
Big players in the industry are integrated with other related business units such as producers of basic material, aluminum processing industry, trading companies and aluminum derivative producers. AE is one example of integrated industry, having units in aluminum ingot manufacturing and in trading. Its trading unit is PT. Alakasa Company Limited.
PT INDAL aluminum Industry (INDAL) belongs to the Maspion Grup, which has subsidiaries operating in industry using aluminum as basic material such as PT. Alumindo Light Metal Industy Tbk.
PT INDAL is also integrated with downstream industry which produces architectural products such as curtain wall, doors, windows; heat sink, household equipment, etc.
The majority shareholder of INDAL is Husin Investama, which is also the majority shareholder of PT. Alumindo Light Metal Industy Tbk. Husin Investama has a 32% stake in INDAL, and a 36% stake in PT. Alumindo Light Metal Industy, Tbk. PT. Superex Raya (SUPEREX) also has subsidiaries operating in industry producing derivatives of profile aluminum such as ladders, clotheslines, etc, with the brand of Fortune.
Most factories are in Java
Profile aluminum is used widely as substitute for wooden materials for building material and household equipment. Aluminum has superiority in being resistant to fungus and rust, therefore, it is more durable.
Profile aluminum is used mainly in large cities as it is more expensive than wooden material. Nine of 16 producers of extruded aluminum are in Jakarta and Tangerang. Bandung and Surabaya have once each.
Producers of aluminum ingot the basic material for extruded aluminum are PT. Industri Aluminum Indonesia (PT. Inalum) in Asahan, North Sumatra, which has four producers of extruded aluminum in Tanjung Morawa, Medan.
Basic material mostly imported
Basic material of extruded aluminum is aluminum ingot or billet, mostly imported such as from Australia and India.
The country still depends largely on import for ingot as the country has only one producer of aluminum ingot that is PT. Indonesia Asahan Aluminum (PT. Inalum), with an annual production capacity of 225,000 tons per year. In addition, the production of Inalum has declined lately. In the first half of 2007, aluminum production of PT Indonesia Asahan Aluminum (Inalum) fell 3.95% to 119,311 tons from 124,216 tons in the same period in 2006. The decline in output was caused by shortage in power supply to heat its 470 ovens in its smelter.
PT. Inalum needs around 440 440 megawat (MW) of power to produce 250,000 tons of aluminum ingot per year.
PT. Inalum cooperates with state-owned electricity company PLN to cover its shortage in its power supply from its hydroelectric plant especially during peak load period.
Meanwhile, ingot requirement grows by 17.2% per year on the average in 20052009, faster than production growth of 7% per year. Without capacity expansion, the country's dependence on imports for ingot will certainly increase.
Nalco to build aluminum smelter
An investor from India--National Aluminum Company Ltd (Nalco)--which is a state company of that country plans to build an aluminum smelter with a capacity of 500,000 tons per year in Tanjung Aluprima-Aluprima, South Sumatra to cost around US$ 3.2 billion. The project includes a coal-fired power plant with a capacity of 3x250 MW using low rank coal of 5,000 Kcal/kg, an aluminum smelter with a capacity of 250,000 tons of aluminum ingot per year in the first phase.
Nalco and the provincial administration have signed a MOU. A feasibility study will take 6 months, process of legal agreement 6 months and preparation for construction 15 months before construction will start.
Under the agreement, the regional administration is to provide a special port with a capacity of 100,000 tons to facilitate supply of coal, and railway transport facility to carry basic material. Alumina, the basic material to produce aluminum ingot will be imported from Andhra Pradesh, India.
The project will need around 1 million tons of alumina per year. The first phase will cost around US$ 1.8 billion to be followed with the second phase to cost around US$ 1.4 billion. The plant will need around 5 million tons of coal to be supplied from Bukit Asam in that province.
The country's production of extruded aluminum continued to grow in the past year to 87,000 tons in 2007 from 69,000 tons in the previous year. The increase in production has been recorded by YKK, Indal, Alex, Superex, Makmur Jaya, and Calindo. Indal's production at present is 15,000 tons per year, and that of Makmur Jaya 10,000 tons per year.
