Agricultural tasks and injuries among Kentucky farm children: results of the Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project.Background: This population-based study reports the prevalent agricultural tasks and the 1-year cumulative incidence of injuries in a sample of 999 children [less than or equal to] 18 years old living on family farms in Kentucky Kentucky, state, United States
Kentucky (kəntŭk`ē, kĭn–), one of the so-called border states of the S central United States. It is bordered by West Virginia and Virginia (E); Tennessee (S); the Mississippi R. .
Methods: Data were collected in 1994 to 1995 for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
n.pr an institute of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project. A random sample of farm children in 60 Kentucky counties was selected using a cross-sectional cross section also cross-sec·tion
a. A section formed by a plane cutting through an object, usually at right angles to an axis.
b. A piece so cut or a graphic representation of such a piece.
2. , two-stage cluster design. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. , primarily mothers, completed a 30-minute telephone interview about work-related tasks and injuries experienced by their children while working on the farm.
Results: Participation in chores related to tobacco and beef cattle production was common for children aged 5 to 18 years. In a 1-year period, 29 children were injured in·jure
tr.v. in·jured, in·jur·ing, in·jures
1. To cause physical harm to; hurt.
2. To cause damage to; impair.
3. while performing farm work, yielding a crude rate of 2.8 per 100 children (95% confidence interval confidence interval,
n a statistical device used to determine the range within which an acceptable datum would fall. Confidence intervals are usually expressed in percentages, typically 95% or 99%. , 1.7-3.8). Boys aged 16 to 18 years had the highest injury rate (9.2 per 100 children). Farm machinery, cattle and horses, falls from heights, and contact with inanimate objects Inanimate Objects
the study of inanimate things.
the assignment to inanimate objects, forces, and plants of personalities and wills, but not souls. — animatistic, adj. were the primary external causes of nonfatal Adj. 1. nonfatal - not bringing death; "nonfatal heart attack"
fatal - bringing death farm work injuries.
Conclusion: Rates of farm work injuries among adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. boys may be higher than previously reported for Kentucky and other states. Injury prevention interventions targeted to chores related to tobacco and beef cattle production are particularly relevant for this population of young workers.
Key Words: agriculture, children, epidemiology epidemiology, field of medicine concerned with the study of epidemics, outbreaks of disease that affect large numbers of people. Epidemiologists, using sophisticated statistical analyses, field investigations, and complex laboratory techniques, investigate the cause , injury
Recent national initiatives in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. have encouraged research into the cause and design of interventions for childhood agricultural injuries. (1), (2) In the United States, there were an estimated 1,930,306 youth under the age of 20 years who lived or worked on a farm in 1998. (3) Each year, it is estimated that there are approximately 100 unintentional farm-related deaths among children aged 19 years and younger in the United States. (4) Another 22,000 children suffer nonfatal farm injuries severe enough to be seen in emergency departments; an additional 78,000 nonfatal farm injuries to children, who are either seen in other medical care facilities or are self-treated, occur each year. (4), (5)
Factors associated with childhood agricultural injury risk have been recently reviewed by several authors. (6), (7) Both case-based (fatality fa·tal·i·ty
1. A death resulting from an accident or disaster.
2. One that is killed as a result of such an occurrence. and hospitalized injuries) and population-based approaches to agricultural injury surveillance among farm children have been reported in the United States, Canada Canada (kăn`ədə), independent nation (2001 pop. 30,007,094), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of , Australia Australia (ôstrāl`yə), smallest continent, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. With the island state of Tasmania to the south, the continent makes up the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary state (2005 est. pop. , and other countries. (3), (4), (8-14) These studies have documented the hazards associated with farm machinery (tractors, augers, power take-offs A power take-off (PTO) is a splined driveshaft, usually on a tractor or truck that can be used to provide power to an attachment or separate machine. It is designed to be easily connected and disconnected. ), farm animals (especially cattle and horses), falls from structures, and injuries from other equipment and tools. Results generally confirm the increased risk of injury for male subjects relative to female subjects.
Studies also indicate a bimodal distribution bimodal distribution
a distribution with two peaks separated by a region of low frequency of observations. in the occurrence of farm-related injuries, with peaks at ages 3 to 4 and 13 to 14 years. Typically, the farm injuries to young children are bystander by·stand·er
A person who is present at an event without participating in it.
a person present but not involved; onlooker; spectator
Noun 1. injuries associated with their play and proximity to dangerous farm equipment, animals, or falls from elevated structures on the farm. The peak at the older ages is often directly related to performing farm work that often may be age and developmentally inappropriate for young teenagers. Seasonality is another risk factor, with higher injury rates during the spring, summer, and harvest times Noun 1. harvest time - the season for gathering crops
farming, husbandry, agriculture - the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock . Most injuries occur during the late morning and in the late afternoon. (8-11)
Examining the risk of farm-related injury among children is especially pertinent PERTINENT, evidence. Those facts which tend to prove the allegations of the party offering them, are called pertinent; those which have no such tendency are called impertinent, 8 Toull. n. 22. By pertinent is also meant that which belongs. Willes, 319. in Kentucky because its 71,331 family-owned and -operated farms may use child labor child labor, use of the young as workers in factories, farms, and mines. Child labor was first recognized as a social problem with the introduction of the factory system in late 18th-century Great Britain. to a greater degree than farms in other states. On family farms, children have traditionally provided a substantial portion of the labor, especially during school breaks and peak harvest seasons. Under the federal Fair Labor Standards Act Fair Labor Standards Act or Wages and Hours Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1938 to establish minimum living standards for workers engaged directly or indirectly in interstate commerce, including those involved in production of goods bound , it is legal for children as young as 12 to work full-time full-time
Employed for or involving a standard number of hours of working time: a full-time administrative assistant.
