All-Day Kindergarten.Although many school systems still provide only half-day half-day
a day when one works only in the morning or only in the afternoon
half-day half n → halber freier Tag m kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be programs, the trend in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. has been toward implementation of all-day all-day
Continuing all through the day: an all-day examination. kindergarten. In the early 1980s, only about 30 percent of U.S. kindergarten children attended all-day kindergarten (Holmes & McConnell McConnell may refer to:
This trend has grown as a result of both societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. changes and educational concerns (Gullo, 1990; Holmes & McConnell, 1990; Karweit, 1992; Rothenberg, 1995; Sheehan People whose surname is or was Sheehan include:
v. t. 1. Same as Hock, to hamstring.
imp. & p. p. os>
p. pr. & vb. n. os>
n. 1. An adz; a hoe.
v. t. 1. To cut with a hoe. & Bryde, 1996; Housden & Kam a. 1. Crooked; awry. , 1992; Lofthouse, 1994; Towers, 1991) have found that most teachers also prefer all-day kindergarten programs.
Early research conducted on the value of all-day kindergarten yielded mixed results. In a review of research on all-day kindergarten conducted in the 1970s and 1980s, Puleo (1988) suggested that much of the early research employed inadequate methodological standards that resulted in serious problems with internal and external validity External validity is a form of experimental validity. An experiment is said to possess external validity if the experiment’s results hold across different experimental settings, procedures and participants. ; consequently, the results were conflicting and inconclusive INCONCLUSIVE. What does not put an end to a thing. Inconclusive presumptions are those which may be overcome by opposing proof; for example, the law presumes that he who possesses personal property is the owner of it, but evidence is allowed to contradict this presumption, and show who is . A number of studies of all-day kindergarten were conducted in the 1990s. While they also provided mixed results, some noteworthy trends appeared.
Effects of All-Day Kindergarten on Academic Achievement
Although research on the academic effects of all-day kindergarten conducted in the 1970s and 1980s showed mixed results, it did point to consistent results for students identified as being at-risk (Housden & Kam, 1992; Karweit, 1992; Puleo, 1988). Researchers found positive academic and social benefits of all-day kindergarten for children from low SES or educationally disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
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This article has been tagged since September 2007. backgrounds. Research reported in the past 10 years has found more consistent positive academic outcomes for children enrolled in all-day kindergarten (Cryan, Sheehan, Wiechel, & Bandy-Hedden, 1992; Elicker & Mathur, 1997; Hough & Bryde, 1996; Koopmans, 1991).
However, Holmes and McConnell (1990) conducted a study in which they found very few differences between children enrolled in half-day kindergarten and those enrolled in full-day kindergarten. The study was done during the first year of a move to full-day kindergarten programming by a large metropolitan school district. Twenty schools were selected randomly to provide either full-day or half-day kindergarten experiences. Half of the schools for each group were chosen from Chapter 1 schools and half were selected from affluent areas of the city. Researchers used scores on California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W). Achievement Tests for 311 children enrolled in half-day programs and 326 children enrolled in full-day programs to determine whether or not there were differences in academic achievement. Only one of six achievement comparisons showed a significant difference that could be attributed to the kindergarten program: males in the full-day kindergarten program performed significantly better on the mathematics concepts and applications sub-test than did males in the half-day program.
Nunnelley (1996) investigated the impact of all-day versus half-day kindergarten programs on academic achievement levels of at-risk children. While no significant differences in academic achievement were found, only 19 children were included in the study (9 who attended full-day kindergarten and 10 who attended half-day kindergarten). Nunnelley suggested that further research with a larger sample was necessary.
A number of recent studies do show differences in academic achievement in children enrolled in half-day versus full-day programs. Cryan et al. (1992) conducted a two-phase study that examined the effects of half-day and all-day kindergarten programs on children's academic and behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. success in school. In the first phase of the study, which was retrospective LAW, RETROSPECTIVE. A retrospective law is one that is to take effect, in point of time, before it was passed.