The old producer Alakasa produces only 1,500 tons per year as only one of its two machines is in operation with a capacity of 2,800 tons.
The quality of extruded aluminum products in the market could be divided into three categories--premium, high and medium. Premium quality is for medium strength structure used by high rise buildings like curtain wall, doors and windows. Among the producers of prime quality extruded aluminum are YKK AP, INDAL, and SUPEREX.
High quality one is for doors and windows as well as ladders. Alex is one of major producer of this type which is used widely in workshops producing aluminum goods such as ladders.
Medium quality extrude aluminum is used for racks with medium strength such as light racks and clotheslines. Among its producers are CALINDO and ALUMEX.
Exports and imports fluctuating
Exports peaked in 2006, when demand on the domestic market fell as a result of the 150% rise in oil fuel prices late 2005. In 2006, exports grew 9.6% to 15,366 tons from 14,024 tons in 2005 when export already shot up 75%. INDAL, for example, exported 40% of its production of extruded aluminum especially to Japan, the United States, Britain and Italy. CALINDO exported part of its production to Europe, Australia, and Singapore; and YKK AP to Japan. In 2007, demand on the domestic market rose again with the revival of the property sector. Imports in 2007 grew only 0.6% as producers cut their exports to increase supply on the domestic market.
Imports of extruded aluminum contributes only a small part to domestic requirement. Imports rose to around 2,300 tons in 2006 from around 1,400 tons annually in the previous years. In 2007 imports rose further to 2,360 tons.
Domestic Consumption Growing
The property sector uses around 40% of domestic supply of extruded aluminum and the remaining 60% is for household, automotive and electronic sectors. The property sector grew strongly in 2005 resulting in a sharp increase in consumption of extruded aluminum to 44,419 tons from 38,971 tons in 2004. However, the sharp increase in oil fuel prices late 2005 resulted in a slump in 2006 but consumption of extruded aluminum continued to scale up to 55,979 tons. In 2007, the property sector grew further marked by the appearance of new buildings of shopping malls, apartments, and office buildings--all need larger supply of extruded aluminum for light structure such as doors and windows.
The growing trend of minimalism in housing sector also contributes to an increase in demand for extruded aluminum for doors and window frames. The automotive sector is also a major user of extruded aluminum such as for pedals, roof racks and boxes.
Domestic consumption of extruded aluminum grew from 55,979 tons in 2006 to 84,277 tons in 2007, or an increase of 50.6%.
The country disposes of most of its production of extruded aluminum on the domestic market. INDAL sells 60% of its production on the domestic market. The property sector is the largest user.
The market targets include stockists and large projects. Among the consumers not directly deal with producers are workshops producing aluminum ladders, doors, windows and racks, etc.
Large producers of extruded aluminum like INDAL generally cooperate and deal mainly with large building contractors. Large property projects like Ritz Carltons Hotel, Pacific Place, and JW Marriot have used extruded aluminum from INDAL.
INDAL also exports part of its production such as to Singapore, the Philippines, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Australia, Canada, the United States, Japana, Qatar, China, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
The buyers of extruded aluminum from producers are the end users that require certain specifications. Therefore, distribution of extruded aluminum does not reach retailers such as in the case of other building materials like cement, tile, etc. Extruded aluminum is not sold at retailer shops such as in building material specialty stores or small shops. Extruded aluminum is distributed to distributors from which to agents.
The prices of extruded aluminum in Indonesia follows the price developments in international market as most of the basic materials are imported. In 2007, the prices of extruded aluminum have increased five times, up 5% each time.
Currently the price is around Rp 50,000 per kg. The price is expected to go up further later this year as world's large producers of aluminum ingot such as China and South Africa have exhausted their capacity.
In addition, China is facing difficulty in securing the basic material for ingot in the form of bauxite imported mainly or around 70% from Indonesia. Indonesia has restricted export of bauxite.
Competition is tighter in the marjet of extruded aluminum because of growing number of producers. Among major producers with capacity of around 10,000 tons a year using new machines such as CALINDO, AM and ALUMEX could produce more efficiently.