full in agriculture during school breaks. Furthermore, the Fair Labor Standards Act does not apply to children working on their family farm, and minors of any age may be employed by their parents to assist with farm work. (5)
We present data on the prevalent work-related tasks and the incidence of nonfatal injuries occurring over a 1-year period for children aged 18 years and younger living and working on Kentucky farms. Our primary focus was on injuries occurring while a child was performing farm work or chores. The specific objectives were 1) to estimate the prevalence of youth participation in various farm chores, especially those related to tobacco and cattle production on Kentucky farms; 2) to estimate the 1-year incidence of nonfatal farm work injuries among these children and to identify any high-risk groups high-risk group Epidemiology A group of people in the community with a higher-than-expected risk for developing a particular disease, which may be defined on a measurable parameter–eg, an inherited genetic defect, physical attribute, lifestyle, habit, for farm work injuries; 3) to calculate the proportion of all Kentucky farm children's injuries that are a consequence of their farm labor by comparing rates of farm work injuries to injuries not associated with farm work or chores; and 4) to examine the distribution of injuries by age, gender, and other injury characteristics.
Data were collected as part of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-sponsored Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project, a research effort to assess the risks from work in production agriculture among farm families in Kentucky. A telephone survey, based on a two-stage cluster sample design, was used to obtain data on the work-related exposures and the 1-year incidence of non-fatal injuries among children aged 18 years and younger living on Kentucky farms. Farms were defined as any establishment from which $1,000 or more of agricultural products from livestock livestock
Farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In Western countries the category encompasses primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules; other animals (e.g., buffalo, oxen, or camels) may predominate in other areas. , crop, or specialty operations were sold or would normally be sold during a year. (15) Agricultural commodities on Kentucky farms include beef cattle, tobacco, cash grain, soybeans, and other crops. (16)
In brief, the sampling frame for the study was constructed using a two-stage cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. design. (17) At the first stage, 60 counties were selected from the 120 counties in Kentucky <onlyinclude> This is a list of the one hundred and twenty counties in the U.S. state of Kentucky. Despite ranking 37th in size by area, Kentucky has 120 counties, third in the U.S. behind Texas' 254 and Georgia's 159. using probability proportional proportional
values expressed as a proportion of the total number of values in a series.
the patient is a miniature without disproportionate reductions or enlargements of body parts. to size sampling, where size was the number of farms in each of the counties determined on the basis of the 1992 Census of Agriculture. (18) Before sampling, several counties in the eastern portion of the state were excluded because of the small number of farms in these counties that met the study definition of a farm with $1,000 or more annually of reported agricultural production and because a greater proportion of the rural residences in this part of the state do not have telephone coverage.
At the second stage, a systematic sample of farms in the 60 counties was selected from a listing maintained by the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service. Details of the geographic coverage provided by Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service are provided elsewhere. (17) In brief, farms were selected if they were family-owned and -operated establishments with $1,000 or more annually of agricultural production and had working telephones. The result was a sample of approximately 125 farm households per county. A short telephone survey (Farm Hazard and Demographic Enumeration 1. (mathematics) enumeration - A bijection with the natural numbers; a counted set.
2. (programming) enumeration - enumerated type. Survey) was conducted to enumerate To count or list one by one. For example, an enumerated data type defines a list of all possible values for a variable, and no other value can then be placed into it. See device enumeration and ENUM. children aged 18 years and younger residing in the selected households. A total of 8,271 households were enumerated This term is often used in law as equivalent to mentioned specifically, designated, or expressly named or granted; as in speaking of enumerated governmental powers, items of property, or articles in a tariff schedule. , producing a sample frame of 4,499 eligible children. This sample was then stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. by county, and within each county a simple random sample In statistics, a simple random sample is a group of subjects (a sample) chosen from a larger group (a population). Each subject from the population is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each subject has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the of children living on farms was selected, yielding 1,189 children eligible for the 30-minute telephone survey. The only restriction in the selection process was that no more than two eligible children from the same household could be selected for the interview.
A 30-minute telephone survey (Farm Health Interview Survey) was administered to proxy respondents (primarily mothers) of the children in the sample. The survey included questions on work tasks and agricultural exposures, injury incidence, risk factors for the injury, and demographic characteristics of the child and of the farm household. Standard questions from the National Health Interview Survey were used extensively. (19-22) Data were collected between June June: see month. 1994 and September September: see month. 1995 by the Survey Research Center at the University of Kentucky , using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. Interviewer training emphasized agricultural terms and questions. Confidentiality was ensured for all individuals who contributed data to this study, and all study protocols were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Kentucky. The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky.
Definition of Study Variables
Variables related to work patterns and exposures were examined by age and gender groups and are reported in this study for children aged 5 to 18 years, given that few children under 5 years were assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. farm chores and tasks. Proxy-reported injuries occurring in the 12 months before the interview were categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat into two classes: 1) injuries that occurred on the farm as a result of doing farm work or farm chores ("farm work" injuries); and 2) injuries not related to farm work or chores ("nonfarm work" injuries). This classification was used to quantify Quantify - A performance analysis tool from Pure Software. that portion of the total injury profile that was a consequence of the child's work-associated activities on the farm. The 1-year cumulative incidence rate of injury among the children was calculated with the number of injured children as the numerator numerator
the upper part of a fraction.
see additive genetic relationship.
numerator Epidemiology The upper part of a fraction and the total population of children surveyed as the denominator denominator
the bottom line of a fraction; the base population on which population rates such as birth and death rates are calculated.
denominator . (23) For children who reported multiple injuries within a 1-year period, the analyses were based on the most recent injury.
