Alternatives for Sustainable Development - A Study by Artur Victoria
Among the aspects that can set a new level in the relationship between humanity and nature, are those defined as clean technology, and once they are in our day to day, is more visible their identification Clean technologies will protect the environment, are less polluting, using all resources in a more sustainable, more products and recycle wasteAmong the aspects that can set a new level in the relationship between humanity and nature, are those defined as clean technology, and once they are in our day to day, is more visible their identification.
Clean technologies will protect the environment, are less polluting, using all resources in a more sustainable, more products and recycle waste.
Prevent the pollution generating little or no residue. If generated pollution, clean technologies rely on other technologies for its treatment. The proposed clean technology is to improve the conditions and procedures relating to information, access to technology and transfer, particularly for developing countries (UNCED, 2001).
In the words of Sachs (1986), "modern technology should be used for the development of new products (and markets) can add value to biomass from agricultural, forestry and water, considering the potential occupational tied to their production and management of renewable natural resources. "
For the implementation of technological innovations is necessary to consider the attitudes, beliefs and values of "social actors", as a technological change their mentality and influence in their behavior. Why social groups are not prepared to accept and / or assimilate the impacts and consequences of technological change, the changes certainly will not be successful to generate results, so in terms of increased productivity and in terms of development that will be sustainable (RATTNNER, 1998).
To clean technologies to Agenda 21 (UNCED, 2001) brings propositions as:
a) clean technologies suggest different patterns of social relationships. Their proposal is based on community organizations cohesive, solidarity, and based on strong motivations, values and common interests, so that each community can actively participate in the construction of their own paths,
b) assuming the technological innovation as a way to ensure a balance between socioeconomic within contemporary society, then it can be seen as a necessary condition for the continuity and "sustainability" of the development process,
c) if the technological innovations do not meet the specific policy measures to prevent destructive practices, lead to consequences similar to unsustainable growth strategies,e.g., the classes get richer introduction of these innovations, while the poor become even more impoverished.
Actions to address sustainability for the planet resurface at every moment. As highlighted by the immediate and urgent measures have to be non-governmental organization Greenpeace that produces the concept of Cleaner Production, which suggests that the linear equation industrial, classical, model based on end-of-pipe, containment of the waste (pollution) the factory for further treatment and disposal, the equation of circles, with larger environmental concerns, consumption of water and energy.
According to Greenpeace, the foundations of clean production are focused on five basic principles:
a) The precautionary principle - adopted in Europe, the precautionary demand for diseases of workers and consumers, and irreparable damage to the planet. The producer is who should take responsibility and burden of proof that a product, process or material will not cause harm to humans and the environment,
b) Principle of prevention - proposes to replace the pollution control in the factory (end-of-pipe) by preventing the generation of waste and consequent environmental impacts.
Examining the process for products, consumption, distribution, disposal and waste treatment, packaging and products, the end of life. Its objectives are:
- Eliminate or reduce the generation of potentially polluting emissions;
- Introduce measures to shift the design (preparation of the draft) to products;
- Re-stimulate demand by consumers and changing patterns for use or consumption of materials.
The circle in Vienna, appeared in 1926, brought together a group of thinkers and scholars of science, led by Moritz Schlik (1882-1936), in order to discuss the problems of science, logic and scientific methodology. It is the tendency neo positivist, also known as logical empiricism or logical positivism, which are included some empiricists principles in developing a theory and methodology with an emphasis on experimentation and verification in which knowledge is interpreted through listed or sentences.
The critical rationalism, which argued that science, is rational, supported by Karl R. Popper (1902-1994). Introduced in science the idea that "the evidence is that a scientific theory is the fact that it is fallible and to be rejected", is not just a theory verifiable, it might prove valuable that it is false.
It is a condition to refute (or fallibility), is resistant to the theory will be confirmed or refuted corroborated.
In opposition to the theory of Popper, Kuhn rejects the idea that the development of science has occurred thanks to the "condition of refusal".
Kuhn defends the idea that evolution and progress of science are the intellectual tradition, represented by the "paradigm", as previously indicated its definition. When the paradigm fails to solve the problems in certain situations, then cedes its place to a new paradigm.
The development of science is not for accumulation of knowledge, but by a series of scientific revolutions, characterized "by the transformations of the principles that organize the knowledge, causing a change of paradigm. Privilege has no theory of truth on the other, cannot be said that a new theory is larger than before and that takes, is what Feyerabend says ( and believes that "there is no standard search that has been violated. "
Jurgen Habernas characterizes contemporary societies as companies streamlined, referring to the instrumental reason, that preaches the use of means to achieve the purposes, to the domination of nature for profit, putting science and technology at the service of capital.
One way to report that our technological world is driven mainly by economic development (MORAES; MURICY, 1992) So, as we saw on the paradigms that have dominated each area at the time of philosophical development of mankind, with their specific lines of reasoning and creating natural perceptions that characterized them, giving an identity for each one, is the proposition that the paradigm current exists in all previous, having withdrawn its roots in all parts of them.
Whole conceptual basis of the dominant philosophical paradigm in culture reflected in environmental thinking in the style of development and life of contemporary societies. These tests can be the understanding of current paradigm, which adopted thoughts, attitudes and actions of theft and environmental degradation also led to social oppression, giving the condition of unavailability still dominates.
a) the principle of integration - covers two topics: the application of resources for prevention and care in all streams of the production system and assessment-of-life cycle (Life Cycle Assessment) of the product. The LCA was born in the 70s and gained further impetus in 90 with the objective of ensuring the safety of products and processes to the environment and human health.
b) principle of democratic control: the involvement of employees, residents in the vicinity of the plant industry, consumers and other segments of society, subject to the effects of products and production processes of goods and services that define the strategies of survival for Clean Production
Right of public access to information: this law breaks down as follows:
- Citizen''s right to know and have access to information about environmental conditions and natural resources;
- Right to be consulted and participate in making decisions affecting the environment;
- Resources and right to compensation on damage on the environment and human health.
Democratic participation is beyond the drafting of guiding principles of the actions of the capitalist world of production, it is that workers and consumers are contributing to the technological innovations environmentally and socially responsible, to be more aware that players are subject to changes in degradation of nature the planet and also feel for the victims of environmental impacts caused by development and technology.
The relationship between humanity and nature currently has a sustainable future projection is directed to the development of clean technologies.
Reference to Agenda 21 (UNCED, 2001) are called "environmentally sound technologies" because protecting the environment by reducing the emission of pollutants, making use of resources in a sustainable way, their products and are willing to waste recycling. To Sachs (1993), new products should be developed by modern technology aimed to add value to agricultural biomass, forest and water, linked to the use of raw materials from renewable natural resources.
The rationalization of energy use, such as the use of steam, electricity, natural gas, etc.., Replacing fossil fuels in central power production has a large effect in reducing the generation of gaseous and particulate solids.
It is in the details for the proposal of sustainability it is vital that there is a paradigm different from the current institutions idealize. To have a genuine quest for sustainable development, the proposals for sustainability described above reveal their intentions in the need for the individuals involved in this process are aware of all the inter-relationship of each item of the process. Thus, awareness is the precursor to any attempt to seek sustainable development, which then calls for the preparation there is a real purpose in the action of the people involved, so managing the success of the process.