2. Whenever a law of this kind impairs the obligation of contracts, it is void. 3 Dall. 391. , data were collected on 8,290 children, from 27 school districts, who entered kindergarten in 1982-1984. The second phase was a longitudinal study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. of nearly 6,000 children who entered kindergarten in two cohorts, in 1986 and 1987. The researchers found that participation in all-day kindergarten was related positively to subsequent school performance. Children who attended full-day kindergarten scored higher on standardized tests A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent"  , had fewer grade retentions, and had fewer Chapter 1 placements.
Hough and Bryde (1996) also found that students enrolled in full-day kindergarten programs benefited academically. Student achievement was examined for 511 children enrolled in half-day and all-day kindergarten programs in 25 classrooms during the 1994-95 school year. Data were collected from: 1) classroom observations; 2) focus groups with children, teachers, and parents; 3) report cards; 4) parent surveys; and 5) achievement test scores. Children in the all-day programs scored higher on the achievement test than those in half-day programs, on every item tested. The children enrolled in the all-day kindergarten program also had a higher attendance rate.
Koopmans (1991) examined the effectiveness of a full-day kindergarten program for the Newark, New Jersey, Board of Education. Koopmans looked at two cohorts of students: one in its third year of elementary school elementary school: see school. and the other in its second year of elementary school. Students' scores on the California Test of Basic Skills (CTBS CTBS Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills
CTBS Certified Tissue Bank Specialist
CTBS California Tests of Basic Skills ) were used for the analysis. Reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%. scores were somewhat higher in 2nd grade for those children in the first cohort cohort /co·hort/ (ko´hort)
1. in epidemiology, a group of individuals sharing a common characteristic and observed over time in the group.
2. who had attended all-day kindergarten. Comparison scores were significantly higher in both 1st and 2nd grade for those children in the second cohort who had attended all-day kindergarten. Math scores were also significantly higher for all-day kindergarten children in the second cohort, although no significant differences in math scores were found between full- and half-day students in the first cohort.
Finally, a study by Elicker and Mathur (1997) also found that academic outcomes at the end of the kindergarten year indicated slightly greater progress in kindergarten and higher levels of 1st-grade readiness for children in an all-day kindergarten program. In addition, teachers reported significantly greater progress for all-day kindergarten in literacy, math, and general learning skills.
Social and Behavioral Effects of All-Day Kindergarten
Although most studies of all-day kindergarten have focused on the effect of length of day on academic achievement, some researchers have also examined social and behavioral effects. Cryan et al. (1992) compared both academic and behavioral success of children enrolled in half-day versus full-day kindergarten programs. Results provided strong support for the effectiveness of the full-day kindergarten program on children's classroom behavior. Teachers rated 14 dimensions of children's behavior on the Hahnemann Hah·ne·mann , (Christian Friedrich) Samuel 1755-1843.
German physician and founder of homeopathy. He postulated that medicine produces symptoms in healthy people that are similar to those that it relieves in sick people. Elementary School Behavior Rating Scale (Spivack & Swift, 1975). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the researchers, a clear relationship emerged between the kindergarten schedule and children's classroom behavior. Of the 14 dimensions, nine were more positive in all-day kindergarten: originality o·rig·i·nal·i·ty
n. pl. o·rig·i·nal·i·ties
1. The quality of being original.
2. The capacity to act or think independently.
3. Something original.
Noun 1. , independent learning, involvement in classroom activities, productivity with peers, intellectual dependency dependency
In international relations, a weak state dominated by or under the jurisdiction of a more powerful state but not formally annexed by it. Examples include American Samoa (U.S.) and Greenland (Denmark). , failure/anxiety, unreflectiveness, holding back or withdrawal, and approach to teacher. No dimension of children's behavior was more positive in the half-day program when compared with the all-day program.