To classify clas·si·fy
tr.v. clas·si·fied, clas·si·fy·ing, clas·si·fies
1. To arrange or organize according to class or category.
2. To designate (a document, for example) as confidential, secret, or top secret. external cause of injury, we considered responses to questions about how the injury occurred and what the child was doing at the time of the injury. The primary external causes of farm work injuries included machinery, falls from high places, animals, and contact with inanimate objects. Severity was assessed from questions addressing whether a medical professional was consulted and whether the child lost more than 4 hours from work (or school) as a result of the injury.
Data Management and Analysis
A single-stage stratified design was used in the analysis, with the 60 counties composing com·pose
v. com·posed, com·pos·ing, com·pos·es
1. To make up the constituent parts of; constitute or form: the strata and a simple random sample without replacement selected within each stratum stratum /stra·tum/ (strat´um) (stra´tum) pl. stra´ta [L.] a layer or lamina.
stratum basa´le . This approach was chosen because of the necessity of excluding certain counties from the sample in the first stage of the sample design. Therefore, the target population was restricted to children living on farms within the 60 counties selected in the first stage of the sampling; parameter (1) Any value passed to a program by the user or by another program in order to customize the program for a particular purpose. A parameter may be anything; for example, a file name, a coordinate, a range of values, a money amount or a code of some kind. estimates (rates, proportions) apply to this target population of farm children. Weighted analyses, based on the single-stage stratified design, were performed in accordance Accordance is Bible Study Software for Macintosh developed by OakTree Software, Inc.
As well as a standalone program, it is the base software packaged by Zondervan in their Bible Study suites for Macintosh. with traditional survey analysis procedures. (24), (25)
Age- and gender-specific gen·der-spe·cif·ic
Of, for, or associated with persons of one gender to the exclusion of the other: gender-specific health care; gender-specific behavior. prevalence estimates are presented for children's participation in farm tasks. Crude injury rates and age- and gender-specific rates were calculated by injury classification (farm work and nonfarm work), and by external cause, body location, type of injury, and other characteristics of the injury event. All descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. were design-adjusted. Data management and analysis were performed using the SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. (SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. , Inc., Cary Car·y
A town of east-central North Carolina, an industrial suburb of Raleigh. Population: 98,000. , NC) and SUDAAN SUDAAN is a statistical software package for the analysis of correlated data, including correlated data encountered in complex sample surveys. SUDAAN originated in 1972 at RTI International (formerly Research Triangle Institute). Current version
SUDAAN Release 9. (RTI International RTI International was established in 1958 as Research Triangle Institute, the founding tenant of North Carolina’s Research Triangle Park. RTI was founded as part of a larger effort to harness the intellectual capital of the area’s three major universities— North , Research Triangle Park Research Triangle Park, research, business, medical, and educational complex situated in central North Carolina. It has an area of 6,900 acres (2,795 hectares) and is 8 × 2 mi (13 × 3 km) in size. Named for the triangle formed by Duke Univ. , NC) software systems. (26), (27) For the estimates, 95% confidence intervals were calculated in accordance with standard procedures, accounting for the complex sample design. (27)
From the sampling frame of 1,189 eligible children, 999 interviews were completed, yielding a response rate of 84%. Results from a comparison of the farm population enumerated in the Farm Hazard and Demographic Enumeration Survey and the farm population from the 1992 Kentucky Census of Agriculture indicated that our sample was representative of the population of farm households in the state. (17)
Demographic characteristics of the children are given in Table 1. Distributions across age groups for both boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. were similar. Ninety-nine percent of the children in the sample were white, and 90% of the children were reported to have very good to excellent health. A majority of the children lived on farms with a gross annual household income in excess of $30,000; however, 6.3% were from households with an income less than $20,000 per year. Mothers were the proxy respondents for data collected in 92% of the interviews. Other proxy respondents were grandparents grandparents npl → abuelos mpl
grandparents grand npl → grands-parents mpl
grandparents grand npl or other guardians (5%) and fathers (3%). Fifty-one Adj. 1. fifty-one - being one more than fifty
cardinal - being or denoting a numerical quantity but not order; "cardinal numbers" percent of the proxy respondents were employed full-time outside the home; 39% did not work outside the home, and the remaining 11% worked part-time outside the home.
Compared with girls, boys between the ages of 5 and 18 years spent more days per year participating in farm work or chores. Overall, 54.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.3-59.4%) of boys aged 5 to 18 spent at least 180 days per year participating in farm work, compared with 37.6% (95% CI, 32.9-42.5%) of same-aged girls (P < 0.001). Of the boys aged 16 to 18 years, 63.8% participated in farm chores at least 180 days or more per year.
The age and gender distribution of children's participation in farm chores within the past year is given in Table 2. Overall, 81% of children aged 5 to 18 were involved in handling and caring for livestock; the feeding and care of livestock was the farm task that parents/guardians reported that children performed most often. Undertaking chores related to tobacco production (66% of all children) was also common; however, boys tended to participate in greater proportions in tasks related to the topping, harvesting and cutting, and hanging of tobacco compared with similar age girls. In addition, a significantly greater proportion of boys were involved in operating a tractor tractor, in agriculture, vehicle used to pull such equipment as plows, cultivators, and mowers; to power stationary devices such as saws and winches; and to push snowplows and earth-moving implements. alone, driving a tractor on a public road, and working within 10 feet of a power take-off compared with girls of the same age.
Crude injury rates for farm work, nonfarm work, and total injuries are given in Table 3. Of the 999 children, 163 sustained at least one injury in the previous year; 133 children were injured once, 18 twice, and 12 children had three or more injuries, yielding a total of 231 reported injuries. Because few multiple injuries were reported, "injured children" was chosen as the unit of analysis. The rate of children injured at least once was 15.8 per 100 (95% CI, 13.2-18.4).