The appearance of the new players caused marketing problem for old producers which have use old machines with smaller capacity like Alakasa, and a number of other companies in Medan.
Table-1 Producers of extruded aluminum Producers Capacity Location Date of (ton/year) establishment PT. YKK Alumico 20,000 Tangerang Indonesia (YKK) PT. Calindo Damai 18,000 Tangerang 2,005 Sejahtera Abadi (CALINDO) PT. Alexindo (Alex) 15,000 Jakarta 1,983 PT. INDAL Aluminum 20,000 Surabaya 1,971 Industry (INDAL) PT. Makmur Jaya 12,000 Jakarta 1,988 Saputra Perkasa (MAKMUR JAYA) PT. Superex Raya 14,000 Tangerang (SUPEREX) PT. Alakasa 10,000 Jakarta Ekstrusindo (Alakasa) PT. Damai Abadi 10,000 Medan (Damai) Aluprima Pacific 8,000 Jakarta Industries (Aluprima) PT. Indo Ekstrusion 5,000 Bandung (Indo) PT. Indotecno Multi 4,000 Tanjung 1,995 Industries (Indotecno) Morawa, Medan PT. Sari Logam 2,000 Medan Morowa (Sari) PT. Suntex Prima 2,000 Medan (Suntex) Alumex Perkasa Jaya 7,000 Tangerang (Alumex) PT. Alko Mandiri (Alko) 8,000 Cikupa, 2000 Tangerang Total 155,000 Producers Status Brand PT. YKK Alumico PMA YKK AP Indonesia (YKK) PT. Calindo Damai Cald Sejahtera Abadi (CALINDO) PT. Alexindo (Alex) PMDN Alexindo PT. INDAL Aluminum PMDN INDAL ex Industry (INDAL) PT. Makmur Jaya PMDN Alumas Saputra Perkasa (MAKMUR JAYA) PT. Superex Raya Superex (SUPEREX) PT. Alakasa PMA Alka Ekstrusindo (Alakasa) PT. Damai Abadi (Damai) Aluprima Pacific PMDN -- Industries (Aluprima) PT. Indo Ekstrusion (Indo) PT. Indotecno Multi Industries (Indotecno) PT. Sari Logam Morowa (Sari) PT. Suntex Prima (Suntex) Alumex Perkasa Jaya (Alumex) PT. Alko Mandiri (Alko) Alko Total Source: Data Consult Table-2 Production of extruded aluminum (Tons) Year Production Growth (%) 2004 45,500 -- 2005 57,000 25.3 2006 69,000 21.1 2007 *) 87,000 26.1 Note:*) prognosis Source: Data Consult Table-3 Quality of extruded aluminum Quality Uses Producers Premium High Rise Building (curtain YKK Alumico, INDAL, wall); Architectural product Superex (windows , doors, etc.) High Architectural product Alexindo, Alakasa, (windows, doors, etc.) Damai Abadi, Alko strong furniture (ladders, Mandiri, Makmur Jaya racks) Medium Light rack, light cupboards, Calindo, Alumex clotheslines, etc. Perkasa Jaya Source: Data Consult Table-4 Exports of extruded aluminum (Tons) Year Exports Growth (%) 2004 7,990 -- 2005 14,024 75.5 2006 15,366 9.6 2007*) 5,083 -66.9 Note: *) estimate Source: Industry ministry, BPS, Data Consult Table-5 Imports of extruded aluminum (Tons) Year Imports Growth (%) 2004 1,461 -- 2005 1,443 -1.2 2006 2,345 62.5 2007*) 2,360 0.6 Note: *) estimate Source: Industry ministry, BPS, Data Consult Table-6 Indonesia's production, exports, imports and consumption of extruded aluminum, 2004 - 2007 (Tons) Year Production Exports Imports Consumption Cons. growth (%) 2004 45,500 7,990 1,461 38,971 -- 2005 57,000 14,024 1,443 44,419 14 2006 69,000 15,366 2,345 55,979 26 2007 *) 87,000 5,083 2,360 84,277 51 Average 30 Note: *) estimate; Source: Data Consult