Other researchers who have studied social and behavioral outcomes found that children in all-day kindergarten programs were engaged in more child-to-child interactions (Hough & Bryde, 1996), and that they made significantly greater progress in learning social skills (Elicker & Mathur, 1997).
Attitudes Toward All-Day Kindergarten
While educators, policymakers, and parents are concerned with academic achievement, other aspects of children's, teachers', and families' lives are affected by all-day kindergarten. Recently, some researchers examined parents' and teachers' attitudes toward all-day kindergarten.
Parent attitudes. In general, parents of children in all-day kindergarten programs were satisfied with the programs and believed that all-day kindergarten better prepared their children for 1st grade (Hough & Bryde, 1996; Housden & Kam, 1992; Towers, 1991). In one study (Hough & Bryde, 1996), parents reported that all-day kindergarten teachers more often gave suggestions for home activities. Parents also felt that their children benefited socially in the all-day kindergarten (Towers, 1991). In a survey conducted by Elicker and Mathur (1997), parents reported a preference for the all-day program, citing such advantages as a more relaxed atmosphere, more opportunities for children to choose activities and develop their own interests, and more time for creative activities.
Parents of children in the half-day program were divided in their opinions about the length of the kindergarten day. Some parents appreciated having their children home for part of the day; others indicated that they would have preferred a full-day program, because they felt their children were rushed in the half-day program.
Teacher attitudes. Researchers who reviewed teacher attitudes toward all-day kindergarten found that many teachers preferred all-day kindergarten because it allowed them more time for individual instruction (Greer-Smith, 1990; Housden & Kam, 1992). Teachers of all-day kindergarten noted that they were better able to get to know their children and families and, therefore, were better able to meet the children's needs (Elicker & Mathur, 1997). Teachers also cited the following advantages of all-day kindergarten: a more relaxed atmosphere, more opportunities for children to choose activities and develop their own interests, and more time for creative activities. In addition, teachers felt that all-day kindergarten programs were more effective than half-day programs in preparing children for 1st grade (Elicker & Mathur, 1997; Towers, 1991).
An interesting component of one all-day kindergarten program that both teachers and parents appreciated was an "easing in" process that allowed children to begin the year by attending half-day, then some full days; by the seventh week, these children attended full-day kindergarten every day (Towers, 1991).
Curriculum in All-Day Kindergarten
Several recent summaries of research (Housden & Kam, 1992; Karweit, 1992; Rothenberg, 1995) have suggested that the quality of the kindergarten experience and type of educational program, as well as the configuration of the school day, should be considered when kindergarten programs are evaluated. Some of the questions that have been addressed relate to what the children do while they are in the programs, how the teachers structure the programs, and how the teachers interact with children during instructional time. Full-day programs have the potential for offering more opportunities for the small-group and child-initiated activities that are recommended for early childhood classrooms (Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). Researchers have found, however, that the greatest percentage of time in both full-day and half-day programs is consumed con·sume
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.
a. by teacher-directed, large-group activity (Elicker & Mathur, 1997; Morrow mor·row
1. The following day: resolved to set out on the morrow.
2. The time immediately subsequent to a particular event.
3. Archaic The morning. , Strickland, & Woo, 1998).
Large-group, teacher-directed activity. Elicker and Mathur (1997) defined teacher-directed, large-group activity as a group of 10 or more children involved in teacher-led activities such as singing, movement, and physical exercise, as well as more quiet participation in such activities as listening to stories or to teacher instruction. In a study conducted over a two-year period that compared one school's daily activities in eight half-day and four full-day kindergarten programs, Elicker and Mathur (1997) found the greatest percentage of time in both kinds of classrooms was spent in large-group, teacher-directed activity. Although the average time spent on teacher-directed activity in full-day classrooms (100 minutes) was greater than in half-day classrooms (83.5 minutes), the percentage of total time consumed by teacher-directed activity was 16 percent less in full-day classrooms. This finding confirmed data collected earlier by Cryan et al. (1992) suggesting that children attending full- and alternate-day kindergarten programs spent less time in teacher-directed, large-group activity and more time in active free play.