Nearly 20% of all injured children (n = 29) sustained their injuries during the performance of farm work or farm chores. Farm work injury rates increased with the child's age, regardless of gender. Farm work injury rates for boys were more than three times higher than rates for girls. Boys aged 16 to 18 years had the highest farm work injury rate of 9.2 per 100 children per year; 37% of all boys in this age group were injured while doing farm work. There were no farm work injuries reported among children aged 1 to 4 years. The proportion of all injuries that were a consequence of farm work was nearly equal for boys and girls aged 10 to 15 years (16% and 18%, respectively, of all injuries).
Nonfarm work injury rates were consistently higher than farm work injury rates across all age and gender strata. Rates of nonfarm work injury ranged from approximately 1.7 to 9 times the rate of farm work injuries. Nonfarm work injury rates were higher among boys than girls within all age categories except 16- to 18-year-olds. The highest nonfarm work injury rate for both sexes (16.6 injured children per 100 children per year) occurred in the 16- to 18-year-old age group. Boys aged 1 to 4 years had the highest nonfarm work injury rate, primarily from falls, among all the age and gender strata.
Characteristics of farm work injuries for the 29 injured children are given in Table 4. The leading external cause was contact with an inanimate inanimate /in·an·i·mate/ (-an´im-it)
1. without life.
2. lacking in animation.
adj. object (24%) (eg, injuries to the eyes from rocks, sticks, and hay, and also injuries to the extremities ex·trem·i·ty
n. pl. ex·trem·i·ties
1. The outermost or farthest point or portion.
2. The greatest or utmost degree: the extremity of despair.
a. from hand tools and barbed wire barbed wire, wire composed of two zinc-coated steel strands twisted together and having barbs spaced regularly along them. The need for barbed wire arose in the 19th cent. ). Machine-related injuries (17% of all farm work injuries), injuries due to animals (12%), and injuries from falls (12%) constituted the majority of the farm work injuries. The machine-related injuries included fractures Fractures Definition
A fracture is a complete or incomplete break in a bone resulting from the application of excessive force.
Description and contusions from crashes of allterrain vehicles, motorbikes, and tractors, and cuts sustained while hitching farm equipment. Animal-related injuries were primarily from cattle kicks and crushes. Most falls resulting in injury were from heights in tobacco barns The tobacco barn, a type of functionally classified barn found in the United States, was once an essential ingredient in the process of air-curing tobacco. In the 21st century they are fast disappearing from the American landscape in places where they were once ubiquitous. or from farm equipment, such as the tobacco setter setter: see sporting dog.
Any of three breeds derived from a medieval hunting dog that would set (lie down) when it found birds so that it and the birds could be covered with a net. Setters have long hair on the ears, chest, legs, and tail. . The majority of the farm work injuries were sustained in the upper and lower extremities lower extremity
The hip, thigh, leg, ankle, or foot. Also called inferior limb, pelvic limb. , occurred during the summer months on the farm of residence, happened under the supervision of an adult, and required the care of a medical professional.
The majority of the nonfarm work injuries were from sports (34%, summarized across all sports categories) and falls (29%) (Table 5). Approximately three-fourths of the nonfarm work injuries occurred in the spring and the summer, with slightly more than one-fourth occurring at school. A medical professional was consulted for 81% of the injuries. Although farm work injuries were more often to the upper extremities upper extremity
The shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist, or hand. Also called superior limb, thoracic limb. , injuries to the head and the neck and to the lower extremities were more prevalent among the nonfarm work injuries.
A high proportion of farm youth in Kentucky are involved in the care and feeding of livestock, particularly beef cattle. The prevalence estimates associated with handling and feeding of animals for Kentucky children are higher than those reported by Marlenga et al (28) for farms in the midwestern and western United States Noun 1. western United States - the region of the United States lying to the west of the Mississippi River
Santa Fe Trail - a trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico; an important route for settlers moving west in the 19th century and the province of Ontario, Canada. A majority of farm children in Kentucky are engaged in tobacco-related chores each year. Although the unique hazards (eg, green tobacco sickness Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS) is a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine from the surface of wet tobacco plants. Tobacco harvesters, whose clothing becomes saturated from tobacco wet with rain or morning dew, are at high risk of developing GTS. , tobacco spear spear, primitive weapon consisting of a wooden shaft tipped with a sharp point, usually 8 to 9 ft (2.4–2.7 m) in length. The point was made first of flint, later of bronze, and ultimately of steel; the spear has been in use since prehistoric times, originally injuries) remain poorly documented for children, our surveillance data provide evidence of tobacco harvest-associated injuries in children including falls from heights in the tobacco barn and from the tobacco setter during planting.
n. Abbr. ATV
A small, open motor vehicle having one seat and three or more wheels fitted with large tires. It is designed chiefly for recreational use over roadless, rugged terrain. on the farm by children was also reported at a high prevalence across all age and gender groups; the use of all-terrain vehicles has been documented in other studies for increasing the risk of injuries to children living on farms. (7), (30)
Boys aged 16 to 18 were at the greatest risk for farm work injuries on family farms in Kentucky. The farm work injury rate for these boys (9.2 injured children per 100 children per year) was greater than that reported previously for Kentucky, for other states, and for the nation among this age and gender group. (3), (4), (11), (31) This rate is comparable to full-time male farmers aged 55 years and older in Kentucky and indicates that this particular group of children should be targeted for injury control programs. (17)
Our overall rate for children performing farm chores was 2.8 injured children per 100 children per year. With the exception of our elevated rate for 16- to 18-year-old boys, our nonfatal farm work injury rates were similar to those reported in several national studies of agricultural injuries in children. (3-5) The significant gender difference in rates of farm work injuries (ie, higher rates for boys) reported in our study confirms previous research. (3), (11), (13), (31), (32) Within Kentucky, the elevated farm work injury rate among adolescent boys may be partially explained by our finding that, compared with girls of similar age, boys on Kentucky farms are more likely to engage in farm work or chores, perform farm work more days per year, undertake more tasks with farm machinery and other equipment, and more likely to perform tasks without supervision. (29), (33)
Machinery, animals, contact with inanimate objects, and falls were the primary external causes of nonfatal farm work injuries reported in this study. A report from the Occupational Health Nurses in Agricultural Communities project corroborated cor·rob·o·rate
tr.v. cor·rob·o·rat·ed, cor·rob·o·rat·ing, cor·rob·o·rates
To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain. See Synonyms at confirm. this finding with machinery (27%), animals (17%), falls (16%), and hand tools (15%) as the primary external causes of injury among hospitalized Kentucky farm children. (34) Our study also identified injuries not requiring medical attention, including a number of minor injuries from contact with inanimate objects. A substantial number of these injuries could have been prevented through the use of simple personal protective equipment, including protective eyewear protective eyewear,
n See eyewear, protective. , hard-toed shoes, and appropriate clothing.
We estimate that 20% of all injuries sustained annually for children living on family-operated farms in Kentucky were due to the performance of farm work or chores. The finding of higher rates of injuries not related to farm work (eg, sports-related injuries, falls) compared with farm work injuries among youth is confirmed by other studies. (30)
Methodologically, the comparison of farm work injury rates between various studies is problematic and depends on several factors, especially the definition of a farm work injury. Our classification of farm work injuries provides a conservative estimate of the proportion of work-related injuries to children living on farms. Other authors have discussed the difficulties inherent in the classification of farm work and bystander injuries for children in an agricultural environment. (14), (35) Children's work and play often overlap--for example, riding horses while doing farm chores or playing in the barn while feeding animals. For this reason, we do not see the bimodal bi·mod·al
1. Having or exhibiting two contrasting modes or forms: "American supermarket shopping shows bimodal behavior injury distribution that is often reported because the injury classification adopted in this study focused on farm work injuries. Our definition was intended to quantify the singular SINGULAR, construction. In grammar the singular is used to express only one, not plural. Johnson.
2. In law, the singular frequently includes the plural. contribution of farm work to all reported injuries sustained by children living on family farms in Kentucky and indicates that one in five injuries to these children is related to the performance of farm work or chores.
The response rate (84%) for our telephone survey was impressive, especially for a population that is characteristically difficult to reach for survey research. Our population of farm families reflected the demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. of the typical family -operated farm in Kentucky. However, the data from this study are not generalizable gen·er·al·ize
v. gen·er·al·ized, gen·er·al·iz·ing, gen·er·al·iz·es
a. To reduce to a general form, class, or law.
b. To render indefinite or unspecific.
2. to very small farming operations (ie, "hobby farms Hobby Farms is a bimonthly magazine. Its editorial offices are based in Lexington, Kentucky. Hobby Farms magazine’s tagline is “Rural Living for Pleasure and Profit”. " or marginal farming operations with annual agricultural incomes less than $1,000) given the definition of a farm used in our sampling frame. The study population was predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. white; consequently, we were unable to examine any potential racial or ethnic differences. The rates do not include injuries to migrant mi·grant
1. One that moves from one region to another by chance, instinct, or plan.
2. An itinerant worker who travels from one area to another in search of work.
Migratory. children or children who were visiting but not living on the family farm. However, other research conducted in Wisconsin Wisconsin, state, United States
Wisconsin (wĭskŏn`sən, –sĭn), upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bounded by Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, from which it is divided by the Menominee indicated that 95% of farm injuries among children were to those in the immediate farm family. (11)
Several of the limitations regarding the methods used in the design and analysis of the Kentucky Farm Family Study have been discussed in detail elsewhere. (17) These include the potential for underestimation of injury rates due to poor recall from proxy respondents and underestimation of injury rates based on our classification of farm work injuries. Indeed, because the majority of the proxy respondents were mothers, who typically are not involved in assigning as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. and overseeing farm chores, potential for underestimation of some minor injuries may have been present.
The data indicate that the recall of injuries over the 1-year time period focused primarily on injuries requiring medical attention. Because self-treated injuries were less likely to be reported to be spoken of; to be mentioned, whether favorably or unfavorably.
See also: Report , the data probably underestimate the overall injury rate but capture the most serious of the injuries. Recall of injuries may also differ by the age of the child. Furthermore, our rate denominators did not account for the person-time of exposure, nor did they adjust for the time since injury. Finally, the relatively small number of farm work injuries (n = 29) reported in this study preclude pre·clude
tr.v. pre·clud·ed, pre·clud·ing, pre·cludes
1. To make impossible, as by action taken in advance; prevent. See Synonyms at prevent.
2. a meaningful multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. of the potential risk factors, including age, gender, hours of exposure, safety training, and supervision, which likely influence the risk of injuries related to children's performance of farm work.
Approximately 2 million children and adolescents aged 19 years and younger live on farms in the United States. (3) Recent national data indicate that nonfatal injury rates among children living and working on farms have risen approximately 10% in the past 10 years. (4) We estimate that there are approximately 38,840 children aged 18 years and younger living and working on family-owned and -operated farms in Kentucky. The application of our injury rate data suggests that each year approximately 1,088 of these children experience a nonfatal injury as a result of their performance of farm work. An estimated 740 of these children will need to consult with a medical professional concerning a farm-related injury.
Our data confirm the importance of designing and evaluating programs targeted to the high risk of farm work injuries among boys aged 16 to 18 years. State-based surveillance data of farm injuries is important because the risk of injury, to a degree, is a function of the farm commodity base in the state. Injuries related to the production of beef cattle and tobacco in Kentucky are particularly important. (36) Injury control interventions targeted to machinery-related hazards should be directed to preventing injury among these boys, especially before they become engaged in the operation of farm machinery. The prevention of animal-related injuries is appropriate for children of all ages, especially younger children.