In a study designed to determine the effects of the length of the kindergarten program on early literacy development, Morrow et al. (1998) found that the majority of the instructional time for literacy was spent in whole-group instruction. In the all-day classrooms, an average of 108 minutes was spent in whole-group literacy instruction, which represented 83 percent of the total time spent in literacy activity. The average time in half-day programs was 54 minutes, which represented 85 percent of the classroom literacy activity. The results of this study confirm the findings of earlier researchers indicating that full-day kindergarten teachers, as well as half-day kindergarten teachers, utilize primarily large-group, teacher-directed instructional techniques.
Small-group and individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.
2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.
3. , teacher-directed activity. Elicker and Mathur (1997) found very little difference in the amount of teacher-directed, small-group activity between the full-day and half-day programs. Teacher-led activities for groups of 2-10 children constituted only 2 to 3 percent of the day in both full-day and half-day kindergarten programs. Hough and Bryde (1996), however, found that full-day programs included a greater number of small-group activities, as well as more individualized instruction Individualized instruction is a method of instruction in which content, instructional materials, instructional media, and pace of learning are based upon the abilities and interests of each individual learner. , than did the half-day programs; they suggested that full-day teachers, who had more time for instruction, may have felt less pressure to convey information expediently ex·pe·di·ent
1. Appropriate to a purpose.
a. Serving to promote one's interest: was merciful only when mercy was expedient.
Morrow et al. (1998) also found that teachers offered fewer small-group and individualized literacy activities than whole-group instructional activities. All-day kindergarten teachers, however, utilized small-group instruction more frequently than did half-day teachers. All-day kindergarten teachers had 13 percent of their literacy activities taking place in small groups, while half-day teachers used only 8 percent of their literacy time in small group-settings. Individual literacy instructional time occurred somewhat less frequently in all-day programs. Only 4 percent of total literacy time in all-day classrooms and only 7 percent of total literacy time in half-day classrooms was spent in one-on-one teacher/student instruction.
Child-initiated activity. Good (1996) suggested that children had more time for play and for self-directed activities when they attended an all-day, alternate-day program--for example, they were able to complete a project in the afternoon that they had started in the morning. Elicker and Mathur (1997) found that child-initiated activity increased by 7 percent in full-day classrooms; examples included more time spent in both indoor and outdoor free play, more extensive use of learning centers, and a small increase in cooperative learning cooperative learning Education theory A student-centered teaching strategy in which heterogeneous groups of students work to achieve a common academic goal–eg, completing a case study or a evaluating a QC problem. See Problem-based learning, Socratic method. . Children in full-day kindergarten programs engaged in child-initiated activity during 29 percent of the day, while children in half-day programs engaged in child-initiated activity for an average of 21 percent of their day.
By contrast, Morrow et al. (1998) compared the amount of time spent in child-initiated activity between full-day and half-day programs and found that while children in full-day programs had more total time per day engaged in free choice activity (25 minutes versus 19 minutes), the percentage of free choice time was greater in half-day programs (10 percent versus 13 percent). These researchers, however, noted that children in the full-day programs participated in more self-initiated literacy activities during their free choice time than did children in half-day programs.
Research data in both the Good (1996) and Morrow et al. (1998) studies were collected during the first year of the all-day kindergarten program. The data in the Elicker and Mathur (1997) study were collected over a two-year period. After comparing the data collected from the first and second years of the study, Elicker and Mathur concluded that many of the differences between full-and half-day kindergarten programming became stronger during the second year and that "children in the full-day classrooms were initiating more learning activity and receiving more one-to-one instruction from their teachers, while spending proportionally pro·por·tion·al
1. Forming a relationship with other parts or quantities; being in proportion.
2. Properly related in size, degree, or other measurable characteristics; corresponding: less time in teacher-directed groups" (p. 477).