The National Committee for Childhood Agricultural Injury Prevention recommends a multifaceted mul·ti·fac·et·ed
Having many facets or aspects. See Synonyms at versatile.
Adj. 1. multifaceted - having many aspects; "a many-sided subject"; "a multifaceted undertaking"; "multifarious interests"; "the multifarious approach to the prevention of farm injuries to children and adolescents. (1) The collection of state-based surveillance data is a first step in this process. The opportunity to engage in farm work has much to offer children and is a benefit to their parents. Although farm work injuries account for a sizable siz·a·ble also size·a·ble
Of considerable size; fairly large.
siza·ble·ness n. portion of the total injury risk experienced by children living on farms, the substantial benefits associated with participation in farm work must also be considered. The role of injury prevention research is to allow for a child's continued, developmentally appropriate participation in farm work while identifying the important risk factors and evaluating the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize childhood agricultural injuries.
It is good to be children sometimes, and never better than at Christmas.
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of farm children (aged 1-18 yr) in Kentucky: The Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project Children in sample Characteristic No. % Weighted % (a) Gender/age (yr) Male 532 53.3 51.5 0-4 60 11.3 12.0 5-9 102 19.2 19.1 10-15 207 38.9 38.0 16-18 163 30.6 30.9 Female 467 46.7 48.5 0-4 60 12.8 11.8 5-9 98 21.0 21.1 10-15 185 39.6 37.1 16-18 124 26.6 30.0 Race White 987 98.8 98.7 Black 3 0.3 0.3 American Indian 3 0.3 0.2 Other 6 0.6 0.7 Health status (b) Excellent 706 70.7 70.0 Very good 194 19.4 19.5 Good/fair/poor 99 9.9 10.5 Gross annual household income <$10,000 12 1.2 1.2 $10,000-19,999 64 6.4 5.1 $20,000-29,999 166 16.6 18.1 $30,000-49,999 316 31.6 31.4 $50,000 335 33.5 33.9 Don't know/refused 106 10.6 10.2 Type of farm Beef cattle 287 28.7 29.8 Beef and tobacco 120 12.0 12.0 Tobacco 270 27.0 26.9 Other 322 32.2 31.2 (a) Weighted percentage reflects the distribution expected in the 60-county population. (b) Proxy-reported health status for target child. Table 2. Participation of Kentucky farm children (aged 5-18 yr) in select chores, by gender and age group (a) 5-9 yr 10-15 yr Male Female Male Female Farm chore/task No. % (b) No. % No. % No. % Animal related Handle/touch livestock 79 86.3 72 81.9 162 79.8 138 76.8 Feed farm animals 81 82.1 73 69.4 167 80.6 142 76.2 Tobacco related Work with tobacco 24 59.4 18 45.8 137 67.7 108 63.8 Set 18 75.6 9 49.3 115 86.3 82 73.3 Top 6 21.6 0 0.0 70 53.7 23 22.8 Strip 21 83.8 13 68.8 120 86.0 78 70.8 Harvest/cut 4 10.5 2 12.3 80 58.7 17 18.3 Hang 2 4.0 0 0.0 58 40.2 15 13.1 Machinery related Drive tractor on farm 4 7.2 0 0.0 109 55.5 45 26.5 alone Drive tractor on public 0 0.0 0 0.0 37 34.5 3 4.1 road Drive ATV 20 25.8 12 16.5 108 51.6 66 35.0 Work within 10 ft of PTO 26 25.0 18 19.5 109 51.1 53 31.6 16-18 yr Male Female Farm chore/task No. % No. % Animal related Handle/touch livestock 136 85.6 81 79.3 Feed farm animals 140 85.9 76 65.8 Tobacco related Work with tobacco 122 74.5 74 64.8 Set 104 81.5 69 94.9 Top 102 83.8 38 56.5 Strip 106 82.6 57 80.6 Harvest/cut 104 84.0 29 41.8 Hang 110 89.6 24 38.3 Machinery related Drive tractor on farm 130 84.0 43 37.9 alone Drive tractor on public 77 63.0 11 29.6 road Drive ATV 103 61.2 55 42.3 Work within 10 ft of PTO 111 70.5 36 28.9 (a) ATV, all-terrain vehicle; PTO, power take-off. (b) Prevalence estimates (%) are weighted to account for the complex sampling design. No. refers to the number of children who responded affirmatively to each question regarding participation in the selected farm chore in the past year. Table 3. Estimated injury rates for children (aged 1-18 yr) in 60 Kentucky counties, by age, gender, and injury classification (a) Farm work injuries (b) Category [n.sub.i] Rate (c) 95% CI Gender Male 21 4.1 2.3-5.9 Female 8 1.3 0.4-2.2 Total 29 2.8 1.7-3.8 Age (yr) 1-4 0 -- -- 5-9 2 1.0 -- (d) 10-15 10 2.4 0.8-4.0 16-18 17 5.4 2.7-8.0 Gender/age (yr) Male 1-4 0 -- -- 5-9 1 1.6 -- (d) 10-15 5 2.6 0.2-5.0 16-18 15 9.2 4.4-13.9 Female 1-4 0 -- -- 5-9 1 0.5 -- (d) 10-1 5 2.2 0.2-4.1 16-1 2 1.3 -- Nonfarm work injuries Category [n.sub.i] Rate 95% CI Gender Male 79 14.6 11.1-18.2 Fema 55 11.4 8.2-14.7 Tota 134 13.1 10.7-15.5 Age (yr) 1-4 15 12.9 5.6-20.8 5-9 22 10.8 5.8-15.9 10-1 50 11.5 8.2-14.8 16-1 47 16.6 11.6-21.6 Gender/age (yr) Male 1-4 10 18.4 6.0-30.7 5-9 16 14.6 6.5-22.6 10-15 27 12.4 7.7-17.1 16-18 26 16.0 9.2-22.8 Female 1-4 5 7.0 0.9-13.2 5-9 6 7.2 1.4-13.0 10-15 23 10.6 6.0-15.1 16-18 21 17.1 9.5-24.7 Total injuries Category [n.sub.i] Rate 95% CI Gender Male 100 18.8 14.9-22.6 Female 