Most of the recent research on all-day kindergarten indicates positive benefits for children in terms of academic achievement and behavior. Parents and teachers seem to prefer all-day kindergarten over half-day kindergarten for a variety of reasons. However, Gullo (1990) cautions that the most important aspect of the full-day kindergarten may not be the length of the kindergarten day, but rather what occurs during that day. He notes that "all-day kindergarten has the potential of being either a blessing or a bane BANE. This word was formerly used to signify a malefactor. Bract. 1. 2, t. 8, c. 1. for young children. This will depend on which type of pressures prevail in influencing the development of the all-day kindergarten program" (p. 38). Gullo and others (Olsen & Zigler, 1989; Rothenberg, 1995) have warned educators and parents to resist the pressure to include increasingly more didactic di·dac·tic
Of or relating to medical teaching by lectures or textbooks as distinguished from clinical demonstration with patients. academic instructional programming for all-day kindergarten, which, they contend, would be inappropriate for young children. Further research might help determine whether, over time, all-day kindergarten teachers can restructure the curriculum to conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well" developmentally appropriate standards.
Educators, parents, and policymakers must remember that what children do in kindergarten may be more important than how long they are in the classroom each day. Results from recent research suggest, however, that a longer day can provide children the opportunity to spend more time engaged in active, child-initiated, small-group activities. In such classrooms, teachers seem to be less stressed by time constraints In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. and may be better able to get to know the children. They report that they are able to work on themes in greater depth and can allow children more opportunities to choose activities and develop their own interests (Elicker & Mathur, 1997). Based on recent research, it appears that all-day kindergarten can offer children a developmentally appropriate curriculum, while at the same time providing academic benefits.
Bredekamp, S., & Copple, C. (Eds.). (1997). Developmentally appropriate practice Developmentally appropriate practice (or DAP) is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development by basing all practices and decisions on (1) theories of child development, (2) in early childhood programs (Rev. ed rev.
2. .). Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the largest nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, experts, and advocates in center-based and family day care. .
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Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. effects of all-day kindergarten attendance on achievement. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 336 494)
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Morrow, L. M., Strickland, D. S., & Woo, D. G. (1998). Literacy instruction in half- and whole-day kindergarten. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
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Rothenberg, D. (1995). Full-day kindergarten programs. ERIC Digest Digest: see Corpus Juris Civilis.
(1) A compilation of all the traffic on a news group or mailing list. Digests can be daily or weekly.
(2) Any compilation or summary. . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 382 410)
Sheehan, R., Cryan, J. R., Wiechel, J., & Bandy, I.G. (1991). Factors contributing to success in elementary schools: Research findings for early childhood educators This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject.
Please help recruit one or [ improve this article] yourself. See the talk page for details. . Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 6(1), 66-75.
Spivack, G., & Swift, M. (1975). Hahnemann elementary school behavior rating scale. Philadelphia, PA: Hahnemann University.
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Patricia Clark is Assistant Professor, Elementary Education elementary education
or primary education
Traditionally, the first stage of formal education, beginning at age 5–7 and ending at age 11–13. , Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana Muncie (IPA: [ˈmʌn.si]) is a city in Delaware County in east central Indiana, best known as the home of Ball State University and the birthplace of the Ball Corporation. . Elizabeth Kirk is Assistant Professor, Teacher Education, Miami University Miami University, main campus at Oxford, Ohio; coeducational; state supported; chartered 1809, opened 1824. The library has extensive collections in literature and American history, including the William Holmes McGuffey Library and Museum and the Edgar W. , Middletown, Ohio Middletown is an All-American City located in Butler and Warren counties in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Formerly in Lemon, Turtlecreek, and Franklin townships, Middletown was incorporated by the Ohio General Assembly on February 11, 1833, and .