63 12.7 9.3-16.0 Total 163 15.8 13.2-18.4 Age (yr) 1-4 15 12.9 5.6-20.3 5-9 24 11.9 6.6-17.1 10-15 60 13.9 10.3-17.4 16-18 64 21.9 16.6-27.3 Gender/age (yr) Male 1-4 10 18.4 5.96-30.74 5-9 17 16.2 7.73-24.39 10-15 32 15.0 9.79-20.13 16-18 41 25.2 17.53-32.89 Female 1-4 5 7.0 0.85-13.23 5-9 7 7.7 1.84-13.60 10-15 28 12.7 7.88-17.56 16-18 23 18.4 10.70-26.02 (a) [n.sub.i] number of injured children in sample; CI, confidence interval. (b) Farm work injuries were defined as proxy-reported injuries occurring to the children in the 12 mo before the interview that occurred on the farm as a result of doing farm work or farm chores. (c) Estimated number of injured children per 100 children per yr, weighted to account for sampling design. (d) Insufficient data to calculate a valid confidence interval. Table 4. Distribution of farm work injuries in Kentucky children by injury characteristics (n = 29) (a) Distribution for Characteristic [n.sub.i] sample (%) External cause Object 8 27.6 Machine 5 17.2 Animal 4 13.8 Falls from height 4 13.8 Lifting 3 10.3 Motor vehicle 1 3.4 Other (b) 4 13.8 Part of body injured Upper extremities 11 37.9 Lower extremities 8 27.6 Torso 4 13.8 Head/neck 4 13.8 Multiple body parts 2 6.9 Type of injury Cut 6 20.7 Contusion 4 13.8 Strain 4 13.8 Multiple 2 6.9 Fracture 2 6.9 Other (d) 11 37.9 Season of injury Spring 8 28.6 Summer 16 57.1 Fall 3 10.7 Winter 1 3.6 Farm type Beef cattle 5 17.2 Beef and tobacco 1 3.4 Tobacco 6 20.7 Other 17 58.6 Place injury occurred Farm 23 79.3 Other (e) 6 20.7 Consulted medical professional after injury Yes 21 72.4 No 8 27.6 Missed > 4 h work Yes 13 44.8 No 16 55.2 Adult present at time of injury Yes 21 72.4 No 8 27.6 Characteristic [N.sub.i] Weighted % External cause Object 134 23.8 Machine 95 16.9 Animal 69 12.3 Falls from height 67 11.9 Lifting 61 10.9 Motor vehicle 39 6.9 Other (b) 97 17.3 Part of body injured Upper extremities 241 42.9 Lower extremities 131 23.3 Torso 82 14.6 Head/neck 59 10.5 Multiple body parts 49 8.7 Type of injury Cut 116 20.7 Contusion 83 14.8 Strain 73 13.0 Multiple 56 10.0 Fracture 37 6.6 Other (d) 196 34.9 Season of injury Spring 180 34.0 Summer 282 53.3 Fall 50 9.5 Winter 17 3.2 Farm type Beef cattle 83 14.8 Beef and tobacco 20 3.5 Tobacco 81 14.5 Other 378 67.2 Place injury occurred Farm 436 77.6 Other (e) 126 22.4 Consulted medical professional after injury Yes 381 67.9 No 180 32.1 Missed > 4 h work Yes 253 45.1 No 308 54.9 Adult present at time of injury Yes 405 72.2 No 156 27.8 Characteristic 95% CI External cause Object 7.6-40.3 Machine 3.4-30.4 Animal 1.1-23.4 Falls from height 0.8-23.1 Lifting 1.5-23.1 Motor vehicle - (b) Other (b) 1.6-32.9 Part of body injured Upper extremities 23.6-62.1 Lower extremities 7.7-38.9 Torso 0.5-28.8 Head/neck 0.03-21.0 Multiple body parts - (b) Type of injury Cut 5.2-36.0 Contusion 0.9-28.7 Strain - (b) Multiple - (b) Fracture - (b) Other (d) 16.7-53.1 Season of injury Spring 14.3-53.8 Summer 33.3-73.1 Fall - (b) Winter - (b) Farm type Beef cattle 2.9-26.8 Beef and tobacco - (b) Tobacco 2.9-26.1 Other 50.6-83.8 Place injury occurred Farm 60.8-94.6 Other (e) 5.4-39.2 Consulted medical professional after injury Yes 49.4-86.4 No 13.6-50.6 Missed > 4 h work Yes 25.8-64.5 No 35.5-74.2 Adult present at time of injury Yes 55.1-89.1 No 10.8-44.9 (a) [n.sub.v] number of injured children in sample; [N.sub.v] estimated number of injured children in population of 60 counties; CI, confidence interval. (b) Insufficient data to calculate an interval. (c) Includes injuries from animal feeding chores (eg, milking), welding, and a firearm injury. (d) Includes dislocations, scrapes, stabs, toxic effects, and other multiple injuries. (e) Includes neighbor's or relative's farm or field. Table 5. Distribution of nonfarm work injuries in Kentucky children by injury characteristics (n = 134) (a) Distribution for Characteristic [n.sub.i] sample (%) External cause Falls 42 31.3 Other sports (b) 15 11.2 Bicycle 13 9.7 Object 10 7.5 Basketball 9 6.7 Vehicle 9 6.7 Baseball 6 4.5 Football 6 4.5 Horse 4 3.0 Animal 3 2.2 Machine 1 0.7 Other (d) 16 11.9 Part of body injured Head/neck 39 29.1 Lower extremities 43 32.1 Upper extremities 28 20.9 Torso 12 9.0 Multiple body parts 12 9.0 Type of injury Strain 28 20.9 Cut 19 14.2 Contusion 21 15.7 Fracture 27 20.1 Multiple 11 8.2 Amputation 1 0.7 Other (e) 27 20.1 Season of injury Spring 59 44.4 Summer 43 32.3 Fall 23 17.3 Winter 8 6.0 Place of injury School 41 30.6 Home 35 26.1 Farm 15 11.2 Other (f) 43 32.1 Consulted medical professional after injury Yes 108 80.6 No 26 19.4 Adult present at time of injury Yes 91 67.9 No 43 32.1 Characteristic [N.sub.i] Weighted % External cause Falls 772 28.9 Other sports (b) 310 11.6 Bicycle 212 7.9 Object 210 7.9 Basketball 202 7.6 Vehicle 190 7.1 Baseball 96 3.6 Football 81 3.0 Horse 87 3.3 Animal 67 2.5 Machine 37 1.4 Other (d) 408 15.3 Part of body injured Head/neck 889 33.3 Lower extremities 804 30.1 Upper extremities 416 15.6 Torso 356 13.3 Multiple body parts 207 7.7 Type of injury Strain 544 20.4 Cut 455 17.0 Contusion 434 16.2 Fracture 379 14.2 Multiple 297 11.1 Amputation 16 0.6 Other (e) 547 20.5 Season of injury Spring 1,100 41.4 Summer 958 36.0 Fall 477 17.9 Winter 124 4.7 Place of injury School 716 26.8 Home 635 23.8 Farm 296 11.1 Other (f) 1,025 38.4 Consulted medical professional after injury Yes 2,175 81.4 No 497 18.6 Adult present at time of injury Yes 1,662 62.2 No 1,010 37.8 Characteristic 95% CI External cause Falls 20.0-37.8 Other sports (b) 4.8-18.4 Bicycle 3.4-12.5 Object 2.9-12.9 Basketball 2.3-12.9 Vehicle 2.2-12.0 Baseball 0.5-6.7 Football 0.6-5.5 Horse - (c) Animal - (c) Machine - (c) Other (d) 6.8-23.7 Part of body injured Head/neck 23.5-43.1 Lower extremities 21.0-39.1 Upper extremities 9.6-21.5 Torso 5.5-21.1 Multiple body parts 3.0-12.5 Type of injury Strain 12.2-28.5 Cut 8.9-25.2 Contusion 9.2-23.3 Fracture 8.7-19.7 Multiple 3.8-18.4 Amputation - (c) Other (e) 12.7-28.3 Season of injury Spring 31.7-51.1 Summer 26.0-46.0 Fall 10.6-25.3 Winter 1.4-8.0 Place of injury School 18.7-34.9 Home 15.5-32.1 Farm 5.3-16.9 Other (f) 28.3-48.4 Consulted medical professional after injury Yes 73.6-89.2 No 10.8-26.4 Adult present at time of injury Yes 52.2-72.0 No 27.9-47.7 (a) [n.sub.v] number of injured children in sample; [N.sub.v] estimated number of injured children in population of 60 counties; CI, confidence interval. (b) Includes weight lifting, track, soccer, and gym class. (c) Insufficient data to calculate interval. (d) Includes injuries from indoor/outdoor games; using tools; and bending, twisting, or lifting. (e) Includes dislocations, scrapes, stabs, and toxic effects. (f) Includes neighbor's or relative's house, street, field, mall, and other locations.
We thank the Kentucky Agricultural Statistics Service and the Survey Research Center at the University of Kentucky for their assistance in implementing the study. Dr. Helena Truszczcynska and Dr. Richard Kryscio provided statistical support and consultation throughout the study. We also thank Carol Koetke, Carl Wendt, and Susan Pollack pollack: see cod.
Either of two commercially important North Atlantic species of food fish in the cod family (Gadidae). for their review of an earlier version of the manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. . We gratefully acknowledge and extend our appreciation to the Kentucky farmers and their families who participated in the study.
Accepted May 13, 2003.
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RELATED ARTICLE: Key Points
* Among children living on Kentucky farms, 82% were involved in the feeding and care of animals and 70% were reported to have performed work related to the production of the tobacco crop in the past year. Although there was high participation in chores related to animal care across all age and gender groups, boys were more likely to perform tractor-related chores and the harvesting of the tobacco crop compared with girls.
* The highest rates of farm work injuries occur among boys aged 16 to 18 years (9.2 injured children per 100 children per year), a rate comparable to older, male, full-time farmers. Among all children, injuries related to tractors and all-terrain vehicles, working with cattle and horses, use of farm hand-tools and barbed wire, and falls from heights (especially in barns) were the primary external causes of nonfatal farm work injuries among Kentucky children living on farms.
* Nearly 20% of all injuries to Kentucky farm children were sustained while they were performing farm work or chores. We estimate that in any given year, 1,088 children living on family farms in Kentucky will experience a nonfatal injury as a result of their performance of farm work. Interventions targeted toward reducing injuries related to tobacco and beef cattle production are especially relevant in this population of children.
Steven R. Browning, PHD, Susan C. Westneat, MA, Carol Donnelly, BA, and Deborah Reed, RNC RNC Republican National Committee (US)
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From the College of Nursing and the Department of Preventive Medicine preventive medicine, branch of medicine dealing with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health practices. Until recently preventive medicine was largely the domain of the U.S. and Environmental Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
This article is based on data produced by a study funded by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health under Cooperative Agreements U04/CCU406090, R01/CCR414307-03, and 1 R01 OH03924-01.
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